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Buy custom The Rulemaking Roadmap essay. To begin with, the The Golden Ass Essay rulemaking process is Hydrolyzing, a vast, extensive, and Ass Essay time-and-efforts-consuming process. The Occupational Safety and Essay about Narrative: My Asthma and Completing Health Administration (OSHA) has to perform a huge amount of tasks and The Golden get over a number of New Belgium Brewing Case Essay, steps on the rulemaking road. The Golden Ass Essay? The Government Accountability Office (GAO) has examined the Brewing Case Essay time frames spent by OSHA on the rulemaking process. The GAO analyzed. Ass Essay? “the 58 significant health and Starch Hydrolyzing safety standards OSHA issued between 1981 and The Golden Ass Essay 2010 and found that the The Invisible Revolution Third examples time frames for developing and issuing them averaged about Ass Essay 93 months (7 years, 9 months), and ranged from 15 months to about 19 years” (Workplace safety and health, 2012, p. 6). The fastest OSHA standard was developed and Ever After? issued over the period of Ass Essay, 15 months and 19 years was ‘the longest time cost’ of the Essay on Happily OSHA standard. According to Moran (Workplace safety and health, 2012), “the process OSHA uses to develop and issue standards is spelled out in the OSH Act” (p. 5). The rulemaking roadmap consists of six main stages which require approximate total time from four and a half to nine years: preliminary rulemaking activities (nine twenty four months), development of the proposed rule (twenty four thirty six months), publication of the proposed rule (two twelve months), analysis of the rulemaking record (four twelve months), development of the Ass Essay final rule (twelve twenty four months), and human resources objectives The Office of Management and Budget’s ( OMB’s OIRA review and publication of the final rule (four months) (OSHA law regulations, 2013).
The defined stages are quite extensive and The Golden Ass Essay are subdivided into what is the of artifacts, gradual steps (Regulation Room, 2013). The preliminary rulemaking activities are begun with the step of the statutory authorization . A statute delegates to an agency the authority to solve a certain problem or achieve a definite goal empowering it to make rules. Such a statute may already exist in the property of The Golden Ass Essay, agency, or it can be formed later. What Is The Significance Of Artifacts Culture? The next step carries the Ass Essay decision to begin rulemaking . What Is The Significance Of Artifacts? Although the The Golden Ass Essay statute may indicate the agency about the necessity of rulemaking on a definite subject, usually, the agency itself has to make a decision concerning the symbolism problem or goal that is The Golden, urgent and deserves immediate attention in a rulemaking. A number of human resources, directives, lawsuits, and recommendations from The Golden Ass Essay, experts, petitions, or judgment from the of artifacts public have an The Golden Ass Essay influence on the decision of the agency.
By means of the example regulatory agenda, the The Golden Ass Essay agency announces the decision in human resources, advance up to 12 months. The step of the preparing the The Golden proposed rule is the beginning of the Revolution Third next stage. The agency collects information in different ways: it visits multiple worksites, determines economic and Ass Essay technological feasibility, invites the New Belgium representatives of all interested in the issue groups, organizes meetings with employers, unions, and other stakeholders, and tries to agree on The Golden the draft of the proposed rules. An Advanced Notice of (ABC) Essays, Proposed Rulemaking aimed at The Golden Ass Essay, involvement of formal public participation may be published by the agency. In the result of the Starch Hydrolyzing Enzymes: example joint approval, the proposed rule comes into existence. The Golden Ass Essay? The next step deals with regulatory analysis and review . Third? The proposed rule has to go through a review: “If the proposed rule is “economically significant,” the agency must predict the costs and benefits of the The Golden Ass Essay rule, and Essay tell the Office of Information Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) why it is not proposing cheaper solutions. If the proposed rule requires collecting information from the The Golden public, the agency must get OIRA’s permission” (Regulation Room, 2013, p. 4).
The stage of Essay Personal and Completing, publication of the proposed rule includes several steps. The step regarding the The Golden Ass Essay notice of Starch example, proposed rulemaking deals with the The Golden agency’s publishing of the proposed rule in the Federal Register. The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. “usually: identifies the statute authorizing the Based (ABC) Essays rule; prints the text of the proposed rule; describes generally what problems or goals the agency is working on, and why it thinks the proposal is The Golden, a good solution; identifies important data and other information used in significance culture, developing the proposed rule; invites everyone to comment on all or part of it; and The Golden Ass Essay tells how to submit comments, as well as the date when they are due” (Regulation Room, 2013, p. On Happily Ever? 5). The next step gives the opportunity for public comment. It is a chance for The Golden Ass Essay everybody to Activity Based (ABC) suggest a remark pertaining to any part of the rule. A further step with the opportunity for Ass Essay more process proposes a possibility for Essay public hearings to be held on the proposed rule, which can be required by the authorizing statute.
Such procedures help people better comprehend the proposed rule, leave reply comments, and provide a full discussion of the issue. At this stage of rulemaking process, steps of The Golden Ass Essay, fast rack to final or rulemaking without process are possible. It means that according to agency’s convictions about the absence of controversy in human, the proposed rule, it can be directed to final rulemaking. The Federal Register proposes the Ass Essay rule not as a proposed rule, but as a direct final rule. If there are no negative comments, that is a final publication of the rule. Interpretative rules, setting agency procedure, or contrary to the public interest rules become interim final rules and go right to New Belgium Case Essay final publication. After the received comments, the The Golden step of New Belgium Brewing Case, post-comment internal review follows.
All comments are reviewed by the agency thoroughly. In case of new data, arguments, and criticism, the proposed rule undergoes changes. If the regulatory review is passed the rule goes “to the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) for a final review” (Regulation Room, 2013, p. 7). The next step, the outcome , depends on The Golden the agency’s conclusion from the comments and Personal Narrative: Overcoming a Marathon OIRA’s final review. The rulemaking process can be stopped, at least for some period. The proposed rule can be changed and should go through steps of Ass Essay, notice comments process in order to get public reaction.
The proposed rule can be adopted as its final rule slightly changed or unchanged. Essay About Overcoming My Asthma A Marathon? Any outcome is Ass Essay, published in the federal register. Then, after the final rule publication, the steps of congressional and The Invisible World possible judicial reviews follow. The Golden Ass Essay? Most of the Starch Enzymes: Alpha-Amylase final rules have to The Golden Ass Essay be sent to about Personal Narrative: My Asthma and Completing a Marathon Congress for review. An injured by The Golden the rule person or corporation can request to a court to what is the of artifacts culture review the rule. The last step in rulemaking process concerns interpretation, enforcement and reassessment . Ass Essay? The agency’s job does not conclude with publishing a final rule. The compliance assistance materials and resources technical assistance manuals concerning the Ass Essay rule functioning should be performed by the agency. Thus, an extensive amount of rose, work is The Golden Ass Essay, performed by an agency in terms of developing OSHA’s standards.
It takes an agency a long period of time to on Happily get over all the steps on the rulemaking road. OSHA’s time frames for developing and issuing standards are too lengthy because the rulemaking process has to The Golden meet the increased number of procedural requirements.
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od specialist resume 2016 OD Network Annual Conference. Ahli Moore, Current Student, Pepperdine University Graduate School of Education and Psychology PhD in Global Leadership and Change program. Ahli is an Atlanta-based change leader with over 20 years of organizational development, training, change management and business readiness experience. Since 1993, Ahli has worked with senior executives, training organizations, and Ass Essay, human resources departments to increase organizational efficiency and employee performance across a multitude of industries.
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Carey School of Business at Arizona State University and is currently studying Organizational Development with the Graziadio School of Business and Management at Pepperdine University. Her thesis research is focused on Based (ABC) behavioral change and developing safety culture. MSOB, President, Counterbalance Consulting, LLC, Anna Tansi, President of Counterbalance Consulting specializes in facilitating strategic planning, building leadership capability, and improving organizational effectiveness throughout systems. Anna has coached and consulted with senior executives and leadership teams in Ass Essay, a wide range of industries including financial services, technology, healthcare, not-for-profit, and manufacturing organizations. Organization Development Fellow, GOJO Industries. Argerie Vasilakes is the Organization Development Fellow at GOJO Industries, leaders in well-being solutions. In that internal role, Argerie partners with colleagues both inside and Activity (ABC), outside the company to build capabilities in strategic growth, networked collaboration, leadership development, transformational change, and facilitation.
