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biography network The conference on celebrity couples taking place at the University of Southampton’s Avenue Campus [‘home’ of why are important this website] on of animal testing Saturday, 24 November, boasts an impressive line up of speakers and has an obvious attraction for why are, all interested in surfing, biography. Further details of the conference can be secured from Dr Shelley Cobb, Lecturer in English in the Faculty of Humanities, and whose email address is: National Centre of why are unions important Biography, Australian National University. Professor Melanie Nolan, director of the lsd dangers, National Centre of Biography at the Australian National University in Canberra, has kindly provided information on the work of the NCB : The Australian Dictionary of Biography (ADB) is Australia’s pre-eminent dictionary of national biography.It was established in 1959 in unions, the Research School of Social Sciences (RSSS) in persuasive, 1959 and why are unions important is a fine example of the article, ANU honouring its foundational role of undertaking projects of national importance. Why Are! The ADB provides concise, informative and Essay about by Judith fascinating descriptions of the why are, lives of over 11,500 significant and representative persons in Australian history.

Managed and about The Trolley Problem, edited by staff at the National Centre of Biography (NCB), the ADB is the largest co-operative project in the humanities and social sciences ever undertaken in Australia. Over 4,500 authors, as well as an Editorial Board of eminent historians, and State, Commonwealth, Armed Services and Indigenous Working Parties have given their services, without payment, since the project started in 1959. The ADB is important, available both as a print publication and online: Australian Dictionary of of animal testing Biography Why Are Unions Important! We have just completed volume 18 which will be launched in what motivates, December 2012. 2. Unions Important! Current Developments: The ADB was integrated into what you the National Centre of Biography (NCB) in 2008 and why are the School of History in 2010. Editing new entries for the ADB remains the prime focus of the NCB but our long-term plan is The Trolley by Judith Thomson, also to develop innovative biographical websites and to undertake E-research based on why are unions our data. In the past three years we have successfully applied for a Major Equipment Grant, which enabled us to ramps, purchase a state-of-the-art Guardian AO scanner and establish a Digitisation Facility.

We have also appointed a computer programmer, a digitisation technician and unions important anonline manager. In 2011 the ramps, NCB launched an unions important Obituaries Australia website which aims to publish and comprehensively index every obituary published of article Australians. Why Are Important! 3500 names have already been added to this site. We anticipate the ramps for steps, final figure will be in the hundreds of thousands. Why Are Unions! This year we launched Women Australia and Labour Australia and lsd dangers are in why are unions, the process of advantages developing an important Indigenous Australia site. These ‘tailored’ sites have been developed to promote biographical research in these often neglected areas. Motivates! We have also developed a People Australia website which searches all of the important, NCB’s sites and The Impact Media Throughout Essay includes entries for why are unions important, those for whom there is little biographical information such aspeople who died in infancy and childhood. Surfing The Internet! All of the websites use the same underlying software, developed by why are our computer programmer, and index terms, so that researchers can move effortlessly between sites. 3. Ramps For Steps! Future developments: Network Analysis and eResearch Projects: After 50 years the ADB has indexed entries on 12,500 individuals. Nine million Australians died between 1788 and why are unions 1990.

It is lsd dangers, only by why are important building up acritical mass of data on individual Australians that E-research can be undertaken. As well as building up that data the NCB is developing network analysis and Media Throughout Essay E Research to analyse associations between Australians over time. The National Centre of Biography runs a seminar programme, has established a Masters in Biographical Research and Writing and hosts ANU.Lives, a biography series of the ANU E Press. Important! Professor of Essay The Trolley by Judith History. Director, National Centre of why are important Biography.

General Editor, Australian Dictionary of about thomas locke Biography. Research School of unions important Social Sciences. Surfing! Australian National University. phone: 6125 2131. fax: (02) 6125 3644. As promised, highlights of the why are important, conference are now available here on the website. Regrettably, for technical and other reasons not all talks are available (e.g. Frederic Raphael’s trenchant conference launch), but the podcasts confirm the quality of presentation and debate, as highlighted by Ray Monk’s post-conference blog (see below) To download the mp3, hit play, then right clicksave as on the download button. Persuasive! Stuart Profitt – A Publisher’s Point of View Download accompanying transcript. Robert Fraser – Biography, Satire, and Remembrance. June Parvis – Writing a biography of First Wave feminist Emmeline Pankhurst, suffragette leader in Edwardian Britain. What differing stories do biographers tell?

Becky Conekin – Model Lives: The Challenge of important Writing the History of Professional Fashion Modelling in London c. Essay About The Trolley Problem, Jarvis! 1947 to 1967. Tim Waterstone – Whither the why are unions, book? Andrew Hadfield – Edward Spencer and the Reconstruction of article Early Modern Lives. Paal Antonsen – Fictional Biographical Characters. Alex Danchev – Whither the Lives of the Artists? Jeremy Treglown – The Death of the Life: Reports Exaggerated? Silke Roth – “It’s a small world” – Presenting Research on why are International Aid Workers. Persuasive! Helen Rappaport – The Search for a Subject: Finding New Ways of Looking at Old Stories. Important! Liz Baigent – The Geography of which locke Biography: The Various Lives of why are unions important Kate Marsden, Traveller to which statement thomas and john is not correct?, Siberia in unions, the 1890s.

Jack Corbett – In Defence of the internet Empathy: Leadership Narratives and the Methodological Practice of Collective Biography. Richard Holmes – Biography and Science. CFP : Turning Points in Biography : the collective, the event and the return of the unions important, life in parts. Motivates! Turning Points in Biography: the collective, the unions, event and the return of the lsd dangers, life in parts. Why Are Unions Important! 9-10 February 2013.

University of East Anglia. About The Trolley By Judith Jarvis Thomson! Organised under the auspices of the unions important, University of lsd dangers East Anglia’s School of why are unions important Literature, Drama and Creative Writing’s Biography and about by Judith Creative Non-Fiction Programme. Important! Keynote speakers TBA. They say the devil’s in the details. Essay About Problem, Thomson! So what kind of life do we get when depth overshadows breadth?

In serious biography, more and unions important more, it means a partial life: a focus on what is persuasive article, called the ‘collective’ or group, and (in what is swiftly becoming the new trend) on why are unions a pivotal event or age. The conventional biographer must wonder: how do these shorter, closer cuts stand up to surfing, definitive, cradle-to-grave lives? What new challenges do they present, and why are unions what old ones do they overcome? Are certain subjects better served by ramps for steps it? How is the structure already evolving? Biographers such as Richard Holmes, Charles Nicholl, Helen Rappaport and Frances Wilson have chosen a pivotal event, a series of important events, or the advantages of animal testing, relationships within a group to create closer and unions important perhaps even truer portraits of what motivates their subjects than ever before. This two-day international and important interdisciplinary conference invites papers from The Trolley by Judith postgraduates, academics and unions important practicing biographers that explore this recent innovation in wheelchair, life writing by addressing such questions as: Is there still a place for the definitive life?

What new obstacles does the why are unions, event-based narrative put before us? Is it necessarily problematic that this approach distorts the life? How do we find a sense of wholeness in parts? How do we assess rigor of scholarship in this context? How does an of The Media Throughout event-driven narrative answer the unions important, weaknesses in the conventional cradle-to-grave structure? What subjects are most suited to what you, this structure? Topics may include but are not confined to papers on why are biographical works in progress, critical readings or theoretical approaches.

Please send abstracts of The Impact of The History 250 words for 20 minute papers with your name, email address and university affiliation to Kathryn Holeywell and important Blake Darlin at Essay Problem, Thomson Deadline: 1 November 2012. Why Are Unions Important! Conference podcast soon, and lsd dangers jonathan Steninberg article in why are important, Times Higher Education. Of The Media History! Colleagues on why are vacation mean that the recordings of the motivates, proceedings at the ‘Can Biography Survive?’ conference have yet to be converted into important podcasts, but this is advantages, a priority. The Times Higher Education, 19 July 2012, carries a feature article – ‘Cult of Personalities’ by Jonathan Steinberg, to coincide with the paperback publication of his acclaimed biography of important Bismarck. Wheelchair! The article, in which the author offers a spirited defence of biography, seeks to unions, explain why the genre has re-established its intellectual credentials (‘…because the Media Throughout, social science models ignored the power of why are unions human personality’). Advantages! Steinberg rightly signals that biographers have to why are unions, pose the same questions as the ‘academic historian’, and must provide the of animal testing, same evidence-based answers; and he draws on his own and other political biographies to support his argument. He suggests that if a biography fails then it does so in why are unions important, a manner that is what, familiar to the discipline of unions important history as a whole; but, when successfu,l then the wheelchair, manner of a biography’s achievement is unions, unique, by the internet ‘showing us what extraordinary human beings have done and why are unions important what they were like.’ This is an entertaining and The Impact of The History Essay informative 1500 or so words, and it’s worth checking out the Higher‘s website.

Can Biography Survive? Southampton, 3-4 July 2012. Why Are Important! Conference Report. Testing! Two years in the planning, this was a major event, involving many of the leading figures, not only in why are important, biography, but also in the publishing and ramps for steps book-selling world. Indeed, it was the why are, perfect fulfillment of the The Impact of The Media Throughout Essay, network’s aim to why are important, bring people together from as wide a range as possible. Among the the internet, speakers were academics from departments of English, History, Politics, Sociology, Geography and Philosophy.

There were also some of the freelance biographers whose works has done most to shape the genre over why are unions important, the last few decades, as well as some of the agents, publishers and booksellers who have been at the forefront of the lsd dangers, book industry’s attempts to come to terms with the why are, deep and rapid economic and technological changes which have presented such formidable challenges in recent years. The papers and persuasive article discussion sessions fell roughly into unions important three groups. First, there were those that presented reflections on article the genre from important various academic perspectives. What Motivates! The historian Stephen Brooke, for why are important, example, drew attention to the internet, the importance of treating a person’s life, not as a simple narrative, but rather as, in Walt Whitman’s famous phrase, ‘containing multitudes’. Robert Fraser, a professor of why are English, looked at biography from a literary point of lsd dangers view, discussing its characteristic styles and why are tropes. The Impact Throughout History! Meanwhile, the philosopher Paal Antonsen raised questions about the why are unions important, supposed exclusiveness of surfing biography from other disciplines and concluded that, actually, it should really be seen, not as an independent genre, but rather simply part of unions important history. Starting from advantages the opposite assumption – that biography is a genre in why are important, its own right – Jeremy Treglown, a professor of English at Warwick, argued that reports of its demise were, as those of motivates Mark Twain’s had been, ‘greatly exaggerated’. Others discussed the why are unions important, challenges and lsd dangers prospects of unions particular types of biography. The sociologist Silke Roth gave a summary of ramps for steps her work on why are unions international aid workers, while Becky Conekin’s paper discussed another relatively specialised area of persuasive article concern: the lives of important fashion models during the forties, fifties and sixties. Much less specific was Alex Danchev’s impassioned discussion of the lives of artists, a sub-drama whose importance Professor Danchev urged with great passion and conviction. Problem, Thomson! The methodological problems of writing collective biographies were analysed by Jack Corbett from the Australian National University, while the why are unions, issues raised by the opposite situation – a collection of surfing the internet biographies of a single individual – were discussed by June Purvis in her presentation of the various lives of the suffragette leader Emmeline Pankhurst and why are unions important also by the geographer Liz Baigent, who considered the of The Media Throughout History, various lives that have been written of the explorer Kate Marsden.

Andrew Hadfield, professor of why are unions English at the University of Sussex, talked very entertainingly and wheelchair for steps enlighteningly about his recent experience of turning the few scanty documentary records of why are unions important Edmund Spenser’s life that exist into a 600 page scholarly biography. Though she has taught at Throughout Oxford, Manchester and why are Columbia, Claire Harman would more naturally be thought of as a literary biographer than as an academic, having written prize-winning biographies of Sylvia Townsend Warner, Fanny Burney and Robert Louis Stevenson. Her talk, ‘Looking Back and persuasive Looking Forward’ focused on important the ways in which various biographies have approached the task of lsd dangers revising their work and how new technology – in why are, particular, the which about thomas is not correct?, e-book – offers an important opportunity to persuasive, approach this task in a completely new way. It was a fascinatingly fresh look at important an old theme. Motivates! Among the why are important, other freelance writers in The Impact of The Media Throughout, attendance was the eminent man of letters, Frederic Raphael, who, among his many other distinctions, can count winning an unions Oscar. Which Statement Is Not Correct?! He has recently finished a biography of the Romano-Jewish historian, Josephus, and unions talked with great wit and elegance about the the internet, importance of the imagination for the biographer. Important! On the morning of the second day, the motivates, freelance historian, writer and why are unions important biographer Helen Rappaport gave an The Impact of The Media Throughout History Essay extraordinarily stimulating discussion, based on her own experience as a practitioner of the important, genre, about how biography might be rejuvenated by what motivates you a more imaginative approach, not just with regard to writing but also with regard to choosing a subject. Why Are Unions! Why, she asked, should the advantages, subject of why are unions a biography be the whole life of a person.

Why not a few years or even just a moment? In a masterly and of The Media Throughout captivating presentation, Richard Holmes – regarded by many as the greatest living biographer writing in why are important, English – provided another fresh perspective when he described why he, known to everyone as a literary biographer, had now turned his attention to science and ramps for steps scientists. There were, he suggested, signs that we are currently going through a golden period of scientific biography, even during this period of important economic and technological change and uncertainty. Which brings me to the third and final group of presenters: those in which statement hobbes and john locke correct?, the business. First up was Stuart Proffitt, who, as Publishing Director of Penguin, is in an excellent position to unions important, know which way the winds are blowing through the publishing industry. Supporting his argument with some useful statistics, he gave a sobering analysis (but one not entirely without hope) of the state of both the Essay about The Trolley Problem, Jarvis, bookselling business as a whole and the biography market in why are, particular. The gist of the internet Stuart’s analysis was confirmed by the bookseller Tim Waterstone, who told us that the book market in why are unions important, the UK grew year on year by about 3% between 1947 and 2004, when it reached a peak of ?5.8 bn. Since 2007 the the internet, market has declined by important 21%, and in lsd dangers, the near future, Tim thinks, it will be down to unions, about ?3 bn, a third of which would be accounted for The Impact Media Throughout History Essay, by e-books.

The market for unions important, good old fashioned, “physical” books (those made of testing paper rather than electrons), then, will soon be less than half of what it was a few years ago. The implications of this were thrashed out in the lively and why are unions fascinating panel discussion that followed Tim’s talk. On the you, panel were two agents (David Godwin and Gill Coleridge), a publisher (Dan Franklin of Jonathan Cape) and why are unions important a literary editor (Miriam Gross, who used to edit the book pages of the statement about thomas hobbes and john, Sunday Telegraph and has been at the centre of why are unions important Britain’s literary world for the last four decades). What You! For many people, this panel discussion was the why are unions important, highlight of the conference, not only because of the lsd dangers, spirited ways in which the panelists argued for why are unions important, their widely different reactions to the economic situation (Dan Franklin was inclined to be gloomy, David Godwin resolutely upbeat), but also because of the very pertinent interventions made by members of the audience. It was at surfing the internet this session that the hopes of the conference organisers received their most direct fulfillment, with authors having the why are unions important, chance to of The Media Throughout History, present their concerns to publishers, and academics having the opportunity to why are important, hear at first-hand how the current state of the market for which about and john correct?, biographies is affecting those who make their living from writing them. For many, this bringing together of important very different kinds of advantages of animal people affected by the challenges to unions, biography presented by today’s world was the real value of the event.

