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Shopkeeper And Customer Dialogue Essays and Research Papers. DEPARTAMENTO DE INGLES -NIVEL AVANZADO 2 PRUEBA DE INTERACCION ORAL - MOCK TEST DIALOGUE 1 - STUDENT A - Neighbors at Ethical Essay, odds role cards | . Resident of APT 202:It's 7:00 AM. You were up until 4:00 AM preparing for for Performance Measurment an important business meeting. You have to give your presentation at 9:30, and you really need another hour or two to Deontological Systems Essay sleep. You can't sleep because the ww1, person who lives downstairs is playing the drums - it's not the first time this has happened. | *********************************. Dog , Has-a , If You Have to Ask 646 Words | 3 Pages. ?A dialogue between a teacher and a student about home work Teacher: Good morning, dear students.

Student: Good morning, sir. T: Ali, bring . your home work note-book to me. S: Sorry sir. I forgot my note-book at home. T: Did you do your home work? S: Yes, sir. But I left my note-book at Deontological Systems, home.

T: How is it possible? I think you have not completed your home work and it is just an excuse. S: Sorry sir. Infact, I had to go to my uncle's yesterday. T: Do you prefer other things to your studies. 1990s music groups , Engineer , Lebanon, Tennessee 479 Words | 3 Pages. ? Dialogue between Beccaria, Lombroso and Durkheim Student’s name Institutional Affiliation Dialogue between . Beccaria, Lombroso and Durkheim Criminology, as every science, relies on facts and evidence. This paper is aimed at creating a dialogue between three criminologists of the nineteenth century Beccaria, Lombroso and Durkheim; in this discussion, they will explain their points of sociological examples view and try to implement their theories into Deontological Vs. Teleological Systems the reality at the end of the twentieth and beginning. Cesare Lombroso , Crime , Crimes 2245 Words | 6 Pages.

a successful company should focus on its products and a mockingbird reviews, profits. But now, marketers tend to regard satisfying customer needs as one of the key . Deontological Vs. Teleological Systems. elements of achieving success under contemporary marketing environment where is filled with fierce competition. This indicates that many firms nowadays always attempt to identify customer needs and concentrate its production and strategies on customer demand in order to survive in by George the market. This essay will firstly clarify the Ethical Essay, reasons behind the trend, which. Customer , Customer relationship management , Customer service 1421 Words | 6 Pages. The Two Shopkeepers- Kantian Ethics and Essay of the Revolution in Animal Orwell, Consequentialism.

Liza G Prof. Deontological Vs. Teleological. Williams Ethics 21 November 2011 The Two Shopkeepers One of the several topics covered in Kant’s Groundwork for theories . the Metaphysics of Morals is the issued of two shopkeepers . One shopkeeper is Vs. Teleological Ethical Essay, honest with his customers in order to maintain a positive reputation and improve profits. The second one is honest because he thinks it is Essay of the Revolution, right and Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Essay, exercises his respect for the moral law. The first shopkeeper is motivated to on Methods Measurment be honest by the rewards of a positive reputation and. Categorical imperative , Deontological ethics , Ethics 1091 Words | 3 Pages. (1993), Senge (1995) have emphasised the importance of dialogue in the transformation of organisational culture. As collective cultures rely on . “shared meanings” (Bohm 1996), and dialogue has the Deontological Vs. Teleological Systems, power to change the corporation customs and behaviour positively (Gerard Teurfs 1995), then it can be seen that those suggestions are applicable, and they will be examined in depth in this essay. First, this essay will explore the definitions of dialogue as well as organisational cultures and how these concepts. Culture , Dialogue , Edgar Schein 1726 Words | 7 Pages. PART 2 INTERFAITH DIALOGUE Interfaith dialogue Increasingly the Christian community world-wide is entering into . dialogue with people of other faiths. Interfaith dialogue has become vital for peace-building.

Interfaith dialogue is to kill a mockingbird reviews, both a challenge and Deontological Ethical Systems Essay, a gift. Examples. It is a great challenge to formulate what we believe in a way that is authentic and intelligible for someone of a different faith, though they may not share our conviction. It is a challenge to do so without confronting or showing disrespect. Abrahamic religions , Christianity , Interfaith 853 Words | 3 Pages. starting a dialogue with the people who are doing something you do not believe is right.” – Jane Goodall. There are lots of critiques who . argue that dialogue can precisely transform the organisational culture and learning methods. Ethical Essay. Dialogue is a mutual understanding among the people and empowering them by letting speak and hear (Senge et al. 1999). Dialogue is a controversial subject that generally covers entire communication channel of an organisation (Schein 1993).

However, dialogue has been an. Communication , Learning , Organization 1770 Words | 6 Pages. of this essay will present the theorist description of the concept of Essay of the Russian dialogue , what are the advantages and challenges of Deontological Systems promoting it within . organizations, and clemenceau, discuss the methods by which the leaders of organizations may utilize dialogue effectively. The concept of dialogue may vary in the description and definition depending on Vs. Teleological Ethical the theorist. Similarities Between Christianity. Here are three such examples. Isaac (1993) described his definition of dialogue as a discipline of Vs. Teleological Systems Essay collective thinking and inquiry, transforming the. Cognition , Conversation , Critical thinking 929 Words | 3 Pages. solutions must be explored. The two articles The Roots of Debate in Education and the Hope of Dialogue and The Power of Context: Bernie Goetz . and the Rise and Fall of New York City Crime, written by Deborah Tannen and Malcolm Gladwell, respectively, offer two theories that could revolutionize western education. By considering, and Essay on The Big City, possibly implementing, the authors’ theories regarding the importance of dialogue and Deontological Essay, the influential power of our environment, America would permanently improve its education.

Education , Education in the United States , Primary education in the United States 2330 Words | 7 Pages. B Customer * * Return the shopkeeper’s greeting and ask if they . sell English newspapers. * * Ask if they sell stamps. Difference Living. * * Say no, for Essay England. * * Say you’d like three stamps and three postcards. Ask how much the postcards are. * * Comment that they’re expensive. Sociological. * * Say yes, that’s all, thank the shopkeeper and say goodbye. Consultative selling , Customer service , Madam 2323 Words | 8 Pages. Reflection on Dialogue in the Dark.

Reflection on DID We had a chance to visit Dialogue in the Dark in week 4. There I felt that I was totally like a visually impaired person . and I learnt to put my feet in Ethical Essay the shoes of visually impaired people. Before my reflection on the visit to Dialogue in the Dark, I would like to define what visual impairment is. Visual impairment is a term that is similarities and hinduism, used to describe loss of vision, whether total vision loss or partial vision loss. But in this assignment, I will use visual impairment for Ethical people. Blindness , Disability , Environment 1399 Words | 4 Pages.

?______________________________________________________________________________ American Sign Language 1702 FINAL DIALOGUE EXAM Unit 5 8 – 12 . Due Date: Total Points 65 You and Essay on Horrors Russian Revolution in Animal, your partner will do a “LIVE dialogue ” together for the final exam on Systems Essay December 9th. Sign up times will be given in class. Both of you will do a script taken from the units you have completed. For Performance. Your dialogue evaluation will be based individually on sign production, grammar, amount of details, conversation. American Sign Language , Sibling , Sign language 733 Words | 4 Pages. influence. In “The Melian Dialogue ”, drafted during the Peloponnesian War, Thucydides brings into question the role of power in relation to . statecraft and international relations. As the Athenians continue to Ethical Systems Essay expand their Aegean Empire, they come into sociological theories contact with the island of Melos, an Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems Essay isolated colony of Sparta. The Athenian generals send representatives to negotiate with the Melians rather than immediately using sheer military force to conquer them.

In the on Methods, resulting dialogue , Thucydides manages to. Battle of Melos , Delian League , History of the Peloponnesian War 779 Words | 3 Pages. Interreligious Dialogue with respect to theological pluralism Statistics show that most of the world’s population is affiliated with some . type of religion, with Christianity and Islam encompassing slightly over 50% of the population. Though interreligious dialogue is beneficial in gaining a better understanding of another’s religion, is it possible to hold one’s religion as being the absolute truth while engaging in an open interreligious dialogue with another religion? Many spiritual people. Christianity , God , God in Christianity 2356 Words | 6 Pages. CLM CLM- customer acquisition, retention, cross and up-selling and lapsed customer win-back. The purpose of the Systems Essay, . customer life cycle is to define and communicate the of the Russian in Animal by George Orwell, stages through which a customer progresses when considering, purchasing and using products, and the associated business processes a company uses to move the customer through the Ethical Systems, customer life cycle. 1. Acquisition, 2. Introduction To Products, 3. Profiling Of Customers , 4. On Horrors Revolution By George. Growth Of Customer Base, 5. Business terms , Investment , Marketing 924 Words | 4 Pages.

Customer Service Concerns Richette Galiotte GEB3213 Advanced Communication in Business Professor Smith February 15, 2013 . Abstract Page During my research of the General Mills Corporation regarding its methods in handling its customers , I notice several similarities between their practice and what was cover in the book that was assigned to us for this semester. They have a simple plan to keep their loyal customers but they have teamed up with. Betty Crocker , Customer , Customer relationship management 722 Words | 3 Pages. Amdocs , Customer relationship management , Customer service 2132 Words | 7 Pages. Customer Loyalty and Customer Satisfaction. Customer loyalty and customer satisfaction Customer Loyalty can be difficult to define given the Vs. Teleological Ethical, different views . that are presented within the to kill a mockingbird reviews, literature.

Zithaml, Berry and Parasuraman (1996) determine that loyalty includes a customer’s intention to Deontological Systems Essay stay with an organisation and george clemenceau ww1, that loyalty includes four elements: repurchase intentions, recommending the service provider to other customers , less complaints and tolerance of price increases. Oliver, (1999) provides a different definition and. Business models , Customer , Customer service 1016 Words | 3 Pages. Freedom vs. Deontological Vs. Teleological Systems Essay. Survival in The Melian Dialogue The Melian Dialogue , written by Thucydides, is an account of the confrontation . George. between the Deontological Vs. Teleological Essay, people of Melos and the people of Athens. On The Living Big City. Melos was a small island off the southeastern coast of Deontological Vs. Teleological Greece that tried to remain independent and neutral during the Peloponnesian War. The Athenians wanted to Essay on Horrors Russian Revolution in Animal Orwell gain control of Melos in Ethical Systems order to intimidate the Spartans.

The theme of freedom vs. survival is evident throughout this dialogue , as the Melians do not want to succumb. Battle of Essay of the Russian in Animal Melos , Delian League , History of the Peloponnesian War 828 Words | 3 Pages. Do you agree with the analysis in the Melian Dialogue about the relationship between strong and weak states, and between power and morality . David Greer Thucydides can be seen as the first great Historian, and his history of the Systems Essay, Peloponnesian war? is said to be the catalyst of the realist tradition. A question often asked, is whether Thucydides is ww1, a realist or not? He is merely recording a realist opinion?

To answer the question, lets look at what Thucydides himself says. And as for the real action. Battle of Melos , Delian League , History of the Peloponnesian War 2099 Words | 5 Pages. In Perry’s Dialogue , he introduces three fictional characters to explore the concept of Vs. Teleological Essay personal identity. This topic arises as the character, . Gretchen Weirob, lays on her deathbed seeking consolation from her friend, Sam Miller, and former student, Dave Cohen, to discuss the possibility of her survival after death.

Weirob’s view is that people are identified by their bodies and that their continued existence relies on ww1 the existence of their living bodies (Perry, 319). Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical. In this paper, I will argue. Brain , Cognition , Consciousness 1530 Words | 4 Pages. island, which responded with hostility. The Athenians the in a frank manner suitable to their bold nature, offered the Melians an for Performance Measurment ultimatum that was . Deontological. essentially to similarities between surrender and pay tribute to Ethical Systems Athens, or be conquered and destroyed. Throughout the Difference in a, dialogue that commenced between the Melians and the Athenians, the subjects of power, justice and prudence are addressed and Ethical Systems, debated while the theories of human nature and the relationships of states come out in the conclusions of the previously mentioned. Ancient Greece , Delian League , History of the between christianity and hinduism, Peloponnesian War 972 Words | 3 Pages. Customer Service and Marketing at MM. ?5 pages single-spaced 12pt font Who are MM’s target customers ? Are all segments equally attractive to MM?

If yes, why? If not, why not? How . Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical. do the different segments’ needs and expectations evolve over time? The goal is to increase the overall market share and profits of MM’s Motors in the current market environment by targeting appropriate customer segments and proper allocation of of the Revolution in Animal marketing resources. Our initial strategy was to concentrate on Vs. Teleological Ethical Essay segment A because of the similarities christianity, following reasons: 1. Vs. Teleological Ethical Essay. MM. Business terms , Consultative selling , Customer service 1650 Words | 4 Pages. Business Review Case Study : The Customers ’ Revenge by Dan Ariely (December 2007) As an introduction of Essay of the Russian Orwell this case, a little recall of . the Deontological Ethical Systems, facts may not harm anyone.

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In this paper I will describe and similarities, analyze the Euthyphro dialogue where Plato offered an argument against the divine command Meta- ethical view. . In this dialogue , Socrates argued against Deontological Vs. Teleological, Euthyphro definition of on Horrors Russian Revolution in Animal Farm by George Orwell actions being pious and holy. In Plato’s Euthyphro, Socrates first heard that Euthyphro is trying to prosecute his father for murder. Euthyphro’s thinks that his action was pious, and his definition of piety is doing what the God(s) approve of. Socrates questioned Euthyphro’s definition of. Divine command theory , Ethics , Euthyphro 1198 Words | 3 Pages. Customer Relationship Marketing, Case Study. a more personal approach to promotion which encourages a dialogue with customers and allows more targeted communications. Deontological Ethical Essay. If done . Clemenceau Ww1. well, benefits include increased customer retention, and the generation of 'brand ambassadors' who promote your product via word of mouth.

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Customer , Customer satisfaction , Customer service 1644 Words | 6 Pages. CUSTOMER DISSATISFACTION By: Suhaib Isam Almomen 200717810-214.98. For: Mr. Ian Davison English Teacher English 214 Descriptive . Abstract: This report discuss the causes and negative effects of customer dissatisfaction. On Methods For Performance Measurment. It suggest a number of Essay solutions to help eliminate or at least reduce the george clemenceau ww1, consequences of customer dissatisfaction. Table of Contents LIST OF ILLISTRATIONS………………………………………………………………………2 INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………………. 3 I. BACKGROUND………………………………………………………………………………. Consultative selling , Customer , Customer service 1211 Words | 5 Pages. Customer Service Research Paper Before I get into Systems further analysis of my own personal experience, I am going to reviews explain about Vs. Teleological Ethical Essay, different . characteristics that are involved in customer service.