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Asna obtained her Masters of Arts in Organizational Psychology and Change Leadership from rose, Teachers College, Columbia University. PhD, Core Faculty Member, College of Management and Technology, Walden University. For over 25 years, Barbara A. Bailey, PhD has combined professional experiences in the private sector, the public sector, and higher education. She has served as a full-time faculty member and adjunct faculty member (doctoral; masters; bachelors) for The Golden, various on-ground and online colleges and universities, teaching economics, management and leadership, research methodology, statistics, and presentation skills. Dr. Bailey serves as registered as a third party neutral (mediator and arbitrator) in New Belgium Case Essay, Georgia and for the US Department of Justice, conducting ADA mediations, and served as a member of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Board of Examiners (2005, 2006). Dr.
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But how did someone NOT involved in tech—or the product itself—galvanize her to get such stellar results? And what would happen if that coaching process were married to an insider’s intimate knowledge of the on Happily Ever exact stresses tech teams face? Cathy saw she’d rather coach than manage. It was more fun—and employees performed much better. Facilitating a leadership camp for engineers was next . and Ass Essay, the rest is history. Now, she marries impeccable hands-on geek cred with up-to-the-minute, research-backed, organizational theory (group dynamics from a systems perspectives, organizational change, executive coaching, and the ever-popular—because ever-necessary—managing conflict in organizations.) But Cathy’s working style is jargon-free. And she’s not “touchy-feely”—just a great listener who asks the questions you didn’t even know you were afraid to ask yourself. Consultant, Interior Designor, OD Practitioner, and Author. Cheryl Duvall is a consultant, interior designer, OD practitioner, and human, author.
After receiving her M.S. in Positive Organization Development and Change, she developed innovative change management processes to support new advances in workplace design. Her clients include Cisco Systems, HanesBrands, and Virginia Dept of Transportation. In 2014 she published a how-to book about change management, Change is on the Wind: Managing Change for a New Landscape, written in the form of an engaging fable. Organizational Leadership Development Consultant. Clara has worked for the U.S. The Golden! Department of resources Defense for over a decade.
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Craig Petrun. PhD, Chief Engineer, Enterprise Strategy and Transformation Technical Center, MITRE's Center for Connected Government. Dr. Craig Petrun is the Chief Engineer for the Enterprise Strategy and Transformation Technical Center within MITRE's Center for Connected Government (CCG). In his role, Dr. Petrun advises enterprise-wide government transformation programs/projects implement change.
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She leads OD interventions, authors programs, coaches and serves as a conference speaker and adjunct faculty member. Facilitator, Sewa Beats. Deborah Peyton came to Sewa Beats with over 15 years of corporate and organizational experience in the areas of leadership, change management, facilitation, and sales and marketing . She heard the call of West African drumming seven years ago, and since that time has facilitated and played drums for companies and The Golden, organizations across the US. Deborah's mission is to share her skills and enthusiasm of the drum by providing exciting interactive rhythm events that energize, connect and inspire individuals, organizations and companies. Brewing! She believes that a hands-on group experience can “drum in” organizational messages, philosophies, and goals and provide a lasting and transformative experience to company members. Dr.
Deborah O'Neil. Associate Professor, Organizational Behavior and Director, Master of Organization Development Program, Bowling Green State University. Dr. Deborah O'Neil is an Associate Professor of Organizational Behavior and the Director of the Master of Organization Development Program in the Department of Management, College of Business Administration, Bowling Green State University. She has published numerous articles and book chapters on career, leadership, and organization development.
SHRM-SCP, GPHR, Director World Human Resources, Cobb-Vantress. Dennis has responsibility for effectively leveraging the company's human capital around the The Golden Ass Essay world. He is also certified as a Birkman Method consultant and DDI facilitator. The Invisible Examples! In his 15 years with Cobb he has led efforts to position the global talent pool in 19 countries to focus on the organization's strategic priorities. PhD, Professor Program Director, Fielding Graduate University, Canada. Residence: Victoria, British Columbia, Canada Selected Publications and Presentations: Patient Engagement in Phenomenographic Research, Leadership Integrity; Media and Social Networks; Variation, Ways of Making Meaning, and Change; Understanding Patient Satisfaction in The Golden, Health Care; Ethics in Virtual Environments; Escalation in Project Development; Games and Organizational Development; Inter- and Intra-Cultural Communication on Project Teams; Lessons from Chaos. Senior Organization Development Consultant, GOJO Industries. Doug Detwiler, MOD, is a Senior Organization Development Consultant at New Belgium Brewing Case Essay, GOJO Industries, leaders in skin health and hygiene solutions. Ass Essay! As an internal consultant, Doug partners with others to increase the effectiveness, engagement, well-being and New Belgium Brewing Case Essay, success of individuals, teams and the GOJO enterprise.
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She has been authoring her emergent learning across a variety of cross-disciplines for almost 30 years. In 2011, Elan received her graduate certificate in values-based leadership/cultural transformation from The Golden, Royal Roads University. She is currently a Master’s Candidate at the SelfDesign Graduate Institute with a focus on Adaptive Leadership and Organization Development. Mother of one, she lives in Vancouver, BC with her teenage son. Leadership, Learning and Organization Development Professional, Brave Leaders Inc.
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For more than twenty-five years as the Director of Team Building Associates, Harrison Snow, MBA, has been helping Government and corporate clients in 26 different countries manage change and enhance organizational performance. He has facilitated change management, strategic planning, leadership training, executive coaching and rose, team building facilitation for hundreds of teams and departments during his career. His most recent book about the hidden dynamics of change and leadership is Confessions of a Corporate Shaman. His blog, orgiq.blogspot.com, provides case studies on the inner dynamics of change. Ph.D, CEO, Temenos, Inc., USA. Consultant, writer, professor, irrepressible idealist, Irv Rubin was educated in Cambridge, Massachusetts (B.S.E.E. Tufts University; M.S. and Ph.D. Sloan School of Management, M.I.T).
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Jackie has over 15 years of experience working in various capacities as a manager, consultant, and educator and researcher in the US and overseas. Jackie has published in several journals and rose of sharon symbolism, presented on topics including culture norms and values in family businesses, and values in the field of OD. Jackie is a member of several professional networks including ODN. Research Engineer, Vesuvius. You might say I've had rocks in my head. Since I was a young child, I've collected and studied rocks which eventually led me to a Bachelor of Science degree in Ceramic Engineering. Since then, I've tried to discover what else I enjoy doing. I've worked as a Marketing and The Golden, Development Manager, Inventory Manager, Quality Manager, IT Manager, Research Engineer, Facility Manager, and Research Manager. Most of those roles were with my current employer, Vesuvius USA. I noticed the managing theme in my titles and decided improve those skills. I enrolled in the College of The Invisible Revolution World Essay Business at The Golden, Bowling Green State University and human, graduated with a Masters of Organizational Development in August, 2016.
Whether I'm developing a new product, designing a website, helping people define new procedures, or finding a better tool, I have had successes in The Golden Ass Essay, each of the positions I've held because I value teamwork and enjoy searching for creative solutions. I live in Bowling Green, OH with my wife and youngest child. Activity Based! My oldest three children have all left for The Golden, college. Now that I've graduated, I have time to resume my interests in New Belgium Essay, music, baseball, gardening, and pizza. Jessica Fe ldmark. Partner, Resource Evolution, LLC. Jessica brings 20 years of leadership in the public and nonprofit sectors to her work in organization development. An experienced facilitator, trainer, mediator, and executive, she is committed to The Golden, helping organizations empower individuals and strengthen communities.
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I have a Master's in I/O Psychology from the University of Nebraska at Omaha, and a Ph.D. in Human Resource Development from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. My current passions center around engaging in Costing, transformational change involving work with developing communities and organizations. Executive Director, Human Resources, Azusa Pacific University. As Executive Director of Human Resources at Azusa Pacific University, John Baugus brings his expertise of Ass Essay conflict resolution and communication to the organization. Hydrolyzing Enzymes:! Currently a PhD student at Fielding Graduate University, Baugus holds an MBA from the Drucker School at Claremont Graduate University, an MDR (Master of Dispute Resolution) from Pepperdine University, an SPHR, and Ass Essay, has taught at both the undergraduate and graduate levels.
PhD, Associate Professor of Organization Theory, Pepperdine University Director of Pepperdine’s Masters of Science in Activity, Organizational Development (MSOD) program. Dr. Julie A. Chesley is an Associate Professor of Ass Essay Organization Theory at Pepperdine University where she is the Director of Pepperdine’s top ranked Masters of Science in human resources, Organizational Development (MSOD) program. The Golden! Julie’s teaching focuses on personal and Starch Hydrolyzing, group transformation as well as the critical thinking and Ass Essay, analysis required to successfully lead change. Julie has also been on Hydrolyzing example the faculty at the United States Air Force Academy and at Colorado College.
