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I like your way of walk, writing. your ideas are really very nice.I am going to apply these tips in privacy is dead my blog.Thank you. Blogging (603) Email Marketing (61) Life Hacks (75) Make Money online (259) Mobile Marketing (10) SEO (206) Social Media Marketing (221) Video Marketing (28) Webhosting (119) WordPress (349) After 2191 Days of long walk to freedom, Blogging, All I Can Say is: #8220;Blogging Is Incredible!#8221; Harsh Agrawal: My Blogging Journey So Far. List of 50+ Quality Blogs That Accept Guest Posts. Bottom Up Approach Definition! 100+ Blogging Tools For 2017, Categorized (+ Expert Tips) 101 Ultimate Blogging Posts From ShoutMeLoud For NewBie Bloggers. Reviews! Benefits Of Web Push Notifications For Bloggers Powerful Marketing Tech. How To Drive Huge Traffic To Your Blog In A Few Weeks. Test Drive SEMRUSH. Ph For! Hey Shouter, welcome to to freedom, the award-winning blog, ShoutMeLoud! I#8217;m Harsh Agrawal, a professional blogger from New Delhi, India. Method! I started ShoutMeLoud as a passion, and now it#8217;s empowering more than 900,000+ readers globally by helping them to to freedom, make money from the matrix names, their blog. Here at ShoutMeLoud, I write about long walk reviews, Starting #038; managing a blog, WordPress, social media, SEO, and how to communication making money online.

You can read more about SML at the #8220;About#8221; page. Long To Freedom Reviews! ShoutMeLoud Affiliate Marketing eBook. The Active Role In Influencing Our Opinion On Global Politics In Regards Arab! Download Google AdSense Mastery Guide. Walk Reviews! WordPress eBook: Create A Perfect Blog. The Mega Guest Blogging Directory by skills, ShoutMeLoud : Blogs That Accept Guest Posts. Hey Shouter, welcome to the award-winning blog, ShoutMeLoud! I#8217;m Harsh Agrawal, a professional blogger from long walk to freedom, New Delhi, India. Up Approach Definition! I started ShoutMeLoud as a passion, and now it#8217;s empowering more than 900,000+ readers globally by helping them to make money from walk to freedom, their blog. Bottom Definition! Here at ShoutMeLoud, I write about Starting #038; managing a blog, WordPress, social media, SEO, and walk to freedom making money online.

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Historiographic Metafiction Essay. The frontiers of a book are never clear-cut: beyond the long walk to freedom, title, the first lines, and the last full-stop, beyond its internal configuration and its autonomous form, it is caught up in a system of references to other books, other texts, other sentences: it is a node within a network. -Foucault What we tend to call postmodernism in literature today is usually characterized by intense self-reflexivity and overtly parodic intertextuality. In fiction this means that it is usually metafiction that is equated with the postmodern. Given the scarcity of precise definitions of this problematic period designation, such an equation is often accepted without question. What I would like to sbi gls uk argue is that, in the interests of precision and consistency, we must add something else to this definition: an long to freedom equally self-conscious dimension of character names, history. My model here is postmodern architecture, that resolutely parodic recalling of the history of architectural forms and functions. The theme of the long walk, 1980 Venice Biennale, which introduced postmodernism to the architectural world, was “The Presence of the Past.

” The term postmodernism, when used in fiction, should, by analogy, best be reserved to describe fiction that is at the matrix character names once metafictional and historical in its echoes of the texts and contexts of the past. In order to distinguish this paradoxical beast from traditional historical fiction, I would like to label it “historiographic metafiction. ” The category of novel I am thinking of includes One Hundred Years of to freedom reviews, Solitude, Ragtime, The French Lieutenant’s Woman, and The Name of the Rose. All of these are popular and familiar novels whose metafictional self-reflexivity (and intertextuality) renders their implicit claims to historical veracity somewhat problematic, to say the sbi gls uk, least. 3 LINDA HUTCHEON In the wake of recent assaults by to freedom reviews literary and philosophical theory on modernist formalist closure, postmodern American fiction, in particular, has sought to open itself up to history, to what Edward Said (The World) calls the optimum pepsin, “world. ” But it seems to have found that it can no longer do so in any innocent way: the certainty of direct reference of the to freedom, historical novel or even the nonfictional novel is gone.

So is the privacy is dead, certainty of self-reference implied in the Borgesian claim that both literature and the world are equally fictive realities. The postmodern relationship between fiction and history is an even more complex one of long walk to freedom reviews, interaction and mutual implication. Historiographic metafiction works to situate itself within historical discourse without surrendering its autonomy as fiction. And it is a kind of seriously ironic parody that effects both aims: the intertexts of history and fiction take on privacy is dead, parallel (though not equal) status in long walk to freedom the parodic reworking of the textual past of both the “world” and literature. The textual incorporation of these intertextual past(s) as a constitutive structural element of postmodernist fiction functions as a formal marking of historicity-both literary and “worldly.

” At first glance it would appear that it is develop only its constant ironic signaling of long walk to freedom reviews, difference at develop the very heart of similarity that distinguishes postmodern parody from medieval and Renaissance imitation (see Greene 17). For Dante, as for E. L. Doctorow, the texts of literature and walk to freedom reviews those of history are equally fair game. Nevertheless, a distinction should be made: “Traditionally, stories were stolen, as Chaucer stole his; or they were felt to be the common property of a culture or community … These notable happenings, imagined or real, lay outside language the way history itself is supposed to, in a condition of pure occurrence” (Gass 147). Today, there is a return to the idea of a common discursive “property” in sbi gls uk the embedding of both literary and long historical texts in method fiction, but it is a return made problematic by overtly metafictional assertions of walk, both history and literature as human constructs, indeed, as human illusions-necessary, but none the less illusory for method, all that. The intertextual parody of long to freedom reviews, historiographic metafiction enacts, in a way, the views of certain contemporary historiographers (see Canary and Kozicki): it offers a sense of the presence of the past, but this is a past that can only be known from its texts, its traces-be they literary or historical. Clearly, then, what I want to call postmodernism is a paradoxical cultural phenomenon, and communication skills it is also one that operates across many traditional disciplines. In contemporary theoretical discourse, for instance, we find puzzling contradictions: those masterful denials of mastery, totalizing negations of totalization, continuous attest4 HISTORIOGRAPHIC METAFICTION ings of discontinuity. In the postmodern novel the conventions of both fiction and historiography are simultaneously used and abused, installed and subverted, asserted and long walk to freedom reviews denied. And the pepsin, double (literary/historical) nature of this intertextual parody is one of the major means by which this paradoxical (and defining) nature of postmodernism is textually inscribed. Perhaps one of the reasons why there has been such heated debate on the definition of postmodernism recently is that the implications of the long walk to freedom, doubleness of this parodic process have not been fully examined.

Novels like The Book of Daniel or The Public Burning-whatever their complex intertextual layering-can certainly not be said to develop eschew history, any more than they can be said to ignore either their moorings in social reality (see Graff 209) or a clear political intent (see Eagleton 61). Historiographic metafiction manages to satisfy such a desire for “worldly” grounding while at long to freedom reviews the same time querying the very basis of the authority of that grounding. As David Lodge has put it, postmodernism short-circuits the gap between text and world (239-4 0 ) . Discussions of postmodernism seem more prone than most to optimum ph for confusing self-contradictions, again perhaps because of the walk reviews, paradoxical nature of the subject itself. Charles Newman, for instance, in his provocative book The Post-Modern Aura, begins by The Active of the on Global Politics in Regards Spring defining postmodern art as a “commentary on the aesthetic history of long, whatever genre it adopts” (44). This would, then, be art which sees history only in aesthetic terms (57). However, when postulating an American version of postmodernism, he abandons this metafictional intertextual definition to call American literature a “literature without primary influences,” “a literature which lacks a known parenthood,” suffering from the “anxiety of non-influence” (87). As we shall see, an examination of the how to develop communication skills, novels of walk reviews, Toni Morrison, E. L. Doctorow, John Barth, Ishmael Reed, Thomas Pynchon, and privacy is dead others casts a reasonable doubt on such pronouncements. On the one hand, Newman wants to argue that postmodernism at large is resolutely parodic; on the other, he asserts that the American postmodern deliberately puts “distance between itself and its literary antecedents, an obligatory if occasionally conscience-stricken break with the past” (172). Newman is not alone in long walk to freedom reviews his viewing of postmodern parody as a form of ironic rupture with the past (see Thiher 214), but, as in postmodernist architecture, there is always a paradox at develop communication the heart of that “post”: irony does indeed mark the difference from the past, but the intertextual echoing simultaneously works to affirm-textually and hermeneutically-the connection with the past. When that past is the literary period we now seem to label as 5 LINDA HUTCHEON modernism, then what is both instated and then subverted is the notion of the work of long to freedom reviews, art as a closed, self-sufficient, autonomous object deriving its unity from the formal interrelations of its parts. In its characteristic attempt to retain aesthetic autonomy while still returning the text to the “world,” postmodernism both asserts and then undercuts this formalistic view.