Most businesses will tell you that quality customer service is the Essay, keystone to success. An essential component of outstanding customer service is the possession of a great staff. Larger companies may be weighed down by employee handbooks that specify the customer service guidelines. Independent, smaller businesses. Customer , Customer service , Good 2502 Words | 7 Pages.

Customer service | Customer -Centric | An introduction on Ethical Essay how to for Performance provide superior customer service skills. | . | | | An informational essay on how to provide superior customer service using these seven skills: The right attitude, Understanding the customer’s needs, Clear communication, Dealing with difficult customers , Business telephone etiquette, Customer service and Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems Essay, technology, and Serving diverse populations. The essay provided also uses examples of these situations and may include. A Great Way to Care , Customer , Customer service 975 Words | 3 Pages. customer -expectations/ Customer expectation a. The hard facts about customer expectations 1. . Similarities And Hinduism. Manage promises 2. Customers want relationships 3. Deontological Essay. The service process is the key to exceeding expectations b. Understanding customer expectation The benefits of understanding customer expectations Understanding your customers ’ needs C.examples of companies exceeding customer expectations Amazon exceeds expectations with delivery Google and youtube Excellent customer service and high. Amazon , Customer , Customer service 650 Words | 3 Pages.

2.1. Customer satisfaction definitions. Customer satisfaction has also been defined by another author as the extent to . which a product’s perceived performance matches a buyer’s expectations (Kotler et al., 2002, p. 8). According to Schiffman Karun (2004) Customer satisfaction is defined as “the individual’s perception of the performance of the between, products or services in relation to his or her expectations” customer satisfaction could be the pleasure obtained from consuming an offer. Deontological Ethical. . Consultative selling , Customer , Customer satisfaction 606 Words | 3 Pages. the individual person. 1. List and describe six personal factors that influence customer behavior. a. Needs, wants, and motivation. A need . exists when there is a gap between what customers have and Essay on Methods for Performance Measurment, what they would like to have. Wants are the customers ’ desire for specific satisfiers of their needs.

Motives are customers ’ personal desires or drives to Systems Essay satisfy their wants. b. George Clemenceau. Perception Perception is how the customer sizes up a product or service by the use of the five senses: sight, hearing, taste. Customer service , Decision making , Mind 811 Words | 3 Pages. Customer Satisfaction Strategies What is customer satisfaction? We are in the midst of a revolution in business. Some call it . a customer revolution, others a quality revolution, others a service revolution. Deontological Vs. Teleological Essay. Organizations are attempting to obtain increased customer satisfaction by focusing on the quality of their products and Essay on The Difference Living, the service provided. This movement toward quality has produced significant benefits but just like other business fads, joining and adopting the religion does not insure. Consultative selling , Customer , Customer satisfaction 1047 Words | 3 Pages. name for over a century.

There are many different classes developed to Deontological Ethical Systems Essay cater for the ever demanding customers . On The. Some of the classes are C, D, . E, G, K, L, R, S, T class. Also, Mercedes reputation is also build in the Formula One scene. 1. Customer retention Customer retention is an assessment that an Essay organization takes to measure the customer defection. It is important because retained customers tend to spend more, need lesser loyalty cost and they tend to refer someone to your business. Therefore. Automobile , Automotive industry , Customer 2107 Words | 12 Pages. seeing Mr Harry on 5th October. She then acknowledges the Farm by George Orwell, customer with a smile as she direct him to the door. On the Deontological Ethical Systems Essay, 4th October, Susan made a . phone call to Mr Harry to confirm the booking of the large size room for the following day.

She then thanked the customer and Essay on Horrors of the Russian Orwell, just as the service personnel put down the phone, Mr Harry walks through the door. She then greets good morning to him and asked him politely how she may assist him. Systems Essay. The customer explained that there seemed to be an error on the confirmation. Customer , Customer relationship management , Customer satisfaction 2184 Words | 7 Pages. ?CRM at Minitex CRM stands for Customer Relationship Management. Essay On The Difference Living Big City. It is a strategy used to learn more about customers ' needs and Deontological Vs. Teleological Systems Essay, . behaviors in order to to kill a mockingbird reviews develop stronger relationships with them. It plays an important role in understanding customer’s needs by gathering the Essay, information about the customers that helps in marketing and and hinduism, selling the company’s products.

With an Vs. Teleological Ethical Essay effective Customer Relationship Management strategy, an organization can increase revenues by providing better services and selling. Customer , Customer experience management , Customer relationship management 1072 Words | 6 Pages. ? CS1 – Customer Service Unit 3 Customer Service 25 November 2013 CUSTOMER SERVICE POLICIES Tutor: Lisette . Teotenel Student: Thenjiwe Rudo Moyo Word Count: 740 (excluding references) Customer service can be described as how a company ensures that its customers receive a satisfactory service. Companies can ensure that a customer’s expectations have been met by following a variety of between christianity steps before, during and after a service has been provided. Vs. Teleological Systems. Before providing a service, a business can. Customer , Customer service , Good 784 Words | 6 Pages. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION 1.0 INTRODUCTION Customer satisfaction is a term that normally used in manufacturing, business and . marketing industries. This measurement benchmark is important for recognizing the potentiality of product or services demand in meeting the customer expectation and requirement. As the Essay, economy is now gearing towards globalization, remain competitive in product quality, reliability, creativity, innovative, competitive price and excellent customer service is vital in order. Customer , Customer service , Manufacturing 932 Words | 4 Pages.

? Customer Analysis Customer analysis is an important and critical section in the company business plan or marketing plan. The . analysis is using to Ethical identify the target customer , make the strategic and ascertains the needs of these customers , and specifies the product that satisfies these needs. Between In A. The customer analysis and customer profile is a simple tool to help the business better understand and investigate the trend and the potential customers , therefore the company can increases the sales and. Coffee , Coffeehouse , Competition 1993 Words | 4 Pages. ? Customer Complaints: A Gift in Disguise Werner, John. Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical. ASQ Six Sigma Forum Magazine12.3 (May 2013): 28-30. Abstract (summary) Improving the . George Ww1. complaint management process is important for any organization, and the rewards for establishing an effective process are substantial and well worth the effort. When customers experience a problem with a product or service, some will complain to the front-line personnel.

Most organizations do not have a complaint tab or button on their home page or on their. Better , Complaint , Customer 1809 Words | 5 Pages. Customer Perceived Value – A Literature Review Introduction The concept of value exists . back from the days where people begun engaging in Deontological Vs. Teleological Essay exchange activities, however, it was only recently when both academics and practitioners realised the importance of delivering superior value to customers in order to achieve competitive advantage (Ulaga and a mockingbird reviews, Chacour, 2001; Khalifa, 2004; Lindgreen and Wynstra, 2005; Hansen et al.,2008). . Interpersonal relationship , Marketing , Maslow's hierarchy of needs 1692 Words | 6 Pages. ? Customer Service at Datatronics Datatronics is an Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems Essay organization that serves their customers with Enterprise Resource Planning . integrated solutions. For Performance. Their growth is Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical, mainly attributed to acquisitions of smaller competitors.

E-Z RP was such a company that despite its inferior size compared to between christianity Datatronics was able to succeed and outperform Datatronics on grounds of customer service and Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical, customer satisfaction. Datatronics recognized the fact and to kill a mockingbird reviews, acquired E-Z RP with the aim to Vs. Teleological Systems improve in Essay Russian Orwell that respective. Better , Customer , Customer relationship management 2529 Words | 7 Pages. satisfaction is a central concept in modern marketing thought and practice. Deontological Vs. Teleological Essay. Referred to many as the marketing revolution of the Essay for Performance, 1970s, a sudden shift . toward customer -oriented marketing became the Vs. Teleological Systems, newest trend in on The Difference Living in a Big City business—and it has held its ground since: Business starts with the customer . Vs. Teleological Systems Essay. Customer satisfaction matters. It matters not only to the customer , but even more so to the business because it directly impacts a company's bottom line profits. The marketing concept emphasizes delivering satisfaction. Advertising , Business , Consumer 845 Words | 3 Pages.

1. Organisations that intend to be successful need to design products, services and product/ service bundles to meet customer needs. How can . they do this and how can they ensure that the organisation’s plans achieve quality, time and cost specifications agreed with customers ? What data and records might be drawn upon to similarities make plans intended to meet customer needs? Organisations that use market research to gather feedback from consumers regarding product design and Ethical Systems Essay, product/ service bundles tend to. Customer , Customer service , Good 1244 Words | 4 Pages. McDonalds believe that good customer service is the responsibility of everybody in Essay Russian Revolution in Animal Farm Orwell the company. Deontological Ethical Systems. Every employee has a part to play in providing . with a service with best practise found anywhere in a mockingbird reviews the trade. Products McDonalds provide high quality products, such as burgers, fries, drinks, muffins, etc, which are safe and reliable that it does what it is supposed to Systems Essay do, but not only does the quality of the products matter, the good value for money affects the business. E.g. buy one extra value. Communication , Customer , Customer service 1104 Words | 4 Pages. ? CUSTOMER SERVICE: CASE STUDY.

Customer service is the interaction between customers and the providers of goods . and/or services on sales and thereafter. But sometimes it can be more than just a customer being served. I would like to to kill reviews look into a case of a policeman and Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems, a bus driver, and christianity, what should have been done to Deontological Ethical Essay prevent it. A witness explained that on one morning at a bus station, there was an argument between a policeman and a bus driver. The policeman stopped the bus driver on theories a regular. Arrest , Constable , Crime 900 Words | 4 Pages. dealership. Specifically, the paper deals with the aspects of customer satisfaction, profitability, and Vs. Teleological, how decisions regarding HR affect the . performance of a company. Clemenceau. Customer satisfaction is based on and influenced by a multitude of Vs. Teleological Systems Essay factors.

While some of these factors are impossible to control (weather, accidents etc), most factors are indeed a direct function of the Essay on Methods, management's and the employee's abilities and performance. Every customer has a unique set of expectations. Therefore, satisfaction. Computer simulation , Inventory , Profit 925 Words | 3 Pages.

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The worst part about BP’s oil-spill cover-up: It worked. “It’s as safe as Dawn dishwashing liquid.” That’s what Jamie Griffin says the BP man told her about the smelly, rainbow-streaked gunk coating the floor of the “floating hotel” where Griffin was feeding hundreds of cleanup workers during the BP oil disaster in the Gulf of Mexico. Apparently, the workers were tracking the gunk inside on their boots. Griffin, as chief cook and maid, was trying to clean it. But even boiling water didn’t work. “The BP representative said, ‘Jamie, just mop it like you’d mop any other dirty floor,’” Griffin recalls in her Louisiana drawl. It was the opening weeks of what everyone, echoing President Barack Obama, was calling “the worst environmental disaster in American history.” At 9:45 p.m. local time on April 20, 2010, a fiery explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig had killed 11 workers and injured 17. One mile underwater, the Macondo well had blown apart, unleashing a gusher of oil into the gulf. At risk were fishing areas that supplied one-third of the seafood consumed in the U.S., beaches from Texas to Florida that drew billions of dollars’ worth of tourism to local economies, and Obama’s chances of reelection. Republicans were blaming him for mishandling the disaster, his poll numbers were falling, even his 11-year-old daughter was demanding, “Daddy, did you plug the hole yet?” Griffin did as she was told: “I tried Pine-Sol, bleach, I even tried Dawn on those floors.” As she scrubbed, the mix of cleanser and gunk occasionally splashed onto Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems her arms and Essay on Horrors of the Russian in Animal Farm Orwell face.

Within days, the 32-year-old single mother was coughing up blood and suffering constant headaches. She lost her voice. “My throat felt like I’d swallowed razor blades,” she says. Then things got much worse. Like hundreds, possibly thousands, of workers on the cleanup, Griffin soon fell ill with a cluster of Systems, excruciating, bizarre, grotesque ailments. By July, unstoppable muscle spasms were twisting her hands into immovable claws. Clemenceau. In August, she began losing her short-term memory. Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical. After cooking professionally for 10 years, she couldn’t remember the recipe for vegetable soup; one morning, she got in the car to go to work, only to discover she hadn’t put on to kill reviews, pants. The right side, but only the right side, of her body “started acting crazy. It felt like the nerves were coming out of my skin. It was so painful. Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems. My right leg swelled — my ankle would get as wide as my calf — and to kill a mockingbird reviews my skin got incredibly itchy.”

“These are the same symptoms experienced by soldiers who returned from the Persian Gulf War with Gulf War syndrome,” says Michael Robichaux, a Louisiana physician and former state senator, who treated Griffin and 113 other patients with similar complaints. As a general practitioner, Robichaux says he had “never seen this grouping of symptoms together: skin problems, neurological impairments, plus pulmonary problems.” Only months later, after Kaye H. Kilburn, a former professor of medicine at the University of Ethical Systems, Southern California and one of the nation’s leading environmental health experts, came to Louisiana and tested 14 of Robichaux’s patients did the two physicians make the connection with Gulf War syndrome, the between and hinduism malady that afflicted an estimated 250,000 veterans of that war with a mysterious combination of fatigue, skin inflammation, and cognitive problems. Meanwhile, the well kept hemorrhaging oil. The world watched with bated breath as BP failed in Systems, one attempt after another to stop the leak. An agonizing 87 days passed before the well was finally plugged on July 15. By then, 210 million gallons of a mockingbird, Louisiana sweet crude had escaped into the Gulf of Mexico, according to Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical government estimates, making the BP disaster the largest accidental oil leak in world history.

Yet three years later, the BP disaster has been largely forgotten, both overseas and in the U.S. Popular anger has cooled. Russian Farm. The media have moved on. Today, only the business press offers serious coverage of what the Financial Times calls “the trial of the Ethical Systems century” — the trial now underway in New Orleans, where BP faces tens of billions of dollars in potential penalties for the disaster. As for Obama, the same president who early in the BP crisis blasted the “scandalously close relationship” between oil companies and government regulators two years later ran for george clemenceau ww1, reelection boasting about how much new oil and gas development his administration had approved. Such collective amnesia may seem surprising, but there may be a good explanation for it: BP mounted a cover-up that concealed the full extent of its crimes from Vs. Teleological Systems, public view. This cover-up prevented the media and therefore the public from knowing — and above all, seeing — just how much oil was gushing into on The Difference Between in a the gulf. The disaster appeared much less extensive and Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Essay destructive than it actually was. BP declined to comment for this article.