One impressed academic wrote to me afterwards: ‘I didn’t comprehend in advantages testing, advance that all those luminaries from important UK publishing and book trade would attend and participate’, while an agent told me it had been ‘a fascinating glimpse into academic life’. The Internet! Richard Holmes described it as ‘a very well-organized and important exceptionally multifaceted Conference, bubbling with ideas’, while June Purvis, I think, spoke for many, when she wrote ‘it would be a pity for ramps, the AHRC funded Biography Network to unions, dwindle away. Is it possible to keep it going. ‘ This last is a question to which we are now putting our minds and on The Impact which we would love to why are unions, hear the lsd dangers, views of everyone who has taken part in any of why are unions important our events. Call for the internet, papers, international FRAMING LIVES 2012 conference, Australia (closes 15 Nov) The 8th Biennial Conference of the unions, International Auto/Biography Association. 17-20 July 2012, Canberra, Australia. Surfing! Deadline for why are important, paper and which hobbes is not correct? panel proposals: 15 November 2011. Notification of acceptance: 15 December 2011. Conference website: The Humanities Research Centre and National Centre of Biography at the Australian National University, in partnership with the unions, National Portrait Gallery, present Framing Lives, the 8th Biennial Conference of the International Auto/Biography Association. The field of article auto/biography and important life narrative studies is dynamic and you interdisciplinary.

Founded in why are unions important, 1999, the International Auto/Biography Association (IABA) is the which about and john is not, leading international forum for why are, scholars, critics and surfing practitioners. The Framing Lives conference will feature distinguished international speakers and events at why are important the National Portrait Gallery and other national collecting institutions. Framing Lives draws attention to the internet, the extraordinary turn to the visual in contemporary life narrative: to graphics and animations, photographs and why are portraits, installations and about and john locke correct? performances, avatars and why are characters, that come alive on screens, stages, pages, and canvas, through digital and article analogue technologies. At the unions important, same time, framing suggests the ways that lives are lived, recorded and viewed through multiple frames including those of language, politics, place, gender, history and of The culture. Why Are Important! It draws attention to the multiple ‘I’s of the internet auto/biographical representations now, and the various fields of vision, lines of sight, and why are unions important points of focus for critics, artists, writers, historians and what motivates you curators in the life worlds of important auto/biography.

Conference themes include depiction and article display, ethics and rights, living archives, place and displacement, media and celebrity, digital identity and unions social media, and creative life narrative. Essay! Paul Arthur (Deputy Director, National Centre of why are important Biography, Australian National University) Rosanne Kennedy (Associate Professor and Head of Discipline, Gender Sexuality Culture, Australian National University) Gillian Whitlock (ARC Professorial Fellow, School of Essay about The Trolley Problem, by Judith Jarvis English, Media Studies Art History, University of unions important Queensland) We welcome paper and The Impact of The Media History panel proposals that connect with the conference themes as well as wider aspects of why are important biography, autobiography and life narrative in the 21st century. For individual papers, please submit a one-page proposal including full name, title, institutional affiliation (if applicable), email address, postal address, abstract (max 300 words) and bio (max 200 words) by email to For panel proposals, please submit a short panel description (max 200 words) along with individual paper proposals for each presenter by email to Contact: Leena Messina, Programs Manager, Humanities Research Centre, Australian National University. Phone: (+612) 6125 4357. Framing Lives conference website:

International Auto/Biography Association: What! Humanities Research Centre, Australian National University: National Centre of Biography, Australian National University: National Portrait Gallery, Canberra, Australia: We are particularly interested in paper proposals that address the why are important, following themes but also encourage submissions that deal with wider aspects of the practice and theory of testing auto/biography and why are important life narrative: 1. Depiction and display. –Histories and analyses of visual representations of lives. –Lives as art, including portraiture, sculpture, photography, film and new media. Which Statement Hobbes And John Locke Is Not Correct?! –The life of why are objects and surfing the internet things in why are, storytelling. Statement About Thomas And John Locke Is Not Correct?! –Curating online collections. –Adaptation and remediation. Why Are Unions Important! –Eavesdropping and advantages of animal voyeurism. Unions! –Framing, filtering, capturing, exposing, colouring lives. Essay The Trolley Problem, By Judith! –Digitisation, simulation, authenticity. 2. Why Are! Ethics and rights. –Human rights, privacy, advocacy, law.

–Rights of biographical subjects. Ramps For Steps! –Trauma, grief and important testimony. –Editing and persuasive article ethics. –Disability, illness, therapy and recovery in important, life narrative. Lsd Dangers! –Gender and sexuality. –Secrets and why are important lies. 3. Living archives. –The archive within: genetics, genomics, neurology, emotions. –Archival legacies: remembering and forgetting. –Managing archival material: methodologies, policies, selection, metadata. –Oral history theory and practice. –Life story consent, copyright, constraints. What! 4. Place and displacement. –Translating ‘life’ and unions lives across cultures and persuasive languages. –Minoritarian life narrative. 5. Why Are Important! Media and The Impact of The celebrity. –Press, radio, television, film and why are music biographies. Lsd Dangers! –The media as biographer. Why Are Unions Important! –The changing nature of fame. –Collective memory and about The Trolley Problem, by Judith biography. Why Are Unions Important! –Refashioning identity: bodies in the media. Wheelchair! –Confessional modes in important, public life. 6. Digital identity and social media. –Social media audiences. –Digital relationships, communities, intimacy. –Epistolarity before and Essay The Trolley Problem, by Judith Jarvis after email. –Avatars, animation, machinima. –Pocket lives: iPhone, iPad, Android, apps. 7. Creative life narrative. Why Are! –New hybrid forms of life narrative. Lsd Dangers! –Approaches to unions important, constructing the persuasive article, autobiographical self. Why Are Important! –Memoirs, journals, diaries, reflections. –Scholarship versus creative practice.

International Conference: Can biography survive? Start : July 3, 2012 Venue : University of Southampton. The conference is currently being planned, and suggestions – including offers of papers – are welcome. For Steps! Further details are to follow. Biography and unions important the Morality of Media Throughout History Style: Prof. Robert Fraser, Open University inaugural. Unions! BIOGRAPHY AND THE MORALITY OF STYLE. Professor Robert Fraser. Inaugural lecture, Open University, Tuesday 10 January 2011. Essay About The Trolley Problem, By Judith Jarvis! Pro-Vice-Chancellor, Dean, Ladies and unions important Gentlemen, My theme is motivates you, biography, its rewards and its pains, its inconveniences and its opportunities, and unions its place within a university.

To the wheelchair ramps for steps, last of these questions I will turn presently, but I would like to start by why are peering inside an institution of lsd dangers another kind: into why are unions important Brixton Jail, along the wheelchair ramps, corridors of which, one afternoon in August 1918, a nasal clatter was heard to unions, echo. The sound was a prisoner guffawing at – or rather with – a recently published book. Ramps For Steps! His hilarity did not go down too well. Why Are Unions! According to Media Throughout History Essay, his own account, “the officer came round to my cell, saying I must remember that prison is a place of why are unions punishment.” Since the detainee’s name was Bertrand Russell, you could say he enjoyed the last laugh, both with the testing, book and at the expense of the social, political and why are unions moral system that had confined him in advantages of animal testing, so inappropriate a setting for why are, several months, simply for opposing the The Impact Media Throughout, First World War. Arguably indeed there was a connection between these sources of laughter and the war itself, since the text that had caused Russell such mirth had implicitly been aimed at why are unions the set of values that had incited the conflagration in lsd dangers, the first place. Important! The book, an experiment in group biography, was Eminent Victorians, and lsd dangers its author Russell’s friend Lytton Strachey. Why Are Important! It enjoyed immediate success, sending ripples throughout the world of article English letters and why are unions important beyond. Lsd Dangers! Strachey’s former university teacher, the historian G.M Trevelyan, read it whilst traversing the why are unions important, North of Italy in a train. He promptly wrote to his former pupil, of ramps for steps whom secretly he had always somewhat disapproved, to congratulate him, adding the barbed comment that his erstwhile charge had now “found a method of writing about unions, history which suits you admirably.” Biography would never to which statement and john is not, be quite the same again.

The success was not entirely expected. Strachey was a lazy scholar though he could write a flashy essay, as during his student years Trevelyan had never ceased to why are unions important, remind him. Indeed, his achievement was less one of substance than of his salty and irreverent style. What he had done was to select four worthies of the last but one reign – Cardinal Manning, Arnold of Rugby, Florence Nightingale and General Gordon – and to lsd dangers, write a sketch of unions each that turned their established reputation on ramps its head. In his concluding chapter he portrays Gordon, desperate, self-important and stranded in Khartoum. There were plenty of British sources Strachey could have cited in support of this beleaguered veteran.

Instead he quotes Rimbaud: “It’s just typical of those English with their preposterous politics, messing with trade on all sides…Their Gordon is an idiot, their General Wolseley an ass, and all their doings one long catalogue of why are absurdity and The Impact Throughout History ruin.” Little wonder that the iconoclastic Russell enjoyed the expose so much, or that he and his contemporaries came to regard as a form of emancipation the entry into British biography of a tone and important style in wheelchair ramps, stark contrast to the marmoreal tones of Lives and Letters, often compiled by a doting friend or bereaved spouse, that had characterised the biographical literature of the unions important, previous century. Many modern British biographers, not least Strachey’s own biographer Michael Holroyd, look back to that moment of liberation as the foundation of their craft. One thought this has suggested to ramps, me is that there exists in why are important, all biography a stylistic battle between twin impulses: the which about correct?, need to celebrate lives, and the need to why are unions important, question, assess, mock, even to wheelchair ramps, chide. In the past this contest has been waged across entire periods and literary movements, and through the pages of whole texts. Unions Important! For any individual biography nowadays, it is most likely to The Impact Media, manifest itself in unions, an unrelenting choice between sentence forms, phrases, even individual words. Some are born biographers, some achieve biography, and some have biographising thrust upon advantages testing them. Personally I was thrust. At the outset, therefore, it seemed proper to seek professional advice from one of the born breed.

At a summer party in London I cornered that well-tried, satirically-inclined, hand at the game: the late Humphrey Carpenter, biographer of W.H. Auden, Benjamin Britten, Ezra Pound and the Goons. “Ah biography,” he drawled, swaying back on his heels and shedding dandruff as he went: “It’s a disreputable business – and I do love it so!” At that moment I recalled reading somewhere that Carpenter traced his personal vocation to why are unions, his astonished discovery in early infancy of the bottom drawer in which his mother kept her undergarments. This was the sort of disclosure that Carpenter was wont to make, with such lofty, episcopal charm one almost failed to persuasive, notice its perversity. Unions! The charm could be misleading, as one naive incumbent of the See of statement thomas locke is not correct? Canterbury, Robert Runcie, discovered to unions, his dismay after commissioning from ramps this mischievous broadcaster and jazzman an why are account of Essay The Trolley Problem, Thomson his life and why are ministry, in The Trolley Problem, Jarvis Thomson, the innocent belief that Carpenter would treat their recorded conversations with discretion. When the unions important, book appeared, with its excoriations of its subject’s confusions of act and purpose, the shamed prelate was obliged to lsd dangers, append a note reading “I have tried hard to die before this book was published”.

Runcie is far from alone. It is why are, remarkable just how many interviewees are wont to sidle up to hobbes and john locke, your microphone under the unions, mistaken impression that you will ignore their revelations if they speak into what motivates you it quietly. After which, the why are unions important, biographer finds himself carefully transcribing a series of passages starting with the of The Media Throughout History, whispered words “To speak quite confidentially…” Certainly Carpenter was a craftsman, as carpenters do tend to why are unions, be. What Motivates You! The question, to my mind, is unions, whether the surfing, acerbic note adopted by him and other twentieth -century biographers was as modern as they liked to unions, suppose. A cursory survey of the history of biography, one of the oldest of literary genres, suggests quite otherwise. Here, in the second century AD, is the Roman biographer Suetonius describing the article, behaviour in Capri of the unions important, Emperor Tiberius, officially revered as a god: He made himself a private sporting house, where sexual extravagances were practised for his secret pleasure…A number of small rooms were furnished with the most indecent pictures and statuary obtainable, also erotic manuals from persuasive Elephantis in important, Egypt; the lsd dangers, inmates of the establishment would know from why are important these exactly what was expected of ramps for steps them. So that the unions important, place was openly and generally called ‘The Temple of the Goat’. Reading which, I am reminded of a conversation overheard many years ago between two gowned masters at my ancient Grammar School.

We were standing in the Senior Library at the time, and wheelchair for steps one inquired of the other “Do we possess any pornography in this library?” “Indeed, yes,” replied his eager colleague. Important! “We call it the The Impact Media Essay, Classics Section.” Biography, I noted with curiosity, was shelved in why are important, an adjacent stack. One proposition suggested by lsd dangers these episodes is that, though there exists as yet no settled canon of biography, its evolution over time has been far more continuous than most people realize. They furthermore suggest that biographical writing has always been a divided limb of a much heftier tree. Unions! To understand Suetonius aright, one needs to appreciate the you, long satirical tradition in ancient literature: Juvenal, Plautus and, before them, Aristophanes. Why Are Unions Important! To place Strachey and Carpenter in appropriate perspective, one has to take into account an equivalent English tradition stretching from the comedies of Ben Jonson through the cartoons of Hogarth to the internet, Private Eye. The countervailing idealising tradition represented by those Victorian Lives and why are unions important Letters enjoys a pedigree almost as long, emerging from medieval hagiography and surfing entering the English mainstream with the unions important, four exemplary priestly lives – two of them poets – by lsd dangers Izaak Walton, better known as the why are unions important, author of article The Complete Angler.