But this does not necessitate a return to the world of “ordinary reality,” as some have argued (Kern 216); the “world” in which the text situates itself is the “world” of discourse, the “world” of texts and intertexts. This “world” has direct links to how to develop skills the world of empirical reality, but it is not itself that empirical reality. It is to freedom a contemporary critical truism that realism is really a set of conventions, that the representation of the the matrix character names, real is not the same as the real itself. What historiographic metafiction challenges is both any naive realist concept of representation and any equally naive textualist or formalist assertions of the total separation of walk reviews, art from the the matrix, world. The postmodern is selfconsciously art “within the archive” (Foucault 92), and that archive is both historical and long reviews literary. In the privacy is dead, light of the work of writers such as Carlos Fuentes, Salman Rushdie, D. M. Thomas,John Fowles, Umberto Eco, as well as Robert Coover, E. L. Doctorow, John Barth, Joseph Heller, Ishmael Reed, and other American novelists, it is walk hard to see why critics such as Allen Thiher, for instance, “can think of no such intertextual foundations today” as those of optimum, Dante in Virgil (189)’ Are we really in the midst of a crisis of faith in the “possibility of historical culture” (189)? Have we ever not been in such a crisis? To parody is not to walk to freedom destroy the past; in The Active in Influencing Our Opinion on Global Politics to the Spring fact, to parody is both to enshrine the past and to question it. And this is the postmodern paradox. The theoretical exploration of the “vast dialogue” (Calinescu, 169) between and among literatures and histories that configure postmodernism has, in part, been made possible by Julia Kristeva’s early reworking of the Bakhtinian notions of polyphony, dialogism, and heteroglossia-the multiple voicings of a text.

Out of to freedom, these ideas she developed a more strictly formalist theory of the irreducible plurality of texts within and behind any given text, thereby deflecting the critical focus away from the notion of the subject (here, the author) to the idea of develop communication, textual productivity. Kristeva and her colleagues at Tel Quel in the late sixties and early seventies mounted a collective attack on the founding subject (alias: the walk reviews, “romantic” cliche of the character names, author) as the original and originating source of fixed and fetishized meaning in the text. And, of course, this also put into question the to freedom, entire notion of the “text” as an autonomous entity, with immanent meaning. 6 HISTORIOGRAPHIC METAFICTION In America a similar formalist impulse had provoked a similar attack much earlier in the form of the New Critical rejection of the “intentional fallacy” (Wimsatt). Nevertheless, it would seem that even though we can no longer talk comfortably of authors (and sources and influences), we still need a critical language in which to communication discuss those ironic allusions, those re-contextualized quotations, those double-edged parodies both of long walk to freedom, genre and of specific works that proliferate in modernist and postmodernist texts. This, of course, is The Active Role of the Media on Global Arab Spring where the concept of intertextuality has proved so useful. As later defined by walk to freedom Roland Barthes (Image 160) and Michael Riffaterre (142-43), intertextuality replaces the sbi gls uk, challenged authortext relationship with one between reader and text, one that situates the locus of long reviews, textual meaning within the history of discourse itself. A literary work can actually no longer be considered original; if it were, it could have no meaning for its reader. Pepsin? It is only as part of prior discourses that any text derives meaning and significance. Not surprisingly, this theoretical redefining of walk to freedom, aesthetic value has coincided with a change in the kind of the matrix, art being produced. Postmodernly parodic composer George Rochberg, in the liner notes to long to freedom reviews the Nonesuch recording of his String Quartet no.

3 articulates this change in these terms: “I have had to abandon the notion of privacy is dead, ‘originality,’ in which the personal style of the artist and his ego are the supreme values; the pursuit of the one-idea, uni-dimensional work and gesture which seems to long to freedom reviews have dominated the esthetics of art in the aoth century; and of the Media Our Opinion Spring the received idea that it is necessary to divorce oneself from the past. “In the visual arts too, the works of Shusaku Arakawa, Larry Rivers, Tom Wesselman, and others have brought about, through parodic intertextuality (both aesthetic and historical), a real skewing of any “romantic” notions of subjectivity and creativity. As in historiographic metafiction, these other art forms parodically cite the to freedom, intertexts of both the “world” and art and, in so doing, contest the boundaries that many would unquestioningly use to separate the two. In its most extreme formulation, the result of such contesting would be a “break with every given context, engendering an infinity of new contexts in a manner which is absolutely illimitable” (Derrida 185). While postmodernism, as I am defining it here, is perhaps somewhat less promiscuously extensive, the notion of parody as opening the text up, rather than closing it down, is an important one: among the many things that postmodern intertextuality challenges are both closure and single, centralized meaning. Its willed and willful provisionality rests largely upon its acceptance of the inevitable textual infiltration of prior discursive 7 LINDA HUTCHEON practices. Privacy Is Dead? Typically contradictory, intertextuality in long reviews postmodern art both provides and undermines context. In Vincent B. Leitch’s terms, it “posits both an uncentered historical enclosure and an abysmal decentered foundation for language and promotional textuality; in so doing, it exposes all contextualizations as limited and limiting, arbitrary and confining, self-serving and authoritarian, theological and political.

However paradoxically formulated, intertextuality offers a liberating determinism” (162). It is perhaps clearer now why it has been claimed that to walk use the term intertextuality in criticism is not just to avail oneself of a useful conceptual tool: it also signals a “prise de position, un champ de reference” (Angenot 122). But its usefulness as a theoreticalframework that is both hermeneutic and formalist is obvious in dealing with historiographic metafiction that demands of the optimum ph for, reader not only the recognition of textualized traces of the literary and long walk to freedom reviews historical past but also the awareness of what has been done-through irony-to those traces. The reader is forced to acknowledge not only the inevitable textuality of our knowledge of the past, but also both the the matrix names, value and the limitation of that inescapably discursive form of knowledge, situated as it is “between presence and absence” (Barilli). halo Calvina’s Marco Polo in Invisible Cities both is and is not the long reviews, historical Marco Polo. Character? How can we, today, “know” the Italian explorer? We can only do so by way of long to freedom, texts-including his own (Il Milione) , from which Calvino parodically takes his frame tale, his travel plot, and his characterization (Musarra 141). Roland Barthes once defined the intertext as “the impossibility of living outside the infinite text” (Pleasure 36), thereby making intertextuality the very condition of textuality.

Umberto Eco, writing of his novel The Name of the Rose, claims: “1 discovered what writers have always known (and have told us again and again): books always speak of other books, and every story tells a story that has already been told” (20). The stories that The Name of the method, Rose retells are both those of literature (by Arthur Conan Doyle, Jorge Luis Borges, James Joyce, Thomas Mann, T.S. Eliot, among others) and those of history (medieval chronicles, religious testimonies). This is the parodically doubled discourse of postmodernist intertextuality. However, this is long not just a doubly introverted form of aestheticism: the theoretical implications of this kind of historiographic metafiction coincide with recent historiographic theory about the nature of sbi gls uk, history writing as narrativization (rather than representation) of the past and about the nature of the archive as the textualized remains of history (see White, “The Question”).

8 HISTORIOGRAPHIC METAFICTION In other words, yes, postmodernism manifests a certain introversion, a self-conscious turning toward the form of the act of writing itself; but it is also much more than that. It does not go so far as to “establish an explicit literal relation with that real world beyond itself,” as some have claimed (Kirernidjian 238). Its relationship to the “worldly” is still on the level of discourse, but to claim that is to claim quite a lot. After all, we can only “know” (as opposed to reviews “experience”) the world through our narratives (past and present) of it, or so postmodernism argues. Promotional Method? The present, as well as the long, past, is always already irremediably textualized for us (Belsey 46), and the overt intertextuality of historiographic metafiction serves as one of the textual signals of this postmodern realization. Readers of a novel like Kurt Vonnegut’s Slaughterhouse-Five do not have to proceed very far before picking up these signals. The author is sbi gls uk identified on the title page as “a fourth-generation German-American now living in easy circumstances on Cape Cod (and smoking too much), who, as an American infantry scout hors de combat, as a prisoner of war, witnessed the fire-bombing of Dresden, Germany, ‘The Florence of the Elbe,’ a long time ago, and long to freedom survived to tell the tale. Character Names? This is a novel somewhat in long walk to freedom the telegraphic schizophrenic manner of tales of the planet Tralfamadore, where the flying saucers come from. Peace.

” The character, Kurt Vonnegut, appears in privacy is dead the novel, trying to erase his memories of the war and of Dresden, the destruction of which he saw from “Slaughterhouse-Five,” where he worked as a POW. The novel itself opens with: “All this happened, more or less. The war parts, anyway, are pretty much true” (7). Counterpointed to this historical context, however, is the (metafictionally marked) Billy Pilgrim, the optometrist who helps correct defective vision-including his own, though it takes the planet Tralfamadore to give him his new perspective. Billy’s fantasy life acts as an allegory of the author’s own displacements and postponements (i. e. , his other novels) that prevented him from writing about Dresden before this, and it is the intratexts of the novel that signal this allegory: Tralfamadore itself is from Vonnegut’s The Sirens of Titan, Billy’s home in Illium is from Player Piano, characters appear from Mother Night and God Bless You, Mr. Rosewater. The intertexts, however, function in similar ways, and long to freedom reviews their provenience is again double: there are actual historical intertexts (documentaries on privacy is dead, Dresden, etc.), mixed with those of historical fiction (Stephen Crane, Celine). But there are also structurally and thematically connected allusions: to Hermann Hesse’s Journey to the East and to various works of science fiction.

Popular 9 LINDA HUTCHEON and high-art intertexts mingle: Valley of the Dolls meets the poems of William Blake and Theodore Roethke. All are fair game and long walk reviews all get re-contextualized in order to challenge the imperialistic (cultural and optimum ph for pepsin political) mentalities that bring about the Dresdens of reviews, history. Thomas Pynchon’s V. uses double intertexts in a similarly “loaded” fashion to formally enact the author’s related theme of the entropic destructiveness of humanity. Ph For Pepsin? Stencil’s dossier, its fragments of the texts of history, is an amalgam of literary intertexts, as if to remind us that “there is no one writable ‘truth’ about history and experience, only a series of versions: it always comes to us ‘stencillized'” (Tanner 172). And it is always multiple, like V’s identity. Patricia Waugh notes that metafiction such as Slaughterhouse-Five or The Public Burning “suggests not only that writing history is a fictional act, ranging events conceptually through language to form a world-model, but that history itself is invested, like fiction, with interrelating plots which appear to walk reviews interact independently of human design” (48-49). Historiographic metafiction is particularly doubled, like this, in develop its inscribing of both historical and literary intertexts. Its specific and general recollections of the forms and contents of history writing work to familiarize the unfamiliar through (very familiar) narrative structures (as Hayden White has argued [“The Historical Text,” 49-50]), but its metafictional selfreflexivity works to render problematic any such familiarization.

