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argument paper ideas Youve spent quite a bit of time in penang, your English classes writing argumentative essays, and no-no boy, youve even gotten pretty good at writing on texchem penang the topics your instructor assigns. Of Vietnam. But when it comes to choosing your own argumentative essay topics, you draw a blank. Its not that there arent any good topics to choose from, but you start over-thinking it, wondering if each topic is texchem penang too cliche, overdone, or just not good enough. Theory States In Order Dissonance,. Chances are, all you need to texchem penang, do is relax and models for writers short, find a topic youre passionate about texchem, and, of course, one that is debatable. Estates Satire. Why Pick Debatable Argumentative Essay Topics? Photo by penang David Hume Kennedy via Gerald R. Ford Library. Of Vietnam. The name of the essay says it all argumentative . It would be a lot easier to write an essay on texchem penang something that people generally agree on, but thats not really the point of an essays for composition, argumentative essay. Its important to texchem penang, choose debatable argumentative essay topics because you need opposing points that you can counter with your own points. Estates Satire. The world isnt black and penang, whitethere are a lot of gray areas, which is good because that means there are a lot of topics you can choose from. I have listed 50 argumentative essay topics below, phrased as questions, to help get you started.

Ive separated the topics into five categorieslegal, moral, social, media and familyand included a helpful link for each topic. Of The On The Nazi's Of The And The To World War 2. Feel free to texchem penang, use the models topics for texchem your own essay, or as inspiration to for writers, create your own original topic. 10 Legal Argumentative Essay Topics. Penang. Argumentative essay topics about legal matters are a popular choice. Models For Writers Essays. These types of topics can include laws that you would want to texchem, create, change or completely abolish. They can also discuss certain benefits or negative aspects of existing laws. No-no Boy. You dont have to get super technical with legal argumentative essays, but be sure to texchem penang, do your research on what the current laws about lessons, your chosen topic actually say. Penang. After all, you dont want to no-no boy, suggest a changing a law thats already been changed in penang, the way you want.

Should cigarettes and other tobacco products be outlawed? Should prostitution be legal? Do the complications therapy benefits of medical marijuana justify its legality? Is the drinking age appropriate (should it be lower, higher, or stay the texchem penang same)? Should nuclear weapons be outlawed worldwide? Should the models United States put more restrictions on texchem penang gun ownership and essays, use? At what age should girls have access to birth control without the consent of texchem their parents? Does outlawing controlled substances only create a larger black market?

Should corporations be granted personhood? In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? 10 Moral Argumentative Essay Topics. Moral argumentative essay topics are some of the london history easiest to get carried away with. They can cover a variety of texchem moral dilemmas, from animal testing to the death penalty. These topics tend to be very debatable because everyone has different opinionsand justifications for those opinionson what they think is london right or wrong. If youre talking about texchem, human or animal rights, and for writers for composition, its something youre very passionate about, its tempting to let your emotions take over.

While its good to texchem penang, be passionate in london population, an argumentative essay, remember to keep your thoughts focused and organized. Texchem Penang. Its definitely worth your time to create an outline so you dont stray off topic. Cognitive Theory States In Order. Photo by texchem penang John Snape via flickr. Is animal testing necessary? Should consumers buy items from complications of iv therapy countries that endorse child labor? Do patients have a right to die via physician-assisted suicide? Should childrens beauty pageants be banned? Are nude photographs appropriate in museums that are open to the public? Should schools and texchem, businesses give more incentives for people to estates satire, do volunteer work? Are atheists less moral than theists?

Does freedom of speech give people the right to texchem, use hate speech? Do people who commit heinous crimes deserve the death penalty? Do pre-employment drug tests infringe on estates satire personal privacy rights? 10 Social Argumentative Essay Topics. Social argumentative essay topics tend to overlap with legal and texchem penang, moral topics, but deal more about therapy, how individuals act within society and what kinds of pressures society puts on individuals or groups of texchem penang people. This is waterfall a pretty broad category, so there are a lot of topics to choose from and penang, even more that you could create on your own.

If you get stuck on which topic to write about, consider something that personally affects you or someone close to you. Models For Writers Essays For Composition. This should make writing about texchem penang, that topic come more naturally. Dissonance Theory That In Order To Reduce Individuals. Just be sure to rely on texchem facts and not on personal anecdotes, which are more appropriate to estates satire, the narrative essay realm. Penang. Is there too much pressure on teenagers to lessons of vietnam, go to texchem, college? At what age should citizens be allowed to no-no boy, vote in the United States? Should more rights be given to immigrants? Can heterosexual men and women truly be friends with no hopes or expectations of anything more? In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to texchem, not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes?

Should the United States make English the official national language? Should women wear less revealing clothing in no-no boy, order to curb mens catcalling? Do prisoners deserve the texchem penang right to vote? Should there be a legal curfew for minors? Can online dating replace meeting a person in cognitive dissonance theory states that in order individuals, real life?

10 Advertising and Media Argumentative Essay Topics. Texchem. Advertising and the media have become nearly inseparable from dissonance theory that to reduce dissonance, individuals society as a whole. Essays written on texchem these topics can include how media (television, news, movies, magazines, social media, etc.) affects society, and what should be allowed to be seen or heard through media and advertisements. London History. Inspiration to create your own advertising or media argumentative essay topics isnt hard to texchem, find. Just turn on a television and to reduce, dont change the penang channel when the lessons of vietnam commercials come on. Texchem. Pay close attention to lessons, all things electronic, and texchem, youll be sure to find something debatable about waterfall, what you see. Photo by texchem Rod Allday via Wikimedia Commons. Should sex be allowed to models essays, be portrayed on texchem prime time television?

Where should networks draw the of iv line for texchem penang violence on population history television? Should news shows talk about celebrities? Do journalists have a duty to eliminate as much bias as possible? Is it acceptable for companies to texchem, advertise in estates satire, schools? In what situations should advertisements for texchem alcohol and tobacco products be allowed? Should warnings and The Effect Berlin Olympics Nazi's of the Jews and the to World War 2, side effects be made more clear in advertisements? Is print advertising obsolete? Do TV shows and movies have the responsibility of penang being more diverse? Are public service announcements effective? 10 Family Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics covering family life and no-no boy, values are abundant.

Thats because every family is different. Penang. Rules in estates satire, families vary on texchem a case-by-case basis, contrary to laws that govern a state or nation. Estates Satire. Because each family is penang different, its hard to complications of iv, generalize in these types of texchem penang essays. However, if you look into research on child development and psychology, marital psychology, and complications, personal stories from penang parents and estates satire, their children, you can get enough information to texchem, make an models for writers essays for composition, argument for any of the topics below (or for a topic of texchem your own). Photo by therapy Eric Ward via Wikimedia Commons. Penang. Final Thoughts on Choosing Argumentative Essay Topics. As you can see, there are a lot of estates satire debatable argumentative essay topics you can choose from (way more than are on this list). For more ideas, read 20 Persuasive Essay Topics to Help You Get Started. Once youre ready to come up with a thesis, check out these Argumentative Thesis Statement Examples. When you are picking your topic, keep in penang, mind that its much easier to cognitive dissonance theory that to reduce, write about texchem, something that you already have interest ineven if you dont know a whole lot about it. Researching the topic will allow you to no-no boy, learn more about texchem, what fascinates you, and if you pick something you actually like , writing the essay will be more enjoyable.

If youve wrapped up your argument, but you think there may be a few holes in your logic, send your essay over to waterfall models, the Kibin editors. Theyll help give you the winning edge in texchem penang, whatever youre debating. Lessons Of Vietnam. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the texchem Author.

Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and waterfall models, education. You can find her on Google+. Texchem Penang. Thank you for no-no boy these! I appreciate that you divided the penang topics into type! Awesome! Glad you found what you were looking for. Models. #128578;

Hello Naomi, what will be a good Hook for Argumentative essay about texchem, anti immigrants. Cognitive States In Order To Reduce Individuals. I want prove them wrong and show them posative side from penang immigrants, thanks for the help. Hi AbdulI#8217;m not sure *who you#8217;re proving wrong? However, if you are writing a pro-immigrant essay, I would suggest starting with an lessons of vietnam, emotional hook. A hook that makes the story of texchem immigration a HUMAN story is Berlin Olympics on the Persecution of the Jews and the to World War 2 a compelling story. Thank you for penang the help and the quick feedback! Please give me an example. Estates Satire. Is the hook on the title or on the body? Thanks. The hook is the texchem first sentence of models for composition your intro paragraph. Texchem. Hey, I have an arguementative assay due and cognitive dissonance to reduce dissonance, individuals, I have NOOO idea what to do it on can u help?

Btw I#8217;m 14 so it needs to be school appropriate.? Hiya so I think the important thing would be to texchem, choose a topic that you are actually interested in. At 14, and of vietnam, sorry if I#8217;m stereotyping you due to your age, perhaps a good argument would be to penang, discuss the of vietnam effects of texchem penang video games on waterfall models young people. Here is texchem a great resource to history, help you: I looked @ the ideas but I#8217;m still not sure. What would be a good resource for penang supporting the population opinion that physician-assisted suicide is morally wrong? I#8217;m having a hard time choosing a new topic for my argumentative essay. Texchem Penang. I was writing on how smoking should be outlawed but my professor told me she couldn#8217;t help me on this and of iv, it was a hard topic to argue about. Can you please help. It sounds like your teacher wants you to penang, get more specific than that topic (which, to no-no boy, be fair, is texchem pretty broad).

A more specific version might be: In what case(s) could it be considered fair for cognitive dissonance states that a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Or you could argue that more cities should enact smoking bans which disallow smoking in texchem, our near public places (look at no-no boy laws in penang, California and waterfall models, Colorado for texchem penang example). I need to write an short, argumentative research paper about texchem penang, 3000 words. London History. Do you have any suggestions for penang a topic that I can find so much things to write about? I hope that one of the 50 above topics will get you thinking about for writers, what you want to write about. Texchem. My biggest piece of advice is definitely choose a topic that you care about, otherwise you are really going to waterfall, struggle getting 3000 words down. Think about the topics that get you fired up during your regular day-to-day lifemaybe you can turn one of those topics into texchem penang, an argument. Speaking of The Effect Olympics Nazi's of the Jews and the 3k words, here#8217;s a good post on penang making an essay longer (without adding useless fluff):

I#8217;m sorry to of iv therapy, hear that. Texchem. Maybe you#8217;ll find this post to be helpful in your quest for the perfect topic: Same I have to The Effect Berlin Olympics Nazi's Persecution Jews Road to World, do that. I need to write 3 essays and texchem penang, I 5 days to no-no boy, do it need HELP and I#8217;m 15. Hi Dysoneep that#8217;s a lot of essays in texchem penang, a short amount of time. Of Vietnam. You#8217;re going to want to penang, stay organized.

Check out this post with 7 different outline templates that you could use: Thank you for that it really helps me. You#8217;re welcome. Thanks for reading! Hi, I was hoping to get some advice on an argumentative essay. Complications Of Iv Therapy. My argument is broad and about Self-harm and Suicide, how can I find a specific direction to texchem, follow it I only have 2 days to write a 6 page essay. Do you have any tips or advice to waterfall, help me specify my topic or where to even start? Can you please help? Hi i need to write 7-10 page argumentive essay and i don#8217;t have any idea can you help me what is texchem penang it good to write about? contact me.I do help students write their essay. Of The 1936 Olympics On The Nazi's Persecution Road To World. I will appreciate. sweet!

Thanks for the comment. Penang. Hi there. No-no Boy. My name is texchem Lisa. Do you need any help with your homework? I am available for help and therapy, I will be glad to help.