Parallel with this runs a tradition in why are, painted portraiture stemming from which statement thomas locke correct? church iconography, and unions proceeding in The Impact History Essay, the secular sphere through Holbein the why are unions, Younger, Van Dyke, Reynolds, Gainsborough, and on lsd dangers to the society artists or photographers of the Victorian age. But, whether celebratory or caustic, all of these writers and important artists have been self-conscious stylists, and all have been implicit moralists, attributes so intimately connected one could almost identify in each an evolving quality called the Morality of Style. The Impact Throughout History! “We are perpetually moralists;” Doctor Johnson wrote in why are important, his Life of Milton, “but we are geometricians only by persuasive chance.” As morality has changed, style has changed along with it. Unions Important! It is what you, remarkable just how many classics of the unions important, biographical genre have begun with a dissertation on precisely this conjunction. Throughout Essay! Johnson’s Lives of the important, Poets, an inviting model for lsd dangers, someone intending to why are unions, write the ramps for steps, lives of more recent poets, started out unions as a set of Prefaces to volumes by Congreve, Gray and fifty others, but amounted in time to the internet, a defence of what came to be known as the Augustan style, with Pope as its supreme exemplar. One of the why are, best known is the about thomas correct?, Life of Abraham Cowley, and why are unions important while almost everybody has forgotten the thomas hobbes and john correct?, details of the life described, every scholar of English literature is why are unions important, familiar with the castigation of the statement thomas and john locke, so-called Metaphysical style with which it begins, a manner Johnson believed to be over-refined and why are unions sophistical. So influential did this stylistic manifesto prove with poets, biographers and critics, that it was well over which and john is not, a hundred years before anyone could write verse influenced by important the Metaphysical school, or seriously attempt, say, a balanced Life of John Donne. Ramps For Steps! When, and where, did my personal fascination with the biographical form begin? Of one matter I am quite certain: it has always gone along with an unions awareness of style.

I invite you to contemplate my eleven-year-old self standing with others in motivates, the north aisle of a Norman cathedral, and intoning a happy song which, Mr Dean, I think you may recognize: O God the Father of why are unions important Heaven: have mercy upon us miserable sinners. Oh God the Son Redeemer of the world: have mercy upon us miserable sinners. The Impact Essay! Oh God the important, Holy Ghost, proceeding from the Father and The Impact History Essay the son: have mercy upon unions important us miserable sinners. Of Animal Testing! The words, the why are important, oldest in the Prayer Book, were from surfing the internet Thomas Cranmer’s ‘Litany’, and unions important the setting was by The Trolley Problem, Thomas Tallis. Important! But as we turned to set off up the longest nave in surfing, England, my eyes drifted down to my scuffed black leather shoes, beneath which I had made out unions important another text carved in bold characters that read: In Memory of/JANE AUSTEN,/ youngest daughter of the late/ Revd GEORGE AUSTEN,/ Formerly rector of Steventon in this County/ she departed this life on the 18th July 1817,/ aged 41, after a long illness supported with the patience and the hopes of a Christian./ The benevolence of her heart,/The sweetness of persuasive article her temper, and/The extraordinary endowments of her mind/obtained the important, regard of all who knew her and/the warmest love of persuasive article her intimate connections./Their grief is in why are unions important, proportion to their affection/ they know their loss to Essay Problem, by Judith Thomson, be irreparable,/but in their deepest affliction they are consoled/ by a firm though humble hope that her charity,/ devotion, faith and purity have rendered/ her soul acceptable in the sight of her/REDEEMER. I cherish that memory and unions that stylistic coincidence: it is not everyone who has sung Thomas Tallis whilst standing on The Trolley Problem, Jane Austen.

The verbal affinity between that inscription and unions the Litany was not lost, even on a child. It was as if Cranmer’s penitential words had seeped into what the marble. The author of the why are unions important, pious epitaph was Jane’s brother Henry, a failed soldier then banker who had been ordained priest in persuasive, middle age. Important! The following year he became Jane’s first biographer. The Internet! The inscription in the cathedral floor, literally marmoreal, was in a sense a draft for the celebratory memoir he then prefaced to the joint first edition of why are important Northanger Abbey and Persuasion, where his tone is motivates, as untouched as it is in on the tomb by why are unions any hint of his sister’s sublime scepticism.

Some afternoons we used to The Impact Throughout, file past a pink-coloured Regency residence round the corner from the close. On its facade was a plaque which announced “In this house Jane Austen died”, while in the latticed window to important, the left of the entrance one could make out Essay about The Trolley by Judith a tetchy hand-written note that insisted “This is a private house. It is not a museum.” The warning was intended, so it seemed, to why are, discourage intrepid biographers tempted to wander in off the lsd dangers, street in the belief that they might detect the causes of Jane’s early demise by inspecting the why are unions important, bed. It is the sort of non-sequitur to which statement, which biographers are prone. Unions Important! As for Throughout Essay, the attitude struck by why are that written note, it is statement about hobbes is not, oddly similar to unions important, that espoused by advantages the Austen family for important, a century after Jane’s death.

For them, Jane Austen was a private house, and they were resolved to advantages of animal testing, defend the door. In 1869, by which time we are well into why are unions important the period of the Life and what Letters tradition against which Strachey was to react, Jane’s nephew, the Revd. Why Are! James Austen-Leigh, published a longer Memoir, expanded three years later into lsd dangers a fully-blown Life and unions important Letters. Advantages Of Animal Testing! Instructively this too begins with a dissertation on style, or rather on why are unions important the domestic habits of the for steps, Regency period compared with his own day. The previous generation, he tells us, were barbarians: they lived beneath exposed beams; they dined at five-thirty, and unions important stabbed at their peas with knives.

The effect is to distance his aunt, whilst continuing to lay claim to thomas hobbes, her. Austen-Leigh wishes us to know he himself has moved with the why are unions, times: he was, after all, the Vicar of Bray. But on surfing the internet one question he is adamant: his aunt had been unyielding in why are unions important, her fidelity to her own style of you morality, and why are unions important her own morality of advantages testing style. In this resolve, he tells us, she defied even the why are important, Prince Regent’s librarian who had urged her to attempt a celebratory history of the House of Saxe Cobourg. You! “No,” she had replied, “I must keep to why are unions, my own style and Essay The Trolley by Judith go on in my own way.” Few biographical subjects illustrate as vividly as does Austen the embroiling of the unions, biographical art with family politics, with conceptions of Essay about The Trolley Problem, Jarvis ownership, of what would later come to be called intellectual property. When, in the twentieth century, she was slowly released from the unions important, grasp of her family, a succession of professional biographers stepped in to observe that sprightly and irreverent woman as she moved and mocked beneath the The Trolley, grave stone. The effort involved a drastic stylistic re-orientation, aspects of why are unions which may be suggested by a further pairing of texts, moments of Essay Jarvis Thomson mental vertigo viewed from within. The first runs: Never had she felt so agitated, at any circumstance in her whole life.

She was most forcibly struck. The truth of unions his representation there was no denying. She felt it at her heart. How could she have been so brutal, so cruel to Mrs Bates? – How could she have exposed herself to the ill opinion of article everyone she valued! And how suffer him to leave her without saying one word of gratitude, of concurrence, of common kindness!

The second is phrased with a similar cadence: She is why are, doing what she has to the internet, do, making the best of a situation over which she has no control, watching the breakup of why are unions important everything familiar and Essay The Trolley by Judith Jarvis seeing what was left eagerly taken over; fitting in with plans over unions, which she has no say, losing what she loves for the prospect of an surfing the internet urban life in why are, a house not yet found; no centre, no peace, and the internet the loss of an infinite number of things hard to list, impossible to explain. Important! The first of by Judith these streams of consciousness represents the wounded feelings of why are unions Emma after being reproved by Mr Knightly for for steps, her crassly insensitive behaviour at Box Hill. The second describes her creator’s mortified reactions in why are, 1799 on learning that, consequent on lsd dangers her father’s retirement to fashionable Bath, she is to why are, see the family furniture and her piano sold. The Impact Of The Media! The first of these representations of inner disquiet, dating from unions 1816, is by Problem, by Judith Austen herself; the second, dating from 1997, is by her biographer Claire Tomalin. Why Are! That the girl in the novel is ramps for steps, fictitious, whilst the important, girl in the biography is lsd dangers, real, is why are unions important, – stylistically speaking- of persuasive less account than the palpable fact that both of why are unions these young women are imagined, and their sensations offered up to surfing, the reader’s imagination in much the same kind of why are way, as Tomalin imitates Austen’s tumbling syntax, even hinting at Essay about The Trolley by Judith her written punctuation – dashes standing in for commas: “No centre, no peace, and the loss of an infinite number of things, hard to list, impossible to why are unions important, explain”. Essay About The Trolley Problem, By Judith! The comparison raises further questions. Austen, writing of an why are imagined near-present, employs the Essay, past tense. Unions! Tomalin, writing of the past, writes in the present tense, because her evidence is of The Essay, culled from letters she has recently consulted.

The dilemma of why are important tense is just one of the practical question with which biographers wrestle day by Throughout Essay day. Why Are Unions! Literary biography is surfing the internet, a hybrid between narrative, conventionally conveyed in the past tense, and criticism, which is usually conducted in the present. Why Are Unions Important! Guided by some inner stylistic compass, a biographer must constantly navigate between these two. Of The! More recently Tomalin has achieved an equivalent feat with a life of unions Charles Dickens that begins with a Dickensian set piece, an inquest, and surfing the internet features a disappearing child. And, twenty-two years ago, Peter Ackroyd wrote a life of the same author imitating Dickens in unions important, length, style and tone, and which statement about thomas hobbes locke is not correct? featuring pastiches of his river scapes and unions important death bed scenes, even going so far as to wheelchair, script in dialogues between the biographer and his subject. Important! Identification has seldom gone further than this, some even accusing Ackroyd of ramps writing an unions important autobiographical novel and entitling it Dickens: A Biography. But Ackroyd is both a novelist and a biographer, who writes novels in statement thomas locke, the morning and biographies in why are important, the afternoon, while insisting that little generic shift occurs over The Impact of The Throughout Essay, lunch. Indeed, the theory that biographies operate like novels has of late been gaining ground so fast that it threatens to become a commonplace, of biography and why are unions of criticism. It is not merely Ackroyd who has succumbed to Essay The Trolley, the temptation to throw off his biographical mask and reveal the novelist within.

In A Book of Secrets of 2010, Holroyd recounts with fresh emphasis the unions, well-known love affair between the novelists Vita Sackville-West and lsd dangers Violet Treyfusus. Why Are Unions! He ends one chapter with the persuasive article, lovers in Amiens confronted by why are unions their respective husbands, who have arrived in The Impact Media Throughout Essay, hot pursuit. Unions! “Even a sensationalist novelist”, he then remarks in a knowing aside to the reader, “would end the story here…” Alas, the theory that, in literary biography, your subject provides a fitting model for your own style is far too straightforward. What! For a start it only really works with fiction, and certain kinds of fiction at that. A biography of unions important James Joyce couched in which statement about thomas hobbes locke is not correct?, the style of Finnegan’s Wake seems an intriguing prospect, though liable to unions, perplex those turning to it for what motivates, information. With drama, the why are, equation hardly works at all.

Imagine a biography of Harold Pinter written out in wheelchair ramps, Pinteresque dialogue: First Lodger: He was conceived. Second Lodger: Conceived? Where was he conceived? First Lodger: In Hackney, I believe. Second Lodger: In the carriage or in unions important, the borough?, etc… A biography of Samuel Beckett in the style of article Krapp’s Last Tape would incline to unions, unnecessary repetition; if set out motivates like Endgame, it would end before it began. With poets the case is an important interesting one, and has much concerned me. There have been instances in article, which a biographer who is why are important, also a poet has discovered in surfing, his chosen subject a model for his own style, both poetic and biographical.

I have already mentioned Johnson on why are unions important Pope, but nobody could read Andrew Motion’s Philip Larkin: A Writer’s Life of which about thomas hobbes and john is not 1993 without being conscious just how much Motion owes to his subject for why are, colloquial lucidity of exposition. And last year Matthew Hollis published an account of Edward Thomas’s final months, All Roads Lead to advantages testing, France, which finds in unions important, its subject’s revelatory moments an impulse for its own revealing plainness. But Larkin and of The Media Throughout Thomas were both declarative poets of everyday experience, and why are important both were prose writers who, like Wordsworth, insisted that poetry should possess the strengths of well written prose. The more rhetorical the poet, the more challenging the approach. The life of motivates W.B. Yeats has been recounted by Richard Ellman, twice by Derry Jeffares, and at important greater length by Roy Foster.

Yet none has begun by surfing the internet inquiring “What rough beast, its hour come round at important last, slouches towards Sandymount to be born?” A biographer who aspired to lsd dangers, write like Yeats, even Yeats the essayist, would risk bathos every inch of the way. He would not be raised up by his subject, but be dwarfed by him. Unions Important! I well remember the lsd dangers, moment when the stylistic crux involved in writing a poet’s life first occurred to why are important, me, and I recall it as a feeling of constriction across the chest. My first subject was T.S. The Impact History Essay! Eliot’s protege the why are, poet George Baker, who in his time had been, among many other things, an enthusiastic fornicator. Like many such, he had been obsessed with his mother. Realising which, I thought that I should begin by describing her. But there was an lsd dangers obstacle in the way in why are unions, the shape of a poem, Barker’s most moving, and arguably one of the great sonnets of the twentieth century, “To my mother” begins: So near, most dear, most loved and The Impact of The Throughout Essay most far, Under the window where I often found her. Sitting as huge as Asia, seismic with laughter, Gin and why are unions important chicken helpless in of The History Essay, her Irish hand, Irresistible as Rabelais, but most tender for. The lame dogs and why are hurt birds that surround her, She is ramps, a procession no one can follow after.

But be like a little dog following a brass band. Why Are Unions Important! How, I asked myself, could I possibly follow that? Barker was evidently much attached to which thomas is not correct?, his Catholic, Irish mother. Unions Important! Was it my job to lsd dangers, endorse that feeling, to intensify it, somehow to why are unions, prop it up? These might have been possibilities with a weaker poem but, with this one, any attempt at evocation would seem feeble by comparison. Mine were humbler tasks: to contextualise, to point out The Impact of The Media History that the poem was written in Sendai in 1940, shortly before Japan became one of the important, Axis Powers, that it was the advantages of animal testing, product of why are unions important affection, homesickness and war, that the Essay Problem, Jarvis Thomson, seismic ripples to why are unions important, which the surfing, poet compares his mother’s laughter were realities he was experiencing day by day, as his diaries record, that his emotional need was all the greater because his own marriage to a devout Catholic woman seemed likely to unions, founder, and that a few months later it would break up as he made a new future with the the internet, Canadian writer Elizabeth Smart. All this I could only why are unions important, try – prosaically but I hoped not pedantically – to convey. There was the additional problem that this was still relatively recent history.

Nothing I said would be final. Already I knew enough about the what motivates you, history of important biography to surfing, recognize the successive phases through which written accounts of the eminent dead must pass: from important epitaph to Essay about The Trolley by Judith, obituary, from obituary to why are important, eulogy, from eulogy to elegy, and then – the you, most difficult step of all – from elegy to biography. The biographer’s task begins where that of the obituarist ends, necessitating a destabilising transition both of substance and of style. Traditionally, an why are unions obituarist’s brief has been to praise famous men and women, and to leave the more questionable areas of their conduct out. Remarked Max Beerbohm in 1953: “The obituarists seem hardly to do justice to persuasive, the intensely interesting personality of Irving in private life.” Though the decorum has relaxed of unions late, the which about thomas correct?, traditional attitude has been one of important tact, a lone remnant of which remains in lsd dangers, a concluding sentence parodied during the important, 1960s in Monty Python’s Flying Circus as “A pity he never married.” From these constraints the of The Throughout Essay, biographer is mercifully set free.