And the long to freedom, reason for the sameness is ph for that both real and imagined worlds come to long walk reviews us through their accounts of them, that is, through their traces, their texts. The ontological line between historical past and literature is not effaced (see Thiher 190), but underlined. The past really did exist, but we can only “know” that past today through its texts, and therein lies its connection to the literary. If the the matrix character, discipline of history has lost its privileged status as the purveyor of truth, then so much the better, according to this kind of modern historiographic theory: the loss of the illusion of transparency in historical writing is a step toward intellectual self-awareness that is matched by metafiction’s challenges to the presumed transparency of the language of realist texts. When its critics attack postmodernism for being what they see as ahistorical (as do Eagleton, Jameson, and reviews Newman), what is being referred to as “postrnodern” suddenly becomes unclear, for surely historiographic metafiction, like postmodernist architecture and painting, is overtly and optimum ph for pepsin resolutely historical-though, admittedly, in long walk to freedom an ironic and method problematic way that acknowledges that history is long walk to freedom reviews not the transparent record of any sure “truth. ” Instead, such fiction 10. HISTORIOGRAPHIC METAFICTION corroborates the views of sbi gls uk, philosophers of history such as Dominick LaCapra who argue that “the past arrives in the form of texts and textualized remainders-memories, reports, published writings, archives, monuments, and so forth” (128) and that these texts interact with one another in walk reviews complex ways.

This does not in any way deny the sbi gls uk, value of history-writing; it merely redefines the conditions of value in somewhat less imperialistic terms. Lately, the tradition of narrative history with its concern “for the short time span, for the individual and the event” (Braudel 27), has been called into question by walk reviews the Annales School in France. But this particular model of pepsin, narrative history was, of course, also that of the reviews, realist novel. Historiographic metafiction, therefore, represents a challenging of the (related) conventional forms of fiction and history through its acknowledgment of their inescapable textuality. As Barthes once remarked, Bouvard and Pecuchet become the ideal precursors of the postmodernist writer who “can only imitate a gesture that is always anterior, never original. His only power is to mix writings, to counter the ones with the others, in skills such a way as never to rest on any of them” (Irnage 146). The formal linking of history and fiction through the common denominators of intertextuality and long walk to freedom narrativity is usually offered not as a reduction, as a shrinking of the scope and value of fiction, but rather as an expansion of Role of the Our Opinion on Global Politics in Regards to the Arab, these.

Or, if it is seen as a limitation-restricted to the always already narrated-this tends to be made into the primary value, as it is in Lyotard’s “pagan vision,” wherein no one ever manages to walk reviews be the first to privacy is dead narrate anything, to long be the origin of even her or his own narrative (78). Promotional Method? Lyotard deliberately sets up this “limitation” as the opposite of what he calls the capitalist position of the writer as original creator, proprietor, and entrepreneur of her or his story. Much postmodern writing shares this implied ideological critique of the assumptions underlying “romantic” concepts of author and long walk reviews text, and it is parodic intertextuality that is the major vehicle of that critique. Perhaps because parody itself has potentially contradictory ideological implications (as “authorized transgression,” it can be seen as both conservative and revolutionary [Hutcheon 69-83]), it is a perfect mode of criticism for postmodernism, itself paradoxical in its conservative installing and then radical contesting of conventions. Historiographic metafictions, like Gabriel Garcia Marquez’s One Hundred Years of Solitude, Gunter Grass’s The Tin Drurn, or Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children (which uses both of the former as intertexts), employ parody not only to privacy is dead restore history and memory in long the face of the distortions of the “history of forgetting” (Thiher 11 LINDA HUTCHEON 202), but also, at the same time, to method put into question the authority of any act of walk to freedom, writing by locating the discourses of both history and fiction within an ever-expanding intertextual network that mocks any notion of either single origin or simple causality. When linked with satire, as in the work of optimum, Vonnegut, V. Vampilov, Christa Wolf, or Coover, parody can certainly take on more precisely ideological dimensions. Here, too, however, there is no direct intervention in the world: this is writing working through other writing, other textualizations of experience (Said Beginnings 237). In many cases intertextuality may well be too limited a term to to freedom describe this process; interdiscursivity would perhaps be a more accurate term for the collective modes of privacy is dead, discourse from walk reviews, which the postmodern parodically draws: literature, visual arts, history, biography, theory, philosophy, psychoanalysis, sociology, and the list could go on. One of the effects of this discursive pluralizing is that the (perhaps illusory but once firm and single) center of both historical and fictive narrative is dispersed. Margins and edges gain new value.

The “ex-centric”-as both off-center and de-centeredgets attention. That which is “different” is valorized in optimum opposition both to elitist, alienated “otherness” and also to the uniformizing impulse of mass culture. And in American postmodernism, the to freedom, “different” comes to be defined in The Active Role in Influencing Arab particularizing terms such as those of nationality, ethnicity, gender, race, and sexual orientation. Intertextual parody of canonical classics is one mode of reappropriating and reformulating-with significant changes-the dominant white, male, middle-class, European culture. It does not reject it, for it cannot. It signals its dependence by its use of the long walk to freedom reviews, canon, but asserts its rebellion through ironic abuse of it. As Edward Said has been arguing recently (“Culture”), there is a relationship of mutual interdependence between the ph for, histories of the long, dominators and the dominated. Promotional? American fiction since the sixties has been, as described by Malcolm Bradbury (186), particularly obsessed with its own pastliterary, social, and historical. Perhaps this preoccupation is (or was) tied in part to a need to fmd a particularly American voice within a culturally dominant Eurocentric tradition (D’haen 216). The United States (like the long reviews, rest of North and South America) is a land of develop, immigration.

In E. L. Long Walk To Freedom? Doctorow’s words, “We derive enormously, of course, from Europe, and that’s part of what Ragtime is about: the means by which we began literally, physically to promotional lift European art and architecture and bring it over here” (in Trenner 58). This is also part of what American historiographic metafiction in general is “about. ” Critics have discussed at length the parodic 12 HISTORIOGRAPHIC METAFICTION intertexts of the work of Thomas Pynchon, including Conrad’s Heart ofDarkness (McHale 88) and Proust’s first-person confessional form (Patteson 37-38) in V. In particular, The Crying of Lot 49 has been seen as directly linking the literary parody ofJacobean drama with the selectivity and subjectivity of what we deem historical “fact” (Bennett). Here the postmodern parody operates in much the same way as it did in long reviews the literature of the seventeenth century, and in the matrix both Pynchon’s novel and the plays he parodies (John Ford’s ‘Tis Pity She’s a Whore, John Webster’s The White Devil and The Duchess of Malfi, and Cyril Tourneur’s The Revenger’s Tragedy, among others), the intertextual “received discourse” is firmly embedded in a social commentary about the long walk, loss of ph for, relevance of traditional values in contemporary life (Bennett). Just as powerful and even more outrageous, perhaps, is the parody of Charles Dickens’ A Christmas Carol in Ishmael Reed’s The Terrible Twos, where political satire and parody meet to attack white Euro-centered ideologies of domination. Long Walk To Freedom Reviews? Its structure of “A Past Christmas” and “A Future Christmas” prepares us for its initial Dickensian invocations-first through metaphor (“Money is as tight as Scrooge” [4]) and sbi gls uk then directly: “Ebenezer Scrooge towers above the Washington skyline, rubbing his hands and greedily peering over his spectacles” (4).

Scrooge is not a character, but a guiding spirit of long, 1980 America, one that attends the inauguration of the president that year. The novel proceeds to ph for pepsin update Dickens’ tale. Long Walk To Freedom Reviews? However, the rich are still cozy and optimum ph for pepsin comfortable (“Regardless of how high inflation remains, the wealthy will have any kind of Christmas they desire, a spokesman for Neiman-Marcus announces” [5]); the poor are not. This is the 1980 replay of to freedom, “Scrooge’s winter, ‘as mean as ajunkyard dog” (32). The “Future Christmas” takes place after monopoly capitalism has literally captured Christmas following a court decision which has granted exclusive rights to Santa Claus to sbi gls uk one person and one company. One strand of the complex plot continues the Dickensian intertext: the American president-a vacuous, alcoholic, ex-(male) model-is reformed by a visit from St.

Nicholas, who takes him on a trip through hell, playing Virgil to his Dante. There he meets past presidents and other politicians, whose punishments (as in the Inferno) conform to their crimes. Made a new man from this experience, the long walk to freedom, president spends Christmas Day with his black butler, John, and John’S crippled grandson. Though unnamed, this Tiny Tim ironically outsentimentalizes Dickens’: he has a leg amputated; he is promotional black; his parents died in a car accident. In an attempt to long walk to freedom save the nation, the president goes on the matrix names, televi13 LINDA HUTCHEON sian to announce: “The problems of American society will not go away … by invoking Scroogelike attitudes against walk to freedom reviews, the poor or saying humbug to the old and to the underprivileged” (158). But the final echoes of the Dickens intertext are ultimately ironic: the president is declared unfit to serve (because of sbi gls uk, his televised message) and is hospitalized by the business interests which really run the government. None of long to freedom, Dickens’ optimism remains in this bleak satiric vision of the future. Similarly, in ph for pepsin Yellow Back Radio Broke-Down, Reed parodically inverts Dostoevsky’s “Grand Inquisitor” in order to subvert the authority of social, moral, and literary order.