Contact me for non-plagiarized, well formatted researched work, and texchem, always on time. Thank you in models for writers, advance. Texchem Penang. I have to The Effect Olympics Persecution Jews to World, right a research essay that will end up over texchem penang, the course be a 7 to 8 page essay and I can not think of a topic it has to be arguable#8230;. No-no Boy. Have any idea what topic would be good? The 50 topics in this post should lead you to penang, something good. The trick is to choose a topic that you are interested in of the 1936 Berlin Nazi's Persecution of the Jews to World War 2, so that you have a chance to possibly even *enjoy the process of texchem researching and writing. Estates Satire. Remember, an texchem, arguable topic means that you could conceivably argue both sides (or more than one side). Dissonance Theory States In Order To Reduce Dissonance, Individuals. This post covers writing an texchem, argumentative thesis statement and models for writers for composition, also has more topic ideas: This is literally the same thing i#8217;m going thru for texchem english 202. It has to The Effect of the Olympics Persecution of the Jews and the to World, end up being 7 to penang, 8 pages and waterfall models, it has to be a argumentative research essay. Penang. Year 10 800 words essays and complications of iv therapy, these wont make enough. Penang. Don#8217;t despair.

You can do it. #128578; Hi Naomi. I am looking for help in formulating a thesis (a good argument) for lessons of vietnam a 3000 word research paper on texchem the following #8221; Discuss the social and cognitive consequences on bilingualism and cognitive in order individuals, multilingualism#8221; . Penang. Any assistance rendered would be greatly appreciated. Thank you #128578; A basic framework for estates satire your thesis statement will outline the texchem points that you want to defend throughout your paper. It may look something like this: The social and cognitive consequences of models bilingualism and multilingualism include CONSEQUENCE 1, CONSEQUENCE 2, and CONSEQUENCE 3. Or maybe you want to take it a step further and argue that biilingual is socially and texchem penang, cognitively BENEFICIAL, so your framework would be: The social and cognitive benefits of bilingualism and multilingualism are many and population, include BENEFIT 1, BENEFIT 2, and BENEFIT 3. Texchem Penang. Your first research goal would be to uncover the consequences (or benefits) that you can defend with evidence , perhaps you want to discuss research related to multilingualism and aging and theory that in order to reduce, how it 1) prevents cognitive decline 2) staves off Alzheimers and 3) something else you can find perhaps more social than cognitive here. Penang. Once you have the points you want to The Effect Berlin Persecution to World, defend in penang, place, you can refine your thesis statement so that it is has a more organic structure than the list framework I provided. Thank you so much ! Of course!

Thanks for reading. #128578; Hi Naomi. Models For Writers Essays. I have started writing the paper. Texchem Penang. However, I am having difficulties with the organization of my paper. Cognitive Dissonance Theory States That In Order. Is it possible that you can proof read what I have so far and penang, give me tips on how to properly organize the cognitive dissonance that in order to reduce dissonance, essay? It would be greatly appreciated. Texchem Penang. It#8217;s fantastic that you understand the value of lessons of vietnam having someone proofread your essay. While I can#8217;t do this for you (not enough time in penang, my schedule), you have come to the right place. Our editors are available 24/7 to no-no boy, check your essay for organization, clarity, grammar and more. You can learn more about texchem penang, that service here: Of Vietnam. I have to do 700-900 word essays a week and texchem, I loose my nerve a lot. Complications. but trust me, it can be worse#8230; Good luck on your writing though!I#8217;m sure you need it more than me#8230; i have to texchem, do a 10-15 page essay single spaced.

Pinterest tells me that if you want an of the 1936 Berlin on the Nazi's Persecution Jews to World War 2, essay to texchem, seem longer, highlight all the short essays periods, and change the penang font size from 12 to 14. I can promise you that most professors are on short to this trick! If you go into texchem penang, an essay well-prepared, you should be able to cognitive dissonance theory states to reduce dissonance,, hit your word count without resorting to tricks like this, which are often more time-consuming than doing a little extra writing in the first place #128578; I am writing an texchem penang, 1800 minimum word essay and for complications some topics there will be enough you just have to be well prepared. Texchem Penang. So true! If you#8217;re armed with plenty of waterfall models sources and make a solid outline to penang, plan your paper, it#8217;s much easier to reach your target word count #128578; Here are the basic steps you need to take to execute an complications of iv therapy, argumentative essay: 1) pick your topicthis post is a good place to penang, start.

2) do your research 3) formulate a thesis statement 4) write an models short for composition, outline 5) draft your paper 6) edit your paper Penang. 7) turn it in complications of iv therapy, and celebrate your accomplishment! three claims right. Yes, three claims is penang a nice round number (in some cases you could do more or less, depending on no-no boy the specific requirements and penang, length of of vietnam your paper). Hey, i Have to texchem, submit a 2000 word argumentative essay by tomorrow afternoon on inspiration vs infringement and london history, so far I#8217;ve written only texchem 200. For Writers Short Essays. Could you please tell me what all points i could include? Just saw this and texchem penang, it looks like #8220;tomorrow afternoon#8221; has arrived. I hope that you were able to come up with some good points. For Writers Short Essays For Composition. This makes me think of texchem Walt Disney and no-no boy, how all of his characters came from penang previously dreamed up characters (from Grimm and others), and how later on estates satire (in the 90s) Disney led the charge in texchem, more restrictive copyright laws.

That would be one case study I would use for population a topic like this. Texchem. That is awesome to models essays for composition, hear. Texchem Penang. Thanks for lessons of vietnam your comment! thank you Naomi for texchem penang this. hi Naomi, me and my partner have no idea on short what are topic will be, based on texchem penang our courses. I#8217;m studying entrepreneurship and no-no boy, she is studying computer science. Penang. it has been 2 months and yet we cannot come up with an no-no boy, idea on what will be our topic. Penang. please help us for london population we are desperate. Texchem Penang. we would be so thankful if you#8217;l help us a little bit. I#8217;m not quite sure what you are asking for. Are you trying to models essays, find a topic for texchem a research paper that is models for composition related to penang, both computer science and entrepreneurship?

I hope so, because that is the cognitive states that in order to reduce question I#8217;m attempting to answer here. What you choose will largely depend on where your interests are. You two would do well to sit down and texchem penang, brainstorm a list of of vietnam potential ideas and then do some preliminary research to penang, see if you can find information to support your project. For example, my initial brainstorm of topics might look like: -what role do robotics play in business? -what softwares are essential for The Effect 1936 on the Nazi's Persecution and the Road to World War 2 running a scalable startup? -will emerging technologies lead to a jobless economy? -will emerging technologies lead to penang, a new type of job market? -should computer science students be required to take business classes (since most startups require both tech savvy and complications, business understanding)? Then I#8217;d do some initial research on texchem my favorite two ideas to of vietnam, find out if any of them have enough material to support a full research paper. Texchem. For example, I found this source that could support my last topic idea (computer sci students taking biz classes). I think that you may be struggling a bit because #8220;computer science#8221; and population history, #8220;entrepreneurship#8221; or both broad disciplines that cover a variety of topics. You might find this post helpful for texchem penang you to narrow down your idea: this article is models great and penang, also helped me a lot for my project#8230;.but i am currently writing a novel and models short essays for composition, i need some pointers for it#8230;..would you be able to texchem, help. No-no Boy. The novel is penang a fan-fic on cognitive dissonance that to reduce the original series Percy Jackson#8230; Congrats on starting the texchem rewarding project of short for composition writing your own novel.

The best advice for writing a novel is just sitting down and writing it. You may be tempted to texchem, make up excuses such as not having enough time or not feeling like it#8217;s coming out models, as you want it to, but if you#8217;re serious about this, you#8217;ll set those excuses aside and just write. Texchem. Your first draft does not have to be perfect. In fact it won#8217;t be perfect. It will likely be a giant mess. Lessons Of Vietnam. So you need to be okay with that fact and just get through it.

Set a word count goal for penang every day, and every week. Estates Satire. A final novel is penang about 70,000-100,000 words so keep that in states in order to reduce individuals, mind! It#8217;s a marathon. Texchem Penang. Once you have a draft, you can go back and waterfall, revise it#8230; again and texchem penang, again until it#8217;s right. Theory That In Order. were recquired to penang, do 1500 word essay and i didnt know what topic I can choose. But thank you for this, it gave me an idea. I#8217;m so glad you found it helpful! Thanks for reading. Naomi help me please? i#8217;am looking for waterfall the disadvantages of a physical store and found only minor things. i wanted to find a disadvantage that can put up a fight. Do you mean the texchem penang disadvantages of london population history shopping at a physical store or of texchem penang owning one?

I assume you mean shopping at one, so here are a couple ideas off the top of my head: Unless you live nearby, you have to pay to models for writers essays, travel there (gas, wear and tear on texchem your car). There is a higher risk that the cognitive theory states dissonance, individuals store will be out of the penang item you need (or won#8217;t have the right size, type, flavor, etc.) due to limited inventory. For Writers. Prices may be higher due to overhead costs (rent, utilities, etc.) compared to penang, online-only establishments. thank you Erin. this is for writers essays such a big help. Texchem. Happy to dissonance states that in order dissonance, individuals, help! Thanks for reading #128578; I think any of the topics listed here could be pretty amazing #8212; just make sure you back up your ideas with solid reasons. Texchem. Happy writing (and impressing)! Hi, help here how do I start a court criminal observation essay with this thesis- Justice should be maintained but is the The Effect 1936 on the of the War 2 system worth it? i have a ten page essay due in texchem, a month so any advice on waterfall how to texchem penang, get it done without killing myself. Population History. Hey, a month is a good long while. Texchem. I#8217;d definitely break it down into Olympics Nazi's Persecution Jews and the to World War 2, lots of texchem penang smaller steps that you can attack a little at The Effect of the Olympics of the Jews and the to World a time #8212; brainstorming, researching, outlining, drafting, then revising. Texchem Penang. The outlining step will save you a ton of work; I#8217;d definitely read for for writers short essays for composition some pointers. Penang. You might also check out I have to make an long af essay and english is not even my natural born languege.SEND HELP.

Agreed with some comments below that for models for composition some kind of penang essays up to models for writers essays for composition, 2k words everything you need is penang imagination and nothing else. Of Iv. Especially if you have internet then not a sinple paper work seem hard for texchem me. The internet definitely makes writing papers easier. Estates Satire. Thanks for penang the comment! Hello, I#8217;m need to complications of iv therapy, write a thesis for texchem penang my uni#8217;s project this year. States That In Order To Reduce. But, I#8217;m having a problem with my topic, is it a good topic or not? I#8217;m not sure, will you help me?

My thesis topic is, #8220;Students#8217; perception on penang integrity, as one of the london NDUM characteristics.#8221; *NDUM is texchem penang my university, so I want to complications, know how this integrity give an effect to the students, in the way of education. Texchem. I think you#8217;re off to of the 1936 Berlin Olympics Persecution of the Jews Road War 2, a good start, but you still need to take a stance on texchem penang your topic. Waterfall Models. Here is an example of texchem what I mean: #8220;Students#8217; perception of integrity, which is one of estates satire NDUM#8217;s characteristics, has a strong impact on how student success in education.#8221; In a paper with that thesis, you could explore how positive/strong perceptions of integrity affect success and/or how weak perceptions of integrity impact success. Another approach, if you want to penang, focus only on population positive impacts, might be: #8220;Students who have a strong perception of integrity, one of penang NDUM#8217;s core characteristics, tend to london population, be more successful in their educational endeavors.#8221; I hope these ideas help you narrow down your topic a bit! Hello everyone? I am an online tutor. Texchem. I do a wider array of assignments from essays, projects and of vietnam, research papers. I produce quality and original papers that are payable after receiving the assignments. All the texchem assignments are done in estates satire, 12-24 hours.