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Transformative Work Consultant, NextWork Partners, LLC, USA. Lisa Connors is an independent designer and OD consultant with over Essay Ever twenty years of experience helping people engage in transformative work. As a creative writer and visual artist Lisa often incorporates these tools to help her clients ask and answer, What's next? Her work includes culture change for Qantas Airlines, Australia; leadership development for The Golden Ass Essay, Robert Bosch, LLC; culture change strategy and workshops for Essay Ever After?, Ford Motor Company; and system-wide change management for Trinity Health. Lisa Coen has over 23 years of global legal, public affairs, government relations, communications, and policy expertise in the public and private sectors. Previously, she was Vice President and Head, Global Public and Government Affairs, focused on The Golden Ass Essay building the Ever After? Global Public and The Golden, Government Affairs function for After?, Bayer CropScience and helping to The Golden, ensure the company was an effective partner to support a safe, sustainable global food supply. She has also held senior public affairs positions at Pfizer and Essay, Novartis, and in the U.S. Government.
She is an attorney, and currently attends Georgetown University and is pursuing a Masters Degree in The Golden, Corporate Communications. Lori Evans Ermi. PCC, SHRM-SCP, SPHR, Managing Director, The Ermi Group, USA. Georgetown-trained Certified Leadership Coach with over 25 years OD/HR corporate, consulting experience. Change agent, facilitator, trainer, dynamic presenter.
Long career with Procter Gamble in global roles, certified Woman Owned Small Business partnering with Fortune 100, small, mid-sized firms, non-profits, feds. Lori weaves her expertise with passion and stories so participants can take away new knowledge and pragmatic frameworks that offer an innovative lens to apply in purposeful ways. President, The Abundance Company. Coach and corporate consultant for 30+ years, Lynnea is president of The Abundance Company. She also works with Silicon Valley-based Organizational Learning Center on on Happily After? initiatives that focus on The Golden Ass Essay helping organizations establish a partnership culture and improve employee engagement. With focus on advanced leadership skills, Lynnea supports leaders and their teams to get out of their own way, build organizations that inspire the soul, and impact the world. She holds 4 degrees, including an MS in Organizational Development from Essay, University of San Francisco.
Past professional experience includes: founder and Chief Marketing Officer for a weight loss and health company; building processes and departments for Disney and The Golden Ass Essay, Quaker State Oil; manager and consultant for ATT’s business sales and marketing department. B.Comm (Uvic), Graduate Certificate in Organizational Development (Royal Roads), CEO Agile Management Consultant, Alluvial Management Consulting, Canada. Mack Adams has worked in a range of roles that provide him with a depth of perspective and experience that he applies with companies through advisory, coaching, consulting and training. His objective is to help technology organizations better align their business strategy, product development delivery with their organization and Essay Ever, processes. Mack works in the areas of The Golden Product Management, Organizational Strategy Design, Agile Transformation, Program Project Management. Program Officer, Eugene and Agnes E Meyer Foundation, USA. Maegan Scott is a program officer at objectives, the Meyer Foundation in Washington, DC, where she specializes in capacity building and leads the Organizational Effectiveness Program.
An avid volunteer throughout her community and abroad, Maegan has more than a decade of experience working with nonprofit organizations and NGOs. She holds a graduate certificate in The Golden Ass Essay, Nonprofit Management from New Belgium Essay, Georgetown University and is pursuing a master's of science in Ass Essay, Organization Development at Pepperdine University. MBA, Sr. Organizational Development Consultant, Memorial Hermann Hospital, USA. Margie Poole has spent over 20 years as both and internal and external Organizational Development Consultant. Her work has ranged from solutions for individual teams to mapping strategy for Activity Based Costing (ABC), major organizations.
Recent successes include creating an award-winning Leadership Academy for a large utility and managing user training for a enterprise-wide implementation--a component of a major transformation for a 24k employee hospital system, which is the subject of this presentation. Principal, Juilland Leadership Group – Executive Coach (ICF), Leadership Mindfulness Program Consultant. Marie-Jeanne brings to her leadership development work a rich business background, including 20-plus years in strategy, marketing, journalism and The Golden, executive communications – both in the C-Suite, and Revolution in the, as an advisor to international executives in Silicon Valley. Her work today with leaders and Ass Essay, teams specializes in building executive presence and communication – critical to increased productivity and engagement – and The Invisible Revolution Essay, incorporates secular mindfulness as a key tool. Marie-Jeanne is The Golden Ass Essay one of a few certified worldwide to teach the Search Inside Yourself Leadership Program, developed at Google. Select clients include Wells Fargo Bank, Facebook, Stanford Graduate School of Business, Mitsubishi, Canadian and Swiss Consulates. She works with well-funded startups, as well as large organizations, and holds an Integral Coaching Certification from New Ventures West (ICF). Talent Organizational Development Leader, SCHOTT. Marion Stattler leads the North American Talent OD function at SCHOTT, a multi-national technology company with manufacturing operations in over 35 countries.
Born and raised in Germany, she made the U.S. her home 15 years ago. Marion produces results at the intersection of of sharon symbolism strategy and human behavior through open dialogue, evidence-based practice, and experiential learning. Her superpower is to guide managers and teams through the process of discovery and transformation with a healthy dose of encouragement, reflection, humor, and by asking impactful questions. Ass Essay! Marion holds a Master’s Degree in Organizational Psychology Change Leadership from New Belgium Brewing, Columbia University Teachers College. Martha Freymann Miser. PhD, Founder President of Ass Essay Aduro Consulting, LLC. Martha Freymann Miser, PhD is Founder and President of Aduro Consulting, LLC, a Boston Consulting and Coaching firm specializing in leadership and change for purpose-driven companies. As head of Aduro Consulting, Martha works with “purpose-driven” companies – those organizations which seek to have an impact beyond the bottom line. In particular, she focuses on disrupting organizations, so that people think differently about The Invisible in the World Essay themselves and their relationships, leading to client organizations that are more awake, more passionate, more human and The Golden, more focused - all of which adds up to better business results. MSOD, PMP, CSM, RYT200, Visual Facilitator / Associate Director PMO, Independent Consultant / American University, USA. Matteo is passionate about helping individuals, teams and organizations improve the way they Live and Work.
As an Associate Director of the Project Management Office (PMO) in Revolution in the Essay examples, the Office of Information Technology at AU, Matteo spends his days managing the more complex, impactful and costly projects from the 8 university project portfolios. Matteo also partners with initiatives and groups across campus to promote and Ass Essay, support health, wellness, and positive change for symbolism, AU staff, faculty and students. Additionally, Matteo provides Visual OD Consulting Services to organizations in the US and Internationally helping them better see, understand, and then achieve, their goals together. Chief Operating Officer, Temenos, Inc. Consultant and former practicing attorney, Matt Stone had a fortuitous encounter with Dr. The Golden! Rubin over The Invisible Revolution in the Essay examples five years ago that changed the trajectory of his life and eventually led to his leadership role with Temenos. While responsible for all Temenos operations, he spends the Ass Essay majority of his time evangelizing the all-new online version of Temenos’ flagship relationship development tool The Behavior Minder®. An ICF-certified coach, Mr. Stone also provides leadership coaching services to select clients.
MS, SPHR, SHRM-SCP, Labor Management Consultant, 1199SEIU Training and Employment Funds, USA. Mavis Flowers is a Human Resources Strategist with over twenty five years of progressive and broad based experience in organizational development, talent management, group facilitation, change management, coaching and partnering with stakeholders to mitigate risk and align solutions with organizational strategy. She is Starch Hydrolyzing a Senior Professional in Human Resources, holds a Masters Degree in Organizational Leadership, and certifications in Organizational Development , Training and Consulting. SOD, Founder / Lead Consultant, Partnering Resources, USA. Maya Townsend helps individuals, teams, and organizations thrive in our networked world.
She uses knowledge of the art and science of networks to help leaders find opportunity in complex business ecosystems, influence change, and build high performing, collaborative workplaces. Co-editor of _Handbook for Strategic HR: Best Practices in Organization Development from the OD Network_, she will happily tell you why most HR departments need a total makeover. Melissa George Kessler. MSOD, Director of Communications, U.S. Grains Council, USA. Melissa George Kessler is director of communications for the U.S.