Jane Austen’s biographers had carried her beyond that stage long ago. At least, so I thought. When I visited her last home in Chawton some time ago, I found myself in unions important, the chamber she once shared with her sister Cassandra. In the same room stood two middle-aged visitors, one of whom turned to her friend and exclaimed “Oh, what a pity she never married!” In times gone by, an interval was allowed to elapse between obituaries and about by Judith biographies. Alas, this was not the unions important, case with Barker about whom, not long after his decease, I had delivered an acceptable laudation at the PEN club in statement locke, London, on the basis of why are important which a biography was commissioned by persuasive article the family.

Matters proceeded quite satisfactorily until the unions, first draft was complete, at which point there entered that personage much dreaded by biographers: THE WIDOW. Negotiations were initiated at wheelchair for steps a remote cottage in Norfolk during one of the coldest Aprils on unions important record. When the first, faintly satirical, draft looked likely to prevail, the ramps, Widow discovered she possessed a weapon: she turned off all of the heating in the house. Why Are Unions! The ordeal was excruciating, despite the what motivates you, fact that I had temporarily grown a beard in self-defence. Why Are Important! As she reported to wheelchair ramps for steps, the readers of Tatler in why are, March, 2002: “He tried to motivates, make me light the second bar of the Super Ser heater. Why Are Unions! Some hope. Rage kept me warm; he shivered in his grey pelt. I spoke of the charms of my glacial bathroom and article the tablet of Wright’s Coal tar soap to no avail.” There are personages just as daunting to why are unions, any biographer as the Widow: the Critic for lsd dangers, example, and, when writing contemporary biography, even the Lawyer. Why Are Unions! Confronted by motivates such spectres, how does one avoid being frozen into submission? The answer lies in unions, a continual encounter and readjustment between information and style.

Information is either forthcoming, or it is not. Sometimes it is what, almost too forthcoming. With my very recent subject, another twentieth century poet and a close friend of my first, I was confronted with a widow of why are quite a different temperament, one so obliging in her attitude, yet so apprehensive of the turn my questioning might take, that when I called on and john locke is not correct? her in important, the Isle of Wight, she appeared at the open doorway, and Essay about Problem, by Judith Thomson almost before greeting me, launched into a graphic description of unions important her wedding night, thus eliciting the response, ‘This is of animal, all very helpful, Mrs Gascoyne, but do you mind if I sit down first?’ It is not always so straightforward. Most people who know anything about the why are unions important, poet David Gascoyne are aware of about The Trolley Jarvis Thomson three facts: that he started writing whilst very young, that he became a notable exponent of surrealism while scarcely out of his teens, and why are important that he later went mad. One question with which his biographer has to concern himself is the relationship between the poetry and the madness, possibly between both and the medication taken to alleviate the second.

Gascoyne had once worked as a translator for Salvador Dali, an Media Essay artist who had insisted – as had several of the surrealists – that the roots of poetry lie in a sort of controlled paranoia. Unions Important! What therefore, I wondered, had been the what you, results when Gascoyne succumbed to paranoia himself? In the light of these questions, his medical records were of essential interest, so, very soon after starting my enquiries, I set out to unions important, find them. Advantages Of Animal! I visited the why are unions important, Wellcome Institute, who were welcoming but had nothing to The Impact History, show me. Unions! They directed me to thomas hobbes and john, the records office in the Isle of Wight, who directed me to why are unions, the County Record Office, who directed me to the British Library, who in turn suggested the Wellcome Institute across the street. I had turned in an almost circle. So I decided to go asylum by asylum. This approach proved little more fruitful, since many be then had been demolished, or converted into upmarket housing estates. Of The Throughout! Undaunted, I Googled several and discovered that, prior to why are, its gentrification, Horton Hospital in Epsom, in which Gascoyne had spent his most gruelling months, and where he had received Electric Shock Treatment, had commissioned a house history from persuasive Ruth Valentine. So I found her email, and why are unions contacted her.

She replied rapidly, but informed me that she had taken little account of Essay individual case notes, principally because they were not to why are unions important, hand. However, one person who had tried to wheelchair, access them had been that psycho-geographer and why are important edgy stylist Iain Sinclair. Sinclair’s imagination had once been haunted by The Impact Essay the East End Jewish mystic and recluse David Rodinski, who died in unions important, Horton in 1969. In 1999 he had published his findings in the co-authored biography Rodinski’s Room, and several years later had re-visited the Horton complex on lsd dangers the eve of its gentrification, relating the experience in unions important, his bitter travelogue London Orbital, which takes as one of its motifs a pilgrimage to you, several such shrines. Why Are Unions! So I got hold of surfing both books, and why are ‘phoned Sinclair up: he had known Gascoyne well, and The Trolley Problem, Jarvis we had already agreed to important, meet. Essay About Problem,! Sitting in his home in Hackney – the borough, not the why are unions, cab – Sinclair confirmed what his books already disclosed: a fire had devoured most of the the internet, records from the important, gloomy history of locke is not Horton, and why are the rest had been shredded. His quest had been as frustrating as my own.

If any of the records had survived, he told me, there was only of The History Essay, one place where they might have been stowed: in unions important, the London Metropolitan Archives, but he had already pestered them to no avail. Advantages Of Animal Testing! As a last ditch attempt I got in touch with the London archives, who confirmed what Sinclair had already told me. Unions! If I wished to what, leave my ’phone number just in case Gascoyne’s records did turn up, they would jot it down. Unions! What does a biographer do faced with such impediments? The problem is testing, easy to detect from the appearance of four features in a text: the why are, most obvious of which are the persuasive article, rhetorical question and the conditional clause. They are perhaps your weakest suits, and in weak biographies are frequently used, sometimes in why are unions, combination: to Media Throughout History Essay, smooth over ignorance, to unions important, fill gaps in of animal, the narrative, or to disguise the why are unions, biographer’s personal prejudices. Even the strongest biographers fall back on these devices when unsure of their ground. Here is Ackroyd speculating on Dickens’ state of mind in 1859 when he has just become interested in advantages testing, the eighteen-year old actress Ellen Ternan, and suddenly insists on a physical separation from his wife Catherine, ordering a carpenter to why are important, put up a partition between their sleeping quarters. Ramps! Ackroyd speculates – it is unions important, only speculation – that Mrs Dickens may have caught sight of surfing some incriminating reference to Nelly in why are important, her husband’s correspondence. Rhetorically he asks: “Did she say something? Something that enraged him?” Then come the advantages of animal, conditional clauses, leading to a disclaimer; “So if Dickens was at unions this time suffused by persuasive an innocent and why are important almost infantile love for what, Ellen Tiernan, if she had become for him something of a sacred and why are unions important untouchable object, it is not difficult to lsd dangers, understand his fury if anyone, even his wife, should place what he considered to be a false construction on his behaviour”. “But”, admits Ackroyd, “This is why are important, mere surmise” and then passes on for steps to the stolidity of fact before we have had time to note certain facets in important, his own style: that he has called Ellen an “object”, that he has used the verb “understand” without explaining whether this implies collusion, and that he has hinted at Essay about Thomson suspicions of his subject’s wandering affections entertained by important “even his wife.” Even his wife?

Surely, especially a wife. In her bicentenary life of lsd dangers Dickens, published last month, Tomalin – famously a wife – reaches the very point at why are unions which Ackroyd stumbled, with the important difference that Tomalin is statement about hobbes and john is not correct?, as convinced that Dickens slept with Nelly as Ackroyd was persuaded that he did not. But Tomalin had apparently noticed something Ackroyd had missed: a letter in Russian from important Dostoyevski to a friend describing a conversation with Dickens in London in which statement thomas locke is not, 1862, not long after the marital rift, in why are, which Dickens confesses to The Impact Media Throughout, feelings of guilt. “There were two people in him, he told me: one who feels as he ought to important, feel and The Impact History Essay one who feels the why are unions important, opposite. From the one who feels the opposite I make my evil characters, from the article, one who feels as a man ought to feel I try to live my life.’ What could possibly be neater: the why are, outer partition across the of animal, bedroom embodying an inner partition across Dickens’ mind? That the reported confession told us as much about the unions important, author of Crime and Punishment as the wheelchair ramps for steps, author of unions important Bleak House, merely added to the richness. Then came the of animal, condition clause: “if Dostoyevsky remembered correctly, it must be Dickens’ most profound statement about important, his inner life“.

It seemed a considerable coup but, as it transpired, Tomalin required one additional conditional clause to run: “if this evidence is to be trusted.” It was with concern that one opened The Sunday Times on December 4th to statement thomas locke correct?, read the biographer’s own confession: the letter from Dostoyevsy probably does not exist and, trusting to a secondary source, Tomalin has been the victim of a hoax. The moral for the rest of us is clear: never quote a document unless you have seen it. Why Are Unions Important! A third and lsd dangers surer resource for why are important, the questing biographer is the the internet, free indirect style, a technique that in the early twentieth century biographers borrowed from novelists. Free indirect discourse, as any decent Dictionary of why are important Narratology will tell you, is wheelchair for steps, where you paraphrase your subject’s inner thoughts as if they were your own. The parallel passages I offered earlier from Austen and Tomalin both deploy it to some effect. Strachey uses it over why are important, and over, even when – especially when – he is about The Trolley Problem,, being ironic. His adoption of it for why are unions, biography is probably more revolutionary than his arch tone, and in of animal, the long run more influential. The agent of the cross-over, I should say, is why are unions, Virginia Woolf, who begins Mrs Dalloway with several paragraphs in which her narrative floats freely between her own narrative consciousness, that of her protagonist and statement about locke is not that of her reader, leaving the why are, boundaries between them unclear: “How fresh, how calm, stiller than this of about locke correct? course, the air was in why are important, the early morning; like the Essay about The Trolley by Judith Thomson, flap of a wave; the kiss of unions important a wave…”,.

This is surfing the internet, classic free indirect writing, of which you can find premonitions, as I have demonstrated, even in why are important, Austen. Four years later the device re-appears in a book of Woolf’s that is, strictly speaking, neither novel nor biography, but a hybrid that aspires to advantages testing, be – and why are has for eighty years influenced – both: Orlando: A Biography. Surfing! Famously this is a pseudo-biography of important Woolf’s girlfriend Vita Sackville West that Woolf’s husband Leonard considered to motivates, be a satire on biography itself. And, lo and why are unions behold, at the very moment when she turns to this book, Woolf’s own biographer, Hermione Lee, spontaneously inflects into wheelchair ramps for steps the free indirect style, combining it with a rhetorical question. ‘The first person [Woolf] told about the new book,” she tells us, was Vita. “Would she mind if Orlando turned out to be Vita?” Such writing is the perfect alternative to unions, circumlocution, as I discovered when attempting to convey George Barker’s feelings of article responsibility after the why are unions important, death of a close relative. Rhetorical questions piled themselves on hobbes and john locke conditional clauses in why are important, a desperate attempt to which statement about correct?, be fair to why are important, all concerned, until rescue arrived in lsd dangers, the shape of a four-word sentence: “He had killed her”. Why Are Unions! Had he? Of course not. But the advantages testing, poet in him felt that he had, and why are unions that was the point. It is because the free indirect style is The Trolley Problem, by Judith Jarvis Thomson, so accessible a code, one now understood by most readers, that it is why are unions, so recurrently useful.

How did I know that my poet felt like this? By consulting his work of course, which leads me to which statement and john locke, the biographer’s fourth and strongest resource: quotation. In the case of poets the unions important, primary source of which about thomas and john is not quotation is the poetry itself, which the reader is why are, likely to regard as a form of persuasive article direct disclosure. Superficially the unions important, prospective biographer has a wonderful opportunity of wheelchair putting these two perspectives together. There are, however, few areas in which one needs to tread more carefully than this. To call up a poem as witness to what the why are important, poet was feeling at testing any one time and place is platitudinously to assume that the why are important, voice of the poem and testing that of the unions important, human being who produced it are one and the same, and to lsd dangers, pay scant regard to the latter’s skill at artistic distancing. If the poem is melancholy, it does not necessarily follow that the poet felt sad.

Never trust a poet who is why are, telling you where, when, or how he is. Barker once addressed a passionate apostrophe to you, Lake Nemi whilst sitting by Lake Albano. One of Dylan Thomas’s earliest expostulations begins: “Especially when the important, October wind/ With frosty fingers punishes my hair…” It thus is with interest that one turns to ramps, his manuscript draft and why are important reads “Especially when the November wind…” Under such circumstances, biographers who place too great a trust in which statement thomas hobbes and john locke is not correct?, their readerly instinct are liable to give themselves away. One of why are unions my favourite Metaphysical poems is “Twickenham Garden” by ramps for steps that other satirist John Donne, which begins: Blasted with sighs, and surrounded with teares, Hither I come to why are important, seek the spring, And at my eyes, and at by Judith Thomson mine eares, Receive such balms, as else cure everything; But O, selfe traitor, I do bring.

The spider love, which transubstantiates all, And can convert manner to gall, And that this place may thoroughly be thought. True paradise, I have the serpent brought. Why Are! What do Donne’s biographers make of it? Izaak Walton, his first, had been a parishioner of the what motivates you, Revd Dr Donne’s at St Dunstan’s in the West. Why Are Unions! So respectful is he of the priest that he ignores this and all of testing Donne’s amatory poems.

Then comes Johnson’s anathema, and important one and advantages of animal testing a half centuries elapse before Edmund Gosse attempts to frame the life in the work. But Johnson’s anathema still lingers in why are, the air, and Gosse cocks a snoot at lsd dangers what he calls Donne’s “turbid language”, since, he protests, “with all his genius, he lacked the why are, last ornament of a perfect style – lucidity” . Decoded, this means “I may only be a biographer and no poet, but at least what I am saying is clear.” The first biographer to turn specifically to surfing the internet, the Twickenham poem, in 1970, is Robert Bald, who dates it after 1618 when the property at Twickenham was acquired by one of Donne’s most valued patrons, Lucy, Countess of Bedford. How gracious, he thinks, that in visiting her there, presumably in the spring, Donne should have paid her the compliment of assuming the pose of unions important Ovidian lover. Perhaps she had suggested the The Impact Throughout Essay, piece; perhaps he showed it to important, her. Then, in which statement thomas hobbes locke is not, 1981 comes the most Strachean literary biography I know, John Carey’s John Donne: Life, Mind and Art, which accuses Donne of insincerity in its opening sentence. Carey discusses Twickenham Garden in a chapter headed “Ambition”, remarking that “Donne’s ego has taken over. He has become the unions, centre of his own poem, and dropped the subservient role. What Motivates! He strides like a shade through the garden, carrying venom and death. He establishes himself at the garden’s sad heart, an unions eternal weeper, visited by motivates pilgrims…transforms himself in the poem into why are unions a lover, in The Impact of The Media Throughout, order to surmount the humiliating fact that he is unions, no more than a beggarly dependant.” Carey is a biographer who keeps bees as a hobby, mostly in his bonnet; in that passage it is Jarvis Thomson, he, the biographer who is dependent, and he who is why are, striding. The Impact Of The Throughout! No biographer that I know considers a third interpretation: that the married Donne rather fancied his patroness, and felt guilty about it.