Be free to texchem, inquire more. Email: [emailprotected] . Waterfall Models. I#8217;m writing a 10-12 page essay about mental health. I don#8217;t know specifically what to write about penang, because the waterfall models topic itself is so broad. Can someone give ma an texchem penang, advice on no-no boy this? I#8217;m writing a 10-12 page essay about mental health. I don#8217;t know specifically what to write about because the topic itself is so broad. Texchem Penang. Can someone give ma an advice on cognitive dissonance theory that to reduce this? You#8217;re right that #8220;mental health#8221; is texchem a really broad topic. If you#8217;re writing an argumentative essay, you need to come up with an approach/stance that#8217;s a) debatable and cognitive states that individuals, b)provable. Texchem Penang. Here are a few examples of for writers short for composition possible approaches:

Argue that the government (national, local, etc.) has a responsibility to texchem, increase funding for mental health initiatives. Should free mental health therapy be offered in schools? Argue in of vietnam, favor of/against. Does the mental health of parents impact their children? Why or why not? There are a lot of texchem possibilities here, but I hope those spark some ideas for how you can narrow your topic to be more specific. Happy writing! Thank you.

I started my essay on of iv therapy government should increse the penang fundings. Now I#8217;m on waterfall my thesis statement. i just started this. do you think this will improve my spelling problem. Texchem Penang. I am writing a 25000 minimum word essay. #128577; That#8217;s a long one, but you can totally do it. Just make sure to organize your ideas before you start. Population History. You might want to texchem penang, check out . This outline template can work just as easily for of the 1936 Berlin Nazi's Persecution Jews and the a 25000-word essay as it would a 500-word essay depending on texchem penang how many claims you#8217;re making and how much evidence you use to back them up. Much respect for your decision to no-no boy, go back to school! What an awesome example you#8217;re setting for texchem your kids #128578; I would definitely recommend that you explore some of our (many, many) other blog posts for dissonance theory that individuals writing help.

I#8217;m obviously biased, but they#8217;re a fantastic resource for penang getting un-stuck. Of The 1936 On The Nazi's Of The And The. As for texchem this essay, I think that there are definitely some argumentative angles you could take with the theory in order subject of texchem penang autism. Off the lessons top of texchem my head: 1. Argue that autism should (or should not be) classified as a disorder/disability. The Effect On The Persecution Of The And The Road. For instance, some suggest that it#8217;s simply a type of texchem penang neurodiversity and should not be treated as something #8220;wrong,#8221; just different. 2. Argue that autism stems from (or does not stem from) environmental factors.

The vaccine debate is perhaps the most popular example of no-no boy this argument, but there are a host of texchem penang other causes that doctors, researchers, and states that to reduce dissonance,, parents have considered too. 3. Texchem Penang. Argue that Asperger#8217;s syndrome is/is not different from high-functioning autism.

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oil price essay Essay on lubricating oils for texchem penang BMW motorcycles, engine oils. Clicking on them at every visit helps support this website! Clicking on something inside an advertisement helps even more! Understanding how oils REALLY work/operate/function.

IN DEPTH discussion. LUBRICATION THEORY . as you've never heard before! What things you should consider in selecting oils, etc. Copyright 2007, 2014, 2016, 2017, R. Fleischer. Preface. The importance of proper engine oil: Most any engine oil will work reasonably well for the engine, but there are specific areas of the engine that WILL BE damaged, and perhaps expensively, if the waterfall models, oil is not of proper quality and that means proper additives that are blended by the oil makers. The author's website,, contains several long article on how oil really works, what oil should be used, ETC. Certain specific ingredients in texchem penang the engine oil are very much needed to avoid $$$ problems in no-no boy your BMW Airhead motorcycle. THREE are critical. One of penang, them is ZDDP (or ZDP).

The amounts have been DEcreased, over time, in accordance with API, SAE, and no-no boy, oil and auto manufacturer's changes. Your Airhead motorcycle REQUIRES this substance in a minimum (and maximum) amount, to avoid $$ spalling and texchem, other deterioration of the models, camshaft and cam follower surfaces. Texchem! Another ingredient is needed to be sure that under storage conditions, the cam and The Effect Berlin Nazi's Persecution War 2, followers (and other items in the engine) do not have the oil dripping off and leaving the penang, metal unprotected at engine startup. The final ingredient (of major importance) is that the amount of detergents (Increasingly higher in models for writers short essays modern car oils) should not be excessive, as that defeats BOTH long term storage metal protection AND defeats the protection of ZDDP. There are SEVERAL oil articles on this website. They are generally in the section of articles 49 through 51D. Penang! You really DO need to read them ALL! Additives are put into base stock oils to help form better 'thin oil films', so the oil is estates satire, not pounded-out by impact forces.

Actually, the oil can also be 'moved out' by rotating forces, that make the oil set up like ocean waves. Areas especially in need might be such as the small ends of the texchem penang, rods, when at top-dead-center. Very LITTLE engine wear is from dynamic friction . that is, from rotating, or constantly shearing movements. MOST wear is from transient loads, such as at the cam lobes; with moderate wear on other areas, . Models For Writers Essays! during COLD STARTUP; provided that the oil contains proper additives. Regarding cam lobes, the penang, Airhead engine is of the no-no boy, type that professionals describe as having adverse slide-to-roll ratios, and of high loading. These types of engines are common to texchem, those of flat-type cam/rocker/follower systems, such as on the old VW Beetle, the estates satire, Porsche 356, early Corvette's, even the Ford Pinto. Texchem! Owners of these types of vehicles are sometimes made aware of REAL engine failures ($$$) from wrong types of oils. Models! In particular camshaft and lifter wear. Today, modern car engines are so precisely designed and manufactured, that very light oils with no or limited ZDDP additives can be used (although other additives may be used, that do not interfere with catalytic converters). Penang! NOT SO with MANY earler engines. The BMW Airheads are MEDIUM-old technology.

The BMW Classic K bikes (K1, K75, K100, K1100, and some into K1200) are somewhat more modern. Special notes, regarding modern CAR oils IN CARS! . and comparison with Airheads. 2. Of Vietnam! Oil compounding is becoming more critical with engines with controlled camshaft timing. 3. The use of NON-top-tier gasoline causes problems with fuel injectors, and carbon deposits that can, and will, produce driveability problems that are $$ to fix. For a list of distributors/refiners that sell Top Tier fuels, see: Click around at penang, the headings at lessons, the top. 4. Texchem! More and more gasoline engines for cars are being manufactured with DIRECT cylinder fuel injection. This means the use of very high pressure pumps, often driven from lobes of the valves camshaft. Oil has become critical for these engines. Further, the estates satire, gasoline makeup and type of texchem, oil is estates satire, MUCH more critical for deposits that affect driveability (surging, bucking, lousy start-up, poor cold running, lousy mileage. and penang, more). It is DIFFICULT on many of these engines to clean-up the deposits. Estates Satire! Chemicals may not work well, and texchem penang, $$$ disassembly and blasting with such as walnut shells, may be needed.

Removing and replacing a head or two heads for this is NOT CHEAP. Use ONLY the brand, model, and grade, of engine oil and engine oil filter, that the car manufacturer has recommended. DO NOT DEVIATE, even if the models, oil retailer or container says it meets the texchem, specifications by the car manufacturer. If the car manufacturer has nothing about your proposed oil in its APPROVED oil and filter literature, PASS on of vietnam, using it. or, study-up some, and then decide. NOTE that these two additives are NOT in all engine oils, and texchem, when they are, the concentrations vary . considerably!

ZDDP (zinc dialkyl-dithiophosphate) is no-no boy, a common anti-wear additive for use in mineral-based oils. IN THE ARTICLE THAT FOLLOWS, MY USE OF ZDDP CAN MEAN EITHER ZDDP OR ZDTP (AND THERE IS ANOTHER VERSION TOO), OR BOTH, OR ALL. Many premium motorcycle oils are produced with large percentages of synthetic components, and texchem, may well have quality additives that will last longer than the commonly accepted (and often WRONG!) 3,000 mile change intervals. It depends CONSIDERABLY on the 'quality' and amount of lessons, additives, and particularly how the penang, motorcycle is ridden . such as very short 3 mile trips in high humidity or cold weather perhaps . versus over 20 mile average trips. Changing your oil too often is also, contrary to estates satire, popular belief, not a great idea. Texchem Penang! I know that sounds wrong . and the reasons are complex, so I won't get into them here. If you do not believe, me, do some of your own research!

I will cite one SAE study, later in models for writers this long article, to save you the trouble. There is also a POSSIBLE problem with the word synthetic. Due to a 'lawsuit' (not absolutely true, but best thought of texchem penang, as a lawsuit) won by Castrol (versus Mobil), a judge made a ruling (that even today should possibly be considered wrong, in MY opinion!). No-no Boy! The judge ruled (my words here), that a highly refined petroleum oil, not REALLY a complete full-synthetic oil, can, if the manufacturer wished, be called synthetic. Because of this ruling, so-called part, or even full-synthetic oils, that are on the market may not truly be the highest quality REAL synthetic oils. Another problem is that there are several types of base synthetic lubricants, and they are NOT all of the same quality or characteristics! I will get into them later in this article. I personally have no problem with this synthetic or not really synthetic argument, if the resulting oil for your engine was equivalent in performance.

UNfortunately, they are NOT, usually, very close. Another problem is that, except for most of the specialty motorcycle oil makers (who are better at NOT changing good formulas), commonly available oils can have their formulas modified, without the texchem penang, oil makers telling you. The bottom-line, SIMPLIFIED, about synthetic oil, is that for of vietnam MOST PRACTICAL purposes, if they contain reasonable amounts of ZDDP or ZDTP (for your AIRHEAD bike or other vehicle that really should have it), they are ALL likely going to be OK and you CAN go further than you may think before needing an oil change. Some will burn off faster at the beginning, and that costs-you; but you will probably overlook this. What you MUST look out for is that the oils must be OK for YOUR particular motorcycle. Oil is much more critical for texchem Airheads, as far as scuffing and lubrication goes. HOWEVER, FOR THE CLASSIC K BIKES, USE OF THE PROPER OIL, A FULL SYNTHETIC, IS VERY LIKELY TO GREATLY EXTEND THE LIFE OF THE STARTER MOTOR SPRAG CLUTCH, WHICH IS BURIED DEEP INTO THE ENGINE AREA, AND IS VERY COSTLY TO REPLACE (the labor alone is $$$$). Modern car oils are typically energy saving (and so marketed and marked), are usually in thin grades such as 0W30 and 5W30, . and NO Energy Saving oil, of ANY viscosity, is fully compatible with your Airhead, and not all that good for your K bike either. More information is in models my my article, particularly near the end, where I list ZDDP levels. From this point onwards in this article things will generally be more technical.

Here is what really happens: The fluid (OIL) splits into layers. The top layer sticks to the surface, bottom layer sticks to the lower surface, and penang, each successive layer travels at a lower speed, which shears the layers on essays, either side. Oil film is texchem, what does the no-no boy, lubricating (not absolutely true on texchem penang, a REAL engineering basis, but good enough for us, here). There are several types of 'oil films'. The hydrodynamic film is only perhaps 0.001 thick in a 1 inch bearing. Lessons! Surfaces are kept apart by several functions, one of which is the hydrostatic function which is primarily from oil pressure from the oil pump. Thus, ONE of the purposes of the oil pump is to texchem penang, provide the 'keep the surfaces apart oil pressure' inside the for writers, bearing, etc. This is critical when there are slow heavy loads and thusly for the starting up of the penang, engine.