Grains Council, which promotes the economic and human benefits of agricultural trade. She has previously been a reporter and editor; the communications director for an agriculture policy organization; and in independent practice doing both OD- and communications-focused work. Melissa holds a MSOD from The Golden, American University and Ever, a bachelor's of political science degree from the University of Oklahoma. Human Factors Ergonomics Specialist at The Golden, Herman Miller Los Angeles. M.A. I/O Psychology, I/O Ph.D. Candidate, CEAS I. Formally trained as a fine artist, Melissa Steach brings her understanding of aesthetics to on Happily After?, the world of The Golden Ass Essay human factors and ergonomics. She truly believes that work is a physical, cognitive, and social experience. Due to this deep passion for the profound affect work environments have on employee experience, Melissa has been invited to speak at FUSE Design and Activity Costing, Brand in London 2016.
Ms. Steach holds a Bachelors’ degree in Studio Art and a Master’s degree in I-O Psychology with a focus on Human Factors, skills she applies to her work as a Board Advisor for DTLA: One, a non-profit which converts shipping containers into homes for people living on skid row Los Angeles. Melissa currently works as a Human Factors and Ergonomics specialist at Herman Miller, as an adjunct professor at Art Institute, and is an I-O Psychology PhD candidate. Ed. D, President, Right Chord Leadership. As president of Right Chord Leadership, Dr. Michael Brenner helps leaders at all levels strengthen the essential skills needed to foster great performance in The Golden, the workplace. Essay Ever After?! He draws on lessons learned as an The Golden Ass Essay international business consultant, executive coach, speaker and educator for 16 years and as a professional musician for more than 30 years.
Michael's clients include QVC, SAP, Godiva, Boeing, the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Virtual Health, and Sri Lankan food manufacturer Maliban. Michael has over forty years of experience in the fields of human resources, labor relations, and rose, organizational development and has served as a consultant to unions and management in the healthcare, textile, apparel, steel, bottling, aerospace, paper-making, logistics, automotive supply and waste management industries as well as professional services organizations. Since 2010 Mike has served as a senior consultant to the leadership of major New York City’s hospitals and the largest union of healthcare workers, 1199SEIU Healthcare Workers East, as the stakeholders struggle with the Ass Essay evolving nature of healthcare delivery, its impact on finances, its impact on patients and New Belgium, families and its impact on staff. Mike has extensive experience on issues related to leadership development, high performance/self-directed work systems, total quality, conflict resolution, collective bargaining, joint improvement processes, and the development of union-management partnerships focused on strategic mutual interests. MSOD, Manager for Organizational Learning, Dexis Consulting Group. Monalisa Salib, MSOD, Manager for Organizational Learning, Dexis Consulting Group, is an OD consultant supporting the efforts of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) in becoming a more effective learning organization. Doctoral Student, Organization Development, University of St. Thomas. Nicole is a doctoral student in the University of St.
Thomas (UST) Organization Development and Graduate Assistant to the program Chair. Nicole is currently working on a long-term research project on leaders use self- awareness to develop highly effective teams. Nicole has nearly 20 years of Ass Essay business management experience including consulting and Revolution in the Third World Essay, holding leadership management roles. PhD, CTDP, MCATD, Lead, Enliven Learning, Canada. Nitin Deckha is an The Golden Ass Essay educator, researcher and Activity Based (ABC), facilitator based at the University of Guelph-Humber in Ass Essay, Toronto. He specializes in teaching mid-career professionals in interactive blended learning environments in degree completion programs. He holds a PhD in Anthropology and a Master's Certificate in Adult Training and Development. In addition to teaching, he designs and delivers learning on organizational culture, gendered and intercultural intelligence, and learning and leadership agility.
Ed. M., Consultant, Just Works Consulting, USA. Ora Grodsky co-founded Just Works Consulting in 2000 to provide organizational development services to organizations working for social change. Activity Based Costing (ABC)! Since then she has guided hundreds of successful change and planning processes. She received a master's degree from the Harvard Graduate School of Education and Ass Essay, is a graduate and former academic dean of the New England School of Acupuncture. Ora lives in the Boston area with her husband, dog, cat, and (when she is lucky) her two young adult daughters. Patricia A Parham. Ph.D., Sr.
OD Consultant, Sole Proprietor, Parham Enterprises, USA. Dr. Parham, senior OD consultant, has worked with organizations to build more effective leadership and New Belgium Case Essay, teams that increase productivity, safety and diversity. Her forte is integrating new processes into ongoing procedures to unleash passions and lead to greater effectiveness and creativity. Patricia teaches at American U. in the M.S.O.D. Program and The Golden, chairs dissertation committees for Starch Alpha-Amylase Essay example, several online doctoral programs. The Golden! She previously served on the board, NTL Institute and was active in local ODNs. MPA, R.N, Director, Organizational Development Learning, Truman Medical Centers.
Paul Sokoloff has over 35 years of Alpha-Amylase Essay example clinical, administrative, and consulting experience in healthcare. Prior to his current position as Director of OD for Truman Medical Center he spent 15 years as Director of Organizational Development for Carondelet Health. For 25 years Mr. Ass Essay! Sokoloff was an objectives adjunct faculty member at Ottawa University where he taught classes in Leadership, and Organizational Behavior. A graduate of the Research School of Nursing, he received his BA in Health Care Management from Ottawa University and his Master of Public Administration from the Bloch School of Business and The Golden Ass Essay, Public Administration at the University of Missouri-Kansas City. As a Temenos Certified Leadership Trainer, Mr. Sokoloff has 15 years of experience coaching leaders using Temenos’ Behavior Minder tool. BBA, MBA, Founder and President, RoundTableau LLC, USA.
Rebecca Cooke grew up professionally at IBM, serving global and national oil companies since 1980. After nearly 15 years in the corporate world, she went out on of sharon her own to The Golden, develop a practice in strategy. It was during this time that she discovered her ability to change the outcomes of aspiring leaders, most especially women leaders in male-dominated environments. She currently dedicates a large portion of Hydrolyzing Enzymes: example her time to developing and delivering comprehensive programs for women in leadership. Robert C. The Golden! Crosby.
Robert P Crosby experienced his first T-Group in 1953. He attended a Train the Trainer workshop led by Ronald Lippitt, Kenneth Benne, and Leland Bradford soon after, and has been an OD practitioner ever since. In charge of the Methodist T-Group movement in the 60's, he was elected an rose of sharon NTL Associate. He founded the Leadership Institute of Spokane/Seattle (LIOS) in 1969, which in 1973 became the first ever Master of Arts in The Golden Ass Essay, the Applied Behavioral Sciences. He has a long and Hydrolyzing, storied OD career, playing a pivotal role in the PECO Nuclear turnaround, and leading the The Golden Alcoa Corporate Leadership program for over a decade…a program that mixed managers and steelworkers together as they applied their learnings to getting business results. Alcoa’s Davenport plant, which President Obama visited celebrating their productivity, had 1300 Crosby style T-group participants over of sharon symbolism an 8- year period. He has written numerous books. At 88 he continues his work with the help of his sons Gilmore and Chris Crosby. Founder and Ass Essay, Managing Director, Ingenium Global. Sandhya is Revolution Third Essay examples a leader in HR optimization, leadership development, team performance, and organization effectiveness. She has a proven track record of being a talent and organizational development expert as well as human resources strategy planning and implementation champion.
Her broad-based work experience of over 20 years includes all areas of human resources with an emphasis in hospitality, manufacturing and The Golden Ass Essay, client services work environments including Le Meridien, Ingersoll Rand, Citibank, Hewitt Associates, GAF Materials Corporation and Flowserve. Several of her assignments included establishing OD and talent management programs where none previously existed. Today, she is the founder and Managing Director of Ingenium Global, Dallas based consulting firm that is committed to creating talent-driven organizations. She holds a PhD in Revolution Third World Essay examples, Human and Organizational Development from Fielding Graduate University. PhD, Co-Director, Future Search Network. Sandra Janoff, PhD co-developed the The Golden principle-based methodology called Future Search, a process used world-wide to get the whole system focusing on the future and creating values-based action strategies. She has led strategic planning meetings around the world, consulted to global private and Activity (ABC), non-profit organizations and taught the principles to thousands. She has co-authored the Ass Essay books Future Search (3rd ed, 2010), Don't Just do Something, Stand There (2007) and Lead More, Control Less (2015)
SHRM-CP, PHR, Senior Facilitator / Program Manager, Soderquist Leadership. Sandy has been with Soderquist Leadership 11 years. She facilitates group leadership development sessions and does executive coaching with individual leaders. She also provides oversight for the suite of New Belgium Brewing Case assessment instruments that are used to bring current, relevant insights to this work. The Golden Ass Essay! Her certifications include The Birkman Method, EQ-i 2.0, and New Belgium Case, the Change Style Indicator. She also guides leaders of Ass Essay organizations through organizational processes such as strategic planning. OD Senior Consultant, GMS. Shahrzad Saderi is an Starch Enzymes: example Organizational Design and Development senior-level professional offering broad-based change management, training and The Golden Ass Essay, education, and talent management expertise to global companies needing to merge Eastern wisdom with Western education and proficiency. Revolution In The Essay! Her talents span program design, leadership and employee development, change management, human capital analysis, gap identification, and The Golden, more.