That BP lied about the george amount of oil it discharged into the gulf is already established. Deontological Vs. Teleological Systems. Lying to Congress about reviews that was one of 14 felonies to Vs. Teleological Ethical which BP pleaded guilty last year in a legal settlement with the christianity and hinduism Justice Department that included a $4.5 billion fine, the Ethical Systems largest fine ever levied against a corporation in similarities and hinduism, the U.S. What has not been revealed until now is how BP hid that massive amount of oil from TV cameras and the price that this “disappearing act” imposed on cleanup workers, coastal residents, and the ecosystem of the gulf. That story can now be told because an anonymous whistleblower has provided evidence that BP was warned in advance about the safety risks of Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems, attempting to christianity cover up its leaking oil. Deontological. Nevertheless, BP proceeded. Furthermore, BP appears to have withheld these safety warnings, as well as protective measures, both from the thousands of workers hired for the cleanup and from the millions of Gulf Coast residents who stood to be affected.

The financial implications are enormous. On Methods For Performance Measurment. The trial now under way in New Orleans is wrestling with whether BP was guilty of “negligence” or “gross negligence” for the Deepwater Horizon disaster. If found guilty of Deontological Systems, “negligence,” BP would be fined, under the Clean Water Act, $1,100 for to kill a mockingbird reviews, each barrel of oil that leaked. Deontological Ethical Systems Essay. But if found guilty of “gross negligence”–which a cover-up would seem to imply — BP would be fined $4,300 per barrel, almost four times as much, for a total of $17.5 billion. That large a fine, combined with an additional $34 billion that the states of Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida are seeking, could have a powerful effect on BP’s economic health. Yet the most astonishing thing about BP’s cover-up? It was carried out in Essay on The Between Big City, plain sight, right in front of the Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems Essay world’s uncomprehending news media (including, I regret to say, this reporter). The chief instrument of BP’s cover-up was the a mockingbird reviews same substance that apparently sickened Jamie Griffin and countless other cleanup workers and local residents. Its brand name is Corexit, but most news reports at the time referred to it simply as a “dispersant.” Its function was to attach itself to leaked oil, break it into droplets, and disperse them into Deontological Vs. Teleological Systems Essay the vast reaches of the gulf, thereby keeping the Essay on The Living oil from reaching Gulf Coast shorelines. Deontological Systems. And the Corexit did largely achieve this goal. But the on Horrors of the Russian Revolution in Animal by George Orwell 1.84 million gallons of Corexit that BP applied during the cleanup also served a public-relations purpose: They made the Deontological Vs. Teleological Systems oil spill all but disappear, at least from TV screens.

By late July 2010, the Associated Press and clemenceau ww1 The New York Times were questioning whether the spill had been such a big deal after all. Time went so far as to Vs. Teleological Systems assert that right-wing talk-radio host Rush Limbaugh “has a point” when he accused journalists and environmentalists of exaggerating the to kill crisis. But BP had a problem: It had lied about how safe Corexit is, and proof of its dishonesty would eventually fall into the hands of the Government Accountability Project, the Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems Essay premiere whistleblower-protection group in the U.S. The proof? A technical manual BP had received from NALCO, the firm that supplied the Corexit that BP used in the gulf. An electronic copy of that manual is included in a new report GAP has issued, “Deadly Dispersants in the Gulf.” On the basis of interviews with dozens of cleanup workers, scientists, and Gulf Coast residents, GAP concludes that the similarities christianity and hinduism health impacts endured by Griffin were visited upon many other locals as well. What’s more, the combination of Corexit and crude oil also caused terrible damage to gulf wildlife and ecosystems, including an unprecedented number of seafood mutations; declines of up to 80 percent in seafood catch; and massive die-offs of the microscopic life-forms at the base of the Ethical Systems marine food chain. GAP warns that BP and the U.S. government nevertheless appear poised to repeat the exercise after the next major oil spill: “As a result of Corexit’s perceived success, Corexit … has become the dispersant of choice in the U.S. to ‘clean up’ oil spills.”

BP’s cover-up was not planned in advance but devised in clemenceau, the heat of the moment as the oil giant scrambled to limit the PR and other damages of the disaster. Indeed, one of the chief scandals of the Systems disaster is just how unprepared both BP and to kill a mockingbird federal and state authorities were for an oil leak of this magnitude. U.S. law required that a response plan be in place before drilling began, but the Vs. Teleological plan was embarrassingly flawed. “We weren’t managing for actual risk; we were checking a box,” says Mark Davis, director of the Institute on Water Resources Law and on The Big City Policy at Tulane University. “That’s how we ended up with a response plan that included provisions for Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems Essay, dealing with the impacts to walruses: because [BP] copied word for word the response plans that had been developed after the to kill Exxon-Valdez oil spill [in Alaska, in 1989] instead of a plan tailored to the conditions in the gulf.” As days turned into weeks and it became obvious that no one knew how to plug the gushing well, BP began insisting that Corexit be used to disperse the leaking oil. This triggered alarms from Vs. Teleological, scientists and to kill from a leading environmental NGO in Systems Essay, Louisiana, the Louisiana Environmental Action Network (LEAN). The group’s scientific adviser, Wilma Subra, a chemist whose work on a mockingbird, environmental pollution had won her a “genius grant” from the MacArthur Foundation, told state and federal authorities that she was especially concerned about how dangerous the mixture of crude and Corexit was: “The short-term health symptoms include acute respiratory problems, skin rashes, cardiovascular impacts, gastrointestinal impacts, and Ethical Systems Essay short-term loss of memory,” she told GAP investigators. “Long-term impacts include cancer, decreased lung function, liver damage, and kidney damage.” (Nineteen months after the Deepwater Horizon explosion, a scientific study published in the peer-reviewed journal Environmental Pollution found that crude oil becomes 52 times more toxic when combined with Corexit.) BP even rebuffed a direct request from the administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, Lisa Jackson, who wrote BP a letter on May 19, asking the company to deploy a less toxic dispersant in the cleanup. Jackson could only Essay ask BP to do this; she could not legally require it. Why?

Because use of Corexit had been authorized years before under the federal Oil Pollution Act. In a recent interview, Jackson explains that she and other officials “had to Deontological Essay determine, with less-than-perfect scientific testing and data, whether use of dispersants would, despite potential side effects, improve the overall situation in sociological examples, the gulf and coastal ecosystems. The tradeoff, as I have said many times, was potential damage in Vs. Teleological Essay, the deep water versus the potential for larger amounts of george clemenceau, undispersed oil in the ecologically rich coastal shallows and estuaries.” She adds that the Deontological Systems Essay presidential commission that later studied the BP oil disaster did not fault the decision to use dispersants. Knowing that EPA lacked the on The Living Big City authority to Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems stop it, BP wrote back to Essay on The Between Living in a Jackson on May 20, declaring that Corexit was safe. What’s more, BP wrote, there was a ready supply of Corexit, which was not the Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems Essay case with alternative dispersants. (A NALCO plant was located just 30 miles west of New Orleans.) But Corexit was decidedly not safe without taking proper precautions, as the manual BP got from NALCO spelled out in black and white. The “Vessel Captains Hazard Communication” resource manual, which GAP shared with me, looks innocuous enough. A three-ring binder with a black plastic cover, the manual contained 61 sheets, each wrapped in plastic, that detailed the scientific properties of the two types of Corexit that BP was buying, as well as their health hazards and recommended measures against Essay on Horrors Russian Orwell those hazards. BP applied two types of Corexit in the gulf.

The first, Corexit 9527, was considerably more toxic. Essay. According to a mockingbird the NALCO manual, Corexit 9527 is an “eye and skin irritant. Repeated or excessive exposure … may cause injury to red blood cells (hemolysis), kidney or the liver.” The manual adds: “Excessive exposure may cause central nervous system effects, nausea, vomiting, anesthetic or narcotic effects.” It advises, “Do not get in eyes, on skin, on clothing,” and Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems “Wear suitable protective clothing.” When available supplies of george clemenceau, Corexit 9527 were exhausted early in the cleanup, BP switched to Deontological Vs. Teleological Essay the second type of dispersant, Corexit 9500. Ww1. In its recommendations for dealing with Corexit 9500, the Vs. Teleological Essay NALCO manual advised, “Do not get in Essay on Methods, eyes, on skin, on clothing,” “Avoid breathing vapor,” and “Wear suitable protective clothing.” It’s standard procedure — and Vs. Teleological Ethical Essay required by U.S. law — for companies to Measurment distribute this kind of information to Vs. Teleological Essay any work site where hazardous materials are present so workers can know about the dangers they face and how to protect themselves. But interviews with numerous cleanup workers suggest that this legally required precaution was rarely if ever followed during the BP cleanup. Instead, it appears that BP told NALCO to between christianity and hinduism stop including the manuals with the Corexit that NALCO was delivering to cleanup work sites. “It’s my understanding that some manuals were sent out with the Deontological Systems Essay shipments of to kill, Corexit in Deontological Vs. Teleological, the beginning [of the cleanup],” the anonymous source tells me. “Then, BP told NALCO to stop sending them. Ww1. So NALCO was left with a roomful of unused binders.”

Roman Blahoski, NALCO’s director of global communications, says: “NALCO responded to requests for its pre-approved dispersants from those charged with protecting the gulf and mitigating the environmental, health, and economic impact of this event. NALCO was never involved in decisions relating to the use, volume, and application of its dispersant.” Misrepresenting the Systems safety of Essay on Methods for Performance Measurment, Corexit went hand in hand with BP’s previously noted lie about how much oil was leaking from the Deontological Systems Macondo well. On The Difference Between Living In A. As reported by John Rudolf in Vs. Teleological Essay, The Huffington Post, internal BP emails show that BP privately estimated that “the runaway well could be leaking from 62,000 barrels a day to Difference Between in a Big City 146,000 barrels a day.” Meanwhile, BP officials were telling the government and the media that only 5,000 barrels a day were leaking. In short, applying Corexit enabled BP to mask the fact that a much larger amount of oil was actually leaking into the gulf. Essay. “Like any good magician, the to kill a mockingbird oil industry has learned that if you can’t see something that was there, it must have ‘disappeared,’” Scott Porter, a scientist and deep-sea diver who consults for oil companies and oystermen, says in the GAP report. “Oil companies have also learned that, in the public mind, ‘out of sight equals out of mind.’ Therefore, they have chosen crude oil dispersants as the primary tool for Vs. Teleological Essay, handling large marine oil spills.” BP also had a more direct financial interest in using Corexit, argues Clint Guidry, president of the Louisiana Shrimp Association, whose members include not only Essay Measurment shrimpers but fishermen of all sorts. As it happens, local fishermen constituted a significant portion of BP’s cleanup force (which numbered as many as 47,000 workers at Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems the height of the cleanup).

Because the between christianity and hinduism spill caused the closure of their fishing grounds, BP and Systems state and federal authorities established the Vessels of Opportunity (VoO) program, in which BP paid fishermen to take their boats out and skim, burn, and examples otherwise get rid of leaked oil. Applying dispersants, Guidry points out, reduced the total volume of oil that could be traced back to BP. “The next phase of this trial [against BP] is going to turn on how much oil was leaked,” Guidry tells me. [If found guilty, BP will be fined a certain amount for each barrel of oil judged to have leaked.] “So hiding the oil with Corexit worked not only to hide the size of the spill but also to lower the amount of Deontological Ethical Systems, oil that BP may get charged for releasing.” DVIDSHUB A contractor cleans up oily waste on Elmer’s Island, just west of Grand Isle, La., May 21, 2010. Not only did BP fail to inform workers of the Difference Between Living in a Big City potential hazards of Deontological Essay, Corexit and to similarities between provide them with safety training and protective gear, according to Systems Essay interviews with dozens of cleanup workers, the company also allegedly threatened to fire workers who complained about the lack of respirators and protective clothing. “I worked with probably a couple hundred different fishermen on Essay on Horrors Orwell, the [cleanup],” Acy Cooper, Guidry’s second in Deontological Ethical Essay, command, tells me in Venice, the coastal town from which many VoO vessels departed. “Not one of them got any safety information or training concerning the toxic materials they encountered.” Cooper says that BP did provide workers with body suits and gloves designed for handling hazardous materials. George. “But when I’d talk with [the BP representative] about getting my guys respirators and air monitors, I’d never get any response.” Roughly 58 percent of the 1.84 million gallons of Corexit used in Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical, the cleanup was sprayed onto Essay on Horrors of the Russian in Animal the gulf from C-130 airplanes.

The spray sometimes ended up hitting cleanup workers in the face. “Our boat was sprayed four times,” says Jorey Danos, a 32-year-old father of three who suffered racking coughing fits, severe fatigue, and memory loss after working on the BP cleanup. “I could see the stuff coming out Deontological Systems of the plane — like a shower of a mockingbird reviews, mist, a smoky color. Deontological Systems Essay. I could see [it] coming at me, but there was nothing I could do.” “The next day,” Danos continues, “when the BP rep came around on his speed boat, I asked, ‘Hey, what’s the deal with that stuff that was coming out of similarities between and hinduism, those planes yesterday?’ He told me, ‘Don’t worry about it.’ I said, ‘Man, that s–t was burning my face — it ain’t right.’ He said, ‘Don’t worry about it.’ I said, ‘Well, could we get some respirators or something, because that s–t is bad.’ He said, ‘No, that wouldn’t look good to the media. You got two choices: You can either be relieved of your duties or you can deal with it.’”

Perhaps the single most hazardous chemical compound found in Corexit 9527 is 2-Butoxyethanol, a substance that had been linked to cancers and other health impacts among cleanup workers on the 1989 Exxon-Valdez oil spill in Alaska. According to BP’s own data, 20 percent of offshore workers in the gulf had levels of 2-Butoxyethanol two times higher than the level certified as safe by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Cleanup workers were not the only victims; coastal residents also suffered. Vs. Teleological Essay. “My 2-year-old grandson and on Horrors Russian Revolution in Animal Farm Orwell I would play out in the yard,” says Shirley Tillman of the Ethical Essay Mississippi coastal town Pass Christian. “You could smell oil and stuff in the air, but on a mockingbird, the news they were saying it’s fine, don’t worry. Well, by October, he was one sick little fellow. All of Ethical, a sudden, this very active little 2-year-old was constantly sick. He was having headaches, upper respiratory infections, earaches. To Kill A Mockingbird. The night of his birthday party, his parents had to rush him to the emergency room. Ethical Essay. He went to nine different doctors, but they treated just the symptoms; they’re not toxicologists.” “It’s not the crime, it’s the cover-up.” Ever since the Watergate scandal of the 1970s, that’s been the Essay on The Between in a mantra. Cover-ups don’t work, goes the argument.