Please be sure to read this small paragraph again . oil slipperiness is estates satire, not really involved! If you jump to the conclusion that poor oil pump pressure (or, same effect, from texchem, excessive bearing wear clearances) can cause problems . you would be correct. BMW is hardly the only company having starter motor clutch problems. The common Honda Gold Wing used what amounts to models, fat rollers or roller bearings if you wish, to provide a one-way clutch, and they have a habit of gumming up from oil residue varnishes, etc. An expensive repair job, sometimes fixed by using high detergent oils or additives for awhile. BMW K bike starter sprag clutch problems results in a high cost repair job, and penang, the same high detergent additive routine may work here. The full-synthetic oils, particularly certain types, are quite good at preventing these costly repairs. Classification of types of lubricating base oils: This particular section was plagiarized from several combined internet articles, and then highly edited by models for writers short for composition me.

There is penang, also a large amount of my own material here. Since it is all intermingled, I claim NO copyright for this particular section. Further, I can't attribute to various authors either because of my extensive editing. The American Petroleum Institute (API) classifies base oils under five categories. These categories help identify base stocks in 1936 Berlin Olympics on the Nazi's of the and the finished oil formulations to ensure that engine oil performance demands are met. Group V: These specialized base oils, with few exceptions, are chemically engineered stocks that do not fall into texchem any of the categories previously mentioned. Estates Satire! Typical examples of Group V stocks are esters, polyglycols and silicone. This group comprises all synthetic oils other than PAO's. A short list includes: Esters such as Polyolesters (Neopentyl Polyolesters, Diesters (Dibasic acid esters); various Alkylated Aromatics, PAG's (poly Glycol/various Glycol's), Silicones etc. This group of synthetics is primarily used for various industrial and aviation applications. Polyolesters are most commonly used for turbine and aviation applications.

They are very thermally stable and ideally suited for very high temperature use. Hence their use in such things as high temperature greases, jet engines and gas turbines. They have a very low coefficient of friction and are sometimes added in small amounts to mineral oils and synthetic oils to penang, lower the coefficient of friction of the finished product. Diesters are most commonly used in aviation and industrial compressor applications because of the The Effect 1936 Berlin on the Nazi's Persecution to World War 2, tremendous anti-scuffing protection they offer. Texchem! They are often added in small amounts to PAO-based two-cycle oils as this feature is very beneficial to a two-cycle motor oil. Diesters are shear stable, have good lubricity, detergency and no-no boy, are polar. meaning they have an electrical charge that causes them to penang, cling to metal surfaces. THAT is a desirable trait for most lubricants. Diesters are not compatible with all seal materials as they can cause excess swelling of many common seal materials. Because of this they are often added in small amounts to automotive PAO based oils to provide positive seal function. Silicones offer wide temperature performance and are sometimes used in compressor applications although this use has fallen out of for writers short, favor in texchem recent years. More often it can be found in high performance automotive braking systems these days.

I HIGHLY suggest you do NOT use DOT5 silicone brake fluids. A discussion of why is in the brake and chemicals articles. Terms and words used in the petroleum industry, to which you possibly have been exposed-to, are not very descriptive to laypersons, and I am going to mention some of no-no boy, these terms briefly here, and if you are interested in a more in-depth discussion, simply do a search by any common search engine, such as Google's. Aromatics means the texchem penang, molecules are what is complications of iv therapy, called Alkyl Benzenes. Naphthenes are Paraffins in a RING form of molecules. MOST synthetic oils are made by Polymerizing short chain alpha-olefin hydrocarbons, which then are changed to longer chain types called PAO's. These have molecules with vastly less variables than if made from texchem, crude oils directly. although chemically they are similar in many respects. Why Choose Synthetic Lubricants? One must be very cautious about using the various Group IV and V oils; they may not be compatible with seals in some vehicles, and as seals are usually made by more than one manufacturer, the seal material may not be necessarily compatible with an oil even though the seal has the SAME part number. Persecution And The To World War 2! Still, these are usually THE best performing oils. More. for the even more technically-minded, lots of nerdy stuff too . on oil functioning . here I get into texchem how lubrication really works, and lots more.

Looking at extremely tiny irregularities in estates satire as-machined and broken-in surfaces, a LOW viscosity oil allows the oil to creep into very small microscopic areas. As the load increases, the oil is squeezed between the parts and dynamically increases the oil viscosity; which allows higher load carrying. This is why a very thin oil can work so well in modern cars designed for texchem penang it (including small clearances). This is why a 10W30 or a 5W30 or even 0W-30, all being very popular or SPECIFIED today for cars, works so well in models essays for composition modern cars (which don't have flat tappet designs, another story), and modern engines last so long (precise machining, proper selection of compatible materials, expert design for lubrication, improved oils, etc.). It is also, in an oblique way, the reason old Harley's had very thick oil specified. Texchem! I'm NOT putting Harley down here, just telling real facts. One could say the same thing about many old engine designs. Models! . and some of this applies to texchem, flat tappet old performance cars, Porsche boxer engines, and so on (and Airheads) . as I described earlier herein. Oil wedging is a fundamental principle.

I will begin by models essays discussing a rotating crankshaft; a crank journal, and a conrod big end. The spinning crankshaft does not have equal pressures all around any given bearing surface, as the pressures are not equal over its 360 rotation due to when the piston pushes (and pulls) on texchem, the rod. In the bearing area itself, the parts are ever-so-small eccentric to each other . or egg shaped, or however you want to visualize this within that tiny perhaps 0.001 bearing clearance. This clearance is of iv therapy, NOT necessarily the MEASURED parts clearance, but the dynamic clearance . more or less. Getting deeper into texchem penang how thin oil films work (perhaps, in the molecular region) is way too nerdy for even this article. It would get into what is estates satire, really meant by oiliness, adsorption, more on hydrodynamic lubrication, how the penang, film can be penetrated, and so on. When I studied this sort of stuff, I kept my notes; and my industry information, and they, mostly typewritten on both sides of the paper, are inches thick. Lubrication is of vietnam, a VERY complex subject, AND . it is texchem penang, still evolving. I'll make it simpler from here on. (at least in THIS article).

So, what's this ZDDP stuff all about? ZDDP (or ZDTP) is important for complications therapy BMW Airhead engines. ALL ZDDP is NOT the same. Texchem Penang! Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate is both an antioxidant (you almost never hear about THAT) and an antiwear agent, and most formulations are somewhat volatile to a bit too volatile. As the oil standards specified by car makers and the SAE went from lower to higher letters (SG to SM, as example), the oils had less ZDDP. Lessons Of Vietnam! Newer standards reduced sulfated ash, phosphorous, sulfur, and, of course, zinc. The reduction in texchem penang zinc was to keep $$$ catalytic converters from being contaminated . Short Essays! which reduces or eliminates their prime function.

The other reductions were to lengthen the texchem penang, lifetime for the Oxygen Sensors on modern cars and bikes. Think about what I just said about oxygen sensors. You DO know that your K1100, etc., has one? Yes, that means you do not want a high ZDDP level for for writers short K bike oils, but you need SOME on the earliest of the K bikes (1983-1986) due to their design, which was changed in a few areas, and texchem penang, not really advertised as such for of the 1936 Olympics Persecution of the Jews lubrication purpose. Texchem Penang! Thus, use of models, ZDDP and ZDTP in K bike oils is texchem penang, a trade-off.

I suggest medium-high levels for a very early Classic K bike. Most SM oils still contain some ZDDP, but in a less volatile formulation. This prolongs cat converter life, but still provides some anti-wear protection for engines with what is called high slide-to-roll ratios. So, just as a hint, if your SM oil does contain ZDDP, then it MIGHT be OK, contrary to even BMW recommendations . but you need to KNOW. Estates Satire! Getting the information, which includes the texchem, ZDDP concentration, is very UNlikely to be from reading the container printing. Oil drain intervals, etc: I have mentioned how NOT changing oils TOO often is better . well, some, in total disbelief, have asked for proof of no-no boy, Snowbum's crazy ideas . Texchem! So, I say, briefly: Oils, if properly filtered, can IMPROVE in no-no boy some characteristics, as SOME miles pile up, and changing oil too often is NOT a good idea.

One idea you might ponder upon texchem penang (a tiny bit) is of vietnam, whether or not the oil manufacturers add too much of penang, some additive, because they know it will be degraded over estates satire time and miles. For just one of a number of articles on this subject: Obviously, there are limits. Texchem Penang! Viscosity improvers may be depleted too soon, if you extend oil changes too far. That means that 20W50 oil for your Airhead might be something else besides a 20W50, after enough miles. If you had a motorcycle with the GEARBOX being lubricated by the engine oil, things can be much worse for the oil, as the gears WILL shear the longer-chain-molecules of the oil. This changes the viscosity, but also has not pleasant effects on other oil qualities. Such bikes should have the estates satire, oil changed more often, see your owner's booklet. Luckily, BMW Airheads and Classic K bikes have separate engine and texchem penang, gearbox oils. However, SOME oil shearing does occur on waterfall, these bikes.

If you are going on texchem penang, longer rides, say over 40 miles in Olympics Nazi's Persecution to World War 2 mild weather, and most of your riding is on such longer rides, and seldom quite short ones, you can likely SAFELY EXTEND oil changes. In some instances even two years and 10,000 miles, but this would be about the LIMIT, under very best conditions, and would be for a Motorcycle specific, High Quality, FULL synthetic oil. Penang! For a high quality part-synthetic, such as Golden Spectro 4 in 20W50 or 10W40 grades, I advise changing oil at not over 1 year and no-no boy, 5000 miles, but SOME riders might be able to go a bit longer and to texchem, 8000. Models For Writers Essays For Composition! See article 51B. Multiweight (multi-grade) oils are now vastly better than old-time single weight oils, for a variety of texchem penang, reasons. No-no Boy! Multiweight oils are typically manufactured using pour-point depressants to THIN the base oil . Texchem! so it flows and pumps easily when cold. They also add viscosity improvers to of vietnam, thicken the texchem, oil at higher temperatures. There are limits to this sort of thing, and it is tricky to make a quality oil that covers the SAE range of 10W50, and even 10W40, for of iv DINO oils . and easier to do this type of texchem, oil compounding with part-synthetics or full-synthetics . which, naturally, cost more. Complications Of Iv! Even back as little as.

1990, to get a good 10W40 oil was difficult (the standard was 10W30 for cars); today we have SOME 10W50 oils that are fairly good. NOTE that turbocharged cars often have very strict requirements for oil change intervals, and texchem penang, type of oils. Think about this . ask yourself WHY! Do you now see why the use of proper oil and change interval for an AIRHEAD, is important? Very Specific Oil Recommendations . COMMENTS . For AIRHEADS:

General notes for complications of iv the above section: Do NOT use cheap energy saving (so marked, and probably have starburst symbol) car oils in your motorcycle, particularly NOT in Airheads. You CAN use them in texchem an emergency. ***Fully synthetic oils may not allow your Airhead lifters (cam followers) to properly rotate!! I have NO direct experience! But, this bit of esoterica is ONE of the three reasons I have NOT fully recommended full-synthetic oils for Airheads, unless conditions warrant. Lessons Of Vietnam! I believe the texchem, oils I have recommended, above, are OK in complications of iv this regard.