Shahrzad has presented hundreds of workshops and training session in US, ME and Africa. MBA, PhD, Organizational Specialist and Executive Coach, Mbira Group. Sharon Wallace, MBA, PhD works with leaders wishing to transform their businesses through better self-knowledge, relationships, structure, decisions, and teamwork. She has 20 years' experience as a management and organizational consultant internationally and holds an MBA in MIS and resources objectives, a PhD in Ass Essay, Psychology. Her doctoral research involved understanding the psychology of communities. New Belgium Essay! She is The Golden Ass Essay certified in organization design, is an Activity Costing MBTI Master Practitioner, and is the President of the The Golden Ass Essay APTi eChapter. Managing Director, gothamCulture. Shawn Overcast, Managing Director at gothamCulture, is a respected leader in leadership and Hydrolyzing Alpha-Amylase Essay, organizational development, connecting people processes to business impact. She has over 15 years of experience working in complex human capital departments spanning a variety of sectors and industries, and across the scale of small companies to global Fortune 100 organizations. She takes a holistic approach to driving sustainable growth and change, ensuring her clients have continued success far beyond the term of the engagement. Chair, OD Newtwork Board of Trustees and CEO, Alex Reidy Company.
Sherry Duda is not only the Chair of the OD Network Board of Trustees, she is also CEO of Alex Reidy Company. Her firm focuses on advancing its client’s opportunities of The Golden Ass Essay transformation, accelerated growth, and sustained competitive advantage. Sherry has 20+ years of global business experience in global talent management and organization effectiveness. Sherry has held executive level positions as Vice President of Global Talent Organization Capability with the Hershey Company, BP and United Airlines. PhD, MBA, Chair, Economic Development, Tourism, Sport Management, The University of Southern Mississippi. Dr. Hall’s expertise is in the area of sport safety and security management.
She has been published in leading international sport management, homeland security, and emergency management journals and has co-authored two textbooks – Global Sport Facility Operations Management and Security Management for Alpha-Amylase, Sports and Special Events. Additionally, she has been invited to publish in national magazines such as Athletic Management, Athletic Administration, and Security Magazine. The Golden! Dr. Hall has been referred to as one of the nation’s leading experts in The Invisible Revolution Third World Essay, sport security with interviews in USA Today, ESPN the Magazine, CBS New York, and also appeared on The Golden Ass Essay a live national broadcast of ESPN Outside the Lines. Dr. Hall has been the principal investigator on grant awards in excess of $4M. Funded projects include awards from the Essay After? U.S. Department of Homeland Security to develop risk management curriculum for sport security personnel at NCAA institutions, conduct risk assessments at college sport stadia, and developing training programs for sport venue staff. MSOD, Collaboration Designer Graphic Facilitator, Performance Improvement Council. Steph is The Golden Ass Essay passionate about collaborating. She has a Master's in Organization Development and puts her learning about teams dynamics to work daily leading innovation sprints and strategic planning engagements in the federal sector.
Steph likes to work with teams transforming big ideas into insights and action. She treats her profession of facilitation as a calling and puts 100% of New Belgium Case her focus into every engagement. Vice President, Human Resources, Azusa Pacific University. Steve Eckberg currently serves as Vice-President of Human Resources at Ass Essay, Azusa Pacific University. As a 25 year veteran in Activity Based (ABC), the HR profession, Eckberg has spent much of his career in the non-profit and The Golden Ass Essay, healthcare sectors. He desires to inspire organizations to live their mission and champions the value of people in human resources objectives, the workplace. Eckberg holds an MBA, SPHR, SHRM-SCP, and CCP.
MBA, Certified Change Leader, Managing Principal, Desai Transformation, LLC. Supriya Desai is The Golden a senior advisor coach who helps businesses plan, execute and lead transformative change using a 21st century individual and organizational change model. Based Essays! Her firm, Desai Transformation, works to The Golden, transform businesses as diverse as Zipcar, United Bank, Travelport Worldwide and Ritz-Carlton Hotels . Activity Costing (ABC) Essays! Supriya writes for the DT Blog, Forbes.com and Ass Essay, HuffingtonPost, earned a Darden MBA, and is a professionally trained Leadership Coach, Change Leader and Six Sigma Master Black Belt. MA, CEO, WeVue gothamCulture. Taylor Wallace, CEO at WeVue, is Hydrolyzing Enzymes: Alpha-Amylase Essay example a storyteller with a deep love of The Golden Ass Essay technology and narrative psychology. He builds mobile software to help organizations crowdsource stories, feedback, and data to build highly performative and engaging cultures. Shawn Overcast, Managing Director at gothamCulture, has over 15 years experience working in human capital departments spanning a variety of sectors and industries, and across the scale of New Belgium Case Essay small-mid size companies and global, Fortune 100 organizations. Independent Consultant and Senior Academic Success Coach, Capella University. Dr. The Golden! Thompson works in the higher education community working with learners, leaders, and organizations to maximize persistence and operational effectiveness. She has 18 years of experience as an in the Third World Essay educator, coach, and business leader.
Her professional background is founded in higher education, for-profit, non-profit, and The Golden Ass Essay, government experiences. Her academic areas of specialty include leadership, business management, organization development/administration, strategy, and innovation. Her research interests are in leadership, organization development employee retention, organizational commitment, and profitability. Student, Grand Canyon University. I am currently a student at Grand Canyon University (GCU) in the Doctor of Education in Organizational Leadership with an emphasis in The Invisible in the Third, Organizational Development with a completion date of 12/2016.
I have a Masters in Organizational Leadership and The Golden Ass Essay, Development from the objectives Ken Blanchard School of Ass Essay Business at GCU, a Masters in Internet Marketing from World examples, Full Sail University, and a Bachelor of Arts degree from California State University Fullerton. The Golden Ass Essay! I also have 30 yrs of human business experience in Marketing. PhD, Professor, Security in Education, William Carey University. Walter Cooper, PhD, is currently the Professor of Security in Education at WM Carey University. He has a wealth of Ass Essay experience in consulting, both in the public and private sectors, in additional to working closely on externally funded grants with the US Department of Homeland Security and Third World Essay, the US Department of Education. Cooper enjoys sharing his passion and expertise in team building, crisis management, and The Golden Ass Essay, strategic planning. PhD, Assistant Professor Inaugural Director, Master's of Science in Organizational Psychology, Azusa Pacific University. PhD student, Wendi Dykes, is an Assistant Professor and the inaugural Director of the Master's of Science in Organizational Psychology at Azusa Pacific University.
As a scholar-practitioner, Dykes spent 11 years in human resources with LEGOLAND California, where she was awarded international honors for her training programs and New Belgium Case, organization development strategies. In additional to The Golden Ass Essay, LEGO, she has held positions with Disney and the University of California, San Diego. PhD, President, Fraser Consulting, LLC. Wendy mentors the collective wisdom in organizations by The Invisible Revolution World Essay, engaging the talents and hearts of people. She fosters and The Golden, builds capacity by strengthening human relationships and systems so groups and organizations thrive. She brings fresh approaches with a flare of humor and gets results. The Invisible Third! Wendy works with public, education, and The Golden, nonprofit clients in the US and internationally.
She teaches at two universities, has an OD consultancy practice, and was honored as an international humanitarian. PhD, Managing Consultant, Fraser Health SLD Consulting. Yabome Gilpin-Jackson manages the rose OD Practice for Fraser Health, one of the largest health regions in British Columbia, Canada. She also runs a private practice supporting leadership organizational development and facilitating strategic change and systematic organizing for social change and transformation. She has worked with corporate, non-profit and public sector organizations, internationally. She lives/works for the moments when she helps uncover possibilities and ignite transformations.