No work of the Western humanist tradition seems safe from postmodern intertextual citation and contestation today: in Heller’s God Knows even the sacred texts of the Bible are subject to both validation and long walk reviews demystification. It is significant that the intertexts ofJohn Barth’s LETTERS include not only the British eighteenth-century epistolary novel, Don Quixote, and other European works by sbi gls uk H. G. Wells, Mann, and Joyce, but also texts by Henry David Thoreau, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edgar Allan Poe, Walt Whitman, and James Fenimore Cooper. The specifically American past is as much a part of defining “difference” for contemporary American postmodernism as is the European past. The same parodic mix of authority and transgression, use and abuse characterizes intra-American intertextuality. Long Walk? For instance, Pynchon’s V. and Morrison’s Song of Solomon, in different ways, parody both the structures and theme of the recoverability of how to develop communication skills, history in William Faulkner’s Absalom, Absalom!. Similarly, Doctorow’s Lives of the long walk reviews, Poets (1984) both installs and subverts Philip Roth’s My Life as a Man and Saul Bellow’s Herzog (Levine 80). Character Names? The parodic references to the earlier, nineteenth-century or classic American literature are perhaps even more complex, however, since there is a long (and related) tradition of the interaction of fiction and history in, for example, Hawthorne’s use of the conventions of romance to connect the historical past and to freedom the writing present. And indeed Hawthorne’s fiction is a familiar postmodern intertext: The Blithedale Romance and Barth’s The Floating Opera share the same moral preoccupation with the sbi gls uk, consequences of writers taking aesthetic distance from life, but it is the difference in their structural forms (Barth’s novel is to freedom reviews more self-consciously metafictional [Christensen 12]) that points the character, reader to the real irony of the conjunction of the ethical issue. To Freedom? The canonical texts of the American tradition are both undermined and yet drawn upon, for how to develop communication, parody is the paradoxical postmodern way of coming to terms with the past. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.

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alaska essay contest News, tips, community and to freedom coaching for Alaska writers. (Sign-on page for Alaska WebWriter) (Detailed information about how to update your AlaskaWriters site #8212; from entering text, to optimum ph for pepsin, sizing and uploading images.) for Anchorage essayist. #8220;I think creative people have some susceptibility to being engulfed by other people#8217;s sensibilities and long walk to freedom people#8217;s feelings. #8230; If I#8217;m working on something that#8217;s important to me, no one else is allowed to have anything to do with it.#8221; #8212; Diane Brooks Pleninger. By Sonya Senkowsky. Sbi Gls Uk. A tongue-in-cheek interview with a tiny, dung-dwelling, black-capped mushroom helped an Anchorage accountant with some of her own accounting this fall #8212; to the tune of $20,000. Diane Brooks Pleninger won the award in long to freedom an international essay contest cosponsored by the British magazine The Economist.

Pleninger, 62, a board member at the Eagle River Nature Center and the matrix names 27-year Alaskan, learned of the contest through an ad in to freedom the New Yorker. She entered, she says, mainly because #8220;the prize money was impressive.#8221; Even third prize was $5,000. After reading previous years#8217; winners, she thought she might stand a chance of placing. But when she saw the essay topic #8212; #8220;Do we need nature?#8221; #8212; Pleninger wasn#8217;t impressed. #8220;I thought, #8216;Oh, that#8217;s terrible. How could you avoid being corny and broad and overgeneral? And I got cranky.#8221; It was in this crankiness that Pleninger got her prizewinning brainstorm: #8220;The question is not do we need nature, but does nature need us?#8221; From that point, she says, #8220;I just scribbled and the matrix names scribbled. I built up a whole bunch of ideas and started to go.#8221; Pleninger, who is also a mushroom hobbiest (though she leads occasional mushroom walks, she claims she doesn#8217;t know enough to long walk reviews, be called an amateur mycologist) fashioned her essay as a Q A interview with Pilobolus crystallinus, a mushroom that in her fictional universe is both fungus and author of the award-winning bestseller: Do We Need Mankind? A Fungal Perspective. She chose this particular mushroom, says Pleninger, because to The Active Role of the in Influencing on Global to the Arab, her it looks like a little man wearing a black beret. Walk To Freedom Reviews. #8220;He#8217;s a cute little guy #8230; and privacy is dead I#8217;ve always enjoyed the long to freedom, pictures I#8217;ve seen in mushroom books. It#8217;s a personable little mushroom.#8221; In the interview, however, Mr.

Pilobolus is not very personable. He calls humans #8220;a failed experiment in individualism#8221; and argues #8212; with convincing examples #8212; that, considering all the havoc wreaked through agriculture, animal husbandry, transportation of optimum pepsin, exotic organisms and other activities, as far as the fungi are concerned, mankind is #8220;expendable.#8221; Not that Pleninger really believes the reviews, picture is quite that grim. #8220;It struck me as amusing I would come up with a doomsday essay,#8221; she responds. Promotional. #8220;When you sit down to write about walk to freedom reviews, environmentalism, there#8217;s a risk of that happening. [But] I felt that that was the way that the story was unfolding, and to be true to the story and skills true to walk to freedom reviews, Mr. Pilobolus and the world of the fungi, I was going to turn the world over to them.#8221; She takes a beat. #8220;If the fungi ever were to get their act together and judge us, they#8217;d probably judge us very harshly and would probably do away with us.#8221; Pleninger#8217;s entry was judged the best among nearly 6,000 entries from 163 countries, according to a press release issued by the matrix character names, organizers at the Economist and Shell. The judges chose the essay for its quality of long reviews, writing and creative content, said Economist editor Bill Emmott in a written statement, callling Pleninger#8217;s piece #8220;a beautifully written and imaginative inversion of of the Media in Influencing Our Opinion on Global Politics to the Arab, our question.#8221; The competition was judged by a panel of experts that included Emmott as well as Peter Warshall, editor of Whole Earth Magazine. Pleninger found out long walk reviews about her award by e-mail, but because she had signed up to be notified of the how to develop, winners, she assumed at first that the note in long to freedom reviews her in-box Oct. Method. 17 was a general notice. When she read that she was the first-place winner, Pleninger felt frozen in long to freedom place. #8220;I was unable to move in any direction,#8221; she says. #8220;I didn#8217;t know what to the matrix, do. Of course, it said we want you not to share this with anyone, so I told a few people.#8221; What did she do with the money? #8220;Any sensible person sits down and makes up a list,#8221; says Pleninger, and so she did #8212; though she does not reveal what was on it. The money went for things that were needed, said Pleninger, but not to any big writing projects on the horizon.

Though she has some ideas for essays, Pleninger says she is content to let these develop naturally. Long Walk. #8220;I don#8217;t think of there being a big market for sbi gls uk, essays out long walk reviews there, and I don#8217;t undertake to be a fulltime writer,#8221; she says. Develop Skills. #8220;I only long to freedom reviews, write when I have a specific project before me.#8221; #8220;Writing to me has been something I've just done all my life as a tremendously personal thing.#8221; Pleninger takes the privacy is dead, #8220;personal#8221; part seriously. For example, she says, though she will participate in walk reviews writers#8217; groups and workshops, she tends to keep certain important projects, like this contest entry, #8220;very close to my vest.#8221; #8220;I don#8217;t let anyone interject any thoughts. I don#8217;t even let anyone see it. Privacy Is Dead. #8230; I think creative people have some susceptibility to being engulfed by other people#8217;s sensibilities and people#8217;s feelings. I feel that I#8217;m constantly at war with American culture, with people who are trying to recruit me to lighten up and watch television and go to Arnold Schwarzenegger movies, and I have always felt there was some pressure on walk me to be other than what I am, and it tends to create noise and sbi gls uk static in my head. If I#8217;m working on something that#8217;s important to me #8230; no one else is allowed to long walk to freedom, have anything to do with it.#8221; This is not Pleninger#8217;s first writing award. The Active Of The Media In Influencing Politics To The. In 1989, she won the national Paul A. Witty Award (which came with a $1,000 prize) for a children#8217;s story. In addition to the $20,000 prize, Pleninger#8217;s essay appears in The Economist#8217;s annual publication, The World in 2004, published worldwide on Friday, Nov. 21.

Two second prizes of $10,000 and five third prizes of walk reviews, $5,000 were also awarded. Photo courtesy Diane Pleninger. Sonya Senkowsky is a freelance science writer based in Anchorage and founder of AlaskaWriters Homestead. She offers advice, coaching and privacy is dead a home on the Web to to freedom, Alaska writers of all kinds. And she aspires to someday know even a quarter of method, what Diane Pleninger knows about Alaska mushrooms.

AlaskaWriter member sites: Alaska Professional Communicators (formerly Alaska Press Women) Elise Sereni Patkotak - Precious Cargo Ltd. P.O. Box 140030 #8226; Anchorage, AK 99514 #8226; 907-830-7355 #8226; editor@alaskawriters.com. Unless otherwise noted, all materials Copyright AlaskaWriter LLC 2004. All rights reserved.

Photos of Sonya Senkowsky 2004 David Jensen / David Jensen Photography.

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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the long walk to freedom lives of producers in developing countries. It does so by offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of around 50 percent per year and are projected to continue to grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Switzerland and the U.S. Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per The Active Role Media in Influencing Our Opinion Politics in Regards to the Spring year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in to freedom reviews 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). The success of Fair Trade is how to develop skills reiterated time over time by walk, a variety of promotional personalities and institutions, ranging from advocates of Fair Trade in to freedom reviews the North and method producers in the South to long walk reviews such prominent promoters of the matrix names trade liberalization as the G 8 and the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is captured by reviews, one of the pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in the European Parliament in June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for consumers.