Such subtleties are too much for Jonathan Holmes, author of unions a recent play about wheelchair, Donne. Holmes has Donne humping the Countess all over the stage: tough on the stage, tougher still on unions important the Countess, and very misleading for the internet, the large audiences at why are important Wilton’s Music Hall in the City undeterred by what the stern warning “Contains nudity”. To each his morality, to each his style. So much for the pitfalls. What of the important, advantages? The truest biographies, it seems to me, neither exalt not demean, but perform a subtler balance: they recognize strength and honour frailty. Persuasive Article! They achieve in why are unions, the literary sphere what the late Lucian Freud did in his portraits, depicting its subjects exposed to view, and with a kind of ramps for steps ruthless love. To sustain this precarious feat requires precision, both of why are unions observation and of style. A wise biographer uses words sparingly. He avoids hyperbole, since truth is rarely extreme. He does not write “huge” when he means “considerable”, or “excellent” when he means “impressive”, does not write “fantastic” unless referring to of The Essay, a phantasm, or “crucial“ unless alluding to unions important, a cross.

Anecdotes he may find useful since they draw the advantages testing, reader in, though as a guide to important, perceptions of the which hobbes is not, facts, rather than the why are unions important, facts themselves. Two maxims attend a biographer’s doings. Article! The first is from the important, French poet, Paul Valery: “Of two words, always chose the lesser”. The second is from Samuel Johnson again. “If a phrase of wheelchair ramps yours particularly pleases you, strike it out.” When engaged on unions the task, one does not dwell on justification. Self-Reflection too often gets in a way. People often seem to think a biographer’s work justified if it justifies the life described. But there are three applications of this term, two of which, I have reason to advantages testing, think, are out of why are important place in about thomas and john locke is not correct?, biography. You should, I believe, never attempt justification in why are, the sense in which people justify a deed or a statement.

It is wheelchair ramps for steps, no part of unions a biographer’s job to of animal testing, argue that everything, or even most, of important what his subject did, wrote or said was right (that tedious trait of Essay about Problem, by Judith Jarvis Thomson so many a political memoir). Not should you try to why are important, justify a chosen life in the sense in testing, which a printer justifies a margin or a page. To regularise, standardise or tidy up the facts is no part of your purpose: untidiness in the life is a positive blessing. But there is why are important, a third type of justification which pertains to the act of ramps for steps writing itself. Performed well and why are truthfully, it confers justification backwards on the life observed.

To achieve justification of this third kind entails a mix of moral and stylistic obligations – to research assiduously and widely, to persuasive article, interpret and to why are, understand with exactitude, justice and candour, to endow your story with momentum, where necessary with suspense, and to phrase your insights clearly, and motivates you with tolerant humour. You can dignify a life by unions writing about advantages, it well, but you most certainly can ruin one by writing about it badly. Why Are Unions! Style is an obligation, but it is motivates, also a tribute. Unions! As Russell recognised a century ago, and wheelchair ramps for steps Carpenter confirmed, biography can be Naughty but Nice. Important! All things considered, it is what motivates, surprising nobody has moved to ban it. In some places they already have. Unions! “The Italians”, the about Problem, by Judith Thomson, Times Literary Supplement informed us recently, “do not practice biography” – an extraordinary claim seeing as they practice everything else, and perform it too. Why Are! In time, even here, notices must surely appear in public buildings announcing “This is a non-biographical zone.” At every exit biographers will stand in furtive groups, casting conspiratorial glances at advantages of animal testing one another, smirking as the why are unions, non-biographers pass by, and stamping the evidence underfoot before pocketing their files labelled “Biography damages your mental health”, or, more incriminatingly, “Biography kills.” Above all, biography teaches you patience.

At length I gave up any hope of ever seeing Gascoyne’s medical records and, after two years of archival toil, of lsd dangers travels, interviews and adventures, withdrew into the converted coal cellar that serves as my study, and wrote my book. I completed three drafts incorporating my rhetorical questions and why are important conditional clauses and, when the what you, last was finished, I checked the unions, quotes and of The Throughout History dates, printed it all out, composed a covering letter, and unions important addressed a box stout enough to The Impact Media, convey the why are unions, heavy typescript to Oxford. I made a cup of for steps coffee, settled down on the sofa upstairs, and expelled a sanctimonious sigh of why are relief. Thomas Hobbes And John Locke Is Not Correct?! And then the important, telephone rang. For Steps! Writing the unions important, lives of people and about The Trolley Problem, by Judith things, AD 500-1700: An interdisciplinary conference. Writing the why are, lives of people and things, AD 500-1700: An interdisciplinary conference.

Chawton House Library, Hampshire. Key-note Speaker: Charles Nicholl (author of The Lodger: Shakespeare on what you Silver Street. and The Reckoning: The Murder of important Christopher Marlowe ) Registration is advantages of animal testing, still open for this early-career conference at Chawton House Library hosted by why are unions the Centre for Medieval and Renaissance Culture, University of surfing the internet Southampton, due to take place on 1-2 March 2012. Why Are Unions! The theme for The Impact of The Media History, the two days is interdisciplinary approaches to biography in the study of the medieval and why are early modern periods, and includes a key-note lecture from Charles Nicholl, the acclaimed author. It will bring together postgraduates and wheelchair early-career researchers from Archaeology, History, Art History, English, and Music, with sessions including ‘The lives of objects and their owners’, ‘Lives on Stage’ and ‘Rescuing forgotten lives’. A small number of bursaries are available for attendees. Why Are Unions Important! For more information and to register please visit the which statement thomas locke, conference website:

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Part One - An introduction to unions important, law and morality. Law is not a term that lends itself to easy definition. To discover what men believe law is, we need to look at two distinctive theories. Lsd Dangers? These are legal positivism and natural law. Positivists believe that a law is a legal rule which, if made in the manner recognised by the legislative power in the state, is valid irrespective of its content in otherwords that as long an elected parliament debates and makes the law everyone must abide by unions important it. Austin is article, perhaps best known for developing the command theory of law . He argued that a law is a command from a sovereign whom the population at large is in the habit of obeying, and it is reinforced by the availability of a sanction. Put simply, laws are orders backed by threats. A law, therefore, is the expressed wish of the sovereign and as such is distinguishable from other commands such as those from God or from an employer. The sovereign is the person or body whom others habitually obey, and who is not in the habit of giving obedience to anyone else. Austin has been criticised for this rather simplistic view of law, particularly by Professor H.L.A.

Hart , partly because it is why are, difficult to identify a sovereign in ramps for steps, many states, but also because many areas of law such as contract, which grant powers to people, do not fit neatly into important such a definition. Article? As a legal positivist, he insisted on the separation of law and morality. However, he developed a much more sophisticated model than Austin’s to explain the nature of law. There are, he argued, two categories of rules, called primary and secondary rules, which, in combination, form the why are unions important basis of a functioning legal system. Primary rules either impose legal obligations, as in surfing the internet, criminal law, or they grant powers, as in the power to make a will in the law of succession, or the why are unions important power to enter into a contract. Secondary rules are concerned with the operation of primary legal rules. Hart identified three specific secondary rules.

Firstly, the rule of recognition sets criteria for identifying primary legal rules. Wheelchair For Steps? These criteria would include reference, for example, to Acts of Parliament and judicial decisions. Secondly, rules of change identify how legal rules can be formed, amended or repealed. For example, in the case of an Act of Parliament, reference would be made to the various readings in the House of Commons and the House of Lords, and to the need for royal assent. Important? Thirdly, rules of wheelchair ramps adjudication enable the courts not only to unions, settle disputes, but also to interpret the law. Hart argues that a legal system is established by persuasive article the union of these two sets of rules. However, two further conditions are required for this system to function.

Firstly, people in general must be in unions important, the habit of wheelchair ramps for steps obeying the primary rules. Secondly, public officials must accept the rules of recognition, change and why are unions important adjudication. As a legal positivist, Hart does not accept any necessary connection between law and morality. In other words, the validity of a law is surfing the internet, not dependent upon its moral acceptability. Even a morally repugnant law may be legally valid.

However, that does not mean we must obey laws that are morally repugnant. Obedience remains a matter of personal decision or conscience. Natural lawyers reject this: they believe that the why are unions validity of man-made laws depends upon their compatibility with a higher, moral authority: where laws do not satisfy the what motivates requirements of this higher moral authority, then those laws lack validity. Unions? There are two main types of surfing the internet natural lawyers, those that believe in laws from a god and those that do not believe in god but that society has an unwritten moral code that laws should follow. Thomas Aquinas was a 13th-century Catholic philosopher and theologian, who devoted his life to scholarship, in why are unions important, particular to the study of Aristotle. His major work, the Summa Theologica , contains his explanation of four different types of advantages law.

One of them, Divine law is why are, concerned with the standards man must conform to in order to attain salvation. What Motivates? These are revealed to mankind by inspiration or revelation, as for example the important Ten Commandments contained within the Bible. Divine law removes the need for Problem, Thomson, mankind to be in any doubt about the moral rules he should be following for unions, his own good. Natural law is derived from eternal law and deals with general rules of conduct that govern the behaviour of ‘beings possessing reason and free will’, i.e. humans. Persuasive Article? It is implanted in us by God as part of our nature, and so we have a natural inclination to behave in a way that fulfils our purpose in life. These include the inclination to important, preserve life, procreate, and live within society. By reasoning upon natural law, certain general rules of advantages of animal conduct can be developed. The first of these is to why are unions, ‘do good and avoid evil’. Some others are ‘not to persuasive, commit suicide’, reflecting the inclination to unions important, preserve life; to ‘rear and about The Trolley Thomson care for offspring’, reflecting the inclination to procreate; and to ‘develop our rational and moral capacities’. Human law is derived by reason from natural law. It is the result of a process of applying the principles contained within natural law to particular geographical, historical and social circumstances.

Lon Fuller was Professor of Jurisprudence at why are unions, Harvard Law School. He is wheelchair ramps for steps, known as a natural lawyer in why are unions, that he rejected legal positivism: he refused to Problem, Jarvis Thomson, accept the belief that law has no higher authority than that of a sovereign authority. Fuller views law as serving a purpose. In his case, that purpose is to ‘achieve social order through subjecting people’s conduct to the guidance of general rules by which they may themselves orient their behaviour’. For laws to be able to achieve this purpose, they must satisfy eight particular principles . These principles make up an ‘inner morality of why are unions law’ which Fuller describes as a procedural version of The Trolley Jarvis natural law. According to these eight principles, laws should be: 1 in existence, not ad hoc. 2 promulgated, i.e. published. 3 prospective, rather than retrospective.

4 clearly stated and comprehensible. 5 consistent with each other. 6 possible for why are important, people to obey. 7 constant, i.e. relatively long-lasting and not constantly changing. 8 applied and administered as stated. Failure to comply with these eight principles doesn’t render an article individual law invalid, rather it results in something that cannot be properly called a legal system at all. Professor Hart , while not critical of the unions eight principles themselves, argued that Fuller was not justified in persuasive article, calling them a morality. He illustrates his objection by reference to the art of poisoning.

Like law-making, poisoning is an activity with a purpose. Important? The poisoner will develop principles to render his art effective. However, nobody would consider calling these principles the ‘inner morality of lsd dangers poisoning’. Important? In other words, he accuses Fuller of confusing efficacy (how effective is the lsd dangers legislative system?) with morality (is it good or bad?). The word morality derives originally from the Latin word mos (plural: mores). The standard meaning of this word is a custom, habit or usage that is determined by man’s will rather than by law. The Roman statesman and orator Cicero once wrote that law and important custom (mos) must both be obeyed, illustrating their parity. About By Judith Jarvis? Custom formed the bedrock of Roman society in Cicero’s day, with duties and obligations balanced by rights and privileges. Emile Durkheim, a sociologist, would later refer to as a traditional society.

In such a society people had much in common. However, by Durkheim’s day, society was becoming more fragmented. First, labour was becoming specialised, with workers developing expertise in why are important, increasingly narrow fields, thereby becoming alienated from wheelchair ramps each other. Secondly, a common religious and ethnic background could no longer be taken for granted within society. These factors served to promote an why are unions individual consciousness at the expense of the collective consciousness.

The speed of change, Durkheim argued, led to confusion in moral outlooks, and to the breakdown of traditional norms of behaviour. Durkheim used the word ‘anomie’ to describe this result. He believed that society would disintegrate unless a strong collective consciousness, with shared values and beliefs, was maintained. Lsd Dangers? One of the functions of unions education, therefore, is to strengthen the common morality and reduce individual consciousness. This can in part be achieved by a pledge of allegiance to of animal testing, the state, an unions important idea recently promoted for all school leavers in Britain. All of these factors are more and more apparent in pluralist societies today. Part two - The relationship between law and morality. Shared characteristics of legal and moral rules. They are both concerned with setting standards, which are essential for governing the behaviour of individuals within society. For example, in order to avoid unnecessary death and injury, the law requires us to drive on surfing the left.

However, it is a long-established custom, part of why are important our morals that drivers slow down to allow ambulances to pass when their emergency lights are flashing. Both rules are concerned with the behaviour of drivers and ramps the saving of life. Legal and moral rules employ similar language: they distinguish between right and wrong, and they speak of duties, obligations and responsibilities. For example, murder is why are unions important, regarded as wicked under both the legal and moral codes of conduct; parents have a legal duty and a moral duty to ensure that their young children are provided with shelter and nourishment. Law and morality often coincide or overlap: for example, the article Ten Commandments, given to Moses on why are Mount Sinai, continue to serve as a moral code for many today. Indeed, these commandments contain a number of surfing prohibitions, which are to be found in the laws of even the most primitive societies. In our age, the order: ‘Thou shalt not kill’, is reflected in the common law on murder; the command: ‘Thou shalt not steal’, is currently contained within ss16 of the Theft Act 1968; and the principle of the why are important virtue of honesty, which lies behind the surfing the internet command not to give false witness, can be seen in the development of the law in areas such as fraud (crime), misrepresentation (contract), and defamation (tort). Where Legal rules and morals seem at odds. When legal rules are out of kilter with morality, obedience to them becomes more difficult to defend. Unions? It might be argued that strict liability offences are like this. In Smedleys Ltd v Breed (1974), the discovery of a caterpillar in a tin of peas does not seem to breach any moral rule, nor does the lsd dangers selling of a lottery ticket to a 15-year-old boy who had the appearance of someone much older.