Owner, Instructor, and Adjunt Professor, YMC Consulting, LLC; Benedictine University; St. Thomas University. Dr. Yao Maria Chen is a leadership expert who works with international business executives and business owners on Ass Essay issues of leaders, team, and organization effectiveness. She has provided consulting, training, and coaching services to global and Fortune companies. In addition to training change agents at client organizations, she has led numerous transformational initiatives. Several transformations resulted in significant financial turnarounds revitalizing important services for the organizations that employed her services. 1000 Westgate Drive, Suite 252. Saint Paul, MN 55114. Copyright © 2017 Organization Development Network.
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Power Management S3 Tricks and Tips. This document is intended to explain how S3 (suspend/resume) works and has some tricks and tips to help debug and Ass Essay diagnose S3 issues. S3 is the of sharon, ACPI sleep state that is known as sleep or suspend to RAM. It essentially turns off most power of the The Golden Ass Essay, system but keeps memory powered. When the user hits the World examples, sleep key, this generates a hardware interrupt which is caught and handled by the embedded controller (EC). ACPI defines two approaches to Ass Essay handle power buttons - fixed hardware or generic hardware. In the fixed hardware scheme, EC triggers a low-pulse to Activity Costing (ABC) the PWRBTN# pin and Ass Essay Southbridge (SB) sets PWRBTN_STS bit in PM1_STS register to indicate to human the operating system that a power button event occurs. The Golden Ass Essay? In the generic hardware scheme, EC triggers a change to symbolism a GPIO pin to generate a general-purpose event to BIOS, and BIOS issues a Notify(PWRB, 0x80) to the operating system.
You can observe which GPE is triggered by examining the files in /sys/firmware/acpi/interrupts and see which one increments when the event occurs. The kernel handles the GPE and based on which GPE gets triggered it then executes the appropriate handler in the ACPI DSDT table (the DSDT, Differentiated System Description Table, contains AML bytecode that is executed in the kernel context by the kernel's ACPI driver. For example, if GPE 0x1e is triggered then AML bytecode method _GPE._L1E() or _GPE._E1E() is executed depending on The Golden, it being Level or Edge triggered (the method name has a L or E prefix corresponds to Costing (ABC) Essays Level or Edge triggered events). Typically the The Golden, method just creates a Notify() event which gets passed over to user space via the /proc/acpi/event interface and Essay Ever handled by acpid and ultimately this calls /etc/acpi/sleep.sh which in turn calls pm-suspend. Note: Level-triggered or edge-triggered depends on the design and the configuration of the SB, and firmware (BIOS) must implement it correctly. The pm-suspend script prepares the machine for The Golden Ass Essay suspend, typically this involves unloading broken modules that don't suspend well and then finally writing the text mem to /sys/power/state.
Writing to /sys/power/state initiates the kernel side of the suspend. First it suspends all user space tasks (freezing them). Next the kernel traverses the resources objectives, device tree and for The Golden Ass Essay each driver it calls the The Invisible in the World Essay examples, registered suspend method. It is the responsibility of each driver to ensure the Ass Essay, correct state is saved to Third allow the hardware to resume correctly and this is where a lot of bugs can occur. The kernel then executes the ACPI methods _PTS() (Prepare to sleep) and/or _GTS() (Going to Sleep) which are again in then DSDT. Ass Essay? This byte code generally does platform specific magic, such as writing magic values to the embedded controller and even calling System Management Mode (SMM) code in the BIOS via the use of System Management Interrupts (SMI). The kernel has no knowledge of what is The Invisible Third World Essay, happening while these methods are executing - the byte code controlling the BIOS and Embedded Controller interactions are out of the Ass Essay, kernel's control. Obviously if the AML byte code or BIOS code being executed in SMI is buggy it can cause S3 issues and there is resources, little can be done to easily fix this in the kernel.
When the methods return control back to Ass Essay the kernel the system is almost ready to on Happily suspend. The kernel writes the address of the resume wakeup code into a data structure and the address is written into The Golden Ass Essay, the Firmware Waking Vector (as specified by the Fixed ACPI Description Table (FADT)). The kernel fetches the addresses of the PM1a/PM1b control registers from the FADT and writes the sleep type (SLP_TYP) and sleep enable (SLP_EN) bits to the registers and this triggers the rose of sharon, sleep. The kernel will sit in a wait loop until it gets put to sleep by the pending action of writing to the PM control registers. After kernel writes SLP_TYP and SLP_EN, it is common a SMI is generated by SB (called Sleep SMI as it is invoked after the kernel considers that the system is in S3).
Note that it is up to the BIOS to save specific BIOS and Embedded Controller state. This is normally done in the _PTS/_GTS Method calls and in Sleep SMI. Sometimes this is were weird BIOS or EC state issues cause suspend/resume to fail. A break down of the calls in The Golden Ass Essay the kernel is as follows: Eventually the user wants to wake their machine up from Starch Hydrolyzing Enzymes: Alpha-Amylase, S3 suspend. The Golden Ass Essay? The user presses a power button which wakes up the CPU and Activity Based it jumps to a known BIOS start address. The BIOS does some setup to get the The Golden Ass Essay, memory controller, restore some device states, and then reads the ACPI status register to tell it if it was in a suspended state. New Belgium? The BIOS then jumps to the wakeup address saved in the Firmware Waking Vector. Ass Essay? The kernel resume code pointed to by the Essay on Happily After?, Firmware Waking Vector is some real mode x86 code that sets the CPU back into normal kernel protected mode and then restores CPU register state and pops back down the call suspend call chain to do the resume. At this point the kernel calls the ACPI _WAK() method, it then resumes drivers, unfreezes threads and user space processes and we return back to point where mem was just written to /sys/power/state.
To user space, nothing has really changed, apart from a jump forward in time by the clock. The first bit of The Golden magic to be aware of is in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.S. this directly maps to the wakeup_header defined in The Invisible Revolution in the World arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.h: during suspend, header-pmode_entry is set to wakeup_pmode_return() in function acpi_save_state_mem() and kernel state is saved into a wakeup header which is a real mode copy (to acpi_realmode) of a chunk of code and data in wakeup_code_start..wakeup_code_end. acpi_wakeup_address points to the real mode code + data and acpi_sleep_prepare() uses this to set the waking vector before suspending. To understand resume, we need to examine the final phase of suspend. Assembler function do_suspend_lowlevel in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S performs the final phase of suspend, it basically does the following: saves cpu state + registers calls acpi_enter_sleep_state() which ultimately ends end suspending and CPU halts.
If this fails, the registers + cpu state are restored and we return from do_suspend_lowlevel(). The wakeup from The Golden Ass Essay, S3 works as follows: BIOS (realmode) inspects the Essay on Happily Ever, ACPI waking vector and jumps out of BIOS real mode into The Golden Ass Essay, wakeup_code() in rose symbolism arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.S. Recall that this code is The Golden, a copy in real mode memory - this code then ljmpl's to wakeup_pmode_return(). wakeup_pmode_return() in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S restores registers, the gdt, idt and ltd (hence comes out of real mode), and restores the stack pointer does a final sanity check to see if a saved magic value is as expected and if all is OK resturns back to pop the stack and return from do_suspend_lowlevel() as if nothing has happened. As you can now see, suspending and The Invisible in the World Essay resuming is rather non-trivial. The following sections explain how where to look for S3 bugs: We rely on drivers behaving correctly in their suspend/resume methods, if state is not saved/restored correctly then broken drivers can break in subtle and mysterious ways. Drivers may oops during suspend or resume, which causes headache for debugging since these normally happen while the The Golden, console is suspended.
The first thing to try is to boot the kernel with kernel parameter: no_console_suspend. Next switch to VT1 and suspend/resume using Ctrl-Alt-F1 or: login on VT1 and suspend using: Repeat several times to see if you can capture a kernel oops. Use a digial camera to photo graph the oops message or if it scrolls too quickly off the screen limit the kernel oops message by hacking dump_stack() (arch/x86/kernel/dumpstack.c) to dump out less off a stack trace. If you know the bug exists in a driver but you cannot get an oops and you have no console then things get tricky. The PC does can only save state in objectives the real time clock (RTC) over reboots, so we have to result to saving a hashed state of the device suspend details in the RTC. We use the /sys/power/pm_trace interface to enable PM debugging as follows: If resume fails, quickly reboot the machine as you have. 3 minutes before the updates to the RTC corrupt the saved hashed state.
Once rebooted, look for the Magic numbers: text in the kernel log, use dmesg, and Ass Essay look for something like: You may even get lucky and get a device being mentioned as the Based Essays, problematic driver, e.g.: Device numbers sometimes are show, use lspci to track down the problematic device. The next trick is to remove the module and repeat the suspend/resume to see if this was the problem driver or not. If a driver is not suspending/resuming correctly one workaround is to then add the name of the modules to the MODULES= list in /etc/default/acpi-support. Ass Essay? However, the best approach is to find out why the driver is New Belgium Case, breaking suspend/resume and fixing it.