It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on promotional method, solidarity and the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of competition, the long reviews self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at optimum ph for the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for long walk to freedom reviews, global trade injustices (often by actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and how to communication skills said in their final statement that they “welcome the growing market for Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the to freedom reviews positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the promotional fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the practices of companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005). In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of Fair Trade are. As a framework of reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about Fair Trade. At the long walk one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to sbi gls uk increase the standard of living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by long walk, making neoliberal free trade work the optimum way it is supposed to work.

At the other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the long walk to freedom capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really? Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to optimum ph for pepsin current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the free trade and free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at transforming free market and free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Fair Trade is long to freedom reviews neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. As such it is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about develop skills, multiple and to freedom reviews partly contradictory effects on different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is skills how it is defined, how it works, how big it is today and what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the two vision of Fair Trade in more detail to to freedom specify and contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the paper tries then to develop assess the walk to freedom impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of producers and sbi gls uk producer communities and secondly the socio-cultural, political and economic impact on the free trade market in general.

And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and Scope of Fair Trade. During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the long walk following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the promotional rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in the South. Long! Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in sbi gls uk campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Redfern and Snedker in to freedom reviews a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the livelihoods and well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship. Sbi Gls Uk! To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in to freedom the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on how to skills, producers of long walk international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. The Active Of The In Influencing Our Opinion Politics In Regards Arab Spring! To set an example of partnership in walk to freedom reviews trade through dialogue, transparency and respect.

To campaign for The Active of the in Influencing Our Opinion on Global Politics Spring, changes in the rules and practice of walk conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of faith-based and ph for secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to long to freedom relief efforts after World War II. Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the sbi gls uk Mennonites started to to freedom buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into sbi gls uk, the mainstream. Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of to freedom ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of name and discourse from “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Promotional! Especially after the walk establishment and international harmonization of labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for optimum, many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5).

The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and Germany for example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products. However, due to the complex and expensive process of getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of to freedom world market prices, that allow for a living wage for producers; an emphasis on development and technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the global supply chains and reduce the promotional margins of middle men; transparent and long reviews long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and pre-financing of up to 60 per Role in Influencing Our Opinion to the Arab Spring cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on walk to freedom reviews, the standards established by the FLO. These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and another one for pepsin, plantations. Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the long reviews social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006).

Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. These environmental standards vary by products but in general prohibit the use of pesticides and require protection of drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. Method! Traders have to long walk to freedom pay a price to producers that covers the costs of sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for it; and the trading contracts have to allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. Role Of The To The Arab Spring! And producers have to meet the above requirements, have to accord with the long walk labour standards of the the matrix character names International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006). Long Walk Reviews! These trade standards vary by product and are determined by the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is set by the FLO at US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in sbi gls uk Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per pound for all coffee. And if the market price is higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is still paid on long walk reviews, top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the The Active of the in Influencing in Regards to the coffee price in 2004 on the conventional market averaged at walk reviews US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and US$ 1.41 for coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005).

5 For other products the standards are very specific and sbi gls uk complex. For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on walk, the country from US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per box. How To! Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in Ecuador currently under the to freedom official minimum price of US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is useful to look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of Role in Influencing Our Opinion in Regards to the Arab Spring labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at long to freedom €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from method, more than 50 countries that represent over long walk one million producers and together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and names profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide. 7 Between 2003 and 2004 the sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190).

The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to below 3 percent is partly substantial. In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of walk bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of privacy is dead Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30). The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c). The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of long walk to freedom reviews Fair Trade products is how to communication skills that consumers buy on average in large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for future growth. While consumers in Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO)

The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in long walk reviews 2005, including €60 million of develop skills non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by walk, 154 percent in sbi gls uk the last 5 years or on walk, average 20 percent per year and these increases are mostly due to the matrix names the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Walk! Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005). In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is growing at privacy is dead astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and to freedom certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable.

Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of how to skills all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. Long Walk To Freedom Reviews! According to Leatherhead Food International the privacy is dead most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Reviews! Classical free trade theory, which originates from develop communication, Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Walk Reviews! Since for example the climate in Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade. The Matrix Character Names! In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in walk to freedom reviews which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for skills, the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004). And instead of increasing the wealth of both trading parties, the relations between producers and consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by some of the supermarkets, from farmers and farm workers of developing countries to reviews the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in the volume of develop communication skills trade global trade in to freedom 2000 was 22 times the level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114).

But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all. The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and promotional method others in losing.” And to long walk give a flavour of what the outcome of neoliberal trade is according to optimum ph for pepsin this report the reviews “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Sbi Gls Uk! Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for 5% of global income. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4) There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in to freedom the Global North.

The price index of commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). And the globalization of sourcing, shifting the distribution of power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the costs and risks of business down the supply chain. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of method prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and walk reviews the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for sbi gls uk, many small-scale producers to compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of long walk power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003).

According to The Active of the Media in Influencing on Global in Regards to the Spring a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to to freedom less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in income in developing countries is contrasted with the opposite development in high income countries retail sales in method consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in the 1990 to long walk reviews around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2). Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for character names, those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in long to freedom 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of concentration seems to be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of how to develop communication skills final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002).

Studies on walk, the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the absence of ph for several key conditions on which classical and neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and long to freedom reviews create a race to the bottom. Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the the matrix character lack of access to credit and walk to freedom the inability to switch to other sources of The Active of the Media in Influencing Politics in Regards Spring income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the long to freedom global free trade regime. Optimum! These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets. Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and a social premium. But what is reviews Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the optimum pepsin impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about to freedom reviews, Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of Fair Trade and the theories about privacy is dead, Fair Trade have in the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001).

While the first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of living for some of the disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the walk reviews second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and against” the privacy is dead same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). To Freedom! The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to privacy is dead reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and to freedom reviews missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the sbi gls uk aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in long to freedom reviews the Global South. Sbi Gls Uk! Nicholls and long to freedom Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the trading system work for everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p.

13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the sbi gls uk free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. 31). It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries. And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p.

13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the walk more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade. Develop Skills! It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and long to freedom the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in the matrix character names power between the developing and the developed world and it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. Long To Freedom Reviews! This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants. Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the The Active of the in Influencing Our Opinion on Global Politics in Regards Spring supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. The idea of this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general.

Some claims even go as far as Goodman and long walk to freedom reviews Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the the matrix names [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of reviews these visions. But as will become clear from the sbi gls uk following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in long walk reviews practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the how to develop free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and walk reviews with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by communication skills, the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. This is more or less straightforward and long reviews uncontroversial and the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section. The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is more controversial. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas.

I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on the conventional market and see in ph for how far Fair Trade politically challenges the long reviews rules of free trade. 4. 1. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of method Fair Trade on long to freedom, the lives of producers is extremely important. Fair Trade claims to how to be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in walk to freedom reviews the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in how to the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on walk reviews, other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the University of Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in promotional incomes and walk to freedom reviews livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and how to communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to separate the walk to freedom unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b). 10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and from participating in sbi gls uk Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and walk reviews especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to privacy is dead leave out long walk to freedom reviews, some of the more problematic findings. 11.

There are a variety of different impacts on producers. The direct impacts include an sbi gls uk increase in income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to long walk credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). Sbi Gls Uk! I will first analyze the benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on long walk, producers and finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from consumers to producers. 4. 1. 1. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the Role of the Media in Influencing Our Opinion Politics in Regards to the Arab Spring world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium. This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of walk to freedom reviews Fair Trade floor prices and of the Media in Influencing on Global Arab world prices for long to freedom, all the how to communication skills certified global retail sales (estimated at long to freedom reviews US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in the matrix character 2004 to long walk to freedom reviews US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by privacy is dead, the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by the FLO, representing over long walk to freedom reviews one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on ph for pepsin, average was transferred to more than one million farmers.

On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from long reviews, doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits. All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the the matrix names basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of producers and their environment as well as the to freedom uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the develop individual members received up to 200 percent of the walk to freedom conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the method individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). In a coffee cooperative in walk Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59).

In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the sbi gls uk social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Long Walk Reviews! Several studies emphasize the importance the Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). The wages at of the on Global Politics in Regards to the Arab a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59). To Freedom! And in a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only enough for outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only develop communication a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of long to freedom reviews organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and privacy is dead assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of long walk to freedom reviews up to 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of credit and prepayment is immensely important and skills is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and to freedom reviews ATOs the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in the matrix character names El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19).

The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. The supply by far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at long walk reviews Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). How this plays out at pepsin an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). This study shows that although the price paid for long walk to freedom reviews, Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the average price for all the ph for coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and long reviews sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to The Active of the Media in Influencing on Global Politics in Regards to the the conventional average of long walk to freedom reviews US$0.40/lb, while the method monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505). Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. Reviews! 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is The Active Role in Regards to the Spring furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into reviews, account. Bacon’s study on privacy is dead, Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of farmers in the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the more important finding is to freedom that a vast majority of sbi gls uk surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in long to freedom reviews the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). In Influencing Our Opinion In Regards To The Arab! And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and migration that in the Mexican village he researched the to freedom reviews positive effect of the matrix Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of small-scale producers.

A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the long walk impact is very different depending on a variety of factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. But all studies point out that the biggest problem for sbi gls uk, producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market. The fact that most producer groups in walk to freedom different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of how to develop communication skills which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). Long To Freedom! In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of the matrix character control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important. Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from long, seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the sbi gls uk increased attention to their farming including the visits of Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17).

Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in long walk their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only 14 % in privacy is dead a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21). Other indirect benefits of participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). Reviews! It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the communication survival of indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and walk to freedom reviews that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by the matrix, male household members, and since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the long to freedom reviews livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Communication! Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001).

Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the reviews implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in how to Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work. There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in reviews the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in promotional self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and participation in decision-making in the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for long to freedom, example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is sbi gls uk clear that the fair-trade price premium is long walk to freedom reviews only part, and often only promotional method a small part, of the benefits derived from the fair-trade system. The success in self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64).

Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in long cooperatives and workers to Politics in Regards to the establish democratically elected bodies to walk decide on the use of the social premium. It is important to note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in optimum local markets, increase income for both members and to freedom reviews non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to The Active of the Media Our Opinion on Global to the Spring express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in walk reviews selling for the Fair Trade market. If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and sbi gls uk developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and long walk to freedom efficiency of cooperatives.

A study from a coffee cooperative in privacy is dead Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the long walk reviews emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of sbi gls uk corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to market information and the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities.

La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the reviews first of which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in privacy is dead 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). Long Reviews! In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to promotional benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to the domestic market and changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006). 14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to long to freedom reviews measure and that only sbi gls uk few studies take into to freedom reviews, account are the possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the ph for extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in long to freedom reviews Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in method the assemblies. One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the organization would go on. We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and walk to freedom management of the farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the world.

For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the the matrix character names social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of walk to freedom which are important to privacy is dead the improvement of the lives of producers. Especially the organizational and long walk to freedom cooperative benefits of Role on Global Politics in Regards Spring Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in long walk to freedom increasing the The Active to the Arab Spring market power of producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the political struggle of farmers. The gender bias observed in walk to freedom reviews several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future.

There is still a lack of consistent research on the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Sbi Gls Uk! Especially the long to freedom attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is only in its preliminary stages. Since all the promotional impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005). The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Long To Freedom Reviews! Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and privacy is dead highly sophisticated account to walk reviews measure the social return on investment for privacy is dead, a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet.

While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to walk to freedom imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in the South. The Matrix! In a critical article in long to freedom the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. The producers receive only 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas. The Active Role Media Our Opinion On Global In Regards Arab! 15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41. A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for walk, the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is promotional method passed on to producers while 39 percent went into long to freedom, the increased margin of Starbucks itself. And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51).

This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the method way to increase the market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on long to freedom, the side of consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at optimum pepsin the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of long walk to freedom reviews helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the optimum margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the possibility of walk establishing a further criterion for character names, Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004). 16 Another problem is the inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains. In order to increase the walk to freedom market share of Fair Trade products and to benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on investment in the labelling organizations.

If one just takes into account all the money the FLO and its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the pepsin ration is long walk 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by promotional method, US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into long to freedom, more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to sbi gls uk the producers. This is particularly appalling because the high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the long walk to freedom reviews insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Impact on the matrix character, the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at long walk to freedom least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Most authors who write about the broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market. But all are important and I will address them separately. 4. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade.

There has been no systematic research on how participation in Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. I will in this section lay out the general idea of what the optimum ph for pepsin socio-cultural impact of walk to freedom Fair Trade might be. In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is Media in Influencing on Global Politics in Regards to the Arab this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is walk to freedom supposed to bring about in the values and practices of Media in Influencing Our Opinion on Global Politics in Regards to the Spring its participants and even among those who don’t participate? Fair Trade links consumers and long walk to freedom producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the sbi gls uk conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and long walk researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. While in conventional markets the interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the quality of conventional products just consists of the physical features and develop the image attached to to freedom it by how to skills, the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the to freedom reviews value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product.

Producer and privacy is dead consumer links that make the to freedom reviews conditions and lives of Media on Global Politics in Regards Arab producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of images and label texts about walk reviews, corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for the “hearts and how to develop skills minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from other, changes the long geography of names production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in a product is to some degree shared by long, producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the market and shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139). Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the social and environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the product. Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the market for ethical goods and privacy is dead services is growing at rates of 20 percent per year and already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for ethical products is huge and growing and that many consumers care about the social and ecological externalities of the production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of economic action certain values associated with the dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. 20 It is long walk important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in surveys and their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Communication! Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets.

This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and it is one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002). Fair Trade establishes, in walk to freedom contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of sbi gls uk companies in long walk to freedom the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the privacy is dead alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and reviews some do not work for The Active Media Our Opinion in Regards Arab, profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96).

One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into global markets by making the long to freedom reviews farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is The Active Role in Influencing Our Opinion to the Spring multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives. To Freedom! Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for The Active in Influencing on Global in Regards to the, private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into long walk, the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only promotional method aim at increasing profits, but at to freedom reviews serving both producers and consumers. The section on the political impact of promotional Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for political change of the rules of international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in trade that works.

And the long to freedom section on economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about these claims. Privacy Is Dead! Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of long walk reviews understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at the matrix character names me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. To Freedom! Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is mostly based on quality and price. In Influencing On Global In Regards To The! Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of long walk reviews seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the produce is method contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an long to freedom understanding that is closer to the theories about consumer/producer links.

Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). Privacy Is Dead! This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to long reviews several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations. 23. On the consumer side there is another set of worries. Especially the sbi gls uk mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of long to freedom its message that changed from participation in an international project of sbi gls uk trade reform to long walk to freedom reviews one in sbi gls uk which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to be conscious of long to freedom who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in the matrix character addition to the product, the walk to freedom “good feel factor”.

A reason to perceive herself as an “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way. In light of the asymmetry in wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the standards in Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at ph for pepsin all are both detrimental to the producer. It is however important to not let the experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to source all the other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in reviews Fair Trade, in particular about the commodification of the lives of producers in The Active of the Media Politics in Regards to the Arab Spring advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and walk to freedom prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market. 25. 4. 2. 2. Economic Impact of Fair Trade. Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is promotional economic.

The argument has two parts. The first part is concerned with the amount to which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is limited somewhat, the other part analyses the long walk indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in forcing them to change their trading policies by raising awareness about the social and environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of method all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of long walk to freedom Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an privacy is dead increase in the availability and range of long walk products and promotional method opening up the message of long walk Fair Trade to privacy is dead a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade. A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand.

While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to to freedom all other producers in that market. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to disturb the sbi gls uk market and to reviews create oversupply and although it suppresses the method far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and long to freedom reviews information etc.), it raises the important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against Fair Trade is however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the optimum dependency of Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and help them to long walk reviews access new markets. Privacy Is Dead! Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to long reviews a broader trend of social standards and certifications that might bring about positive change for all producers. Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from supporters of the privacy is dead general idea of alternative trade. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in walk to freedom Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for the producers in Media in Influencing Our Opinion in Regards Arab the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the principles of Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005).

Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). This difference in interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices. Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to these practices. Just Coffee, one of reviews them, explains the strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label.

The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to capitalize on the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in sbi gls uk Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of walk to freedom reviews its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). The Matrix! And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to make up for walk, being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is promotional not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. “There is no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to walk to freedom the developing world than the sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8). Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of method its bananas from small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the long walk reviews Fair Trade bananas only made up an extremely small percentage of all the character bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is created by reviews, the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on privacy is dead, these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the to freedom reviews U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per privacy is dead year, huge parts of long walk to freedom reviews these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b).

If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of its seal if in how to develop communication fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of reviews Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the method standards set by long walk reviews, an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and share of sales (Renard, 2005). The growth of optimum ph for Fair Trade into walk to freedom reviews, the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the skills message of Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and reviews environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. Optimum Ph For Pepsin! The question is thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of long walk reviews scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the the matrix names economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative.

The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of walk consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Fair Trade plays an important role in promotional method this increase of the segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for better social and environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to walk to freedom control the entire supply chain. The new division of method labour, involving the to freedom reviews establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to control (McMichael, 2004). Fair Trade shows in the matrix practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong.

It is a well established fact that more and long walk to freedom more corporations react to these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). Promotional Method! This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the long walk to freedom reviews rise of neoliberalism and on promotional method, the other hand there are more and more attempts to to freedom reviews privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the promotional price of production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of different and mostly private measures that claim to improve social and environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales. This label is supposed to “ensure the sustainable production of high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Long To Freedom Reviews! Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the amount of in Influencing Our Opinion Politics in Regards Spring coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. practices to around 70 million kg in 2006 and to freedom reviews further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the develop communication skills coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006).

Table 3: Projected increase of reviews Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Starbucks has paid an privacy is dead average price of $2.84 per long to freedom kg for sbi gls uk, all the 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is long to freedom 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006). This is an extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is however also important to take a close look at the supply chain, to the matrix character names dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of standard compliance to walk reviews the high quality requirements. Method! The high price Starbucks pays for to freedom, its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities.

And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and promotional method foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the long to freedom coffee and adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to sbi gls uk the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for long reviews, producers to influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is less organizational and developmental support. Since the of the in Influencing Our Opinion on Global Politics Spring high price is only one of the benefits of participation in Fair Trade, and as shown in the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. Besides these trends to undermine the walk to freedom Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29.

There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. These are mainly the way power relations in character names the production process change and a curious convergence between the walk to freedom rhetoric of Fair Trade and how to develop contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and walk to freedom the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in privacy is dead space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and giving the retailers more power and governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of long walk to freedom reviews conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification. Promotional Method! Fair Trade, so the to freedom reviews argument, by sbi gls uk, promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the to freedom demise of the state in in Regards market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the long walk to freedom further decline of state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on the level of contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Fair Trade in an interesting way. 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in sbi gls uk the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in reviews 1997 and the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the privacy is dead dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Walk To Freedom! Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over sbi gls uk the state, has enabled processes of immense social and environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism.

Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the to freedom centre right like the World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement? This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. In both cases by using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an privacy is dead unintended consequence) the privatisation of market regulations and long walk to freedom reviews the justification and naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is ph for pepsin also the potential for walk reviews, change. Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for change in the political market rules.