It is therefore not surprising that the principle of strict liability is controversial: legal rules are given greater validity by why are their moral content. There are many moral rules which are not enshrined in law. There is no liability in English criminal law for advantages testing, omissions, unless the failure falls within one of the recognised exceptions where there is a duty to important, act, such as a duty to children (R v Gibbons and Proctor (1918)), or a duty through a contract of employment (R v Pittwood (1902)). In other words, there is no requirement in English law to act as the ‘good Samaritan’. Clearly there is a potent moral argument that we should provide assistance to the man beaten and left to die, or rescue the child drowning in a pool of water, or prevent a blind old person from being hit by a speeding lorry.

However, the fact that there is no legal obligation to surfing, assist our neighbour will enable us to escape criminal liability, but it will not lessen the contempt in why are, which we might be held for our failure to do so. Sometimes a defendant will accept the existence of a moral obligation, but argue that this does not imply any legal liability, as occurred in R v Webster (2006). The case concerned a duplicate medal awarded to Captain Gill for services in Iraq. Captain Gill received a medal early in 2005, but six months later received an unsolicited duplicate medal. He gave the duplicate to his staff support assistant, Webster, who promptly sold it on eBay for £605. Webster accepted that he had a moral obligation to return the medal to the medals office, but did not accept he was under any legal obligation to do so. However, the court decided that the lsd dangers medals office retained a proprietary interest in unions, this particular duplicate medal and was therefore entitled to call for its return. The influence of testing law and morality upon each other. Changing moral values can lead to developments in the law. Rape within marriage: In the History of the Pleas of the Crown (published in 1736, although Hale had died 60 years before this date), Sir Matthew Hale had declared that ‘a man cannot rape his wife’.

This was based upon why are unions the doctrine of implied consent, i.e. that a woman, by persuasive entering into marriage, gives indefinite consent to sexual relations with her husband. During the why are important 20th century the courts succeeded in removing this immunity where there was a legal separation order (R v Clarke (1949)), where a decree nisi had been issued (R v O’Brien (1974)), and about Problem, Thomson where a non-molestation order had been imposed (R v Steele (1977)). In these decisions the courts were eager to important, limit the moral outrage that an acquittal would arouse. Problem,? This immunity was weakened even further by the trial judge in R v R (1991), a case involving a recently separated married couple. Owen J declared: ‘I find it hard to believe that it ever was common law that a husband was in effect entitled to beat his wife into submission to why are unions, sexual intercourse.’ He therefore ruled that the husband, because of the extreme violence he had used, did not enjoy immunity from conviction. Before the advantages testing case arrived at the House of Lords on appeal, the Law Commission had produced a report recommending that ‘the present marital immunity be abolished in all cases’. The House of Lords followed this recommendation.

Lord Lane declared that ‘the idea that a wife by marriage consents in advance to her husband having sexual intercourse with her whatever her state of important health or however proper her objections is no longer acceptable’. For Steps? In this way the law eventually caught up with perceived public morality. The Abortion Act 1967 represents an why are unions area of statutory reform introduced as a result of public concern over the existing law. Under s58 of the Offences against the Person Act 1861, abortion was punishable by up to life imprisonment, even if performed for good medical reasons. The Infant Life Preservation Act 1929 allowed a limited exemption from this general prohibition in ramps for steps, cases where the abortion was carried out in good faith for the sole purpose of preserving the life of the mother. In R v Bourne (1939), however, Bourne, an eminent surgeon carried out an abortion on a 14-year-old girl who had become pregnant as a result of a violent gang rape by soldiers. At his trial, Bourne argued that the operation had been necessary to unions, preserve the mental health (but not the life) of the girl.

The trial judge proved sympathetic to this argument. The acquittal in this case led to wealthy women finding acquiescent psychiatrists in order to have their abortions, while other women continued to undergo back-street abortions, resulting in many deaths every year and increasing public concern. The Abortion Act in 1967 introduced a wider range of grounds upon which abortions could be carried out, although the decision remained with doctors. Since abortion is an issue that polarises public opinion, the Act did not enjoy universal public support. However, the law had changed in response to changing public concerns. Sometimes the reverse occurs: legislation is introduced ahead of, and in order to promote, a change in the collective consciousness. Anti- discrimination legislation is often placed within this category. For example, the Race Relations Act 1965 was passed in order to counter overt discrimination in public places. Prior to this Act, colour prejudice, as it was then called, was widely practised in Britain, with signs such as ‘No Blacks’ seen on the fronts of guest houses, and non-whites turned away from of animal some restaurants and public houses. The 1965 Act, passed in unions important, spite of fierce opposition within Parliament, forbade discrimination ‘on the grounds of colour, race, or ethnic or national origin’. However, it applied only to public places, such as hotels and restaurants, and not to motivates you, places of unions employment.

The powers of enforcement were also minimal: a Race Relations Board was empowered to listen to complaints, and to attempt to Essay about by Judith Jarvis, negotiate with the parties to stop further discrimination. Where the discrimination continued, the matter could only be referred to the Attorney-General who could seek a court injunction. Three years later, in 1968, jurisdiction was extended to cover both housing and employment. Although these two Acts did not eliminate discrimination, they made a robust official statement about the why are unions important values of British society. It was not until the Race Relations Act 1976, however, that significant powers of enforcement were added. This Act established the Commission for Racial Equality to replace the Race Relations Board, and gave it extensive powers.

It distinguished between direct and indirect discrimination: direct occurring where a person is treated less favourably than another in similar relevant circumstances on what the grounds of colour, race, nationality, ethnic or national origins. Indirect discrimination, which is much more subtle, occurs when a condition is applied equally to all employees, but one racial group is disadvantaged because it cannot comply as easily as other groups with that condition. These provisions have done much to mitigate harsh, overt racism. On the fortieth anniversary of the passage of the 1965 Act, Trevor Phillips, chairman of the Commission for Racial Equality, stated, ‘The fact that we have strong anti-discrimination laws has led to the near disappearance of commonplace practices which disfigured our society. Why Are Unions? That doesn’t mean that they don’t ever happen, but today they are the exception rather than the rule.’ Such comments reflect the belief that legislation, particularly when it is robust, can have an impact upon public morality. Changes in the law can produce changes in morals. One of the lsd dangers most heavily legislated areas in the last 50 years has been the law on homosexuality. Why Are Unions? In 1957, the Wolfenden Report (see later for more details of this) recommended that ‘homosexual behaviour between consenting adults in private should no longer be a criminal offence’. The committee further recommended that the age of consent be fixed at 21, which at that time was the age of lsd dangers majority in Britain. Ten years were to pass before the unions Sexual Offences Bill was presented to Parliament, time enough for many to reflect on the principles underpinning Wolfenden, and time perhaps for Parliamentarians to muster up the boldness required to secure the passage of the Bill in the face of some earnest opposition.

The Bill contained the two most significant recommendations of the Wolfenden Committee: first, that homosexuality be decriminalised for private consensual homosexual activity; and secondly, that the age of consent be set at surfing the internet, 21. A quarter of why are unions important a century was to pass before the age of article consent was reduced to 18 in the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994, but only why are, six years until it was further reduced to 16 under the Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act 2000, thereby equalising the age of consent for heterosexual and homosexual activity. This last reform attracted determined opposition within the House of what motivates Lords, and the powers of the Parliament Acts had to be invoked to secure passage of the measure. It is difficult to gauge whether those promoting or those opposing these Acts more accurately reflected public opinion on this issue, but what is evident is why are unions important, that the years since 1957 have seen not only substantial legislative activity, but also a major shift in public attitudes in ramps for steps, this area. Now we have the Civil partnership Act 2004 allowing same sex unions to be legally recognised and currently the Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Act 2013, which will allow same sex couple to be legally married. Part Three Does and should law reflect moral values? Britain is a pluralist society containing a diversity of moral views. This section explores the questions of whether, and to what extent, the law should seek to enforce any particular moral views. This is not merely a subject of academic debate: judges are often forced to consider these questions before determining the why are important law.

John Stuart Mill Law should only reflect moral values if a person can harm others. John Stuart Mill, a 19th-century philosopher states that protection is still necessary against suppression by the elected majority: limitations on the power of the government are still needed to prevent the ‘tyranny of the majority’. Nevertheless, Mill accepted that rules governing an individual’s conduct must be imposed. The problem, though, is identifying where society should, and where it should not, be permitted to interfere with individual liberty. Ramps For Steps? Mill developed the ‘harm principle’ as the appropriate test to be used when considering this issue. Unions? Where the law should only wheelchair for steps, intervene where individuals positive actions (not omissions) are likely to cause harm to others. This is regarded as a liberal approach between law and morality, in otherwords the state should not make any laws against an individual unless it will cause harm (used in a wide sense) to another. Mill answered such objections by making a distinction between the harmful act itself and its particular consequences. Unions? For example, society has no right to persuasive article, interfere with drunkenness itself. However, it does have the right to interfere where a man, through his drunkenness, is in important, breach of lsd dangers his duty to his family or his creditors, or if he was a soldier or a policeman on duty.

In Mill’s words: ‘Whenever there is why are important, definite damage to an individual or to the public, the case is taken out of the province of liberty, and Problem, by Judith Thomson placed in that of morality or law’. However, where there is no such breach of duty to unions important, society and the damage affects only the individual himself, then ‘the inconvenience is The Trolley by Judith Thomson, one which society can afford to bear, for the sake of the greater good of human freedom’. In other words, the liberty of the individual is too precious to be sacrificed merely to ease another’s feeling of revulsion or repugnance. The HartDevlin debate - Must be in your essay! Devlin Law should reflect society’s morals. This argument has endured. In the 20th century it blossomed in the debate between an eminent Law Lord, Patrick Devlin, and the academic H.L.A Hart, a debate sparked by the publication in 1957 of the Wolfenden report on homosexuality and prostitution. The committee had concluded that the law has a role in why are, preserving public order and decency, but ‘it is not, in advantages testing, our view, the function of the law to intervene in why are unions important, the private life of citizens, or to seek to enforce any particular pattern of behaviour’. You? Furthermore, there ‘must remain a realm of private morality and immorality which is, in brief and crude terms, not the law’s business’. It therefore recommended the decriminalisation of consensual homosexuality for men over the age of 21. Lord Devlin wrote that a society means a community of ideas: ‘without shared ideas on politics, morals, and ethics, no society can exist’.

Society, therefore, is constituted in part by its morality. Why Are? In language reminiscent of Durkheim, Lord Devlin argued that the fabric of society is dependent upon a shared or common morality: where the bonds of that morality are loosened by wheelchair ramps private immoral conduct, the integrity of society will be lost, and society will be liable to why are unions important, disintegrate. Society therefore has the right to defend itself against immorality. Even private wickedness and immorality may be punished because they are harmful to society. In Lord Devlin’s own words, ‘The suppression of what motivates you vice is as much the law’s business as the why are important suppression of subversive activities.’ However, Lord Devlin recognised that there are limits to the right of wheelchair ramps for steps society to interfere with private immoral conduct: ‘there must be toleration of the maximum individual freedom that is consistent with the integrity of society’. He accepted that personal preferences, or likes and dislikes, should not form the basis for decisions about what immoral conduct should be outlawed. He therefore developed an important apparently objective test , that of the reasonable or ordinary man, to about The Trolley Problem, by Judith Jarvis Thomson, help decide where the boundaries are to be drawn: only where immoral conduct is regarded by this ordinary man with ‘intolerance, indignation or disgust’, should it be prohibited by law.

It is worth noting that Lord Devlin’s morality is based upon convention: in other words, it is based upon why are what is generally regarded by society at The Trolley Jarvis Thomson, large as being the acceptable and desirable state of affairs. It is therefore a relative rather than absolute morality, as it is not based upon any higher authority regarding good and bad, or right and unions wrong. Conventional morality serves to maintain the status quo within society. Interestingly, it would allow for the continuation of practices that might be regarded as morally repugnant by other societies: for example, it could be used to motivates, preserve practices such as polygamy, apartheid and slavery as long as they were not regarded with intolerance, indignation or disgust by the ordinary person within the society that practised it. Extension : Read the following article published by Harvard Law school in why are unions, 1966 criticising Devlins view. Then summarise the key aspects of the advantages of animal argument in 500 words . lord-devlin-and-the-enforcement-of-morals.pdf. Hart Laws should not reflect society’s morals. Professor Hart proposed a more limited role for the law in the enforcement of morality.

Whereas Lord Devlin started from the general principle that society has a duty to important, enforce its dominant morality, and then limited the application of this general principle to acts that the ordinary man regards with intolerance, Professor Hart started from the opposite end of the spectrum, that society should not interfere with private moral or immoral conduct. However, Hart then limited the application of this general principle by sanctioning the lsd dangers enforcement of morality in certain situations. First of all, he accepted that enforcement is permitted when one of society’s dominant moralities is being eroded by important a true threat to wheelchair, the cohesion of why are unions society. Such a threat, though, has to be more than merely a challenge to society’s code of conduct: there must be evidence that it creates a genuine public nuisance. Hart’s discussion of the offence of bigamy illustrates this approach. Article? He wrote that, in a country where deep religious significance is attached to monogamous marriage and to the wedding service, the why are unions important law against bigamy should be accepted as an attempt to surfing the internet, protect religious feelings from offence by a ‘public act desecrating the ceremony’. According to why are, Hart, the persuasive article bigamist is punished not for the act of bigamy itself, but for the offence he causes to the feelings of others. Hart applied the same reasoning to public sexual intercourse between a man and his wife. The act of intercourse, he states, is not in itself immoral, but if it takes place in public, it is an affront to decent people, and, as a nuisance, deserves to be punished under the law. Devlin accused Hart of being inconsistent.

He challenged Hart, saying: ‘Bigamy violates neither good manners nor decency. Important? When committed without deception, it harms no one.’ Although Devlin is not necessarily arguing here in favour of article legalising bigamy, it is at least ironic that he seems to be adopting a more liberal stance than Hart on this issue. Hart also accepted the legal enforcement of morality in areas other than those creating a public nuisance. On some issues he adopted a paternalistic approach. Why Are? The taking of drugs and consensual euthanasia are two areas where he believed people need to be protected against themselves. This stance seems less liberal than that adopted by Mill. On the lsd dangers specific issue of homosexuality, Hart attacked Devlin for believing that it threatened society with disintegration. He argued that Devlin’s position was tantamount to declaring that any change in morality threatened the important disintegration of society. Furthermore, he pointed out.

that Lord Devlin’s approach would cause society’s values to stagnate, to become permanently fixed at one point in time. The HartDevlin debate reflected through examples. Judges and Parliament are often forced to confront complex moral issues. In Shaw v DPP (1962), which concerned a magazine advertising the services of Problem, Jarvis prostitutes, Shaw was convicted of ‘conspiracy to corrupt public morals’ a previously unknown offence. The House of Lords confirmed the existence of why are important this new common law offence. What Motivates? Viscount Simonds declared: ‘there remains in why are, the courts a residual power to enforce the supreme and fundamental purpose of the law, to conserve not only the Problem, Thomson safety and order, but also the moral welfare of the State’. Lord Devlin would have approved. Also see the development of the defence of Duress of Circumstance through the case of why are Martin and lsd dangers Pommell. Note that eventhough parliament has recognised a defence of Necessity in why are unions important, criminal law, principally for the emergency services need to break traffic laws (enshrined in the Road Traffic Acts) and acknowledged by Lord Denning in Buckoke v GLC [1975], judges have repeatedly resisted creating a common law defence of necessity in criminal law, eg Quayle Others (2005) for possessing cannabis in motivates you, order to stop the pain from an incurable disease.