They only dig a deeper hole, because the truth eventually comes out. GAP investigators were hopeful that obtaining the NALCO manual might persuade BP to meet with them, and Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Essay it did. On July 10, 2012, BP hosted a private meeting at its Houston offices. Between And Hinduism. Presiding over Systems Essay, the meeting, which is described here publicly for the first time, was BP’s public ombudsman, Stanley Sporkin, joining by telephone from Washington. Similarities Between And Hinduism. Ironically, Sporkin had made his professional reputation during the Watergate scandal. Vs. Teleological Systems Essay. As a lawyer with the a mockingbird reviews Securities and Exchange Commission, Sporkin investigated illegal corporate payments to the slush fund that President Nixon used to buy the silence of the Deontological Vs. Teleological Systems Essay Watergate burglars. Also attending the examples meeting were two senior BP attorneys; BP Vice President Luke Keller; other BP officials; Thomas Devine, GAP’s senior attorney on the BP case; Shanna Devine, GAP’s investigator on Systems, the case; Michael Robichaux; Wilma Subra; and Marylee Orr, the executive director of LEAN. Examples. The following account is based on my interviews with Thomas Devine, Robichaux, Subra, and Orr. BP declined to comment. BP officials had previously confirmed the authenticity of the NALCO manual, says Thomas Devine, but now they refused to discuss it, even though this had been one of the stated purposes for the meeting. Nor would BP address the allegation, made by the whistleblower who had given the manual to GAP, that BP had ordered the manual withheld from cleanup work sites, perhaps to maintain the fiction that Corexit was safe.

“They opened the meeting with this upbeat presentation about how seriously they took their responsibilities for the spill and all the wonderful things they were doing to make things right,” says Devine. Vs. Teleological Essay. “When it was my turn to speak, I said that the and hinduism manual our whistleblower had provided contradicted what they just said. Deontological Ethical Essay. I asked whether they had ordered the manual withdrawn from work sites. For Performance Measurment. Their attorneys said that was a matter they would not discuss because of the pending litigation on the spill.” [Disclosure: Thomas Devine is a friend of this reporter.] The visitors’ top priority was to Deontological Vs. Teleological Systems Essay get BP to agree not to use Corexit in the future. Keller said that Corexit was still authorized for use by similarities christianity and hinduism the U.S. government and Ethical Essay BP would indeed feel free to use it against any future oil spills. A second priority was to get BP to similarities christianity provide medical treatment for Jamie Griffin and the many other apparent victims of Corexit-and-crude poisoning. Deontological Ethical Essay. This request too was refused by BP. Robichaux doubts his patients will receive proper compensation from the $7.8 billion settlement BP reached in 2012 with the Plaintiffs’ Steering Committee, 19 court-appointed attorneys who represent the hundreds of individuals and between christianity and hinduism entities that have sued BP for damages related to Ethical the gulf disaster. “Nine of the Measurment most common symptoms of my patients do not appear on Vs. Teleological Systems, the list of illnesses that settlement says can be compensated, including memory loss, fatigue, and joint and muscular pain,” says Robichaux. “So how are the attorneys going to file suits on behalf of george ww1, those victims?” At one level, BP’s cover-up of the Deontological Systems gulf oil disaster speaks to the enormous power that giant corporations exercise in modern society, and how unable, or unwilling, governments are to Measurment limit that power. To be sure, BP has not entirely escaped censure for its actions; depending on the outcome of the trial now under way in New Orleans, the company could end up paying tens of billions of Systems, dollars in fines and damages over and above the $4.5 billion imposed by the Justice Department in the settlement last year. But BP’s reputation appears to have survived: Its market value as this article went to press was a tidy $132 billion, and few, if any, BP officials appear likely to face any legal repercussions. “If I would have killed 11 people, I’d be hanging from on Methods Measurment, a noose,” says Jorey Danos. Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems Essay. “Not BP.

It’s the golden rule: The man with the gold makes the rules.” As unchastened as anyone at ww1 BP is Essay, Bob Dudley, the American who was catapulted into the CEO job a few weeks into the gulf disaster to replace Tony Hayward, whose propensity for imprudent comments — “I want my life back,” the multimillionaire had pouted while thousands of gulf workers and residents were suffering — had made him a globally derided figure. Dudley told the annual BP shareholders meeting in London last week that Corexit “is effectively … dishwashing soap,” no more toxic than that, as all scientific studies supposedly showed. What’s more, Dudley added, he himself had grown up in Mississippi and knows that the Gulf of Essay on Methods Measurment, Mexico is “an ecosystem that is used to Ethical Systems Essay oil.” Nor has the BP oil disaster triggered the kind of similarities between and hinduism, changes in law and public priorities one might have expected. “Not much has actually changed,” says Mark Davis of Tulane. “It reflects just how wedded our country is to keeping the Gulf of Mexico producing oil and bringing it to our shores as cheaply as possible.

Going forward, no one should assume that just because something really bad happened we’re going to manage oil and gas production with greater sensitivity and wisdom. That will only happen if people get involved and compel both the industry and the government to be more diligent.”

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essays of murder Murder Culture: Adventures in 1940s Suspense. She had spoken aloud. She hadn’t meant to; she hadn’t wanted those words to come up from her throat to her lips. Vs. Teleological Systems Essay! She hadn’t meant to think them, much less speak them. She didn’t want Gratia to have heard them. But across the room the girl lifted her eyes from her book. “What did you say?” she queried.

In 1947, novelist Mitchell Wilson proclaimed: “Within the past ten years, we have been witnessing a new form of popular fictionthe story of suspense.” 1 We are so used to this genremany of our bestsellers are suspense thrillersthat it’s a little surprising to recall that once it was quite a new thing. On reflection, though, we might wonder: Was it really so new? Don’t all novels and to kill a mockingbird reviews short stories, indeed all narratives in popular media, depend on Deontological Vs. Teleological Systems Essay, suspense? We want to know what happens next; we call a book that drives us forward a page-turner. But writers of the theories period began to distinguish this general sort of suspense from something more specific. Suspense, Wilson claims, depends on the reader’s identifying with a protagonist who is in acute jeopardy. That protagonist reacts to Deontological Ethical Systems Essay, the situation not with superhuman calm or jauntiness but with fear. By describing the situation and to kill reviews the character’s response to it, the writer can communicate fear directly to the reader, who, says Wilson, “is aware of his own cowardice.” The universality of Essay fear as an emotion allows the reader to understand how the clemenceau ww1 hero reacts, either by impulsively lashing out or by fleeing the situation. What can best justify fear?

The prospect of death. The threat of murder, Wilson claims, becomes central to this sort of suspense. It proves to the reader that there is no limit to the impending violence. 2 This quality is very different from the diffuse suspense we get from a romance or a detective story, in which the characters are usually not in mortal peril. Sooner or later, though, the Ethical Essay protagonist will have to come to overcome fear.

The framework of the suspense story is the sociological theories continual struggle of the frightened protagonist to fight back and save himself in spite of his pervading anxiety, and in this respect he is truly heroic. The action of the story does not consist in mere activity, but in the hero’s change of mood in response to Vs. Teleological, changing circumstances. The suspense story, in this sense, is on Methods for Performance Measurment, centrally about Vs. Teleological Systems, a character who starts out as a victim but who through brains and bravery can overcome the threat of Essay on Horrors Revolution Farm death. Wilson wasn’t alone in spotting the trend. At the time, several writers were claiming that the suspense story had come into its own. Most commonly, they distinguished the Vs. Teleological Ethical suspense story or “thriller” from the detective story. Wilson points out between that the detective story relies upon curiosity rather than suspenseboth for Deontological Systems the reader and the detective, who tends to respond to murder with detached, intellectual calm. The sleuth is george, a puzzle-solver, and the reader is Vs. Teleological Ethical Essay, asked to join in the game of deciding “whodunit.” The reader doesn’t identify with the detective because the narration typically doesn’t give us access to the detective’s mind, or at least not at on The Between Living Big City every point: something is Deontological Ethical, kept back so the detective can reveal the reviews solution at Deontological the climax.

Another contrast with the classic detective story was evident to these commentators. Instead of starting the plot with a dead victim, as the detective story tends to do, the suspense story builds up to the crime by centering on similarities and hinduism, the potential victimsomeone “enmeshedin a web of circumstance.” 3 The buildup could involve revealing the murderer quite early, all the better to emphasize the danger that faces the Vs. Teleological Ethical bewildered hero or heroine. Indeed, part or all of the story could be told from the viewpoint of the george killer. Novelist Helen McCloy maintained that this technique fostered suspense, in place of the surprise cultivated by detective fiction. 4 Charlotte Armstrong agreed, noting that “Surprise is not much fun.” 5. This isn’t to suggest that the suspense story wholly lacked detective-story elements. Indeed, there were often mysteries aplenty. Deontological Vs. Teleological Systems! Instead of Living Big City assigning the investigation to a professional or a private detective, the suspense story often made the anxious potential victim follow up clues.

By letting the protagonist turn detective, the Deontological Ethical Systems Essay action could pivot from flight to between, fight, the climax at which the hero faces down danger in the manner Wilson described. In speaking of a new form of storytelling, Wilson was picking out something that seemed to him and other writers quite specific. But what about his datinghis claim that the form had emerged over the last ten years? That would put the beginning of the suspense story at 1937 or 1938. He doesn’t justify this claim, but the authors he considers central to the new genre are Eric Ambler, Graham Greene, and Dorothy B. Hughes, all novelists who began writing crime fiction around that date. Wilson’s readers would have been aware of Ambler’s spy novels (most notably, The Mask of Dimitrios , 1939, and Journey into Ethical Essay, Fear , 1940), Greene’s criminal “entertainments” such as A Gun for similarities between and hinduism Sale (aka This Gun for Hire , 1936), The Confidential Agent (1939), and The Ministry of Fear (1943), and Hughes’ tales of domestic murder and international espionage such as The So-Blue Marble (1940), The Bamboo Blonde (1941), The Fallen Sparrow (1942), and Dread Journey (1945). After Wilson’s article, these authors would go on to write very famous suspense stories, such as Greene’s The Third Man (1949) and Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems Essay Hughes’ In a Lonely Place (1947). Interestingly, Wilson nowhere mentions suspense-driven films in to kill a mockingbird his analysis of the genre.

Yet by 1947 they were becoming a major form of Hollywood cinema. How did that process come about, and what relation does it have to changes in popular literature? We can understand the Deontological Ethical dynamic, I think, in to kill two steps. First, we can trace the 1940s model of suspense back to three relatively stable traditions that fed into it: the detective story, the domestic thriller, and the spy story. These suggest that Wilson’s ten-year window is somewhat too narrow. Then we can see how those traditions gained wide popularity in the 1940s as part of Vs. Teleological Essay a diverse ecosystem of mystery narratives and Measurment informed what we came to recognize as the Deontological Systems suspense thriller. To Kill A Mockingbird Reviews! Finally, I’ll try to characterize the ecological niche occupied by one portly English filmmaker.

Displacing the Vs. Teleological Systems detective. The mystery story, a very broad category, became identified chiefly with the detective story thanks to Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes adventures. But the genre went through several changes between the Essay on Horrors of the Russian in Animal Orwell 1920s and the 1940s. Central to Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems, the classic form was the on Horrors of the Russian in Animal by George series detective, the investigator who in a string of stories solved crimes through rational inference aided by brilliant intuition. The set of Deontological Essay character roles was constant: the investigator(s); the criminal(s); the victim(s); and the bystanders, those suspects, witnesses, and theories examples helpers drawn into the inquiry.

Likewise, the canonical plot began with the crime already accomplished (e.g., the body in Ethical Essay the library), and a mockingbird reviews traced the course of the case until the criminal was exposed. Solving the Systems puzzle depended on enigmatic physical traces, incompatible testimony, psychological insights, and other clues. But by the end of the 1920s the best practitioners felt that the classic sleuth format needed rethinking. On Methods Measurment! For historians of the form, the person who offered the most drastic revision was Anthony Berkeley Cox, who wrote as Anthony Berkeley and as Francis Iles. After creating a dazzling exercise in permutational solutions, The Poisoned Chocolates Case (1928), he announced that in effect the Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems main path to rejuvenating detective fiction involved demoting the theories detective. Specifically, this new strategy meant organizing the plot’s point of view around either the criminal or the Systems Essay victim. So Iles’ Malice Aforethought (1931) becomes an account of a frustrated provincial doctor’s plan to on Methods for Performance, kill his wife. In Before the Systems Fact (1932), a woman gradually realizes her husband is going to murder her. Neither book is Essay on Methods for Performance Measurment, narrated in the first person, but each does confine itself wholly to the mind of the protagonist. Moreover, as both titles indicate, each plot’s point of attack is very early: the crime comes gradually, after a crescendo of menacing incidents. There were precedents for the Iles method, from Crime and Punishment to A. P. Herbert’s House by Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical the River (1920), C. S. Essay For Performance Measurment! Forester’s Payment Deferred (1926), and Berkeley’s The Second Shot (1929).

Of the Deontological Ethical Systems Essay earlier experiments, most directly influential on clemenceau ww1, mystery writers were the “inverted” detective stories by R. Vs. Teleological! Austin Freeman gathered in The Singing Bone (1912). Freeman redesigned point of view by using the first part of the tale to recount the commission of the Essay Big City crime, chiefly from the criminal’s point of view, while part two traces the efforts of Systems Essay Dr. Thorndyke to solve the mystery. George Clemenceau Ww1! With the Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems killer’s identity revealed at the outset, the story depends on generating curiosity about how Thorndyke will solve it (a dynamic continued in the television series Columbo ). As for for Performance Measurment point of attack, the Vs. Teleological Systems “inverted” plots begin well before the crime is committed, in order to establish motives and plans. In essence Iles’ novels lopped off the second half of the christianity inverted tale, eliminating or minimizing the role of the investigation and concentrating wholly on the buildup to the crimethe panic and Ethical Essay pressures suffered by the killer, or the suspicion and fear of the victim. Coming from a skilled practitioner of Essay on The Difference whodunits, the two Iles books crystallized, at least in Deontological Ethical Essay England, the george clemenceau ww1 creative option of designing a mystery plot focused around a would-be killer or victim. Freeman Wills Crofts, whose orthodox detective stories hinged on Vs. Teleological Systems Essay, breaking ironclad alibis, joined the new wave with The 12:30 from Croydon (1934).

Here the step-by-step planning and execution of a murder is on The in a Big City, told from the would-be killer’s standpoint. Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems Essay! As if in recognition that he had left a tradition behind, Crofts makes his culprit exceptionally well-read in mystery fiction. He meditates in prison: Somehow, alone there in the semi-darkness, the excellence of between christianity his own plans seemed less convincing than ever before. Stories he had read recurred to him in which the Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Essay guilty had made perfect plans, but in all cases they had broken down. Those double tales of Austin Freeman’s! 6. Detective stories conventionally refer to other detective stories, apparently assuring us that this story is more “real” than its counterparts but actually serving to cite traditions that the reader enjoys recalling.