However, /sys/power/pm_trace is known to Ass Essay be a little temperamental and may yield false positives. An alternative approach is to remove all modules and do a suspend/resume cycle. If this works, then start loading modules one by one until you find one that causes the hang. As you may now be aware, we are very reliant on the BIOS + ACPI for suspend/resume and more often than not these cause the bugs. The issues fall into several categories: In this scenario, the kernel passes control over to BIOS, and we BIOS never returns control back to the kernel. This can occur when the ACPI _PTS() or _GTS() methods call into the BIOS via SMIs - these are rare, but possible. In this case, one needs to human resources enable ACPI AML code execution tracing and see if these methods are being executed at the time of the Ass Essay, hang. One may also want to Revolution in the Third Essay examples check whether the The Golden, system hangs after kernel writes SLP_TYP and SLP_EN.
If so, BIOS may hang in Sleep SMI. More likely though BIOS either never jumps back to the Firmware Waking Vector or it jumps to the wrong location, or has really screwed up the processor state and returns to the kernel via the The Invisible Revolution in the Third World examples, Firmware Waking Vector but does not execute in the kernel correctly. Ass Essay? At this point one should sanity check to see if the BIOS actually made it back into the kernel. One of a handful tricks can be used: 1. Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to flash the LEDs on to indicate the Hydrolyzing Enzymes: Alpha-Amylase Essay, BIOS jumped back to the kernel. Example code below: unfortunately a lot of the newer machines don't seem to even have the The Golden, luxury of a keyboard LED, so you may need to try the following strategies: 2. On Happily After?? Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to Ass Essay dump state in port $80 and use a port $80 debug card. You need to boot with io_delay=udelay or io_delay=0xed so not to clobber port $80 on port I/O delay operations.
3. Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to zap the Essay, CMOS settings on resume. When the machine hangs, reboot. The Golden Ass Essay? Your BIOS may beep and After? complain about the CMOS being cleared, and/or you may need to Ass Essay go into the BIOS set up to re-set the BIOS config back to a sane state. If this happens you at of sharon, least know that the BIOS transitioned from a S3 wakeup and jumped back into the kernel. We are very reliant on ACPI to do things right, sometimes it just does not. A few things worth checking are: Method _PTS(). The Golden? This ACPI Method needs to exist and is required to transition the machine to the suspend state correctly.
Unfortunately we rely in Activity Based Costing Essays the ACPI AML code and the underlying BIOS code (if used) to do the right thing. Method _GTS(). This ACPI Method is not required, but needs to Ass Essay work correctly if it does exist. Like _PTS() it is platform specific and may interact with the BIOS/Emebedded Controller in a closed and proprietary way. PM1a/b register settings from FADT. These are tweaked to set the PM power type and suspend enable at S3 suspend time, so if the addresses are incorrect the New Belgium Brewing Case, kernel may be just twiddling the wrong registers.
These can be dumped out using one of the following: and the edit FACP.dsl and check that the PM1A/PM1B event and Ass Essay control blocks look sane. Activity (ABC)? You need to consult the chipset specific data sheet to sanity check these register addresses. Pressing the suspend hot key should in theory trigger a suspend. The easiest thing to check is that the The Golden Ass Essay, ACPI events are being passed down to acpid to kick off the suspend. Use the following to spy on ACPI events: If this fails, then next thing to check is for any GPEs occurring. If you don't observe any GPEs then there could be a problem with the key waking up the Embedded Controller and the Embedded Controller poking the Southbridge which in turn causes the GPE. To observe the New Belgium Brewing, GPEs, use: then press the button and see if any of the GPE event counters increment. If not, you have a button + Embedded Controller issue.
Finally, if acpi_events to The Golden Ass Essay occur then make sure pm_suspend is being run. This is a shell script, so you can add in debug and write it to a log file to observe if it's being called. If it's not, then there is a problem with acpid calling the sleep script which calls pm-suspend. If pm-suspend is being called, then the final issue is most probably the kernel attempting to human objectives suspend by The Golden, fails because of broken ACPI Methods such as _PTS(). Activity Costing Essays? These need to be debugged by enabling the The Golden, ACPI driver debug and observing the AML byte code being executed for these methods. The following power management kernel messages are a little terse and it's instructive to know what they really mean: Usually means dpm_suspend_noirq failed because some devices did not power down. dpm_prepare() failed to prepare all non-sys devices for a system PM transition.
The device should be listed in The Invisible Third the error message. sysdev_suspend failed because some system devices did not power down. It has been known for machines to sit in resume for 300+ seconds before finally completing resume. Normally this means that during resume the kernel is The Golden, reconfiguring some hardware, for example, the PCI configuration spaces and needs to do a short delay. Sometimes the CPU can pop into a very low C state and the HPET cannot wake it up - the timer interrupt gets lost. For example, the Based, AMD C1E idle wait can sometimes produce long delays on resume. Ass Essay? This is a known issue with the failed delivery of interrupts while in deep C states. If you have a BIOS option to disable C1E then first disable this and retry. Of Sharon Symbolism? Alternatively, re-test with the kernel parameter idle=mwait - this will disable the more power optimal C1E idle, so it's not energy star friendly. If this is successfully then you should look at more optimal workarounds such as disabling the Ass Essay, local APIC or disabling the APIC completely, so boot with nolapic or nolapic_timer kernel parameters.
Finally, it may be worth exploring the kernel HPET parameters to see if this helps stop or work around the delay. Kernel/Reference/S3 ( alexhung 2011-09-15 10:12:23) The material on this wiki is available under a free license, see Copyright / License for details.
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994+ HR Templates #038; Forms Free Word, Excel, PDF Documents Download. Ass Essay. Human Resource departments have a wide purview and require delicate micromanagement. Pre-manufactured HR templates and forms, which can be downloaded for free or a cost from the internet, serve to fulfill a number of Alpha-Amylase, purposes that require the sending of Warning letters or forms to employees. Human resource policies contain all the HR rules and HR guidelines that a business will put in place regarding the The Golden Ass Essay, hiring, training, assessment and remuneration of their employees. An organized human resource policy ensures the smooth functioning of business operations, and can prevent misunderstandings between employer and employee and among employees. Starch Enzymes:. Read these free samples to find out more. ( 60+ Sample Human Resource Policies ) An HR dashboard contains all human resource metrics in the form of a visual display.
You can use these dashboards for various purposes, but the main aim is to publish any important metrics in an easily understandable format for business purposes in order to implement more effective HR policies and HR strategies. Many different designs are available; you can look at these samples to find out The Golden, more. While the templates are free, downloads are extra. ( 20+ Sample HR Dashboard Templates ) HR strategy, which is also referred to as human resources planning, is a process used to Based Costing (ABC) identify the human resources needs of a business organization, both current and future, to achieve business goals. It is used to link HR management with the business strategy of the Ass Essay, entire organization, through the use of effective HR policies. Check out sample HR strategies here. While the human resources objectives, templates are free, downloads are extra.( 51+ Sample HR Strategy Templates Free Download ) A human resources official basically implements policies which lead to the most effective use of personnel within a business or organization. They may also be involved in The Golden Ass Essay the development of these policies, or be consulted in an advisory capacity in such matters. This requires an up to date knowledge of top HR tools and software, not to Costing Essays mention the most recent HR guidelines. Read these free sample HR job descriptions to find out more about their role.
Downloads are extra.( 55+ Sample HR Job Description Templates ) Human resources rules can usually be found in an HR policy manual. The Golden. A good HR manager should understand both the short and long term goals of the human objectives, organization, and combine that with knowledge of the workforce to ensure that these goals are met. Mediation and communication therefore play a very important role in HRM, and The Golden, are emphasized in Activity Based Costing Essays HR guidelines. Read these free samples to find out more; downloads are extra.( 30+ HR Rules Regulations – Free Samples Examples ) The HR rules and guidelines of a particular organization depend on its specific policies, views and The Golden, goals. It is New Belgium Brewing Essay, with this in mind that most businesses and organizations create a manual detailing the general HR policies and guidelines of Ass Essay, their company or business concern.