But see the civil cases of R v A (conjoined twins) 2000 and Re F (1989), the forced sterilisation of a 26-year of why are important female with the mental age of 5. In R v Gibson (1990), an artist was convicted under the common law offence of outraging public decency for exhibiting earrings made from the internet freeze-dried human foetuses. No doubt Devlin would maintain that this is unions important, exactly the wheelchair ramps for steps type of immoral conduct that would arouse the why are intolerance, indignation and disgust of the ordinary person, and so should be subjected to about by Judith Jarvis, the full rigour of the criminal law. Hart might well arrive at important, the same conclusion, accepting that such an exhibition creates a public nuisance which causes significant offence to others. In the celebrated case of R v Brown and Others (1993), the defendants were convicted under s47 and s20 of the Essay about The Trolley by Judith Thomson Offences against the Person Act 1861 after engaging in unions important, violent sado-masochistic activities. All these activities were conducted in private, with no complaints from the victims and no medical attention ever sought. Lsd Dangers? There were no permanent injuries. The activities came to the attention of the police as a result of why are unions important a tape recording the men had made of the event. Advantages Testing? The House of why are important Lords declared that consent is not available in cases of such serious injuries, subject to certain exceptions of advantages testing which sado-masochistic behaviour was not one. Speaking for the majority, Lord Templeman declared that the issues of policy and public interest must be taken into account before deciding whether the defence of why are consent should be extended to sado-masochistic activities.

Then, in words resonant of Lord Devlin, he expressed his own opinion: ‘Society is entitled and lsd dangers bound to protect itself against a cult of unions important violence. Pleasure derived from the infliction of pain is an evil thing. Cruelty is uncivilised.’ He dismissed the men’s appeal. Lord Mustill, dissenting, declared, in words reminiscent of Professor Hart, that: ‘the state should interfere with the rights of an individual to live his or her life as he or she may choose no more than is necessary to ensure a proper balance between the advantages special interests of the individual and the general interests of the individuals who together comprise the populace at large.’ He conceded that many people would find the defendants’ conduct repulsive. Unions Important? Nevertheless, that feeling of repulsion did not, in his view, justify the men’s conviction. The defence of consent was also considered in the case of R v Wilson (1996). At his wife’s request, Alan Wilson branded his initials (‘AW’) on her buttocks. Hearing the appeal against conviction for ABH, Russell LJ explained: ‘Consensual activity between husband and wife, in the privacy of the matrimonial home, is not, in our judgment, a proper matter for criminal investigation, let alone criminal prosecution.’ It is possible that this result would be welcomed by both Devlin and Hart, the former because the ordinary man might well regard Wilson’s conduct with amusement rather than disgust, the latter because such activity falls within the realm of Essay Problem, by Judith Jarvis private morality and does not create a public nuisance.

This case illustrates concern for the autonomy of the individual, a concern also evident in the Court of Appeal judgment in St George’s NHS Healthcare Trust v S (1998). In 1996, a woman who was approximately 36 weeks pregnant was diagnosed with pre-eclampsia and advised that she needed urgent attention, otherwise her life and that of the unborn child would be in danger. When she rejected this advice, she was detained under s2 of the Mental Health Act 1983, and a court order was granted to carry out a caesarean section operation without her consent. The Court of Appeal ruled that an adult of sound mind is entitled to refuse medical treatment, and this entitlement is not reduced because her decision might appear morally repugnant, bizarre or irrational. The right to refuse medical treatment in unions important, this situation is only available where the woman is deemed to be competent. This language is surfing, reminiscent of the decision of the House of Lords in why are unions, Gillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech Area Health Authority and Essay Problem, by Judith Thomson the DHSS (1985). The mother of girls under the age of consent had sought a court declaration that their doctors would not be allowed to prescribe contraceptive pills to her daughters without her knowledge. The House of Lords declared that a ‘competent child’, who had sufficient understanding of the issues involved, could decide for herself without her parents being informed. The decisions in both these cases illustrate how the autonomy of the individual can override other considerations, such as the interests of the unborn child, and parental responsibility. However, such autonomy is not absolute.

Diane Pretty suffered from motor-neurone disease, a terminal condition. She wanted her husband to be allowed to help her to end her life peacefully and with dignity. In 2001, the House of Lords and the European Court of Human Rights rejected her application, ruling that a right to life does not include a right to end life. Her application conflicted with broader issues of public morality. Parliament must also confront issues of public morality. The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 introduced regulations for the creation, storage and use of human embryos outside of the human body. It also introduced a statutory licensing authority to oversee the why are unions operation of the Act. In 2004, as a result of advances in reproductive medicine and ramps for steps changes in public morality, the government began a review of the 1990 Act, leading to why are important, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Bill 2008.

Among its features are: 1 a new concept of parenthood for a mother’s female partner: 2 statutory approval to be given to ‘saviour siblings’, i.e. children born from embryos that have been genetically screened to ensure they share the same tissue type as the sick, live sibling. 3 in relation to children born after surrogacy arrangements, same sex couples and unmarried opposite of animal testing, sex couples to enjoy the same rights to why are, parenthood as married couples now an Jarvis Thomson increase in the type of embryo research that will be permitted, including the use of hybrid embryos. This Bill has been described in Parliament as ‘a pragmatic fusion between science and unions the social morals of today’. Elements of it are certainly consistent with other recent legislation. In 2004, the about The Trolley by Judith Thomson Civil Partnership Act allowed partners of the same biological sex to enter into a civil partnership giving them the same rights and why are responsibilities as heterosexual married couples. These include property rights, exemptions on wheelchair inheritance tax, pension rights, and next-of-kin rights. In 2006, Parliament passed the Equality Act. This forbids schools, businesses and other agencies from discriminating on the basis of age, disability, gender, race, religion or sexual orientation.

Under the unions terms of lsd dangers this Act, adoption agencies have to consider applications for adoption from homosexual couples. The Roman Catholic Church sought an why are unions important exemption from this provision, arguing that this went against its teachings. However, the government refused to yield ground, instead granting religious adoption agencies 21 months to prepare to implement the new rules. Task : Complete the activity on Law and morality and topical issues by completing the attached research activity. The research activity page with links to all relevant issues in lsd dangers, the word document. Below are two video clips that may help you understand the issues: Mandatory life Sentence and the European Convention on Human Rights.

Anti terrorsm Laws and search and arrest procedures. Task: Write the following essay on Law and Morality using the essay plan at this link. Consider the view that there is a close relationship between law and morality. Examine the debate as to whether the why are unions law should reflect moral values, and advantages testing discuss issues which show the continuing importance of that debate. (30marks + 5 QWC)

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Well-developed project-planning, management, coordination and interpersonal skills. Computer proficiency. Valid Ontario driver's licence. Over 10 years' progressively responsible engineering employment. Capitalize on interpersonal skills to communicate effectively. Proven ability to break down complex, technical issues into language that lay persons can easily understand. Demonstrated efficiency and productivity. Attentive to employer's bottom line. Degree in Telecommunications Engineering. Advantages Of Animal Testing! Diploma in Electronics Engineering.

Bachelor of Science, PEng (cand.). Over 10 years' progressively responsible engineering employment. experienced in electronics, telecommunications and why are, related fields. Demonstrated technical, managerial and interpersonal competence across an extremely wide range of technologies. Proven ability to enhance employer's bottom line by increasing efficiency. Bachelor of lsd dangers Mechanical Engineering. As result of why are important work done by team of which this person was member, client Xerox is now building world's fastest digital printer. Sourced parts, had them manufactured and assembled, then qualified parts. Played crucial role in enabling employer to pass ISO 9001 / QS 9000 audit.

Saved other employer $200K by about Jarvis Thomson, identifying and correcting discrepancy with CSA standards. Progressively responsible business employment. Demonstrated attentiveness to customers. Proven ability to enhance employer's bottom line. Why Are Unions Important! Showed entrepreneurship by what motivates you, breaking into highly competitive film industry and playing key role in developing financially successful projects. Fluent in English and Hindi (listen, speak, read, write); Urdu, Punjabi, and Gujarati (listen, speak). MBA Finance, SAP certified with 9 years' progressively responsible employment as management consultant. Proven ability to oversee broad range of corporate activities, e.g., negotiating acquisitions; restructuring, devising and implementing financial systems.

Significantly enhanced profitability and generated revenue for corporate clientele. Seeking intermediate financial position. MBA, CSC (cand.). Demonstrated efficiency, punctuality and ability to consistently meet deadlines under pressure as Financial Analyst for bank. MBA, BComm (Hons.), CSC, PFPC, CMA (cand.). Licensed hairstylist in process of obtaining educational equivalency certificate, as well as computer-related qualifications. Yellow Belt in Kung-Fu, with demonstrated ability to perform at level of Blue Belt. Seeking alternative employment; especially interested in why are important, computer-related position. Human Resources Management Post-Diploma Certificate (cand.), Seneca College, Toronto.

More than 10 years' finance-related employment, incorporating many procedures typically involved in allocation and implementation of employee benefits. Demonstrated team-related skills. Proven ability to lsd dangers, work well under pressure. Proficient in wide range of computer applications. BA. Professional Recruiting and Hiring Practices Certificate (cand.), Canadian Recruiters Guild. Promoted to unions important, PERMANENT PLACEMENT SPECIALIST, Adecco (world's largest employment service). Cited by superior as one of the main reasons for our successful client retention. A team player who is always available to. Lsd Dangers! provide direction to her co-workers.

Documented 90% client satisfaction rate. Bachelor of Science (cand.). More than 20 years' progressive employment with Government of unions Canada. According to supervisor, conducts and maintains control of interviews and counselling sessions ensuring that essential information is obtained in an effective, efficient and professional manner . Persuasive Article! maintains effective relationships with co-workers by exercising tact, discretion, respect, and cooperation. Master of Library Science. 25 years' progressively responsible employment in Information sector. Documented managerial, analytical, communicative and team skills.

Demonstrated sensitivity to equity issues. Extensive experience using and adapting new media and information technologies. BA, AIT (cand.). Progressively responsible IT employment. Demonstrated efficiency and ability to generate revenue. Advanced Web development skills.

Chairperson, Board of why are important Directors, community organization. CCNA (cand.), CNA, MCSE. Progressively responsible IT employment. Won awards as IT Specialist, GE Capital. Cited by superior for excellent technical ability. Wheelchair For Steps! Saved thousands of dollars by negotiating favourable contracts. Bachelor of Science (cand.), MS CompTIA Certified. 8 years' progressive IT employment.

Bachelor of Science, CCNP (cand.), CCNA. Over 6 years' progressive IT employment. Bachelor of why are Science, Programmer / Analyst Dipl. Fastest among 5 technicians who troubleshot and debugged software, including Oracle, SQL, Forms, dBase, and C programming tools. Member of team that created Web sites for lsd dangers corporate clientele including Corp. of important Town of Pickering, whose expectations were exceeded. MS and A+ Certified. 5 years' IT employment as software developer, database administrator, troubleshooter and PC technician. Demonstrated ability to increase efficiency and conserve resources.

17 years' progressively responsible IT employment, capitalizing on interpersonal as well as technical competencies. Demonstrated ability to article, positively affect employer's bottom line. Why Are Unions! Proven managerial skill. This resume documents specific challenges, actions taken and results achieved. CSC (cand.) with marketing background and progressively responsible financial employment, incorporating wide range of investment-related duties. Saved thousands of dollars through effective marketing at Fidelity Investments. Established and maintained 100% track record in Essay The Trolley by Judith Jarvis Thomson, overcoming client objections and why are unions, retaining their business. Saved pharmaceutical manufacturer $40K by renegotiating terms and conditions for purchase of lsd dangers regular stock. Assumed responsibility for production department in important, absence of plant manager.

Previously employed as Laboratory Technician and Research Technician. Supervisory experience. 18 years' progressively responsible employment at such organizations as Exide (battery manufacturer), incorporating wide range of managerial duties. Won awards for excellence in service and product quality. Demonstrated ability to learn quickly, produce under pressure, cut costs, and work with high accuracy. Business Administration / Marketing Diploma. 7 years' managerial employment. Demonstrated ability to motivate staff.

Strong service ethic. Team player. Results-oriented. Played major role in improving customer satisfaction at Sibbalds Point Provincial Park. Won Outstanding Performance Award. At Royal Bank of Canada, avoided potential loss of tens of thousands of dollars by clearing backlog and meeting deadlines.

Fluent in the internet, Spanish. More than 14 years' managerial employment in this industry. Demonstrated ability to why are, retain clientele, boost sales, and ramps, substantially increase profit for employers. Important! Hired, trained and supervised 30 destination representatives. BComm, University of Toronto.

Marketing Certificate (cand.), Ryerson Polytechnic University, Toronto. Persuasive! Fluent in French. Presently working as Bilingual Market Researcher . Most accurate among 8 order-processors, as senior representative for marketing firm. Rated high on product knowledge through customer survey. Demonstrated ability to work quickly. Successfully helped train three staff, all of whom remain with company. Bachelor of Science (cand.), York University, Toronto.

Won Governors' Award of Distinction: Murray Ross Entrance Scholarship. As tutor, played important role in raising students' marks from approx. 50% to approx. 80%. Seek position as applied mathematician or statistician. Certificates of Qualification as Truck Coach Technician (Ontario, Canada) and Automotive Service Technician, Class A (Ontario Nova Scotia, Canada). Currently enrolled in why are unions important, Internal Medicine Residency Program, University of Toronto.

Consistently received positive feedback from senior physicians with respect to professional orientation, industry, bedside manner and efficiency in treating patients. What! Acquired teaching experience. BA (cand.). Why Are Unions! Over 8 years' progressively responsible retail employment. At Home Depot, saved thousands of dollars by ramps, reorganizing aisles in why are important, such a way that staff could downstock merchandise much more efficiently. Maximized quantity of merchandise in stock, through use of mobile ordering stations. 6 years' employment as RN. Of Animal Testing! Demonstrated organizational skills and leadership ability. Why Are Unions Important! Learns quickly. Works with extremely minimal supervision. 12 years' consecutive, progressively responsible employment helping manufacturers market their products.

Proven ability to build relationships, negotiate win-win contracts, open markets, and wheelchair ramps, help executives develop effective strategies. Generated over $20 million for why are Compugen. Won sales and persuasive article, service awards. BA. Played important role in building current employer's business from ground, working in construction industry. Previously, as computer technician, was cited by why are unions important, his project manager as demonstrating professional. conduct and working effectively with others. He consistently produces complete and thorough work of the highest quality. For employer Life Direction Training, played major role in effecting life transitions and improving relationships.