Classic K bike engine oil recommendations: This applies to K1, K75, K100, K1100, K1200. Use BMW premium oil filters in texchem penang your Airhead. Use the two-part hinged filter if you can. The K bike can safely use all sorts of filters, I use BMW branded ones, you don't have to on the K bikes. The K bike filter is The Effect of the Nazi's Persecution and the Road to World, upside down, so there is no need for a drain-back valve in its filter. NOTE: I do NOT like ANY FRAM oil filters. YES, there IS a reason to also NOT use K N AIR filters! ZINC. ZDDP.

ZDTP; 'special' break-in oils, etc. expanded section. Just what really is ZDDP. ETC. Yes, it is true, that that ZDDP has excellent anti-scuff properties. It was considerably later than ZDDP's introduction that it came into texchem wide use for anti-scuffing. Therapy! In the 1960s, high performance flat-tappet camshafts were common. It was found that a zinc level of texchem penang, 0.07% was very helpful.

Back in the 1960s, all new camshafts were generally phosphate-coated, and together with the ZDDP in estates satire the engine oil, the brand-new camshafts and lifters were protected from penang, premature wear, particularly during the critical break-in period. As engines became more powerful, and pressures on parts increased, the level of zinc was increased to 0.09%. Models For Writers Essays For Composition! Oils changed too, becoming much more complex, and texchem, additives for models for writers essays friction modifications, antioxidants, detergents, etc., became common and penang, more sophisticated. Fuel economy began to be of some concern, and the zinc content was continually increased, with premium and super-premium oils commonly having as much as 0.2% . into the 1980s and 1990s. ZDDP or ZDTP is also helpful for K bike engines, but particularly the very earliest ones, which had some places with different metallurgy, such as different cam characteristics, etc. FEW know about that, for the K100.

ZDDP protects valve tips and pushrod tips. Anyplace where galling and scuffing problems can exist, ZDDP is of vietnam, usually quite beneficial. However, excessive amounts of ZDDP are not a good thing for such as a water-cooled BMW K bike engine, and all the Airheads. It is not zinc, but phosphorus content that is the texchem penang, biggest item of importance in ZDDP, as far as wear goes. The SAE has published a well-known chart (to for engineers) on the effect of lessons of vietnam, differing loads versus phosphorus levels (there are other charts, zinc, etc. . not important right here). Most of these types of charts (there are a lot of penang, them) are presented as lifter loads, in pounds, versus ZDDP or Phosphorus, and the criteria is scuffing of parts. What is interesting about the charts is that the curve is NOT linear, particularly so at LOWER concentrations of phosphorus.

At lower loadings, only waterfall models a concentration of maybe 0.03% is needed. At higher loadings. Texchem! which occurs with high lift cams or high pressures or both (easier to think of high performance engines) . concentrations of 0.08% are needed. What is needed means that MORE than that amount is required, due to burn-off of the additives, and for a safety factor. Additives cost more than the oil stock does. You can read into THAT quite a lot! You can also think about the fact that it takes ZINC to establish the estates satire, proper glass layer from the phosphorus (Phosphates), and ZINC is bad for cat converters . so oil mfrs make compromises, that are not necessarily good for texchem your Airhead bike!

ZDDP amounts have been reduced every now and then in car engine oils, now ZDDP is short for composition, almost completely eliminated. That is because the texchem penang, additive contaminated the $$$ catalytic converters. At the early stages of reductions, phosphorus limits were lowered to lessons, 0.10%, and zinc levels were dropped also . but quite long ago. Texchem! In 2004 came the so-called Tier 2 emissions standards, and OEM warranties changed to 10 years or 100K miles, and phosphorus dropped again, to 0.08% . and zinc went down to 0.09%. The levels are much lower now . or, gone.

There is no question that, for newer generation car engines, modern oils are all that is needed. These oils and estates satire, the more precise automated machining and improved metallurgy, various alloys, improved cooling, etc., are a big part of texchem penang, why car engines can last 250K+ miles these days. 1936 Olympics On The Road To World! It is also the reason that high mileages can be obtained on the Classic K bike engines, which contain a lot of the newer technologies. Establishing protective layers or very hard layers, on cams and followers, is texchem, dealt with by waterfall models many small changes in modern engines. The result allows break-in of the cam and followers and other parts, when brand-new, without needing ZDDP. For most Airhead owners, that is hardly the problem, since their engine's parts were long-ago broken in, hopefully on ZDDP oils. BUT, the zinc (and phosphorus) are needed continuously in penang Airheads; and if the cam, etc. , was NOT heat treated well-enough, or perhaps not broken in on a proper oil . deterioration will begin, sometimes rapidly, when using the wrong oil. I have PERSONALLY witnessed oil failures in this area of the models essays for composition, Airhead engines.

High valve spring loads compound problems. In a nutshell, EPA regulations, SAE and engine makers and car makers have all 'conspired' against the type of oil YOU NEED for texchem your Airhead. Luckily such oils are still available. There is some information on oils, with the heading title of Information on acceptable engine oils: in this linked article: I suggest you either stop here read just that section in of iv therapy that article then resume here, or make a note to read it after finishing this article, below. Some, particularly in texchem racing or maybe just overly nerdy street vehicle owners who own old vehicles, may use a dedicated break-in oil with a ZDDP additive; they may also have used a coating on the cam, etc., during assembly, for extra protection at estates satire, first start-up. I have been asked about this subject, so thought I would put the asked-for information here. A non-detergent break-in oil could be a straight 30W or a 10W30, you could add a ZDDP additive. You do not have to penang, do that. Do you need, or should you use, these above super-special oils: Probably NOT. 800 or 900 is not nearly enough.

Transmission, driveshaft, rear drive oils: There is estates satire, ONE BRONZE, not brass, shim in the rear drives in penang the Airheads. BMW specified a GL5 oil. BMW knew what is lessons of vietnam, correct, and I agree. GL5 NOT GL4! in ALL AIRHEADS. 800 cc total oil). If you have problems shifting, try it for a thousand miles or so, see if it helps.

If not, you have other problems. It may increase the lifetime for the bearings, etc. Texchem Penang! ABSOLUTELY DO NOT use the Dow M product with synthetic oils, and DO NOT increase the dose! For the rear drive, you can use about 2%. Here is a link to an article about oils, especially for motorcycles, and estates satire, it has some different, and interesting, viewpoints. It's a bit long, but worth the texchem penang, read, and you may well like the method of presenting the information. To all of you out lessons, there reading this hugely long article: It is all YOUR choice. I have only tried to penang, inform. Believe what you want. You will do that anyway. 01/25/2007: slight revisions and editing for clarity.

Remove poor formatting. 01/22/2008: edit slightly for clarity. 07/12/2008: minor clarifications. 07/14/2008: more clarifications. 02/27/2009: Added addendum #1, make minor corrections otherwise, in waterfall models line with changes by penang SAE, etc. 03/09/2009: Final release, includes some changes in no-no boy line with the latest oils available. 11/16/2009: Add last section.

01/21/2010: minor updates and clarifications; add script to code. 04/21/2010: Add to section on ZDDP. 06/18/2010: Updated airhead oil recommendations to include caveat on Mobil 1 V-Twin oil; changed the commentary slightly for the Spectro GS4 20W50. 09/01/2010: added hyperlink to SAE article. 11/12/2010: slight updating, mostly for penang clarity and poor grammar. 11/18/2010: add ppm of no-no boy, zinc for 4T oil. 02/24/2011: was 52C. 04/10/2011: Fix K N article internal hyperlink and clean up entire article SOME. 08/03/2012: Get much deeper into synthetics, etc. 10/12/2012: revise layout; add QR code; add language code; update Google Ad-Sense code; update article contents; language button removed later on.

11/05/2013: Clean up article. still is messy. clarify a few details. 03/03/2014: Revise article for penang clarity; add Ph and Z info on Delo, etc. 07/16/2014: Minor additions, no revisions. 09/03/2014: Clarify some areas; do a further cleanup on 09/07/2014 finish on The Effect 1936 Nazi's of the Jews Road, 09/24/2014. 12/26/2014: Add lengthy note near top about modern car engines needed oils filters. Eliminate some font sizes, add minor notes corrections. 04/03/2015: Add simplified section. 05/01/2015: Update article. 03/10/2016: Update layout, eliminate duplications, update metacodes, format, clarify details. 09/25/2016: Update scripts, html, metacodes, slight changes in layout/fonts/etc. Improve details in section on transmission, rear drive, driveshaft oils.

05/31/2017: Reduce colors and fonts, minor text changes for clarity. Slight updates on zddp amounts per penang latest mfr information and estates satire, testing.

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Essay: The Arab Uprisings and Their Global Repercussions. by Arch Puddington. The political uprisings that swept across the Arab world over the past year represent the most significant challenge to authoritarian rule since the collapse of Soviet communism. In a region that had seemed immune to democratic change, coalitions of activist reformers and texchem ordinary citizens succeeded in short, removing dictators who had spent decades entrenching themselves in power. In some cases, protest and upheaval was followed by penang, the beginnings of democratic institution building.

At years end, two countries with unbroken histories of models fraudulent polling, Tunisia and Egypt, had conducted elections that observers deemed competitive and credible, and freedom of expression had gained momentum in many Middle Eastern societies. Unfortunately, the gains that were recorded in Tunisia, and to penang a considerably lesser extent in Egypt and Libya, were offset by more dubious trends elsewhere in the region. Lessons? Indeed, the overthrow of autocrats in these countries provoked determined and often violent responses in many others, most notably in Syria, where by years end the Assad dictatorship had killed over 5,000 people in texchem, its efforts to crush widespread antigovernment protests. Similar if less bloody crackdowns took place in Bahrain and for writers essays for composition Yemen. This pattern of texchem protest and repressionwith an lessons, emphasis on the latterwas echoed elsewhere in the world as news of the Arab uprisings spread beyond the Middle East and North Africa. In China, the authorities responded to events in texchem, Cairos Tahrir Square with a near-hysterical campaign of arrests, incommunicado detentions, press censorship, and stepped-up control over the internet.

The Chinese Communist Partys pushback, which aimed to quash potential prodemocracy demonstrations before they even emerged, reached a crescendo in no-no boy, December with the sentencing of a number of texchem dissident writers to long terms in prison. In Russia, the state-controlled media bombarded domestic audiences with predictions of The Effect of the 1936 on the of the Jews Road chaos and texchem penang instability as a consequence of the Arab protests, with a clear message that demands for political reform in Russia would have similarly catastrophic results. For Writers For Composition? In other Eurasian countries and in parts of penang Africa, the authorities went to considerable lengths to suppress demonstrations and isolate the democratic opposition. The authoritarian response to change in the Middle East had a significant impact on the state of lessons of vietnam global freedom at texchem penang, years end. The findings of Freedom in the World 2012 , the lessons, latest edition of Freedom Houses annual report on political rights and penang civil liberties, showed that slightly more countries registered declines than exhibited gains over the course of complications of iv therapy 2011. This marks the sixth consecutive year in which countries with declines outnumbered those with improvements.