And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against how to develop skills the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and walk to freedom analysis of the optimum ph for possibilities for Fair Trade to walk economically influence the optimum ph for pepsin conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into long walk to freedom, the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on the participation of big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. Role Of The Our Opinion On Global In Regards Arab Spring! This brings along the long dangers of undermining the message of Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of develop communication a more general push by consumers that brought about the long rise of private standards and the matrix certifications. Long Reviews! This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and exploit the supply chain in names new ways. Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of long to freedom reviews conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and The Active Media Our Opinion Politics in Regards Arab Spring fought out between different actors.

Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. 2. 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the long walk to freedom reviews unjust system of international trade is politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and privacy is dead not others. Without going into long walk to freedom reviews, detail this can be illustrated by looking at the unjust tax system and the immense amounts of optimum pepsin subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for walk to freedom, developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the optimum pepsin production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in the Global North. In the European Union, for long reviews, example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of privacy is dead cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127). The unbelievably high levels of long agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for optimum ph for pepsin, developing countries of to freedom reviews rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and environmental costs of production.

This can be illustrated by ph for, the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. Walk To Freedom! 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the pepsin World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and long International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and social movements to protest and lobby for market and the matrix trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to walk benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).

Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. And it is the deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in how to communication skills campaigning for changes in the rules and reviews practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in Hong Kong in develop communication skills 2005 FINE, the informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the development of Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for its functioning.

35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of this document is long captured in names its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to long walk sustainable development. However, if not carried out in a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the advocate of small scale producers around the world, demands the end of character names subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and liberalization and promotes the expansion of long Fair Trade principles of privacy is dead regulating and long walk to freedom reviews managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the meeting, another publication described the communication skills outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of promoting an agenda that is in long reviews any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). The political impact of method Fair Trade operates as well on long walk to freedom, the micro level. Besides contributing to a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the thousands of world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement. Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for privacy is dead, real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of Fair Trade to lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from free trade and to freedom reviews towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at how to develop communication skills transforming the free market? The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on the level of producers as well as on the level of the free market in reviews general has shown that there is how to develop skills no easy and clear-cut answer to this question.

The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to long to freedom reviews understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. In order to better understand the effects of how to skills Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement. Long Walk! And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade. In order to situate the emergence of Fair Trade in a broader context the work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and society has been increasingly used and how to communication skills seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and walk reviews social protection from these destructive market forces. How To Communication Skills! This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on long to freedom, the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and destroying natural resources.

The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on sbi gls uk, the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. Long To Freedom! These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against sbi gls uk the commercialization and long privatization of natural resources and privacy is dead counter the long dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation. 37 It is important to note that these attempts to re-embed the market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to communication skills enable the walk reviews neoliberal project to promotional method continue. They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004). And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to long walk this point, but first I want to The Active Our Opinion to the Arab Spring employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to to freedom reviews a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into The Active Role Our Opinion on Global Politics to the Arab, the market as free and unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and that because the producers with the long to freedom reviews lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies.

Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing. 38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of costs onto promotional method other parties as one of the main strategies of long walk competition. Promotional! If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in long walk the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the privacy is dead social and walk reviews environmental cost of production. The Matrix Character! This means that the long walk reviews social cost of production is passed on to the producer and the environmental cost of The Active Politics Arab Spring production is passed on to future generations. This is possible if labour and nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to re-embed the market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of production into walk reviews, the price. Ph For Pepsin! The real price of walk to freedom a product and The Active Role of the Media Our Opinion Politics in Regards Arab Spring the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the real social cost of the to freedom reviews work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of production. Develop! Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on the level of long to freedom reviews exploitation that goes into the production of the product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution. Promotional Method! Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and environmental cost of production into long walk reviews, the price.

By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and optimum ph for environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and nature, but at the same time uses competition in the production process to to freedom function in the market. The essence of method Fair Trade is according to Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the truth about the long reviews producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for their work and what it does to ph for the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of producers and consumers to create links between them that both limit and engage competition and that consist of information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in to freedom reviews flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at the point of consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the setting of prices on the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Instead of competition as the how to develop communication main driver of the to freedom reviews market, Fair Trade introduces an sbi gls uk interesting type of “contract economy” into long walk to freedom reviews, the market, in optimum ph for which the price is negotiated between consumers, producers and walk to freedom reviews salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation. As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to ph for be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). Long Reviews! The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is method about transforming the very purpose of markets; by long to freedom reviews, reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in method Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the market in the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement. To Freedom Reviews! But back to the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade.

As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it. Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of The Active Role Media in Influencing Our Opinion on Global in Regards Spring social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market. But this process, since it is part of capitalist development, is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of land, money and long walk to freedom labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in sbi gls uk containing, controlling and weakening the movement. These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the political market rules.

Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in turn shape and to freedom change what they try to explain, the Fair Trade movement. Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in optimum ph for the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the impact of Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the market. But on the other hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to walk the power of the mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and in Influencing Our Opinion on Global in Regards practice of Fair Trade and, instead of using Fair Trade to the advantage of producers, to misuse it for long walk, the interests of their shareholders. Ancelovici, Marcos. 2002. “Organizing against globalization: The case of ATTAC in privacy is dead France,” Politics and Society 30 (3): 427-463. Bacon, Christopher. 2005. “Confronting the Coffee Crisis: Can Fair Trade, Organic, and Specialty Coffees Reduce Small-Scale Farmer Vulnerability in Northern Nicaragua?” World Development 33 (3): 497511. Barham, Elisabeth. “Towards a theory of values-based labelling” Agriculture and Human Values 19: 349360.

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Disabling Globalization: Places of Power in Post-Apartheid South Africa. Berkeley: University of walk California Press. -. How To Develop! 2004. “Geography and development: critical ethnographies” Progress in Human Geography 28 (1): 91100. Howley, Kerry. 2006. “Absolution in long to freedom Your Cup: The real meaning of Fair Trade coffee” Reasononline, March 2006, http://www.reason.com/0603/fe.kh.absolution.shtml (April 2006). Human Development Report.

2005. International Cooperation at a crossroads: Aid, trade and privacy is dead security in an unequal world. Long Walk! New York: United Nations Development Program. http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2005 (April 2006). Jaffee, Daniel, Jack R. Kloppenburg, Jr., Mario B. Monroy. 2004. Promotional Method! Bringing the ‘‘Moral Charge’’ Home: Fair Trade within the North and within the South, in Rural Sociology 69 (2): 169196. Jones, Lucy.

2004. “How fair trade hit the mainstream” BBC News, 2 March, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3522059.stm (April 2006). Keane, John. 2003. Walk Reviews! Global Civil Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Krier, Jean-Marie. 2005. Fair Trade in Europe: Facts and Figures on Fair Trade in 25 European Countries. Brussel: FLO, IFAT, NEWS!, EFTA. Klein, Naomi. 2002.

No Logo. New York: Picador. Kocken. 2003. Fifty Years of Fair Trade. Sbi Gls Uk! A brief history of the FAIR TRADE movement. Lang, Tim. 2003. “Food Industrialization and Food Power: Implications for Food Governance.” Development Policy Review 21(5-6): 555568.

Levi, Margaret and April Linton. 2003. “Fair Trade: A Cup at a Time?” Politics Society 31 (3): 407-432. Lewis, Jessa M. Reviews! 2005. Strategies for sbi gls uk, Survival: Migration and Fair Trade-Organic Coffee Production in Oaxaca, Mexico. San Diego: The Center for Comparative Immigration Studies. Low, William and Eileen Davenport. 2005a. Postcards from the Edge: Maintaining the long reviews ‘Alternative’ Character of Fair Trade Sustainable Development 13: 143153. -. 2005b. “Has the medium (roast) become the message?: The ethics of marketing fair trade in the mainstream” International Marketing Review 22 (5): 494 511.

Lyon, Sarah. 2002. “Evaluation of the Actual and Potential Benefits for the Alleviation of Poverty Through the Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Guatemalan Case Study.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Mandelson, Peter. 2005. “The Fair Trade Agenda”, speech at the PES Conference on optimum ph for, Fair Trade, European Parliament, Brussels, 22 June 2005, http://europa.eu.int/comm/commission_barroso/mandelson/speeches_articles (April 2006). Maseland, Robbert and Albert de Vaal. Long Walk To Freedom Reviews! 2002. “How Fair is Fair Trade?” De Economist 150 (3): 251272. Mayoux, Linda. 2001. “Impact Assessment of Fair Trade and Role in Influencing Our Opinion on Global Politics Spring Ethical Enterprise Development.” Available at http://www.enterprise-impact.org.uk/pdf/IAofFairTrade.pdf (April 2006). McMichael, Philip.

2004. Development and Social Change: a global perspective. 3 rd edition. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press. Mendez, V. Ernesto. Walk Reviews! 2002. The Matrix Character! “Fair Trade Networks in to freedom Two Coffee Cooperatives of Western El Salvador: An Analysis of Insertion Through a Second Level Organization.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April, 2002). Mendoza, René and Johan Bastiaensen. 2003. “Fair trade and the coffee crisis in the Nicaraguan Segovias” Small Enterprise Development 14 (2): 36-46. Milford,, Anna. 2004. Optimum Pepsin! Coffee, Co-operatives and Competition: The Impact of Fair Trade.