Also employed as music therapist, Toronto Catholic school board. Hons. Bachelor of Music Therapy, Certified Music Therapist (cand.). Blue Belt in Capoeira (cand.). BComm (Hons.). Seek senior position. Closed over $100 million worth of sales, including commercial and Essay by Judith, residential, during 15 years in why are, real estate. Managed one of Royal LePage's most profitable corporate franchises in advantages testing, Canada, increasing sales revenue 25%.

BComm. Twelve years in sales. Strong record of why are achievement, supported by article, statistics. Why Are Unions Important! Demonstrated, effective leadership. Achieved 154% year-over-year growth as Regional Channel Sales Manager for software company. Persuaded distributors to purchase our product. They used it, reaped benefits firsthand, and advantages testing, capitalized on the experience to close sales. Award-winning sales/marketing professional with over 10 years' stable and progressively responsible employment.

Developed key account from zero to $15 million per annum. More than 15 years' experience as Account Executive and automotive business owner. Built company from why are important, scratch. Successfully distinguished it from the competition by delivering the kind of quality serious car-owners crave. Hons.

Bachelor of Science, MBA (cand.). Award-winning outside-sales professional with 14 years' experience. Demonstrated initiative, team skills, and ability to substantially improve employer's bottom line. Directed and managed several tennis and country clubs, greatly expanding membership. Persuasive Article! National, provincial, international, ATP, and Davis Cup coach. BEd (cand.), primary/junior, consecutive program, York University, Toronto. Millennium Scholarship. Cited by host teacher in practicum as conscientious and why are important, very capable. Students. easily approach [her].

Full of energy. Enthusiastically volunteers for school projects and extracurricular events. Fluent in Greek. Able to work in French. Ph.D. in Comparative Literature (cand.) with proven ability to deliver effective instruction, as well as supervise, motivate and retain employees. Demonstrated sensitivity to individual differences, serving clientele from surfing, diverse occupations and cultural backgrounds. Ability to mediate effectively and make boring tasks interesting. Empathic.

Attentive to employer's bottom line. Broadcasting Diploma. Won coveted TSN scholarship, leading to unions, internship in Toronto. Acquired technical proficiency in wide range of TV and radio duties. Lsd Dangers! Progressively responsible employment. Won Tennis Canada Coaching Excellence Award and National Achievement Award. Coached numerous international, national, and provincial players.

National 35 and Over Singles Champion (indoor and outdoor), 1987.

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Heroes: What They Do Why We Need Them. By Scott T. Why Are Unions. Allison and George R. Goethals. Each year we celebrate Mother’s Day, and this reminds us of the results of a study we conducted recently that underscored the importance of family members as heroes. In the study, people of all ages and from all walks of life were asked to list their heroes. Essay About The Trolley By Judith Thomson. We were surprised, yet pleased, to see that family members were listed about a third of the time. Most importantly, one fourth of all people listed their mothers as their hero.

Mothers were mentioned more than any other person, including fathers. Mother’s Day became a nationally recognized holiday in 1914 because of the efforts of Anna Jarvis, a West Virginian who campaigned to unions, honor mothers after her own beloved mother passed away in 1905. Ironically, by the 1920s Jarvis became disenchanted with the commercialization of Mother’s Day and advantages began campaigning against why are unions important the holiday. About The Trolley Problem, By Judith Jarvis Thomson. Still, we believe her initial sentiment was on why are, target and we applaud the opportunity to recognize the heroic qualities of mothers everywhere. Many highly accomplished individuals are quick to attribute their success to of animal testing, their mothers. American presidents are especially likely to do so. Abraham Lincoln once noted that “all that I am, or can be, I owe to my angel mother.” George Washington also observed that “all I am I owe to my mother. I attribute all my success in life to the moral, intellectual and unions physical education I received from her.” Andrew Jackson claimed that “there never was a woman like my mother. She was as gentle as a dove and as brave as a lioness.” Other celebrities also express their indebtedness to their mothers.

Seven-time Tour de France champion Lance Armstrong once said, “My mother gave me more than any teacher or father figure ever had.” With these words, Armstrong identified the precise reason why so many of the internet, us view our mothers as heroes. It’s all about the loving generosity of mothers. Why Are Important. When the what you, participants in our study were asked why their mothers were heroic, they generated three main reasons: generosity with time, money, and love. There are many ways that mothers gave their time to us. According to survey respondents, mothers tended to us when we were sick, accompanied us to school and soccer practice, made us dinner, and important read stories to us. Our mothers made financial sacrifices, too. They wore old clothes so that we could wear new clothes; they took on part-time jobs to buy us gifts; they saved money for Essay The Trolley Problem, Jarvis, us to attend college; they gave us our weekly allowance; and they made sure we had food on the table. But the most important quality that distinguishes mothers from other heroes, including fathers, is the free offering of love that mothers give us. Mothers were there for unions important, us when we needed emotional support.

Mothers hugged us. They comforted us and about Problem, Thomson let us sit on their laps. Unions Important. They kissed us on ramps for steps, our cheeks before school and at bedtime at night. Why are mothers viewed as so heroically loving? There are at least two reasons.

First, research has shown that women tend to be more likely than men to possess communal traits such as lovingness, affection, warmth, and why are important nurturance. These communal traits are highly valued in lsd dangers the context of raising children and are associated with morality and goodness. Second, it is well known that during childhood, mothers are our primary attachment figures. Unions. They are more likely than fathers to interact with, and bond with, infants. Our society is no doubt evolving toward fathers having more communal traits and showing more attachment behaviors, but mothers still hold the edge. And so on this Mother’s Day, we’d like to lsd dangers, acknowledge and thank Anna Jarvis and important all the persuasive, women who have given so much to us all. We wish everyone the happiest of Mother’s Days!

Do you have a hero that you would like us to profile? Please send your suggestions to Scott T. Allison ( or to George R. Goethals ( 22 thoughts on “ Why Our Mothers are Our Heroes ” Mothers can be wonderful, or weird. In my case, both. #128512; In the days when we were very poor, my Mother worked very hard to make sure we were all taken care of.

Not an easy thing to do when you can’t afford to have the why are, furnace fixed and ramps ice is why are forming on the inside of a drafty old house. But we survived and of animal I, for unions important, one, have many happy memories of those days. Some of my best memories are of my Mother reading with me, or the popcorn parties we had when The Munsters were on. I worked in testing Women’s Health for 22 years and I saw many Mothers fight and sacrifice and suffer for their babies. These were inner city women who were poor and uneducated, often suffering from addiction or abuse, and most of why are, them didn’t have a clue what to the internet, do. But they, most of them, would do whatever it took to why are unions, make sure that their babies were born healthy and had a chance at a better life. Surfing. Sometimes that meant working night and day for why are important, minimum wage, sometimes it meant struggling to overcome their addictions or dependencies, and sometimes it meant giving up those babies to others who could give them more. Nothing could be more heartbreaking, or inspiring. Happy Mother’s Day, everyone. #128578; Hello.

I’m here again. I don’t know exactly why our mothers are our heroes. But I have a theory. Our mothers are the first person that we know when we born. The first person that we learn to love.

Sometimes this first person is what motivates not your mother. Unions. But a person who acts like her. And that to you is a person whom you will mirror in the future. My mother is my hero. Because she faces the worst situations and gave me a example. “She who believes will always achieve.” She taught me to keep the persuasive, faith in why are important myself…and believe in everything that I want. She shows what is lsd dangers real love. And I’m sure that my siblings are proud of her, too.

Thank you for the history. I didn’t know the unions important, context of this holiday. But now I know. Congratulations for this post. And Happy Mother’s day to every mother in The Trolley Problem, by Judith Jarvis Thomson the world.

What a wonderful tribute to why are unions, all the mothers. Mine has been gone for lsd dangers, over 25 years, but she lives on in her legacy. She was a lady! Just for the record, I think she would have loved ALL of these hero stories. Thank you for this one. And don’t forget: Welll behaved women rarely make history!” (author unknown) I surfed whole internet to read comments about this subject. Why Are Unions Important. Best regards. I 100 percent agree with this blog. My mother is lsd dangers my hero; she is the important, reason who I am.

I respect all moms across the world, especially single parent moms. I have the most respect for my mom because she raised me and my two brothers on her own. Persuasive Article. I feel that I owe her my life, the why are unions important, sacrifices she made for my brothers and ramps for steps I are unthinkable. I wouldn’t want to trade her for anything in the world. I would definitely agree that mothers are unsung heroes. I feel like we often overlook them as heroes since their influence is important so obvious!

There are few that have greater influence in our lives. So when labeling people ‘heroes’ we are overlooking what’s right under our nose, or in lsd dangers this case the one who gave us our nose in the first place. I would definitely consider my mother one of why are, my heroes. Ramps. She has spent a good part of her life making my life as it is now possible. She helped me to grow and develop into who I am now and has always been there for why are important, any type of support I may need. My mother truly has helped me become the lsd dangers, person I am today. Mothers are a perfect example of how some degree of heroism is very personal.

Many heroes are only defined in the eyes of one individual – like mothers. Does that make them any less heroic? Absolutely not. Also, I’d like to add that that cookie cake looks delicious! My mom is by why are unions far one of my greatest heroes. She is the mother of four girls, works as an the internet, RN and yet still makes time to come to every one of our sporting events and still have dinner ready for important, when everyone gets home.

I know that I do not thank her enough for all that she has done for me, but reading this blog just makes me realize how important she is what motivates you not only to important, me, but to my family as a whole. What Motivates. I would not be who I am today without my mom, and I know my family would not be either. Great blog #128578; Wonderful posting. I really could not have explained that better. Why Are Important. I am not sure if everybody will go along with you, but it probably doesn’t matter. Keep up the advantages of animal testing, great work. My mom will always be my hero because of what she does for my family everyday.

She is the sweetest lady i know, next to my grandma. She works extremely hard and does it for other people, not just herself. Important. She works at a public school, where the kids are to poor to go to any other school because their parents cannot afford to send their kids to lsd dangers, any kind of school. So This school provides an education for unions important, them and my mom is the vice president of the organization. She means the world to me and surfing I am sure she is not just my hero. Love you mom! Because they are our guardians, bodyguards, food providers, care takers, moral supporters, friends, etc,etc,etc, good post. Many thanks to Anna Jarvis – we are encouraged to why are important, stop for of animal, a moment and say “thank you” to all the why are unions important, Mother’s in surfing the world.

They deserve so much more, but a special day is important just fine. My mom worked so hard to make sure my sister and I had an education and Essay by Judith Jarvis we have never let her down. Strong when she needed to be, and compassionate and understanding when things got tough. Unions Important. I am lucky that she found love again after my Dad passed away. She is a remarkable person and I hope my sister and I enjoy many, many Mother’s Day celebrations with her. Thanks for reminding us it took another strong woman to lsd dangers, stand up and recognize Moms for why are important, all their hard work! #128578;

Mothers truly are some of the most unsung heroes of all time. Article. They give their children what they need in so many different facets of their lives, which is what makes them so spectacular. Why Are Important. The ability to provide emotional, financial, and even practical support such as cooking meals and doing housekeeping – these are all qualities that mothers tend to possess, and their ability to do all of this and stay sane is wheelchair ramps for steps remarkable. Mothers are some of the unions, most caring, selfless people on earth. Advantages. They want what is best for their children, and they keep their families united. Why Are. It is from our mothers that we learn so much about how to behave and how to the internet, care for unions important, others, qualities that are some of the lsd dangers, most important things we can learn as children.

It is no surprise that mothers are nearly always our attachment figures when we are children, because mothers are the ones who protect, nurture, and love us unconditionally. It is very fitting that we have a day to honor them, but we should be praising our mothers, our greatest heroes, 365 days a year. I love my mom so much I wrote a paper on her for one of my school projects. Everyone relize that a mom is the most important person in the world. I think most everyone can understand why mothers are unsung heroes. Even if you do not have a personally great relationship with your mom, you can see in so many circumstances where mothers are excellent role models, and figures of love and affection to unions important, so many people. Mothers are the reasons many people become the people they are, and lsd dangers many credit their mothers for developing and building their character. Why Are. My mother is absolutely my personal hero. I admire her every day and hope to be more like her as I get older! I love this blog on mothers. My mother has been, and always will be one of my dearest heroes.

She has helped to The Trolley Problem, Jarvis Thomson, shape and transform me into who I am today. As I grow older, I hope to why are unions important, see more qualities of my own mother in myself. I have the utmost respect for my mom, and I am thrilled to see a blog honoring all mothers around the world. Mothers are the comfort that kids need. Advantages Testing. My mother has overcome multiple obstacles and continuously puts others before herself. She was my high school field hockey coach and important while she lead us to many championships she taught us a lot about article, life. Important. Her belief in others and charisma has given her the title of a hero, not just for me but for what you, others too. In addition to unions, my father, my mother is also one of my biggest heroes. I think this blog is important because of how heroic mothers truly are. The term “unsung hero” is perfect for mothers because I believe people tend to overlook how much mothers really do.

I love my mom and ramps for steps there’s nothing I could do to repay her for everything she has done for me. She will always be a hero in my eyes whether she knows it or not. I was very pleased when I came across this post. My mother is my hero for an abundance of why are, reasons, and I feel that many mother’s heroism goes unnoticed. Lsd Dangers. I myself sometimes take my mom for granted. She has helped me form into the person I am today, and I can’t imagine my life without her.

As both a mom a daughter – and as usual ‘odd one out’ compared to unions important, the modern Western world norms – I can say I find it easier to BE a mother than to have had one… Whilst I value the Essay about Thomson, fact that without my now-deceased mother, I would not be as I am today, and that SHE fed me, clothed me, and cared about why are unions important, me, as well as gave birth to me – I was never close to, inspired by, or looking up to my Mom. I have to say that I rarely put ‘my’ Mom above other mothers…. Advantages Testing. or even recognized her role and value until becoming a mother myself. It was not until I myself gave birth and had a precious human being to care for, protect, look after, worry about, and ‘put first’, that I even noticed that a Mom was anything special. I therefore wonder how many of us who ARE moms have changed our view of important, our OWN Mothers since becoming moms – and if this may make a difference to how highly we rate them. My mom is my hero, without you I would not. live .. good by mom ..

God bles with you. As a single mother, I’m hoping that one day there’ll be a day dedicated to recognize celebrate the heroism of wheelchair ramps for steps, single mothers who despite all odds, manage to stand “on their own feet”. our mother is the loving soul to us.we are existing due to our mothers care.she sustains during emotional and hard situations.when we feel sick,she is the the only soul that remains our mothers are the first god to us. Comments are closed. 500,000 VISITORS TO THIS BLOG (1) Activist Heroes (24) Artist Heroes (9) Celebrity Heroes (30) Commentary and Analysis (37) Fictional Heroes (16) Legendary Heroes (24) Our 1st Book — HEROES (1) Our 2nd Book — HEROIC LEADERSHIP (1) Our latest books on HEROIC LEADERS (10) Political Heroes (19) Science Heroes (15) Spiritual Heroes (11) Sports Heroes (20) Superheroes (9) Unsung Heroes (41) War Heroes (20)

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