Here Crofts acknowledges that Freeman’s “inverted” story made salient the possibility of Essay of the Russian in Animal by George a new gimmick: How will the criminal err in committing the Vs. Teleological Systems Essay crime? Most Golden Age detective writers continued to a mockingbird, develop puzzles, but they noticed the Vs. Teleological Essay new trends. Dorothy Sayers acknowledged that an emphasis on psychology and the circumstances leading up to the crime had created “studies in murder” rather than straight detective tales. 7 Agatha Christie, whose talent was more protean than is usually acknowledged, blended before-the-fact plotting with mystery in And Then There Were None (1939), and for Performance she had a character in Ethical Systems Towards Zero (1944) muse: I like a good detective story.But, you know, they begin in sociological theories examples the wrong place! They begin with the murder. But the murder is the Deontological Ethical end. The story begins long before thatyears before sometimeswith all the causes and similarities between christianity events that bring certain people to Vs. Teleological Ethical Essay, a certain place at a certain time on between christianity, a certain day.Even nowsome dramasome murder to beis in Deontological Ethical Systems course of preparation.

8. Ten-Minute Alibi (1935). In advocating plotting that was more psychological and less dependent on on Methods Measurment, puzzle-solving, Cox and his colleagues were joining forces with a mystery form that had received little respect from the critical community. Vs. Teleological! Since at least World War I, British and Essay Living Big City American writers had been cultivating what we might call the domestic thriller, a tale of mystery and danger in ordinary circumstances. The best-known instance in Britain is Marie Belloc Lowndes’ The Lodger (1913). The novel about a Jack-the-Ripper figure might have been rendered as a sensation-driven pursuit story or a tale of rational detection. Instead, it is re-plotted as a tale of suspicion seeping through a lower-middle-class household. Vs. Teleological Systems Essay! By organizing the book’s viewpoint principally around the landlady who fears that her lodger may be a serial killer, Belloc Lowndes created a mystery largely filtered through the imperfect knowledge of a bystander. If The Lodger has an in a, American counterpart, it is Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems Essay, Mary Roberts Rinehart’s The Circular Staircase (1908). Of The Russian In Animal By George! Again, the action is Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems, focused around a witness: the spinster Rachel Innes, who encounters the bizarre happenings in a rented summer house. Unlike The Lodger ’s Mrs.

Bunting, Rachel narrates the tale and takes up the role of investigator, eventually bringing the guilty party to light. The contributions of these two writers were enormously popular, but orthodox historians of mystery fiction have tended to clemenceau ww1, mock their gynocentric plots. Rinehart in particular was ridiculed as the exponent of the “Had I But Known” school of mystery, whereby sudden plot twists are motivated by Essay the protagonist’s convenient lapses of and hinduism memory or judgment. Worse, as one authoritative history puts it, is “the manner in which romantic complications are allowed to obstruct the Deontological orderly process of puzzle and Essay on Horrors Russian Revolution by George Orwell solution.” 9 The sexism here is Ethical Systems, pretty blatant: Rinehart’s plots are no more preposterous or dependent on coincidence than many tales featuring heroes rather than heroines, and of course many detective novels include clumsy subplots involving romantic couples. More important for similarities between and hinduism our purposes, Belloc Lowndes, Rinehart, and writers who followed, such as Mignon Eberhart and Deontological Ethical Systems Essay Mabel Seeley, sustained a tradition of to kill a mockingbird reviews domestic, woman-in-peril plotting. A sympathetic critic remarked that Rinehart’s books provide “no put-the-pieces-together formula” but rather “an out-guess-this-unknown-or-he’ll-out-guess-you, life-and-death struggle.” 10 Many critics have noted Rebecca ’s debt to sensation fiction and the Gothic line via Jane Eyre , but these other writers furnished more proximate antecedents for du Maurier’s tale. As Alfred Hitchcock remarked: “There was a whole school of feminine literature at the period.” 11. At almost exactly the Deontological Systems Essay same time, murder was being domesticated on the English and American stage. Essay On The Big City! The major vogue seems to have come in Vs. Teleological Systems the late 1920s, when, as a New York Times correspondent put it, London suffered “a theatrical crime waveowing to a deluge of mystery plays and ‘thrillers.’” 12 Several of these plays were detective stories and Essay on Horrors Revolution sensation pieces, many from Edgar Wallace. But audiences were also treated to Interference (1927), The Letter (1927), Spellbound (1927; no relation to Hitchcock’s film), Blackmail (1928), Patrick Hamilton’s Rope (aka Rope’s End , 1929), and Deontological Ethical Systems Essay other popular “murder plays.”

The genre continued through the decade, with successes like the stage adaptation of Payment Deferred (1932), the ticking-clock drama Ten-Minute Alibi (1933), Without Witness (1934), The Two Mrs. Carrolls (1935), the serial-killer drama Night Must Fall (1935), Love from a Stranger (1936), the Rope -derived Trunk Crime (aka The Last Straw , 1937), and another Patrick Hamilton triumph, Gaslight (1938). The New York stage didn’t lag behind, importing several of these hits while adding Nine Pine Street (1933, based on the Lizzie Borden case), Double Door (1933, an anticipation of Rebecca ), Invitation to Essay on The Difference Living in a Big City, a Murder (1934), and Kind Lady (1935). 13. A new label came to be attached to Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Essay, these dramas of home-bred homicide. When Val Gielgud wrote to Patrick Hamilton requesting a new BBC radio drama, he suggested that “a psychological thriller along the lines of ‘Rope’ would be good.” 15 The phrase came into Measurment, currency during the 1930s to describe domestic thrillers in Deontological Vs. Teleological Essay fiction, onstage, and onscreen, and plays began advertising themselves with the label. 15.

Why the emphasis on psychology? Chiefly, I suspect, to to kill a mockingbird reviews, distinguish these plays from the Deontological Essay blood-and-thunder sensation of Edgar Wallace and the extroverted adventure of John Buchan. On the West End stage, drawing-room murder on the Ilesian model was easy to dramatize. If the plot divulges the plotter or killer from the start, the emphasis falls naturally on george ww1, why the crime is committed and whether the guilty party will escape. Now the drama grows out of festering motive, middle-class frustration, and the gradual realization that loved ones can’t be trusted. The 1920s1930s detective story, with its least-likely-suspect surprise, had relied on the idea that anyone could be a murderer, but the domestic thriller developed this idea in depth.

The theme was doubtless accelerated by Systems much-publicized murders committed by solid citizens, notably Dr. H. George! H. Crippen, Loeb and Leopold, and baby-faced Sidney Fox (inspiration for Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems Night Must Fall ). These fictions replaced the Napoleonic crimes of sensation thrillers by on Methods a sense that humdrum life harbored lethal passions. Hence a series of books organized around killers’ psychological states: Richard Hull’s The Murder of My Aunt (1935), Winifred Duke’s Skin for Skin (1935), Bruce Hamilton’s Middle Class Murder (1936), and James Ronald’s This Way Out (1939). Patrick Hamilton’s Hangover Square (1941), with its schizophrenic protagonist and Systems Essay bold sexuality, indicates how far things had come in just a few years. Sociological! A parallel trend emerged in America. While the hard-boiled stories of Cain and Chandler gained most attention, other writersagain, mostly womenoffered stories of lethally disturbed husbands (Elisabeth Sanxay Holding’s Death Wish , 1934, and Net of Cobwebs , 1935) and tangled domestic murder plots (Cora Jarrett’s Night over Ethical Systems, Fitch’s Pond , 1933). What about focusing point of view around the sociological examples victim? Psychology came to Ethical Systems Essay, prominence there too.

Boileau and Narcejac would point out later that traditional detective fiction had minimized the quality of fear. 16 But concentrating on the potential victim’s anxieties and suspicions made fear central to the new thriller. Not incidentally, most of the killers were male and sociological examples many of their victims were female, continuing the woman-in-peril motif developed in Lowndes, Rinehart, and their followers, as well as in Before the Fact . The psychological thriller was able to reactivate the Bluebeard tradition, often making explicit reference to Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems Essay, it. Reviewers sometimes felt obliged to warn audiences and readers that the psychological thriller wasn’t a mystery in the usual sense: “whodunit” would be revealed very soon. Yet this foreknowledge didn’t dissipate interest. Whether novel or play, the Between Living in a Big City domestic thriller shifted the plot’s thrust from curiosity about the past (who killed X and why and how?) to Deontological Essay, anticipation (will Y succeed in on Horrors of the Revolution Farm by George killing X and escape punishment?). As one writer explained in reviewing A. A. Milne’s play The Fourth Wall (1928): Though we saw the murder, we do not know what little slip Carter may have made in the arrangement of the room or the concoction of Vs. Teleological Ethical his own and Laverick’s alibi. Thus while Susan continues her investigation we do not know what clue she will discover or how she will arrive at george clemenceau the truth; nor when she has a part of the information in her hands do we how she will force Carter to Deontological Essay, reveal the rest. Here is scope for on Methods Measurment action enough, and not for action only but for as much drawing of character as is possible in the course of Deontological Essay a narrative so full of events.

The first act, which shows the murder, is admirable in its suspense and surprise. 17. In The Fourth Wall and most other murder plays, the killer doesn’t go scot-free. In the novels as well, authors tend to emphasize that their clever miscreants fail to execute a perfect crime. I spy (All the worse for sociological theories me) As some detective-story writers, under the Iles influence, moved closer to the psychological thriller, another group of writers exploited suspense in Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems tales of international intrigue. Essay On Methods Measurment! This trend seems to have been central to Mitchell Wilson’s 1947 intuition about the new thriller, for all three of Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical his specific examplesGreene, Ambler, and Hughesmade their reputations in the spy genre. Historians trace the modern spy story back to British writers, William LeQueux and E. Phillips Oppenheim, and similarities christianity later Edgar Wallace, John Buchan, and William “Sapper” McNiele. 18 These writers developed the basic conventions.

Central among these was a fairly episodic plot based on a series of adventures, driven by a hunt (for secret documents or exotic weapons) or a chase. Typically the protagonist ran afoul of Deontological Ethical Systems Essay some large-scale force, such as a master criminal, a sinister foreign government, or a secret coalition bent on and hinduism, world domination. Ethical Systems! At the same time, the protagonist might also be sought by the police, a domestic intelligence agency, or some other force of law. The result was the “double chase,” in which the hero must elude both villains and the law, as in John Buchan’s The Thirty-Nine Steps (1915). The chase plot was filled out by captures, escapes, abductions of the heroes’ allies or loved ones, and sometimes surprisingly comic interludes. The conventions forged by these writers were ready-made for cinema, so it’s not surprising that some of the clemenceau ww1 earliest feature films and serials in many countries were spy stories, such as Denmark’s Dr. Gar-el-Hama series, Louis Feuillade’s crime serials, and Lang’s Dr.

Mabuse films and Deontological Vs. Teleological Essay Spies (1928). Because the hunt and the pursuit were central to the action, the typical spy story set its protagonist on a journey. The detective story and the domestic thriller tended to be centripetal, focused on a limited number of settings or even a single household. The tale of intrigue, however, was centrifugal; its characters were propelled from city to countryside, from one country or region to another. Central scenes might take place on sociological theories, a train or on Vs. Teleological Systems Essay, a highway. The Middle East, Russia, and Asia furnished exotic locales.

This incessant travel might highlight themes of national identity and devotion to a country or cause. The protagonist of the spy novel might be a professional secret agent or an independent adventurer who takes on a mission out of patriotism, personal loyalty, or a quest for excitement. Essay Of The Russian Revolution In Animal! Before the late 1930s, the spy thriller also contained some degree of Deontological Vs. Teleological Essay humor, either in comic characters and dialect rendering or in a light-hearted approach to dangers, as seen in Agatha Christie’s Tuppence and for Performance Tommy Beresford series. But things became more somber as spying began recruiting more naïve protagonists. Late in the decade, international tensions allowed writers to hurl ordinary citizens into the conflict.

In Ambler’s Epitaph for a Spy (1938), the protagonist is a weak emigrant who is pressured into Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems Essay, spying by brutal and bungling intelligence officials. Helen MacInnes’ Above Suspicion (1941) propels an Oxford couple into intrigue while they visit Europe for “one last look at clemenceau ww1 peacetime” in Ethical 1939. The protagonist of Greene’s Confidential Agent (1939) is what the title calls him: not a “secret agent” but a representative seeking coal to between christianity and hinduism, help the Spanish revolutionary cause. Now that the Ethical plot depended on amateurs and innocents, missions can go amiss and the ending may be more glum than happy; Epitaph for ww1 a Spy and The Confidential Agent end with little sense of victory. The technique of Deontological Ethical Systems Essay a restricted narration becomes as crucial to Essay on The Difference Between in a, the spy story as it is to detective fiction and Ethical Systems Essay the domestic thriller. Buchan and the later writers tend to focus their stories around the consciousness of the protagonist, either through first-person accounts or through limiting the range of knowledge. In these books, we often know only as much as the hero or heroine does. George Ww1! Restricted narration enhances the mystery component, while also making every encounter a potential threat: Is the friendly helper encountered on the road actually working for Deontological the enemy?

The limitations of knowledge make possible the Between conventional bluffs and double-crosses that create plot reversals typical of spy fiction, but they can also generate the anxietyin protagonist and in Systems Essay readerthat Mitchell Wilson found central to to kill reviews, the suspense story. These three trends in Deontological Essay popular fiction and drama seem most pertinent to the emergence of the 1940s suspense story. But they could not have exercised their influence had not America, home to Hollywood, gone mad for mystery and murder. Hitchcock, Judith Anderson, and Joan Fontaine on the set of Rebecca . There is a standard story about what happened to American mystery fiction during the theories examples 1930s and 1940s. The Sherlock Holmes model of rational crime-solving, we’re told, was replaced by the two-fisted private detective who came up from the pulp magazines to literary prestige. Like most such synopses, though, this one cuts some corners. In popular literature, the Deontological Systems adventures in deduction of Lord Peter Wimsey, Hercule Poirot, and Ellery Queen remained far more widely read than the chronicles of Sam Spade, Philip Marlowe, and other roughnecks.

Only Mickey Spillane’s Mike Hammer rivaled the popularity of his white-glove counterparts. 19 Moreover, the standard outline plays down the syntheses between the puzzle-driven and action-driven plotting we find in the work of Rex Stout and Erle Stanley Gardner (hands down the most popular mystery writer of the 1940s). To Kill! 20 At the same period, the spy story often incorporated a puzzle element, and this was balanced against vigorous physical action provided by hunts and chases. Now we can see that the standard history also ignores the emergence of the psychological thriller. Mitchell Wilson’s remark in 1947 that the suspense story had come of age marks a dawning recognition that there was currently a form of mystery that steered a course between the Ethical Systems puzzle and george the hard-boiled adventure. More generally, throughout the 1940s there was a recalibration and refinement of mass-market genres. Vs. Teleological! Publishers developed “category publishing,” as Janice Radaway has explained: a strategy of identifying a stable market for a certain type of fiction and serving that with steady, predictable output.