The continued pattern of global backslidingespecially in such critical areas as press freedom, the rule of law, and the rights of civil societyis a sobering reminder that the texchem, institutions that anchor democratic governance cannot be achieved by estates satire, protests alone. Yet if there is an overarching message for texchem penang, the year, it is one of hope and not of reversal. For the first time in estates satire, some years, governments and rulers who mistreated their people were on the defensive. This represents a welcome change from the dominant trends of just a year ago, when authoritarian powers repressed domestic critics and dismissed mild objections from the democratic world with brazen contempt. In 2010, China conducted a bullying campaign against texchem, the Nobel committee for honoring jailed dissident Liu Xiaobo, Russia imposed a second prison term on The Effect Berlin Nazi's of the Jews and the to World former oil magnate Mikhail Khodorkovsky after a fraudulent judicial proceeding, and Egyptian president Hosni Mubaraks National Democratic Party claimed to have won heavily rigged parliamentary elections with well over 80 percent of the seats. In 2011, by contrast, the signal events were the texchem penang, overthrow of Mubarak, Tunisias Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali, and Libyas Muammar al-Qadhafi; successful elections in Tunisia; and democratic ferment throughout the Arab world.

Meanwhile, Chinas perpetual campaign of repression, directed at writers, lawyers, journalists, religious believers, ethnic minorities, and ordinary citizens who had spoken out against injustice and state abuses, seemed only to show the staggering fears and weaknesses of no-no boy a regime that otherwise presents the image of a confident, globally integrated economic powerhouse. And in Russia, Vladimir Putin faced his first serious political crisis, as election fraud and the prospect of 12 more years without new leadership drew tens of thousands of protesters to texchem the streets. Whether the events of 2011 will lead to a true wave of complications of iv therapy democratic revolution is uncertain. Tunisia was clearly the greatest beneficiary of the years changes. Texchem Penang? It experienced one of the largest single-year improvements in the history of the Freedom in the World report, rising from among the of the 1936 Olympics Nazi's Persecution of the War 2, worst-performing Middle Eastern countries to achieve electoral democracy status and scores that place it roughly alongside such Partly Free countries as Colombia and Philippines. But much remains to be done, and there are some questions about the positions of the new leaders on such crucial issues as minority rights, freedom of texchem penang belief, and no-no boy freedom of expression. Egypt also made significant gains, but they have been overshadowed in many respects by the continued political dominance of the texchem, military, its hostility toward media critics, its campaign against models essays for composition, human rights organizations, and its humiliating treatment of female protesters. In many other Arab countries, democracy movements have yet to reach even the texchem penang, initial milestone of forcing the resignation of their longtime rulers. The perceived success or failure of these efforts will either continue to of iv inspire similar changes in texchem penang, the rest of the world, or bolster authoritarian calls for stability at any price.

The number of countries exhibiting gains for the past year, 12, lagged somewhat behind the number with declines, 26. The most noteworthy gains were in the Middle Eastin Tunisia, Egypt, and Libyaand in three Asian countriesBurma, Singapore, and Thailand. It should be noted that despite their gains, Burma, Egypt, and Libya remained in the Not Free category. Moreover, while the Middle East experienced the most significant improvements, it also registered the most declines, with a list of worsening countries that includes Bahrain, Iran, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Declines were also noted in short essays for composition, a number of countries in Central and Eastern Europe and Eurasia, including Albania, Azerbaijan, Hungary, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine.

Glimmers of Hope for texchem, the Most Repressed: Burma, which has ranked alongside North Korea as one of the worlds most closed societies, experienced what many hope will become a major political opening. The government of President Thein Sein has permitted more public discussion, tolerated a measure of press commentary, freed longtime opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi, and cleared the path for her partys participation in elections. Another country that endured decades of estates satire brutal misrule, Libya, now has the potential for significant gains thanks to texchem penang the overthrow of al-Qadhafi. Cuba, also one of the worlds most repressive countries, experienced a small improvement linked to the limited reduction of no-no boy economic restrictions by the government of Raul Castro. Unlike in Burma, however, Cuba underwent no political liberalization. (Some) Good News in Asia: In a region whose dominant power, China, maintains the worlds most sophisticated and texchem penang comprehensive system of authoritarian political control, the recent trend has been largely positive.

Aside from the improvements in Burma, the past year was notable for more open and competitive elections in Singapore, whose unique variant of no-no boy guided democracy has been in place for several decades. In fact, for the countries of Asia proper, practically every indicator measured by Freedom in the World improved to some degree. Sectarian Strife in the Middle East: The intensified violence between Sunni and Shiite Muslims in Iraq as U.S. forces completed their withdrawal touched on a broader threat posed by sectarianism to democracys future in the region. Differences among various strains of texchem Islam complicated the crackdown on waterfall mainly Shiite protesters in Bahrain, and played a role in the crisis in Syria, principally propelled by penang, President Bashar al-Assads desperate efforts to remain in lessons, power. Penang? Sunni-Shiite rivalry also presents a serious threat to political stability in of the Jews and the Road to World, Lebanon, while in Egypt, anti-Christian sentiment flared into violence during the year, with notable help from the military. Long-Term Setbacks in Energy-Rich Eurasia: The past year featured the continuation of a decade-long trend of setbacks for the wealthiest and texchem most modern former Soviet countries: Russia, Kazakhstan, and Azerbaijan.

The level of The Effect of the 1936 on the Persecution of the and the Road to World War 2 freedom fell further despite rising popular demands for reform and warning signs from the Middle East. Indeed, beginning with the color revolutions of 2003 to 05, authoritarians in Eurasia have consistently responded to texchem penang freedom movements outside their borders with intensified clampdowns at home. Year-end protests in models essays for composition, Moscow and violent labor unrest in penang, Kazakhstan should remind the world that repression does not in models essays, fact lead to stability. Danger Signs for New Democracies: Until recently, Ukraine, Hungary, South Africa, and Turkey were regarded as important success stories for democratic development. Now, increasingly, the democratic credentials of each is coming under question. The steepest decline in the institutions of freedom has taken place in Ukraine, where a series of texchem penang negative developments was punctuated by the conviction of opposition leader Yuliya Tymoshenko on models for writers short essays dubious charges. In the past two years, Ukraine has moved from texchem, a status of Free to Partly Free and no-no boy suffered deterioration on most indicators measured by Freedom House. Developments in texchem, Turkey are also worrying, given the countrys role as a model for democracy in lessons, Muslim-majority countries and its aspirations to regional leadership.

While the government of Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan has instituted important reforms since coming to power, stepped-up arrests of advocates for Kurdish rights and the continued pursuit of the wide-ranging and politically fraught Ergenekon conspiracy case, which has led to lengthy detentions without charge, are both causes for concern. In Hungary, the government of Prime Minister Viktor Orban, taking advantage of penang a parliamentary supermajority, has pushed through a new constitution and of iv a raft of laws that could seriously weaken press freedom, judicial independence, and a fair election process. And in South Africa, new media regulations and evidence of pervasive corruption within the texchem penang, African National Congress leadership threaten to estates satire undermine the texchem, countrys past achievements in peaceful democratic change. The number of countries designated by Freedom in waterfall, the World as Free in texchem, 2011 stood at 87, representing 45 percent of the worlds 195 polities and 3,016,566,100 people43 percent of the of vietnam, global population. The number of Free countries did not change from the previous years survey. The number of countries qualifying as Partly Free stood at 60, or 31 percent of all countries assessed by the survey, and texchem penang they were home to 1,497,442,500 people, or 22 percent of the worlds total. The number of Partly Free countries did not change from the previous year. A total of 48 countries were deemed Not Free, representing 24 percent of the estates satire, worlds polities. The number of people living under Not Free conditions stood at 2,453,231,500, or 35 percent of the global population, though it is important to texchem note that more than half of this number lives in just one country: China. The number of Not Free countries increased by The Effect of the 1936 Persecution of the, one from 2010 due to the inclusion for penang, the first time of South Sudan, a new state that was given a Not Free designation.

The number of electoral democracies increased by of the 1936 Olympics on the of the Jews and the Road, two and stands at 117. Three countries achieved electoral democracy status due to texchem penang elections that were widely regarded as improvements: Niger, Thailand, and Tunisia. One country, Nicaragua, was dropped from the electoral democracy roster. One country moved from Not Free to Partly Free: Tunisia. One country, The Gambia, dropped from Partly Free to The Effect of the Persecution and the to World Not Free. Middle East and North Africa: The Arab Springs Ambiguous Achievements. Even in a region that was notorious for its leaders disdain for honest government and civil liberties, Tunisia had long stood out for the thoroughness of its system of control and oppression. Its longtime strongman, Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali, had seemingly smothered all significant sources of opposition. Dissenters had been jailed or exiled, press censorship was scrupulously enforced, and the judiciary was under strict political control.

This country seemed a highly unlikely setting for a democratic revolution. Yet it is Tunisia that has emerged as the most dramatic success story thus far in the series of popular uprisings that took place across the Arab world during 2011. It has been transformed from texchem, a showcase for Arab autocracy to an electoral democracy whose new leaders have pledged themselves to moderation, adherence to civil liberties, and the rule of law. Models For Writers Short? The press is critical and penang vibrant; there are practically no taboo subjects. Lessons? Civil society has proliferated, and elements within the new leadership appear committed to tackling the problem of pervasive corruption, though achieving such deep institutional reforms will likely require many years of effort. Some gains were also made in Egypt and Libya, but in both of these societies, the future prospects for democratic reform are still very much in doubt. In Egypt, governing authority shifted from the Mubarak regime to the Supreme Council of the penang, Armed Forces (SCAF), a group of military leaders who have dispensed justice through military tribunals, engaged in periodic crackdowns on critical media, raided the offices of civil society organizations, mistreated women activists, and engaged in violence against Christians. While a protracted election process, still under way at years end, was conducted with an adherence to fair practices that stood in vivid contrast to the sham polls of the Mubarak regime, the dominant forces in the new parliament will be Islamist parties whose devotion to democracy is open to question. And while Libya has benefited greatly from the demise of the Qadhafi dictatorship, the The Effect Berlin Olympics on the Nazi's Persecution Jews Road War 2, country confronts an array of daunting political and security challenges, and penang has yet to hold its first elections. In other regional countries, demands for freedom have been met with stepped-up repression. In the lessons, worst case, Syrian leader Bashar al-Assad responded to texchem widespread peaceful protests with a campaign of arrests, torture, and urban fusillades that took the lives of an estimated 5,000 Syrians by years end.

In Bahrain, a prodemocracy movement consisting principally of members of the Shiite majority encountered violent repression by the monarchy and intervention by no-no boy, the Saudi military. The governments tactics included mass arrests, torture, and the use of military justice in cases of political activists. In Yemen, security forces loyal to President Ali Abdullah Saleh killed hundreds of texchem civilians as Saleh repeatedly slipped out of agreements on a transfer of power. The authorities in Saudi Arabia intensified their persecution of Shiites and other Muslim sects, while Iran escalated its persecution of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and civic leaders who were critical of regime actions. Lebanon suffered a decline in civil liberties due to the violent treatment of protesters and punitive measures against those demanding regime change in neighboring Syria. The United Arab Emirates also experienced a civil liberties decline after the government tightened restrictions on free speech and civil society and arrested those calling for political change. Israels relations with Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and with other countries in the region, worsened as the years tumult raised expectations and no-no boy shook old assumptions. Israel also faced condemnation for texchem penang, a series of measures that were either introduced in the Knesset or signed into law and were seen by critics as threats to freedom of speech. One measure that was enacted called for punishment of of iv those who support boycotts against Israel or its institutions, including universities and businesses located in West Bank settlements. Asia-Pacific: Important Gains, Despite China and Conflict. Over the past five years, the Asia-Pacific region has been the only one to record steady gains in the majority of indicators that are measured by Freedom in the World . Progress is texchem penang, especially noteworthy in estates satire, the countries of Asia proper, excluding the small Pacific island nations.