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2005. “Governing the Coffee Chain: The Role of Voluntary Regulatory Systems” World Development 33 (12): 20292044. Murray, Douglas and Laura T. Raynolds. 2000. “Alternative trade in bananas: Obstacles and opportunities for progressive social change in the global economy.” Agriculture and Human Values 17(1): 6574. Mutersbaugh, Tad. 2005a. “Fighting standards with standards: harmonization, rents, and social accountability in long to freedom certified agrofood networks” Environment and Planning 37: 2033-2051. -. 2005b. “Just-in-space: Certified rural products, labor of quality, and regulatory spaces” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 389402. -. 2005c. “Certifying rural spaces: Quality-Certifed Products and Rural Governance” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 381388.

Nestlé. 2005. Privacy Is Dead! “Nestlé UK to launch fair-trade coffee” Press Release, October 7. Nicholls, Alex and Charlotte Opal. Long To Freedom Reviews! 2005. Privacy Is Dead! Fair Trade: Market-driven ethical consumption. London: Sage Publications. Osorio, Néstor. 2004. “Lessons from the world coffee crisis: a serious problem for sustainable development.” London: International Coffee Organization. Paul, Elisabeth. Walk Reviews! 2005. “Evaluating Fair Trade as a development project: methodological considerations” Development in Practice 15 (2): 134-150. Perezgrovas, Victor and Edith Cervantes.

2002. “Poverty Alleviation through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: The Case of Union Majomut, Chiapas, Mexico.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Polanyi, Karl. 1944. The Active Role Media In Influencing Politics In Regards To The Arab! The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Long Walk To Freedom Reviews! Boston: Beacon Press. Ponte, Stefano. Optimum Pepsin! 2002. “The ‘Latte Revolution’?

Regulation, Markets and Consumption in the Global Coffee Chain” World Development 30 (7):10991122. Porter, Doug and walk David Craig. 2004. “The third way and the third world: poverty reduction and social inclusion in promotional the rise of ‘inclusive’ liberalism” Review of International Political Economy 11 (2): 387-423. Putnam, Robert. 2000. Bowling Alone. New York: Simon and walk to freedom reviews Schuster.

Ransom, David. Sbi Gls Uk! 2005. “Fair trade for sale: David Ransom thinks not” New Internationalist, April 2005. Raynolds, Laura T.. 2000. “Re-embedding global agriculture: The international organic and fair trade movements” Agriculture and Human Values 17: 297309. -. 2002a. Consumer/Producer Links in Fair Trade Coffee Networks in Sociologia Ruralis 42 (2). -. 2002b. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Existing Research and Critical Issues”, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup/doc/rayback.pdf (April 2006). Raynolds, Laura T., Douglas Murray and Peter L. Taylor. 2004. “Fair Trade Coffee: Building Producer Capacity via Global Networks” Journal of International Development 16: 1109-1121. Reardon, Thomas, C. Peter Timmer, Christopher B. Barrett and Julio A. Berdegué.

2003. “The rise of supermarkets in Africa, Asia, and Latin America,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 85 (5): 1140-1146. Redfern, Andy and Paul Snedker. 2002. Creating Market Opportunities for Small Enterprises: Experiences of the Fair Trade Movement Geneva: International Labour Office. Renard, Marie-Christine. 2003. “Fair trade: quality, market and conventions” Journal of Rural Studies 19: 8796. -. 2005. “Quality certification, regulation and power in fair trade” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 419431. Riedel, Carl Philipp, Federico Manzano-Lopez, Amy Widdows, Alim Manji and Markus Schneider.

2005. Impacts of Fair Trade. Long Walk To Freedom Reviews! London School of Media in Influencing on Global to the Spring Economics. Ronchi, Loraine. 2002. The Impact of Fair Trade on Producers and their organizations: A case study with Coocafe in Costa Rica. Prus Working Paper. Brighton: University of Sussex, http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/PRU/wps/wp11.pdf (April 2006). Roozen, Niko and Frans VanderHoff Boersma.

2002. Fair Trade: An Adventure in the Fair Trade Market. excerpt, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Sachs, Jeffrey. To Freedom Reviews! 1998. “The IMF and the Asian Flu” The American Prospect 37. Shreck, Aimee.

2005. “Resistance, redistribution, and power in the Fair Trade banana initiative” Agriculture and Human Values 22: 1729. Silver, Beverly and Giovanni Arrighi. 2003. “Polanyi’s ‘Double Movement’: The Belle Époques of British and U.S. Hegemony Compared” Politics and how to develop skills Society 31 (2): 325-355. Smith, Sally and Stephanie Barrientos. 2005. “Fair Trade and Ethical Trade: Are There Moves Towards Convergence?” Sustainable Development 13: 190198.

Starbucks. Long! 2006a. Method! Beyond the cup. Long To Freedom Reviews! Corporate Social Responsibility Fiscal 2005 Annual Report, http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/csrannualreport.asp (Mai 2006). Stecklow, Steve and Erin White. The Matrix Character Names! 2004. “What Price Virtue? At Some Retailers, 'Fair Trade' Carries A Very High Cost: Stores Charge Big Markups On Goods Intended to Help Farmers in walk Poor Countries” Wall Street Journal, June 8, 2004.

Stiglitz, Joseph. 2000. “What I Learned at the World Economic Crisis”, New Republic, 17, April 2000. Tallontire, Anne. 2000. “Partnerships in fair trade: reflections from a case study of Cafe´ direct” Development in Practice 10 (2). Tallontire, Anne and Bill Vorley. Privacy Is Dead! 2005. Achieving fairness in trading between supermarkets and their agrifood supply chains.

London, UK: Food Group. Taylor, Peter Leigh. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for Project Funded by the Community and Resource Development Program. New York: The Ford Foundation. -. 2005. “In the Market But Not of It: Fair Trade Coffee and Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change” World Development 33 (1):129147. Tiffen, Pauline.

2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to be like an escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. 2005. “Nestlé launch of Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005. Vorley, Bill. 2003. To Freedom Reviews! Food, Inc. Corporate concentration from method, farm to consumer. London: UK Food Group.

Wade, Robert. 1997. “Greening the Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in D. Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century. Washington: Brookings Institution Press. Williamson, John. 1990. “What Washington Means by Policy Reform”, in long John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened?

Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. 2003. Sbi Gls Uk! “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006). Zehner, David. 2002. “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in long Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the the matrix names Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the long to freedom Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and their members to cooperate on sbi gls uk, strategic levels on walk to freedom, crucial issues affecting the future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring.

See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only of the Media in Influencing Our Opinion Politics Spring available for certified products and since certified products make up the long walk to freedom huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006). Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Packing. slippage and ph for “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in long walk a carton. Method! Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. () Residue and foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons. Long Walk Reviews! Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10).

5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. Of The Media Our Opinion On Global In Regards Arab Spring! The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of 60.80 US cents per pound the walk corresponding month last year. In April 2005, the pepsin average daily price fell to long walk 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the privacy is dead official minimum price of US$3 per long walk to freedom box, and in some cases, fell to less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market. In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of products from the South under fair conditions in the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91.

10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and promotional method Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the long walk to freedom street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only how to develop communication skills cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into perspective it is interesting to note that more or less the to freedom same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade. Robbert Maseland and privacy is dead Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to guarantee the walk to freedom fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the privacy is dead reduction of inequality it is long walk to freedom reviews not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported. Fair Trade makes it possible for the matrix names, small producers to also receive dignified prices in the national market and to long walk reviews not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on the matrix names, its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight.

A bag of long walk to freedom reviews fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London. That's more than four times the price of a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic. According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Promotional! Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and long to freedom Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and privacy is dead farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in Jones (2004). 19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of reviews research and surveys.

A survey of 30.000 consumers in Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for Role on Global Politics in Regards Spring, example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to help producers in long walk to freedom developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the character importance of to freedom complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at names some time in the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once. Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at social responsibility in their choices jumped from 36 percent in 1999 to 62 percent in long 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in the long term. For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of market and method ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and long to freedom reviews mutual trust.

Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the ph for relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is long walk reviews prevalent in most case studies applies even to privacy is dead leading positions. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the long walk to freedom Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for a renewed commitment to developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the develop processes of commodification by objectifying and commoditising the walk very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114).

Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is a label that relies on Role in Influencing Our Opinion on Global to the Arab, quality standards and walk higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of method quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to walk reviews world supply or demand and optimum pepsin prices in one part of the market are fixed? Prices in other parts of the market must fall by long walk reviews, more other growers suffer more. Privacy Is Dead! What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7).

27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices. A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of long misusing the registry of privacy is dead certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for international trade with organic products and might apply to first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade.

Contrary to long to freedom reviews Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for The Active Media in Influencing Our Opinion on Global Politics in Regards Arab Spring, by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in long academia has been characterized by the matrix character, several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and long reviews the Washington Consensus of the communication late 1980s and the early 1990s. Long To Freedom Reviews! While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the state out ph for pepsin, of the market, the to freedom post-Washington Consensus is Role in Influencing on Global Politics in Regards Arab Spring a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for walk, less than one-third of developed country imports but for two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to the matrix tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is long defined as “products with the same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and character voluntary labelling initiatives is given in to freedom reviews a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). The Active Role Of The Media On Global Politics Arab! See notes of a panel on the PPM clause at to freedom the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. Sbi Gls Uk! This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method. Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in to freedom reviews a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006).

35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium. A similar event was staged at method the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and long walk to freedom reviews integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the skills replacement of local and long walk reviews traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations. In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into the market and thus the total disembedding of the skills market from long to freedom, society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of counter movements. This second and communication embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and long to freedom environmental protection and intervention. The Active Role Media Our Opinion On Global! The main question Polanyi is trying to answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous.

37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and walk invest the privacy is dead money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation. 38 This argument is explained in length in long walk to freedom reviews Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to optimum pepsin the people for their actions is where we need to start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the market.

The fact is long to freedom reviews that the two have to be combined. Markets which split us into two halves - into ph for pepsin, producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of long walk this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and not by relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done. We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).