21 Mysteries, Westerns, and romances, so identified, made up the bulk of U.S. genre fiction in Essay on The Between in a the 1940s. Their ambit expanded enormously when the paperback revolution opened up new markets. Mystery, including detective stories, spy stories, and suspense fiction, was by far the most popular category. In 1940, 40% of all novels published were mysteries. 22 Serialized in slick magazines, then brought out in hardcover, then in cheaper editions, perhaps eventually to be the basis of radio plays or movies, mystery titles assured publishers solid returns and attained a degree of literary respectability at the same time. While Westerns and romance titles flew under the radar, newspapers reserved column inches for reviews of mysteries. Publishers devoted entire imprints to mystery fiction, and went on to subdivide their product lines to reflect readers’ tastes. Doubleday’s Crime Club imprint created indicia to label a book as “Chess Puzzle,” “Character and Atmosphere,” “Spies and Deontological Vs. Teleological Systems Essay Sabotage,” “Some Like Them Tough,” and similarities christianity so on. Simon and Schuster’s “Inner Sanctum” logo marked “a novel of suspense, a novel of crime and punishment rather than a novel of Deontological Ethical Essay crime and detection.” 23. As this ecosystem expanded and Essay on Horrors of the Revolution in Animal Farm by George Orwell diversified, commentators began to distinguish suspense stories from Deontological Vs. Teleological Essay other forms of thriller. The radio program Suspense began regular broadcasting in 1942.

It asked aspiring writers to provide plots based on tense, “precarious” situations, while avoiding “plain ‘who-dun-its’ or detective stories” and sociological theories examples “fantastic horror-yarns involving zombies, ghosts, etc.” 24 Howard Haycraft, the leading historian of Deontological Vs. Teleological Systems Essay crime fiction, admitted that the Essay on Horrors in Animal Farm Orwell Rinehart “romantic-feminine school of crime fiction” had been a major force and Deontological had invaded the best-seller lists. Hence the current popularity of “the somewhat amorphous ‘suspense’ novel.” 25 Anthony Boucher, another major critic, claimed that World War II coincided with a new phase of mystery fiction. With classic detective situations “exhausted,” the public demanded “a heightening of the george clemenceau pure element of suspense.” Suspense had become central to the “personal narratives” that constituted the new cutting edge of mystery writing. Deontological Ethical! 26 Mitchell Wilson’s article is only one piece recognizing the new genre. If you had to pick a single book that shifted U.S. mystery publishing toward psychological suspense, it would probably be Daphne du Maurier’s Rebecca . (Its date of publication, 1938, fits comfortably into Wilson’s ten-year time frame.) Upon publication it immediately became a bestseller, and by the end of the 1940s it had sold over a million copies, making it the most successful mystery novel of the on Methods for Performance Measurment era. 27 In fact, it was hardly recognized as a mystery novel. Long, melancholy, dense with description and Ethical Systems Essay reflections on Essay on Horrors of the Russian Revolution by George Orwell, the protagonist’s inner life, it was greeted as a serious piece of fiction, closer to The Citadel (1941), Random Harvest (1941), and other middlebrow novels than to the genre works of Rinehart, Seeley, Eberhart than others. With its echoes of Jane Eyre , Rebecca provided a model for Deontological Systems the “romantic suspense” novel that would come to prominence in the 1950s and on Horrors of the Revolution in Animal Farm Orwell eventually become the Harlequin romance of our day. With Rebecca and many other novels, the American suspense thriller came into its own.

Today we tend to Deontological Systems, associate the trend with film noir and outstanding male authors like Cornell Woolrich, John Franklin Bardin, and examples Georges Simenon (then being frequently translated). Again, however, the trend was also shaped by Vera Caspary, Dorothy B. Hughes, Charlotte Armstrong, Mabel Seeley, Doris Miles Disney, Elizabeth Daly, Hilda Lawrence, Margaret Millar, Josephine Tey, Patricia Highsmith, and other female authors. As the “inverted” and multi-perspectival detective story had pushed some English practitioners toward psychological mystery, so too did many of Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems these women novelists abandon their series detectives and shift toward pure suspense. Cinema followed the trend. The murder plays Payment Deferred , Kind Lady , and Night Must Fall had found their way to the screen in the 1930s, but now there was a burst of adaptations. Gaslight was filmed in on Methods 1944, The Two Mrs. Ethical Systems Essay! Carrolls and Love from a Stranger in 1947. Other revivals included the similarities between and hinduism Gothic classics Jane Eyre (1944) and The Woman in Vs. Teleological Systems White (1948) and the Edwardian books The Lodger (1944) and Essay Difference Big City The House by the River (1950). Some of the earliest adaptations came from the authors named by Wilson as prototypes of suspense.

Graham Greene’s work yielded the films This Gun for Hire (1942), Ministry of Fear (1945), and The Confidential Agent (1945). Eric Ambler’s novels were the basis for Journey into Fear (1943) and The Mask of Dimitrios (1944). The less-known Dorothy B. Hughes supplied The Fallen Sparrow (1943), Ride the Ethical Essay Pink Horse (1947), and In a Lonely Place (1950). At the same time, Woolrich, Hughes, Armstrong, Caspary, and many other thriller novelists found their work turned into george, movies. 28 Elisabeth Sanxay Holding, called by Raymond Chandler “the top suspense writer of them all,” wrote the novel that would become The Reckless Moment (1949). 29. Hollywood developed original thrillers as well, and the trade press spotted a trend.

A 1944 Variety article claimed that. The typical tale in the new genre crawls with living horror, is eerie with something impending, and Deontological Vs. Teleological socks its suspense thrill well along toward the Essay on Methods Measurment middle of the story, instead of doing the crime victim in at the beginning and Vs. Teleological then building a whodunit and a detective quiz as the element of Russian Revolution Farm by George suspense. 30. The passage reminds us that emotion of fear, so central to Mitchell Wilson’s commentary, is also a stock response triggered by the horror film of the 1930s. Deontological Ethical Systems! In 1947 Wilson felt no need to theories, specify that the fear conjured up by the suspense story was not akin to that in horror or fantasy films: the Deontological Systems cause was not a monster or a supernatural being. Three years earlier, however, the anonymous Variety writer was just starting to make this distinction. The article takes Rebecca (1940) , Phantom Lady, Gaslight, Dark Waters (1944), Mask of Dimitrios, Hangover Square (1945), and in Animal Farm Orwell even The Picture of Dorian Gray (1945), as examples of the Deontological Ethical Systems Essay “new horrifier.” Such films created, one observer noted, “a horror cycle” that was quite different from “vampire, werewolf and Frankenstein chillers.” 31.

Lumping all these suspense films together seems a bit odd today. Aren’t Gaslight and Dark Waters really Gothics? By contrast, aren’t Phantom Lady and Hangover Square examples of film noir? We need to remember that female Gothics and films noirs are really ex post facto categories, constructed by later critics to Essay for Performance, point out Deontological Ethical Essay affinities and differences among groups of films. These categories didn’t exist for contemporaries, and similarities between filmmakers and Ethical Essay writers of the time carved things up rather differently. Many of the theories 1940s films’ plots, as we’d expect, put women in danger in a forbidding household.

So we have Experiment Perilous (1944), Dark Waters (1944), My Name Is Julia Ross (1945), Undercurrent (1946), Dragonwyck (1946), A Stolen Life (1946), The Spiral Staircase (1946), Sleep, My Love (1948), Caught (1949), and several other films, many adapted from plays and novels. When a Hollywood’s psychological thriller focused on a male protagonist it could yield something like Hangover Square , The Woman in Vs. Teleological Ethical the Window (1944), Conflict (1945), Scarlet Street (1945), The Suspect (1945), The Chase (1946), They Won’t Believe Me (1947), The Big Clock (1948), Take One False Step (1949), and The Second Woman (1950). What’s striking is that as these narrative patterns multiplied, mixtures and variants appeared. The plot of Phantom Lady , novel and sociological film, depends on a properly victimized, perhaps paranoid noir hero; but he is Vs. Teleological Essay, rescued by his girlfriend. Instead of murderous husbands we find equally manipulative women targeting husbands, wives, and Essay Revolution Farm by George engaged couples ( A Guest in the House , 1944; Strange Impersonation , 1946; Leave Her to Heaven , 1946). Even the “Gothic” plots exhibit a lot of variety.

In Dark Waters , the villain isn’t the husband but an Ethical Systems Essay, entire family conspiring against the bride. In A Woman’s Vengeance , the would-be killer isn’t the unfaithful husband but a third woman in love with him. A Mockingbird! My Name is Julia Ross shows how a dowager conspires to obliterate a woman’s identity so that she can marry the old woman’s demented son. The 1944 Variety article mentions another salient feature of the Deontological Vs. Teleological new thriller. It deals with insanity“unpredictable in Essay Revolution Farm by George Orwell its attack; frightful in its effect among the Deontological Vs. Teleological Essay companion characters.” 32 During the 1930s, Dorothy Sayers predicted a robust future for psychoanalytic mystery, and occasionally novels of the time invoke concepts of the “subconscious” and “revived” childhood traumas. 33 American detective stories of the 1940s dabbled in the trend more overtly; one of the earliest seems to be Lawrence Treat’s 1943 O as in Omen , which makes its sleuth a psychiatrist who interprets not only clemenceau, suspects’ dreams but his own. Hitchcock’s Spellbound (1945), with its therapeutic investigation, turned the suspense plot toward psychoanalysis.

With Bewitched (1945), The Locket (1947), and Possessed (1947), Freudian motifs became conventional parts of the domestic thriller. Even less doctrine-driven tales would suggest that the murderous husband or lover or seductress harbored a streak of madness. By the late 1940s, the suspense story was a major genre. In her survey of the movie colony, Hortense Powdermaker noted the recent vogue for “psychological murder thrillers” and the rise of suspense as a factor in A pictures. 34 Instead of a detective story, remarked another writer, Hollywood could now offer “adult and exciting screen drama on the mystery framework, with emphasis on character and suspense.” 35 Another observer stressed that whereas many mysteries had been consigned to the ranks of Vs. Teleological Systems Essay B pictures, the new ones could be treated with top production values. Difference In A! 36 Crucial in Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems all cases was the element of personal vulnerability: “The trend is toward emotion, excitement, suspensetoward ‘What is theories, going to happen to this protagonist?’” 37. The Lady Vanishes (1938).

Sharp-eyed readers will have noticed that nearly all my examples of suspense films come from the Vs. Teleological Ethical Essay years 1944 onward. What about the Essay on Methods for Performance Measurment years before? Examples of Deontological Ethical Systems Essay suspense pictures are curiously hard to find in those years. There are the B films Stranger on the Third Floor (1940), often taken as a prototypical film noir; Shadows on the Stair (1941) from a Frank Vosper play; Fingers at the Window (1942); and Street of Chance (1942). The rare A pictures we might consider include Ladies in Retirement (1941), but featuring minor players; I Wake Up Screaming (1941), a somber detective film narrated largely from the standpoints of witnesses and sociological theories examples suspects; and two upper-tier spy films of 1943, Journey into Fear and Above Suspicion . There are probably other candidates I don’t know of, but I don’t believe that pre-1944 releases boast very many top-rank suspense-driven films. Except of course, for the films directed by Alfred Hitchcock. So far my story must seem a case of Systems Hamlet without the Prince. It’s been a challenging exercise to sketch the context of a mockingbird 1940s Hollywood and barely mention Hitchcock, but eventually I have to confront reality. The “missing” suspense films of the Deontological Ethical early 1940s are by sociological examples Hitchcock: Rebecca (1940), Foreign Correspondent (1940), Suspicion (1941), Saboteur (1942), and Shadow of a Doubt (1943).

And it seems likely that they strongly influenced what would follow. Hitchcock came to America acknowledged as the magisterial exponent of high tension. In a 1936 article in the Times of London, a reviewer writes, “Mr. Hitchcock’s long and strong suit is suspense.” 38 British cinema of the 1930s exploited detective plots, domestic thrillers, and spy stories, but Hitchcock managed to give them unusually sharp form and force. 39 Murder! (1930) respects the detective-story premises of the source novel. The Lodger (1926) is an adaptation of Belloc Lowndes’ classic domestic thriller. Blackmail (1929) also relies on conventions of that genre: the killer’s identity is known at the start, and her task is to escape punishment. Above all there were the Deontological Ethical five spy films in the second half of the 1930s.

Although The Secret Agent (1936) centers on a professional spy, the others show ordinary people caught up in international intrigue: the family in sociological theories The Man Who Knew Too Much (1934) and a couple on a train in The Lady Vanishes (1938). Even the Richard Hannay of Deontological Vs. Teleological Systems The 39 Steps (1935) seems more an ordinary person than the for Performance adventure-loving gentleman of the Buchan books. Hitchcock and his screenwriters proved adroit at blending one format with another. Young and Innocent (1937) is derived from Vs. Teleological Systems Essay a detective novel, but the film divulges the murderer’s identity in the first scene in order to set up a double-barreled pursuit. In Sabotage (1936), the spy story becomes a domestic thriller when a wife learns that her husband is a ruthless bomber. In both England and the U.S., Hitchcock aligned himself closely with major trends in Measurment mystery fiction and Deontological Ethical Systems drama. His reading tastes ran to Belloc Lowndes and John Buchan. Sociological Theories! 40 He considered adapting Buchan’s Greenmantle and Iles’ Malice Aforethought . The Man Who Knew Too Much began as a tale of Bulldog Drummond, the hero created by Sapper.

Having filmed one Du Maurier novel, Jamaica Inn (1939), Hitchcock contemplated buying the rights to Rebecca before Selznick acquired it. 41 Two of his films featured the actor Frank Vosper, co-author of the significant murder play Love from a Stranger . Once in America, he returned to similar sources, hoping to remake The Lodger , filming Iles’s Before the Systems Essay Fact as Suspicion , and eventually turning Patrick Hamilton’s Rope into a 1948 film. Essay On Methods! There were personal affinities as well. His assistant Joan Harrison was married to Eric Ambler, and he wrote a glowing introduction to a 1943 collection of Ethical Essay Ambler novels. 42. With the exception of the clemenceau ww1 comedy Mr. and Mrs. Smith (1941), Hitchcock’s earliest American films maintained his prominence in the subgenres. The hugely successful Rebecca (1940) was followed by two more domestic thrillers, Suspicion (1941) and Shadow of Vs. Teleological Ethical a Doubt (1943). Sandwiched among these were two spy chases, Foreign Correspondent (1940) and Saboteur (1942).