The most impressive gains have come in the institutions of electoral democracyelections, political parties, pluralismand in freedom of association. The embrace of free institutions has taken place in the face of significant regional obstacles, including, most notably, the influence of China. In recent years China has accelerated its efforts to texchem project its power beyond its borders, and its Asian neighbors have been important targets of this effort. Despite several incidents in which critics of the Chinese government and The Effect Berlin Jews War 2 exiled Chinese minorities encountered repression in Nepal, Indonesia, and Vietnam, the texchem, allure of the so-called China modelcombining state-led economic growth, a Leninist one-party political system, and strict control over the mediahas gained only modest traction in the region. Meanwhile, the Chinese leadership has demonstrated no serious interest in The Effect 1936 Olympics Persecution of the Jews to World, political liberalization at home, and has devoted impressive resources to texchem penang internet censorship, the suppression of minorities, and the elimination of even oblique political dissent. In 2011, the authorities carried out The Effect 1936 Berlin Jews Road, a major campaign of repression in the wake of the texchem penang, Arab uprisings by censoring public discussion of the estates satire, movement for Arab democratization, prosecuting or arbitrarily detaining scores of social-media commentators and human rights lawyers, and strengthening the online censorship of domestic social-networking services. Another regional challenge is the explosion of civil and sectarian strife in South Asia. In Afghanistan, violence continued unabated in 2011, with high-profile political assassinations and high civilian casualty rates. In Pakistan, there was growing discord over enforcement of the texchem penang, countrys blasphemy laws, punctuated by waterfall models, the murders of Punjab governor Salmaan Taseer and Shahbaz Bhatti, the minister for texchem, minority affairs, both of whom had criticized the blasphemy statutes. Bangladesh also suffered a decline due to estates satire the ruling Awami Leagues prosecution of opposition politicians and efforts to texchem penang muzzle NGOs. On the of iv, other hand, India, the worlds largest democracy, showed increased room for peaceful demonstrations, particularly with the rise of an anticorruption movement that brought tens of thousands of people to the streets.

Indian-administered Kashmir experienced a notable improvement in penang, the space for open public discussion amid growing use of social media and estates satire a drop in violence. The most significant gain occurred in Burma, which had endured decades of political repression under a military junta. Texchem? What observers interpreted as a major political opening was initiated during 2011. In a series of no-no boy steps toward a more liberal domestic environment, the leadership allowed opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi and penang her political party, the complications of iv, National League for Democracy, to register and compete in forthcoming by-elections, eased press censorship, and legalized political protest. At the texchem penang, same time, many cautioned that it was still unclear whether the changes in Burma were durable or simply cosmetic improvements by the regime. In Singapore, the system of managed democracy engineered by the former prime minister, Lee Kuan Yew, was loosened, and opposition candidates gained popular support in national elections, though the system ensured that this did not translate into significantly increased representation in the parliament. Conditions also improved in Thailand, whose deeply polarized political life had been dominated by riots and crippling demonstrations for several years. A July election led to a peaceful transfer of power to the opposition party and the installation as prime minister of Yingluck Shinawatra, the sister of controversial former prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra. Olympics Nazi's And The? However, there has been some backsliding on civil liberties since the end of November. Central and Eastern Europe and Eurasia: Stability and Stagnation.

The protests that roiled Moscow and other Russian cities in the wake of texchem penang deeply flawed December parliamentary elections were stark reminders that no authoritarian leadership, no matter how sophisticated its methods, is estates satire, immune to popular demands for change. While the immediate trigger for the mass demonstrations were widely circulated YouTube videos that suggested ballot-stuffing and other forms of election fraud, the protests also reflected displeasure with the earlier announcement that Prime Minister Vladimir Putin and President Dmitry Medvedev had forged an agreement to swap positions at the end of Medvedevs term in 2012. The two men had failed to fulfill long-standing promises to reform Russias corrupt, stagnant, and unresponsive government system, and the idea of Putins return for texchem, a third and possibly fourth presidential term helped drive ordinary Russians to the unprecedented demonstrations. There are many questions about the ability of the forces that led the postelection protests to influence future politics in Russia. But clearly Russia is not alone in waterfall, its vulnerability to popular discontent with authoritarian leadership. As the 20th anniversary of the Soviet Unions disintegration was marked at years end, most Eurasian countries were still subject to autocratic rule of one variant or another. Whereas prior to 2011 the president for life phenomenon was principally associated with the Middle East, it is today more likely to apply to the long-term leaders of the former Soviet Union. The authoritarian temptation poses a threat even in texchem penang, countries with recent histories of models essays free-wheeling democracy. Thus Ukraine suffered a major decline due to President Viktor Yanukovychs moves to penang crush the political opposition through a variety of antidemocratic tactics, including the prosecution of opposition political leader and former prime minister Yuliya Tymoshenko. Other color revolution countries also faced problems.

Kyrgyzstan, recovering from a 2010 revolt against an authoritarian president, held national elections that were judged to complications of iv therapy be relatively fair and competitive. Nevertheless, deep divisions lingered between the texchem, majority Kyrgyz and minority Uzbeks, and little progress was made in bringing to justice those responsible for anti-Uzbek violence in mid-2010. In Georgia, President Mikheil Saakashvili continued to face criticism for his apparent efforts to marginalize potential opposition figures. Meanwhile, in several cases, the regions most repressive regimes declined still further. In Azerbaijan, the government of of the Berlin Nazi's Road to World President Ilham Aliyev used force to break up demonstrations, jailed opposition activists, tried to neutralize the international press, and misused state power to evict citizens from their homes as part of texchem grandiose building schemes.

Kazakhstan suffered a decline due to the adoption of legislation that restricted religious belief. Of The Olympics On The Of The And The To World War 2? In December, conditions deteriorated further when the penang, regime used violence in of the 1936 Berlin Olympics to World War 2, an effort to put down labor protests by penang, oil workers. And in Belarus, the regime of no-no boy President Alyaksandr Lukashenka held scores of political prisoners and adopted a series of bizarre policiessuch as outlawing public clapping in unisonto prevent creative expressions of popular discontent over political repression and economic decline. For most of Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltics, by contrast, the year was notable for the ability of penang most countries to weather the European economic crisis without major damage to the basic institutions of democracy. At the of vietnam, same time, a number of countries in texchem penang, the region remained highly vulnerable to precarious economies, the of the Berlin on the Nazi's Jews and the to World War 2, merging of business and penang political interests, and waterfall corruption. Latvia, Bulgaria, Romania, and the Western Balkans could face problems as Europes economic woes persist. Hungary poses the most serious problem in Central Europe. The government of penang Viktor Orban has taken advantage of a two-thirds parliamentary majority to push through a new and problematic constitution without adequate input from the opposition, and a series of laws that are widely seen as threats to press freedom, judicial independence, and political pluralism. Albania experienced declines due to violence against demonstrators, flawed municipal elections, and the failure of the courts to deal effectively with major corruption cases.

On the positive side, Slovakia was credited for having adopted legislation designed to shield the press from of iv, political intimidation. The Balkans achieved mixed progress on the road to democratization and European Union (EU) accession. In July, Serbias government finally surrendered the last of the 161 suspected war criminals indicted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, including Ratko Mladic, a leading figure in the 1995 Srebrenica massacre who had evaded arrest for 16 years. Mladics extradition met with disapproval from over 50 percent of Serbias population, triggering sizeable protests. Nationalism in much of the Balkan region continues to undermine regional reconciliation efforts and complicate relations with the EU. Pressures on free media increased across the Balkans, particularly in Macedonia, where an opposition-oriented television station and several newspapers were harassed and texchem penang closed. Sub-Saharan Africa: Civil Society Under Pressure.

A decade ago, sub-Saharan Africa was notable for the steady if sometimes halting progress that its societies were making toward the establishment of democratic institutions. In recent years, however, that progress has first stalled and then been somewhat reversed. The year 2011 gave evidence of moderate decline, with particular problems in countries where members of the opposition and civil society made pleas for change in emulation of protests in the Arab world. Five of the 10 countries that registered the most significant declines in the Freedom in The Effect 1936 Berlin and the Road War 2, the World report over the two-year period from 2010 to 2011 were in Africa: The Gambia, Ethiopia, Burundi, Rwanda, and Djibouti. Likewise, over the five-year period from 2007 through 2011, Africa as a region has exhibited declines in each of the topical subcategories measured by texchem, Freedom in the World . Particularly substantial declines were recorded for rule of law and freedom of association. The Gambia experienced the most notable decline over of iv therapy, the past year. Its status moved from Partly Free to Not Free due to a presidential election that was judged neither free nor fair, and President Yahya Jammehs suppression ofthe political opposition, the media, and penang civil society in the run-up to the vote. Five other regional countries experienced declines for of vietnam, the year. Ethiopia continued a decade-long trend of growing authoritarianism, with the government of Prime Minister Meles Zenawi making increased use of antiterrorism laws against texchem penang, the political opposition and journalists. In Sudan, the administration of President Omar al-Bashir engaged in models for writers essays, stepped-up arrests of opposition leaders, banned a leading political party, used violent tactics against demonstrators, and persecuted the media. In Uganda, President Yoweri Museveni cracked down on texchem critical members of the press in a year.

that also featured flawed national elections, repressive tactics against protesters, and continued harassment of the gay community. Malawi witnessed pressure against journalists and lessons of vietnam violence against protesters as well as violations of penang academic freedom. Antigovernment protests were also met with repressive tactics in no-no boy, Djibouti, where the intimidation of penang opposition political parties was followed by the election of President Ismail Omar Guelleh to a third term in office. Two countries with recent histories of political upheaval registered gains. Conditions in Cote dIvoire improved somewhat after Alassane Ouattara assumed the presidency, ending months of civil strife associated with incumbent president Laurent Gbagbos refusal to surrender power despite his defeat in 2010 elections. No-no Boy? Gbagbo was later turned over to the International Criminal Court for prosecution. Niger experienced a major improvement in its political rights rating due to credible national and local elections that marked the end of penang more than a year of military rule. Americas: Continuity Despite Populist Threat.

Over the past decade, left-wing populist leaders have risen to power in a number of Latin American countries, causing some to estates satire predict that the authoritarian model established by Venezuelas President Hugo Chavez would come to dominate the penang, politics of the therapy, region. In fact, authoritarian populism has remained a minority phenomenon, as most societies have embraced the model of private-sector growth, social-welfare initiatives, and adherence to democratic standards established by leaders in Brazil, Chile, and penang Mexico. Nevertheless, events in 2011 demonstrated that quasi-authoritarian populism still stands as a threat to the regions political stability. In the most serious case, Nicaragua suffered a steep decline in political rights due to irregularities in advance of and during the complications, presidential election, which gave Sandinista leader Daniel Ortega another term in office. Likewise, Ecuador suffered a decline due to President Rafael Correas intensified campaign against media critics, the penang, governments use of state resources to influence the outcome of a referendum, and of the 1936 on the Nazi's of the Jews Road to World a restructuring of the judiciary that was in blatant violation of constitutional provisions. Chavez himself was preoccupied with medical treatment, mostly carried out under less-than-transparent conditions in Cuba, reportedly for prostate cancer. Chavez has announced that he will seek reelection in 2012, but the campaign promises to be more competitive than in the past due to the apparent unity of the opposition. Violent crime, much of it generated by texchem, drug-trafficking groups, continued to plague societies throughout the region, causing ripple effects in the political system and contributing to a growing trend toward the militarization of police work.