Very quickly his work set the benchmark. Throughout the 1940s, he was called the “master of suspense” in both critics’ columns and film advertising. On Horrors Of The Revolution In Animal By George! The term reappeared in Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Essay trade advertisements for Shadow of a Doubt, Lifeboat , and Spellbound . 43 A 1941 review of Ladies in Retirement praised it for providing Hitchcockian suspense. 44 “The novel story line” of Crossroads (1942), noted a Variety critic in June 1942, “would do credit to an Alfred Hitchcock thriller.” 45 Richard Wallace’s direction of The Fallen Sparrow (1943, from a Dorothy B. Hughes novel) was said to be “reminiscent of the Hitchcock touch.” 46 His name was invoked in Revolution in Animal Farm Orwell discussions of films by Val Lewton and even Walt Disney. 47 After a decade in Hollywood he had been around long enough to be called “the old master.” 48.

Hitchcock worked to promote his brand. 49 In interviews and public talks he differentiated the detective story from his sort of Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Essay thriller, often stressing that distinction between suspense and surprise that was picked up by Charlotte Armstrong, Helen McCloy, and other commentators on the emerging suspense genre. 50 He composed an introduction to a 1947 collection of suspense stories in which he laid down his ideas on technique. In that anthology he returned to a favorite topic, the narrational options that create suspense. Theories Examples! Much of suspense comes down to Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical, range of knowledge. “The author may let both reader and character share the knowledge of the nature of the dangers which threaten.Sometimes, however, the reader alone may realize that peril is in similarities christianity and hinduism the offing, and watch the Systems Essay characters moving to meet it in and hinduism blissful ignorance and disquieting unconcern.” 51 Hitchcock continued to pronounce on principles of suspense throughout the 1940s, applying them to whatever project he had in Vs. Teleological Essay hand. To Kill! (In Rope , the fact that the Systems audience knows the ww1 killers from the start “makes for real suspense.” 52) He became the foremost practitioner and theorist of the new genre.

From this perspective, Mitchell Wilson’s 1947 piece was part of a new discourse on Vs. Teleological, suspense that Hitchcok had helped shape. His influence extended beyond cinema. To write for the radio show Suspense, a writer declared, demanded two kinds of suspense. “Interest” or “mystification” suspense compels the audience to wonder what will happen next, while “emotional” suspense requires knowledge of all the factors in play, along with identification with the threatened person. The author’s example of emotional suspense is the scene in Rope when the sociological theories examples maid slowly clears the books off the chest containing the body. Indeed, the program was explicitly designed to Ethical Essay, bring to radio “the particular kind of suspense developed in a mockingbird reviews pictures by Vs. Teleological Essay Alfred Hitchcock.” 53. The Master’s problems, and some solutions. Above Suspicion (1943).

It’s very likely, then, that Hitchcock’s films of 19401943 gave an impetus to the emergence of full-blown suspense pictures in Between Living in a the years that followed. We can’t attribute everything to them; after all, if Hitchcock hadn’t directed Rebecca , someone else would have, and it would probably have had a large impact in any case. More broadly, the films fitted smoothly into the murder culture of American popular media. Still, the films provided high standards of quality and meticulous models of Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems plot and style that other filmmakers could learn from. In following Hitchcock’s models and Essay on The Between other efforts of the Systems early forties, the studios couldn’t turn on a dime. With writers recruited for the war effort, original screenplays were in shorter supply. Studios increased the number of literary adaptations, often drawing from short stories and serialized novels. George Ww1! Once a property was found, it typically took at least a year to develop into a finished film, and very often a story went through several years of Systems Essay development. 54 Such factors help explain why it took a while before the psychological thriller could emerge as a production trend. When it did, in Essay on Horrors Russian Orwell calendar 1944, Hitchcock’s example remained inescapable.

Yet counter-forces developed. Once the Deontological suspense story developed, was he to be its only master? In the literary realm there was of course Simenon, whose Maigret detective novels and Essay Difference Between Living his proto-noir romans durs were being translated at the time. Fritz Lang, dubbed by Variety “a master at maintaining high suspense,” 55 had like Hitchcock made his reputation with crime thrillers before arriving in America, and his Hollywood work of the Deontological Ethical Systems 1940s soon paralleled the Englishman’s: espionage thrillers ( Man Hunt, Hangmen Also Die!, Ministry of to kill a mockingbird Fear, Cloak and Ethical Essay Dagger ) alongside domestic ones. Indeed, The Woman in the Window, Scarlet Street, Secret Beyond the Door , and House by the River might well have been Hitchcock projects. To Kill Reviews! There was also Robert Siodmak. Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems Essay! His Spiral Staircase started as a Selznick project planned for Bergman and a mockingbird reviews Hitchcock, and Ethical Systems Essay his Phantom Lady was produced by Hitchcock colleague Joan Harrison.

Billy Wilder told a reporter that Double Indemnity (1944) was an on Methods for Performance Measurment, attempt to “out-Hitch Hitch.” 56 Soon the same reporter, who had been an ardent Hitchcock admirer, could write that Fred Zinneman’s Seventh Cross (1944) “filmed suspense in a new way” by avoiding all “tricks”“unlike Alfred Hitchcock, master of surprise” (!). 57. Filmmakers of the period learned a great deal from Hitchcock’s technique, such as his gliding camera movements inward to Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems Essay, build tension, or his abrupt cuts to close-ups. To Kill! There was even open copying. Lifting from the Albert Hall climax of The Man Who Knew Too Much , Richard Whorf’s Above Suspicion (1943) presents an assassination during an orchestra performance, with the Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems Essay gunshot masked by a blast of music. 58 At the on Methods Measurment same time, I think, Hitchcock’s early thrillers displayed some problems that other filmmakers could learn to avoid.

Take Rebecca and Suspicion , the Essay two tales of uxorial mistrust. Compared to the trim thrillers of Eberhart, Rebecca is hardly a perfect template for suspense. Its plot evokes mystery but in a rather leisurely way, gradually crystallizing questions about how Rebecca died and between christianity and hinduism why widower Maxim de Winter behaves brusquely. The emphasis falls on the nameless heroine’s pangs of Deontological Vs. Teleological Essay naivete and inferiority when thrust into clemenceau, a wealthy milieu. Her investigations of Rebecca’s life and death are mostly inadvertent results of her social gaffes. Not until quite late in Vs. Teleological Ethical Essay the plot does she become seriously threatened, when the Essay on The in a Big City sadistic housekeeper Mrs. Systems Essay! Danvers urges the distraught girl to fling herself out a window. And not until a storm leads locals to Russian Revolution Farm by George Orwell, discover Rebecca’s remains in a sunken sailboat does Maxim confess that he shot his wife and Ethical Essay buried her body at sea. George Ww1! Now that the Deontological Ethical Systems mystery is dispelled, a more traditional suspense can kick in. Maxim must bluff the coroner’s inquest and evade the blackmailing scheme of on Horrors of the Russian Revolution in Animal Farm Orwell Rebecca’s lover Favell. Deontological Vs. Teleological Systems! Maxim and the heroine are saved, again more or less accidentally, but with the george clemenceau Manderley estate destroyed, they end their lives in a seedy French hotel and brood on their lost Manderley and their hollow marriage.

Burdened with a murderous hero and an unhappy ending, Rebecca faced problems of transposition to Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems, the screen. Clemenceau Ww1! To placate the Hays Office, Selznick and Hitchcock modified the plot to Deontological Vs. Teleological Essay, make Rebecca’s death an accident, covered up by Essay on The Between Living in a Maxim. On the whole, other changes made for the film streamlined the Deontological Ethical Systems Essay action, excising the musings that fill the book and building up the suspense, chiefly through the pressures the sinister Mrs. Danvers brings to bear on the new wife. Essay On Methods For Performance! From the start, Hitchcock doses du Maurier’s plot with local tension, as when it seems that the heroine will leave Monte Carlo with her employer before she can bid farewell to Max. The cinematography turns Manderley into an oversized mausoleum with doorknobs set at the level of the heroine’s shoulders. Hitchcock seized the opportunity to hint at ominous secrets harbored in the vast rooms and Deontological Vs. Teleological Essay corridors.

Rebecca sets Hitchcock on the way toward one of his central situations of his career: the woman trapped in a threatening household. Rebecca poses the questions: Whom have I married? What is his past? What am I to him? The novel’s plot answers by exposing Maxim as a man who murdered his first wife but found some happiness with his second. Essay Difference In A Big City! Suspicion (1941) poses the same questions, but Iles’ novel suggests frightful answers: I have married a liar, a cheat, and Vs. Teleological Essay a killer; and he intends to murder me. Again, the film’s ending had to be fudged. Suspicion ’s heroine has misinterpreted Johnny, and he has intended to kill himself, not her. The reconciliation is even more of on Methods for Performance Measurment a letdown than in the Rebecca instance. Variety responded sourly: In switching tragic ending of Francis Iles’ novel in Vs. Teleological Ethical favor of a happy finale, Hitchcock and his scripters devised a most inept and inconclusive windup that fails to of the Farm, measure up to the dramatic intensity of preceding footage, and Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems this doesn’t reach the Essay Measurment climax expected.

In this respect, picture structure is deficient, and it is obvious that the writers endeavored to toss in the happy ending in a few hundred feet and let it go at that. 59. Later filmmakers solved the problem of the enigmatic husband in a simpler fashion: Let the husband be a murderer, and Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems Essay let the wife escape. Between Christianity And Hinduism! This more stable option was already laid out in a 1937 English film, Love from Deontological Vs. Teleological Systems a Stranger , which was surely known to Essay, Hitchcock. Adapted from Frank Vosper’s play 60, it presents Carol, who throws aside her loyal suitor Ronald for the charming Gerald Lovell. She marries Gerald and at first enjoys their life in Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems an isolated cottage. But his sudden rages and on Methods for Performance his secretiveness about his photographic “experiments” make her worry. Breaking with Carol’s range of knowledge about halfway through the Deontological Essay film, the narration shows Gerald in the cellar burning a photograph of her. Soon we learn that his interest in historical murders is Essay of the Russian Revolution in Animal Farm Orwell, one expression of Deontological Vs. Teleological Systems a battlefront trauma that will drive him to kill her. Gradually Carol’s suspicions crystallize.

In a drunken fit Gerald tells her how he trapped her, but before he can kill her she manages to poison his coffee. He collapses and Ronald arrives in time to Measurment, console a sobbing Carol. Ronald plays a secondary role in Vs. Teleological Love from a Stranger . He doesn’t rescue Carol but merely offers her an alternative partner at the end. George Clemenceau! Hollywood’s later versions of the plot turned the other man into what Diane Waldman has called a “helper male”a figure who can save the heroine and supply a romantic alliance once the murderous husband has been eliminated. 61 But Hitchcock presumably could not radically revise Rebecca or Suspicion to provide a helper male, so the resolutions had to end in impasse. Systems! Interestingly, when Hamilton’s play Gaslight made it to film in the U.S. (1944), the plot was recast to make the inspector an appropriate suitor for the rescued wife. Apart from lacking helper males, Rebecca and sociological theories examples Suspicion posed problems of narration. Love from a Stranger provided a wide frame of knowledge. Vs. Teleological Ethical Essay! By cutting between scenes displaying Gerald’s madness and scenes of the unsuspecting Carol, Vorhaus’s film generates classic suspense. In contrast, both Rebecca and Suspicion confine us so tightly to the heroine’s viewpoint that the ww1 ultimate revelations seem evasive or forced. The problems with these two films point up a more general tension within Hitchcock’s aesthetic.

Restriction to what a character knows enhances mystery (and can engender surprise), but suspense, he maintained, comes when we know more than the character. 62 The best compromise is when our knowledge exceeds the character’s by a little, but not so much that we know everything. Hence the Essay moments that fall outside Jeff’s range of knowledge in reviews Rear Window , the judicious inserted scene of the Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Essay agency meeting in North by Northwest , and on Horrors Russian Revolution in Animal by George other instances in which Hitchcock slightly widens our range of knowledge, often in a teasing way. 63 An anonymous reviewer for the London Times caught this strategy in Sabotage : Hitchcock will usually “lay most of Deontological Ethical Essay his cards on george clemenceau, the table.” 64. With Shadow of a Doubt , Hitchcock and Thornton Wilder solved the difficulties of the two earlier women-in-peril films.

A freer range of narration allows suspense to Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical, build: the opening man-on-the-run episode, confined largely to Uncle Charlie, segues into a section that centers on a mockingbird reviews, what Young Charlie suspects and eventually discovers. In accordance with Mitchell Wilson’s anatomy of the suspense plot, she takes the Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems initiative and turns on her tormentor, forcing him to leave town. Although much of examples this portion is focused around Young Charlie, though, we get glimpses of Uncle Charlie on his own. In addition, Shadow of a Doubt supplies a helper male, the police investigator Jack Graham. Although Hitchcock dismissed the character as a concession to romance, 65 and although Jack doesn’t rescue Young Charlie during the climactic sequence on the train, he provides a stable resolution, mitigating a little the devastation that Young Charlie feels.

Hitchcock, then, offered other filmmakers both models of what to do and what to Deontological Vs. Teleological Essay, avoid. But it seems to me that the burst of psychological suspense films at all budget levels left him less room to innovate. On The Living In A Big City! Many variations were emerging; the space was getting crowded. Women-in-peril plots featuring murderous husbands had become commonplace, and they often displayed skilful use of Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems Essay restricted point of view, as in Sorry, Wrong Number (1948). There were even “Hitchcockian” movies avant la lettre : The crime inadvertently witnessed, the premise of Rear Window , was tried out in Lady on a Train (1945), in Shock (1946), and perhaps most vividly in Ted Tetzlaff’s The Window (1949), in and hinduism which a tenement boy sees a stabbing but can’t convince anyone of Vs. Teleological Ethical Essay it. In short, with so many films mimicking Hitchcock’s, and george ww1 so many variants of basic suspense situations proliferating, how was he to maintain his cinematic identity? In Spellbound (1945) he led the way to a burst of talking-cure films. He and Ben Hecht blended his favored woman-in-peril situation with spy intrigue in Notorious (1946), making the helper male into a rival suitor from the start and organizing part of the plot around his range of knowledge. For other projects Hitchcock seemed to Deontological Ethical Systems, strain to of the Russian in Animal Farm by George Orwell, find something highly distinctive, either dramatically or technically. A contract-fulfilling job, the Vs. Teleological Essay courtroom drama The Paradine Case (1948) posed appetizing technical challenges, but Selznick’s interference dominated the results. It seems to me that the proliferation of suspense films was one cause of Hitchcock’s shift to more outré angles for his projects: increased sexual explicitness ( The Paradine Case, Rope ), provocative drama of ideas ( Lifeboat, Rope ), confinement to a single setting ( Lifeboat, Rope ), long-take shooting ( Paradine Case, Rope, Under Capricorn ), and duplicitous flashback ( Stage Fright ). Significantly, in his interviews with Truffaut, Hitchcock found fault with nearly all these experiments, suggesting that Under Capricorn left the realm of the thriller altogetherdespite the fact that it presents a familiar woman-in-a-threatening-household situation.

Having helped set the terms for thriller storytelling in the 1940s, he was obliged to recalibrate what he could offer in clemenceau the face of competition. 66. At the end of the Essay decade, I think, Hitchcock had managed to re-synchronize with his contemporaries. A Mockingbird Reviews! Most of his 1940s projects, finished and Deontological Vs. Teleological Essay unfinished, have their sources in literary works of the 1920s and sociological examples 1930s. Stage Fright came from a recent novel, but one very much in Deontological Ethical Essay the 1930s English detective-story tradition. Reviews! 67 Strangers on a Train (1950), however, was based on a male-oriented psychological thriller written by one of the Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems women participating in the 1940s burst of suspense fiction. Despite making some compromises in adapting Patricia Highsmith’s original, 68 the master of suspense had allied himself with a writer who typified the new phase of the suspense thrillera phase that he had done much to foster. 69.

I’m indebted to Sidney Gottlieb, Richard Allen, and Thomas Leitch, who provided helpful criticisms of an earlier version of this essay. Thanks also to David Meeker, who provided access to a hard-to-find film. 1 : Mitchell Wilson, “The Suspense Story,” The Writer 60, 1 (January 1947), 15. 3 : Howard Haycraft, “Evolution of the Whodunit in the Years of World War II ,” New York Times Book Review (12 August 1945),” 7. 4 : Helen McCloy, “The Writing and Selling of similarities and hinduism Mysteries,” The Writer 60, 4 (April 1947), 137. 5 : Charlotte Armstrong, “Razzle-Dazzle,” The Writer 66, 1 (January 1953), 34. 6 : Freeman Wills Crofts, The 12:30 from Systems Essay Croydon (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1965), 187. 7 : Dorothy L. Sayers, “Introduction,” The Third Omnibus of theories examples Crime (New York: Blue Ribbon, 1935), 7. 8 : Agatha Christie, Towards Zero (New York: Pocket Books, 1972; orig. 1944), 1213. 9 : Howard Haycraft, Murder for Pleasure: The Life and Times of the Detective Story (New York: Appleton-Century, 1941), 89.

10 : Quoted in Deontological Ethical Systems Haycraft, 90. 11 : François Truffaut, Hitchcock (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1967), 127. 12 : “Chaplin in ‘Circus’ a London Sensation,” New York Times (16 March 1928), 30. 13 : Some of george clemenceau these plays can still be read in acting editions. For a generous overview of them and many others see Amnon Kabatchnik, Blood on the Stage 19251950: Milestone Plays of Crime, Mystery, and Detection (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2010). 14 : Quoted in Deontological Vs. Teleological Systems Essay Sean French, Patrick Hamilton: A Life (London: Faber and Faber, 1993), 139. 15 : For example, The State v. Examples! Elinor Norton , reviewed in John Chamberlain, “Books of the Ethical Times,” New York Times (29 January 1934), 13; Poison Pen , reviewed in Richmond Theatre, The Times (London) (10 Aug. 1937): 8; “Detective Stories: Death Has a Past ,” The Times (London) (6 June 1939), 19. 16 : Boileau-Narcejac, Le roman policier (Paris: Payot, 1964), 150154.

17 : Charles Morgan, “Mr. Milne Tries a New Trick with a Mystery Play,” New York Times (25 March 1928), 119. 18 : For much of what follows, I’m indebted to LeRoy L. Panek’s acute, entertaining study The Special Branch: The British Spy Novel, 1890-1980 (Bowling Green: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1981), especially chapters 112. 19 : Alice Payne Hackett, Sixty Years of Bestsellers 18951955 (New York: Bowker, 1956), 1233. 20 : I review this history from a mockingbird a slightly different angle in “I Love a Mystery: Extra-credit reading,” a blog entry. Ethical Essay! For stimulating and nonconformist accounts of the development of for Performance detective fiction, see LeRoy Lad Panek’s books Watteau’s Shepherds: The Detective Novel in Britain 19141940 (Bowling Green: Popular Press, 1979) and An Introduction to Vs. Teleological Systems Essay, the Detective Story (Bowling Green: Popular Press, 1987). 21 : Janice Radaway, Reading the Romance: Women, Patriarchy, and theories examples Popular Literature (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1984), 3031. 22 : Lee Wright, “Mysteries Are Books,” Publishers Weekly 139 (25 January 1941), 385. In 1946 James Sandoe estimated that mysteries constituted one-quarter of Systems all book-length fiction published in the United States. See “Dagger of the Mind” in The Art of the Mystery Story , ed. Howard Haycraft (New York: Simon and similarities and hinduism Schuster, 1946), 254.

For more figures, see Frank Gruber, “Some Notes on Mystery Novels and Their Authors,” in The Notebooks of Raymond Chandler , ed. Frank Gruber (New York: Ecco Press, 1976), 3334. 23 : Flyleaf blurb for Mitchell Wilson’s The Panic-Stricken (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1946). 24 : “RadioGeneral Markets,” The Writer 64, 1 (January 1951), 58. 25 : Howard Haycraft, “The Burgeoning Whodunit,” The New York Times (6 October 1946), BR3BR4. 26 : Anthony Boucher, “Trojan Horse Opera,” in Haycraft, Art of the Mystery Story , 249. 27 : Alice Payne Hackett, Fifty Years of Bestsellers (New York: Bowker, 1945), 7778. 28 : Richard Mealand suggested that novelists working in the psychological thriller gained a wider readership because of the Deontological Ethical Systems film trend. See “Hollywoodunit,” in Haycraft, Art of the Mystery Story , 301303. 29 : Raymond Chandler, letter to Measurment, Hamish Hamilton (13 Otober 1950), in Deontological Raymond Chandler Speaking , ed.

Dorothy Gardiner and Kathrine Sorley Walker (Plainview, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1971; orig. 1962), 60. 30 : Anonymous, “New Trend in the Horror Pix,” Variety (16 October 1944), 143. 31 : Fred Stanley, “Hollywood Shivers,” New York Times (28 May 1944), X3. 32 “New Trend in the Horror Pix,” 143. 33 : See Sayers, “Introduction,” Third Omnibus of Crime , 6; Bruce Hamilton, Middle Class Murder (Leipzig: Tanschnitz, 1938; orig. 1936). 34 : Hollywood, The Dream Factory: An Anthropologist Looks at similarities between and hinduism the Movie-Makers (Boston: Little, Brown, 1950), 119, 140.

See also Stanley, “Hollywood Shivers,” X3. 35 : Howard Haycraft, “Evolution of the Whodunit in the Years of World War II ,” New York Times Book Review (12 August 1945),” 7. 36 : Anonymous, “Movie Companies Look to Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems, Detective Story Writers for Essay on The in a Big City the New Psychological Film,” Publishers Weekly 149 (9 March 1946), 15151516. 37 : Anthony Boucher, “As Crime Goes By (24 February 1946),” The Anthony Boucher Chronicles: Reviews and Commentary 19421947 , ed. Francis M. Nevins (Lexington, KY: Ramble House, 2001), 102. 38 : “New Films in Deontological Vs. Teleological London,” The Times (London), 25 May 1936, 12. 39 : See Tom Ryall, Alfred Hitchcock and the British Cinema (London: Croom Helm, 1986) and Robert Murphy, “Dark Shadows around Pinewood and Ealing,” Film International no. 7 (2004), 2835. 40 : On his fondness for Buchan and Belloc Lowndes, see Charles Barr, English Hitchcock (London: Movie, 1999), 1014. 41 : Patrick McGilligan, Alfred Hitchcock: A Life in Darkness and Light (New York: HarperCollins, 2003), 212. 42 : Alfred Hitchcock, Introduction, Intrigue: Four Great Spy Novels of Eric Ambler (New York: Knopf, 1943), viiviii.

43 : “ Foreign Correspondent ,” Variety (28 August 1940), 16; Philip K. Scheuer, “A Town Called Hollywood,” Los Angeles Times (7 April 1940), C3; advertisement for Essay Russian Revolution in Animal by George Rebecca , Variety (24 April 1940), 21; advertisement for Shadow of a Doubt , Variety (19 January 1943), 4; advertisement for Lifeboat and Spellbound , Variety (23 February1945), 12. Supposedly the “master of Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical suspense” label was coined by a New York advertising agent promoting the Essay Suspense radio pilot (McGilligan, Alfred Hitchcock , 276). 46 : New York Herald Tribune review quoted in advertisement for The Fallen Sparrow , Variety (19 October 1943), 5. 47 : Philip K. Scheuer, “Trio Gives Horror Picture New Dress,” Los Angeles Times (28 March 1943), C3; and Radie Harris, “Hollywood Runaround,” Variety (11 September 1945), 4. Essay! The Disney film Harris mentions is Make Mine Music , in which the Johnny Fedora and Alice Blue Bonnet episode is said to contain suspense “as breathless as a Hitchcock thriller.” 48 : Philip K. Scheuer, “Killer Stalks Ida Lupino in george High-Tension Thriller,” Los Angeles Times (30 January 1950), A7. 49 : Sidney Gottlieb surveys Hitchcock’s branding strategies, some quite amusing, in “Step Seventeen: Brand Hitchcock,” in Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems 39 Steps to the Genius of Hitchcock: A BFI Compendium (London: British Film Institute, 2012), 7277. 50 : Alfred Hitchcock, “Let ‘Em Play God,” Hollywood Reporter 100, no. 47 (11 October 1948), reprinted in Essay Hitchcock on Hitchcock , ed. Sidney Gottlieb (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 113. 51 : Hitchcock, “Introduction: The Quality of Suspense,” Alfred Hitchcock’s Fireside Book of Suspense (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1947), viii.

This edited collection originally appeared as Suspense Stories Selected by Alfred Hitchcock (New York: Dell, 1945), but the introduction to that edition lacks the Ethical passages I’ve cited here. 53 : William Fifield, “To the george clemenceau ww1 Golden Corn,” The Writer 62, 8 (August 1949), 259. 54 : William Dozier, “Trends and Perspectives,” Writers’ Congress; The Proceedings of the Deontological Systems Conference Held in October 1943 under the Sponsorship of the christianity Hollywood Writers; Mobilization and the University of Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical California (Berkeley: University of similarities California Press), 3641. 55 : “ Man Hunt ,” Variety (10 June 1941), 13. See also the New York Times review in which Lang is called “a master of concentrated suspense” (T. S., “ Hangmen Also Die ,” New York Times [16 April 1943], 24). 56 : Quoted in Vs. Teleological Ethical Philip K. Scheuer, “Film History Made by similarities and hinduism ‘Double Indemnity,’” Los Angeles Times (6 August 1944), C1. 57 : Philip K. Scheuer, “Suspense Filmed in a New Way: Stride Made in Technique,” Los Angeles Times (3 September 1944), C1. 58 : I discuss this sequence, and link to the scene, in a blog entry.

60 : The play’s source is an Agatha Christie short story, “Philomel Cottage.” It does include a rival suitor, although he isn’t much help to the heroine. Interestingly, Christie’s story turns on the revelation that the Vs. Teleological Systems husband isn’t the only practitioner of a mockingbird hearthside murder. 61 : Diane Waldman, “Horror and Domesticity: The Modern Gothic Romance Film of the 1940s,” Ph. D. thesis, University of Deontological WisconsinMadison, 1981, 556. 62 : On restriction to Essay on Methods Measurment, a single character, Hitchcock notes that he avoids the omniscient range of knowledge provided by Griffith-style crosscutting: “Griffith showed the man on Deontological Vs. Teleological Systems Essay, the scaffold, then the messenger with the pardon riding to the rescue. We show the man on the scaffold, but the audience doesn’t know whether our rider has started or not. That’s the secret of suspense today.” Quoted in Philip K. Scheuer, “A Town Called Hollywood,” Los Angeles Times (19 April 1939), C3. The more famous formulation of the alternative is to kill a mockingbird reviews, found in his dialogue with Truffaut: “In the usual form of suspense it is indispensable that the public be made perfectly aware of all the facts involved” (Truffaut, Hitchcock , 51). 63 : I discuss these fluctuations in knowledge in Ethical Systems Essay Narration in the Fiction Film (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), 2961. On North by Northwest , see David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2012), 406410.

64 : “New Films in London,” The Times (London) (7 December 1936), 12. 65 : McGilligan, Alfred Hitchcock , 310. 66 : I propose that competition played a more specific role in Hitchcock’s experiments with long-take filming at a period when many directors were trying out this technique. See my essay “Poetics of Cinema,” in Poetics of Cinema (New York: Routledge, 2008), 3242. 67 : On Hitchcock’s literary sources, see the between christianity and hinduism essays in Hitchcock at the Source: The Auteur as Adapter , ed. R. Barton Palmer and David Boyd (Albany: SUNY Press, 2011).

68 : In her essay “Suspense in Fiction” ( The Writer 67, 12 [December 1954], 404), Patricia Highsmith recalls that when her novel was filmed, “the director” (Hitchcock is never named) told her that he had to alter the plot so that Guy did not commit the murder that he owed Bruno. Deontological Ethical Essay! “He told me that he had been unable to find a script writer who could make the story convincing, or who could put the Essay Measurment story into form for the screen.” Yet for Highsmith the Deontological Vs. Teleological Ethical Systems key to the story was that second, coerced murder: “Only therein lay the drama and the suspense for me.” The result, Highsmith judged, was a weaker story. 69 : For more on the development of suspense films and thrillers, see Martin Rubin, Thrillers (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999); Ralph Harper, The World of the Thriller (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1969); Jerry Palmer, Thrillers: Genesis and Structure of a Popular Genre (London: Edward Arnold, 1978); Charles Derry, The Suspense Thriller: Films in between and hinduism the Shadow of Alfred Hitchcock (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1988); Thomas Leitch, Crime Films (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002). Ethical Essay! A more recent, if sketchy and erratic, study is Patrick Anderson, The Triumph of the george clemenceau Thriller: How Cops, Crooks, and Deontological Ethical Systems Cannibals Captured Popular Fiction (New York, 2007). An encyclopedic guide to mystery fiction and film is Mike Grost’s website. have comments about the state of this website? go here.