In Mexico, government institutions remained unable to protect ordinary citizens, journalists, and elected officials in many areas from organized crime. Mexican journalism in certain regions remains shackled by drug-gang intimidation, with some editors significantly altering coverage to avoid violent repercussions. In Venezuela, the waterfall, kidnapping for ransom of professional baseball catcher Wilson Ramos stood out as a vivid reminder of the violent criminality that more commonly affects the population at large. In Brazil, the governments efforts to bring down crime in the most troubled urban districts in advance of the 2014 World Cup soccer tournament have been met by determined resistance from organized gangs. In other developments, Guatemala registered an improvement in political rights due to progress made by an international commission set up to investigate impunity and corruption in the countrys institutions. Puerto Rico suffered a civil liberties decline stemming from reports of widespread police misconduct and brutality. Western Europe and North America: Economic Crisis, Protests, and Civil Liberties. In the face of the texchem, most serious economic crisis in the postwar period, the countries of Western Europe and North America maintained their traditionally high level of respect for democratic standards and civil liberties.

This was even the case in countries that were compelled to make major cuts to social-welfare provisions in of iv, response to high levels of indebtedness. Texchem? Throughout Europe, citizens mounted massive demonstrations to protest policies, often dictated by the EU and the International Monetary Fund, that called for fiscal austerity and the removal of various protections for many workers and industries. By and large, the demonstrations were peaceful and the police response nonviolent. The exception was Greece, where anarchists frequently set fires and threw projectiles at The Effect Berlin of the to World, police, and the police responded with batons and tear gas. It is unlikely that Europes democratic standards will suffer serious setbacks in texchem penang, the wake of the complications, ongoing debt crisis. Nonetheless, the region does face major challenges. A number of European countries are already confronted by problems associated with the influx of immigrants from the Middle East, Asia, and Africa, and have shown little willingness to devise rational and humane policies toward their integration. Economic decline could well exacerbate polarization over texchem penang, immigration policy, as migrants seek refuge from upheavals in estates satire, the Arab world and unemployment levels in some European countries are at record levels.

Until recently a marginal phenomenon, the parties of the anti-immigrant right emerged as major forces in Denmark, Switzerland, Austria, France, Finland, and the Netherlands during the past decade, and they occasionally achieve voter support of over 20 percent. Many European countries have opted for policies that restrict future immigration and, in some instances, asylum applications. Texchem? A growing number have taken steps to curtail customs identified with Islam that much of the population finds offensive. In 2011, women in France and Belgium were arrested in cases related to the wearing of ultraconservative Muslim female attire. Also during the year, observers raised doubts about the estates satire, durability of the penang, current Turkish political model, in which a ruling party with moderate Islamist roots has committed itself to the norms of liberal democracy. While the Justice and Development Party (AKP) was credited with instituting important reforms during its early years in power, its recent behavior has triggered concern among supporters of press freedom and civil liberties.

In the past few years, thousands of people have been arrested on charges of involvement with Kurdish terrorist organizations or participation in an alleged military conspiracy to overthrow the government. Those detained include journalists, scholars, and The Effect of the Berlin Olympics Jews War 2 even defense lawyers. Britain was rocked first by a series of urban riots, which many felt were handled poorly by penang, the authorities, and then by a phone hacking case in which members of the tabloid press were accused of estates satire widespread abuse of privacy rights in pursuit of sensationalistic stories about celebrities and, most controversially, crime victims. At the same time, the coalition government of Conservatives and Liberal Democrats indicated that a law aimed at texchem, reforming the countrys punitive libel laws would be introduced in 2012. The measure is meant to deal with the phenomenon of libel tourism, in which foreign individuals use the plaintiff-friendly English courts to press libel suits against critical journalists and scholars. Complications? If adopted, the texchem penang, new law would place the lessons, burden of proof on the plaintiff rather than the defense in libel cases.

Press freedom advocates have described Britains current libel laws as a serious menace to intellectual inquiry and the robust exchange of ideas. The United States endured a year of deep political polarization and legislative gridlock. Despite the texchem, efforts of complications therapy a bipartisan commission and a select committee of penang lawmakers drawn equally from no-no boy, both major parties, the legislative branch and the White House were unable to reach agreement on penang a plan to reduce the federal deficit to manageable levels. Even as Congress and the president failed to agree on key economic measures, left-wing critics of the countrys wealth disparities and ties between politics and big business came together to launch the Occupy Wall Street movement. Beginning with an no-no boy, encampment near the financial district in New York City, the Occupy movement spread to cities across the country, with protesters camping out in parks or other public spaces for indefinite periods. Texchem? After several months, municipal authorities moved to 1936 Nazi's Jews Road to World War 2 evict the protesters, often through peaceful police actions but in penang, some cases using batons, tear gas, pepper spray, and arrests. Some observers voiced criticism of the police for estates satire, employing confrontational tactics and military-style equipment when dealing with protesters. In fulfillment of a pledge made during his election campaign, President Barack Obama revoked the policy known as dont ask, dont tell, under which military personnel were not asked about their sexual orientation, but openly gay and lesbian individuals were barred from military service.

In another step toward observance of homosexual rights, the state of New York legalized gay marriage through legislative action, joining a small number of other states that allow same-sex marriage or civil unions. Winning Freedom, Sustaining Democracy. As 2011 drew to a close, officials in Egypt made headlines by conducting a series of raids on NGOs that monitor human rights and promote democracy. Most of the targeted organizations were Egyptian; a few were international groups (Freedom House was one of the latter). Penang? The authorities were insistent that the raids, which included the seizure of files and lessons of vietnam computers, were legal and technical in nature. Government officials emphasized and reemphasized that they believed human rights organizations had a role to play in a democratic Egypt. Their actions indicated otherwise.

In fact, the behavior of the Egyptian authorities, now and under Mubarak, reflects a deep-seated hostility to NGOs that support democracy and human rights. This in turn points to a broader institutional continuity between the current Egyptian state and the old regime that will present major obstacles to democratic development in the coming months and texchem penang years, and similar dynamics may play out in other countries where authoritarian rule is being defied. There were many heroes, many casualties, and many martyrs to freedoms cause in 2011. There were also many extraordinary achievements. Authoritarians who aspired to rule in perpetuity were toppled in Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya, and autocratic heads of state in Yemen and Syria seem likely to no-no boy follow. But unlike in penang, communist Eastern Europe in 1989, todays oppressive leaders have for the most part refused to go quietly, without a fight. Some have adopted a rule or ruin strategy that threatens to condemn those who would supplant them to failure. Indeed, one of the no-no boy, great disappointments of the Arab Spring is that its principal lessonthat people will eventually rise up against texchem, despotism and injusticehas been almost universally rejected by the worlds authoritarian powers. Rather than responding to popular demands for freedom with, at minimum, a gradual plan of estates satire moderate reforms, despots in the Middle East and elsewhere have either tightened the screws or flatly excluded changes to the status quo.

China fell into the first category with its frenzied campaign against political dissent. So too did Bashar al-Assad in Syria, with his repudiation of talks with the opposition and a murderous campaign against peaceful protesters across the country. Russia was front and center in the status quo camp, with its imposed Putin-Medvedev leadership swap and shameless election-day violations. Clearly, constructing successful democratic states in the Middle East and elsewhere represents a far more formidable challenge than was the case in texchem, Europe after the Berlin Wall came down. Adding to the difficulty is the waterfall models, role of China and Russia, both major economic powers and permanent members of the UN Security Council whose political elites have a stake in the failure of new and aspiring democracies.

There is reason to believe that the influence of these two powers could become magnified in the near future. As the European debt crisis deepened in 2011, there were widespread reports that EU leaders were looking to Beijing for bailout assistance. Likewise, the Russian president traveled to several European capitals with a package of economic deals designed to help the beleaguered region in its time of need, with strings attached. Ultimately, China seems to have rejected serious involvement in Europes woes, and nothing of significance materialized from Medvedevs initiative. Penang? But the very fact that the worlds most successful league of democracies would countenance involving two of the worlds great authoritarian powers in its financial rescue is a chilling commentary on the current state of both the global economy and the democratic worlds political morality, not to mention its survival instincts.

What of the United States? Can it be relied on to stand as the international beacon of freedom given its present economic torpor and political gridlock? American politics have sent conflicting signals over the past year. The notion that it is time for America to lessons of vietnam shrug off its global commitments has been increasingly posited by foreign policy analysts and some political figures. Texchem? A prominent candidate for the Republican presidential nomination has put himself squarely in favor of backing away from the worlds problems, saying the United States should simply mind its own business. Leading figures from both major political parties criticized the Obama administration for its role in the NATO campaign that helped Libyan rebels overthrow the Qadhafi regime. On the estates satire, positive side, the Obama administration has evolved from its early discomfort with democracy as a foreign policy theme to a position where it episodically places its words, and in a few cases policy muscle, behind struggles for freedom abroad. Despite the unfortunate characterization that it was leading from texchem penang, behind, Americas firmness in assisting NATOs Libyan campaign was an models for writers short essays, important step. After initial hesitation, the administration has also cautiously supported the process of building democratic systems in Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya. Texchem Penang? At the same time, it has too often been hesitant in speaking out against antidemocratic backsliding, particularly in Egypt. President Obama himself has made several important statements about Americas commitment to democratic change around the world, but he has failed to invoke the authority of the White House on estates satire specific cases.

Instead it is Secretary of State Hillary Clinton who has publicly addressed violations of human rights in Russia, Hungary, and Turkey, and aligned the administration with the texchem penang, forces of change in Burma and elsewhere where prospects for freedoms growth have opened up. If the past year has demonstrated that courage and sacrifice are essential to the achievement of freedom, a somewhat different set of characteristics are required to 1936 Persecution build the democratic infrastructure that will ensure long-term observance of penang political rights and civil liberties. These characteristics include the self-confidence needed to accept the complexities, and occasionally irresponsibility, of no-no boy a free press; the fortitude to impose restrictions on oneself as well as on penang ones political opponents as part of the fight against corruption; and the perspicacity to accept that the judiciary, police, and other critical institutions must function without political interference. In far too many parts of the world, these qualities proved to be in short supply during 2011. Thus in addition to singling out the full-fledged authoritarians for models, special attention, it is. imperative to shine the spotlight on leaders who, having come to power through legitimate democratic means, have set about systematically undermining the aspects of freedom that they find inconvenient. Texchem Penang? The temptation to create a quasi-authoritarian regime, in which standards that reinforce the leaders authority are embraced and those that complicate his goals are dispensed with, can have disastrous consequences for democracies with shallow roots.

Prosecuting an opposition leader or closing a television station can be the first steps down a slippery slope, as witnessed in the careers of Vladimir Putin and 1936 Berlin Persecution of the and the Road to World Hugo Chavez, both of whom dragged seriously flawed political systems into new depths of texchem penang dysfunction and stagnation. Still, while the year 2010 ended on a pessimistic note, with authoritarianism seemingly on the march, the events of 2011 have presented more hopeful prospects. Unaccountable and oppressive rulers have been put on notice that their actions will not be tolerated forever. The year of Arab uprisings has reminded the world that ordinary people want freedom even in societies where such aspirations have been written off as futile. This is Nazi's Persecution Jews Road, a lesson to which the texchem penang, worlds leading democracies, especially the United States, should pay special heed. It should dispel free societies persistent doubts about the lessons of vietnam, strength and universal appeal of their institutions and values. The opportunities that have been opened up by brave people in Tunis and Cairo should prompt a reenergized democratic world to texchem address the twin challenges of how dictatorships can be overturned, and how stable and durable fellow democracies can be built in their place.

Eliza B. Young and Berlin Olympics on the Jews and the to World Tyler Roylance assisted in the preparation of texchem penang this report.