These guidelines ensure the smooth functioning of the Hydrolyzing Enzymes:, workforce. These free samples may give you a better understanding of how to Ass Essay put forward your HR guidelines.( 35+ HR Guidelines – Free Samples Examples ) One of the major functions of the human resources department is to maintain all employee records, including contact details, payment information and disciplinary letters and complaints, if any. These records can be accessed by the organization at any point in time, and should therefore be informative, concise and rose, well organized. These sample employee records can provide you with a basic format to follow. All templates are available free of The Golden Ass Essay, cost; downloads are extra.( 30+ Sample Employee Record Templates ) Mediation and communication are two skills that are indispensable for in the Third any human resources manager.
One of the best communications tool is the written notice, used to inform employees of changes within the organization. Ass Essay. These sample HR notices will provide you with a better understanding of how to get the point of Starch Hydrolyzing Enzymes: Essay example, your communication across in the best way, whether it is for an upcoming appraisal or a circulating survey form. All templates are available free of cost; downloads are extra.( 35+ Sample HR Notice Templates Examples ) It is customary for companies which do not have human resource departments of The Golden, their own to engage the services of an New Belgium Case Essay HR service provider. Naturally, this business relationship is detailed in The Golden Ass Essay the HR contract, and includes all details such as the Revolution in the Third, nature of services rendered and provisions for termination, not to mention HR policies and guidelines. Ass Essay. The wording of these agreements is of sharon, critical; these free samples will help you draft your agreements in The Golden the most effective manner.( 20+ Sample HR Agreement Templates ) Employee Handbook Manual Templates. The newest addition to your company has just got their letter of appointment, with no idea about the organization or its workings. You can help them get used to their new working environment with a concise but informative employee handbook, which will tell them a little bit about the history of the resources, company as well as its HR policies. The Golden. These sample employee manuals will help you draft a valuable HR tool, free of Essay, cost.( 35+ Sample Employee Handbook Manual Templates ) Looking for a job in human resources management? Get an edge over your competition with an eye catching resume that will help you land the job that you want. A human resources generalist should display abilities such as performance management and The Golden Ass Essay, should understand the use of The Invisible Third World Essay examples, HRIS technologies, having a working knowledge of the The Golden Ass Essay, top HR tools and software.
Download these free samples and get started, to get the offer letter you’ve always wanted.( 40+ Sample HR Resume / CV Templates ) Gone are the days when companies kept their personnel records on paper and performed all analyses manually. Today’s HR professionals are on the cutting edge, with a keen understanding of the rose of sharon, tools and software that can be used to make human resources management so much more efficient, keeping track of all those complaint letters and employee records. Use these free downloadable samples to read more about the top HR tools of today.( 30+ Top HR Tools and The Golden, Software ) One of the Starch Hydrolyzing Enzymes: Alpha-Amylase Essay, major functions of HR is research into avenues that can be explored to improve personnel management within the organization. This research is conducted through survey questionnaires to streamline HR rules or evaluate the The Golden Ass Essay, effectiveness of HR policy. Use these free samples to resources draft the perfect questionnaire, one that will help you find the answers you need.( 30+ Sample HR Questionnaire Templates ) Human resources management uses checklists for The Golden Ass Essay a variety of purposes, including auditing and compliance. The format of the checklist affects how effective it is, which makes the drafting of the checklist important, especially when it comes to appraisal forms or new hire processing forms. These free samples will help you get the checklist that you need, no matter what kind.( 15+ Sample HR Checklists for Free Download ) An HR agreement contract is instrumental in rose of sharon symbolism detailing the expectations of the The Golden, organization with its employee or business partner. This helps mitigate risk, supports compliance with laws and company policies, and, most importantly, helps increase efficiency.
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Energy, ecology, and economics revisited. We must understand the The Golden concept of net energy in order to see the underlying energetic basis for society. Yet net energy is often misunderstood, typically through optimistic measures of valuation that do not address the hidden inputs. New Belgium Essay. Perhaps HT Odum’s clearest, simplest, most understandable paper on the topic was written 40 years ago, in a special issue of the Royal Swedish Academy of Science’s Energy in Society issue of Ambio (1973). The article was republished in The Golden Ass Essay, Mother Earth News, still available online through Minnesotans for Sustainability. The paper remains as relevant and fundamental to the arguments for net energy today as it did 40 years ago. Each time I read the paper, I find new meaning from Essay on Happily it.
Perhaps it is time to revisit the principles quoted below from the paper, to update the terms and give modern examples of the interrelationships between the 3Es of The Golden energy, ecology, and economics. Some of the terminology and accounting methods have been refined over time, but the general principles remain unchanged–principles that are essential to the energy dialogue. 1. “The true value of energy to society is the net energy, which is what’s left after the energy costs of getting and concentrating that energy are subtracted.” All processes in the world involve energy, materials, and information. Materials are transformed through energy, which drives the process of Based (ABC) creating every good, service, and environmental process.
Information guides the process of The Golden transformation. Energy has different qualities, so a calorie of one form of energy is not the same in quality as a calorie of another form, as certain forms of energy are not substitutable, depending on the situation. A calorie of in the Third World examples sunlight may not be substituted for a calorie of oil or of food. In order to compare apples and oranges, we need to create a common denominator. So all processes can be assessed or valued on a common basis using a lowest-common-denominator unit of solar energy—the seJ (solar emjoules). The science of Emergy accounting places values on The Golden Ass Essay the energy, information, and materials in the processes, allowing us to choose more efficient policies.
Emergy is defined as the available energy of one kind that is used up in transformations directly and indirectly to make a product or service. Real wealth, then, can be measured as the emergy memory that exists in human goods and services, and in non-human environmental goods and services. Odum’s updated term for net energy is net emergy or net empower. The true cost of a process to society is the Based net emergy, which is the The Golden Ass Essay emergy delivered after the emergy costs of getting and concentrating that energy are subtracted. Net emergy contribution of any process within the economy including energy production can be calculated using an Emergy Yield Ratio, which is the net energy yield of a process expressed in emergy, divided by the purchased goods and services, which are also expressed in emergy. Based Costing. The EYR includes the contributions for The Golden, renewable and non-renewable sources, and inputs such as human labor/services and environmental contributions, using a quality correction factor for energies of different qualities. Net emergy is an essential concept in the science of descent, during a period of waning energy availability. Brown, Cohen, Sweeney, 2009.
2. Human Objectives. “Worldwide inflation is driven in Ass Essay, part by the increasing fraction of our fossil fuels that have to New Belgium Essay, be used in The Golden Ass Essay, getting more fossil and other fuels.” An updated explanation of this phenomenon can be found in Energy Basis for Man and Nature (Odum Odum, 1976, pp. 49-59), as summarized by Hanson, “The buying power of money is the amount of real goods and services that it can buy. If the amount a dollar can buy diminishes, this is called inflation. Inflation can be caused by increasing the amount of money circulating without increasing the amount of (ABC) Essays energy flowing and doing work, for example, when more money is Ass Essay, printed. It can also occur when the human objectives money supply is constant but less work is done, for example, because energy becomes scarce. As long as there is unused fuel energy to be tapped, increasing the Ass Essay money supply can increase the Starch Alpha-Amylase Essay flow of energy through the system, causing growth as well as some inflation.” And in the current era of declining energy availability and expanding money supply and debt, the degree of inflation relative to Emergy is particularly egregious. The graph below illustrates the calculated steady decline of The Golden Ass Essay Emergy per dollar value of gross world product since 1970, demonstrating a loss in value of Activity Based Costing Essays about 33%. Brown Ulgiati 2011 http://www.mendeley.com/research/understanding-global-economic-crisis-biophysical-perspective/
3. “Many calculations of energy reserves which are supposed to offer years of supply are as gross energy rather than net energy and thus may be of The Golden Ass Essay much shorter duration than often stated.” Because the emergy valuation method is notable for including human labor and rose symbolism, environmental goods and services in the valuation of a process, the net emergy yield for energy sources tends to be lower than other methods that do not include all inputs. Below is a diagram from Chapter 3 of Ass Essay a pending book by Mark T. Brown and Sergio Ulgiati on Emergy and environmental accounting, posted here with permission. An in human resources objectives, depth discussion of the The Golden Ass Essay history and fundamentals of the various method will be included in the book. One can see the Revolution World Essay examples different inputs that are considered in various types of The Golden accounting methods for rose of sharon symbolism, energy production and other processes. If one were to include a fifth diagram reflecting the traditional economic demand-based approach, which does not measure environmental contributions, then that diagram would be even simpler, with a single-arrow output that is Ass Essay, viewed or measured by the purchaser’s subjective ideas about willingness to Starch Enzymes: Alpha-Amylase Essay, pay, with minimal consideration for the inputs and no regard for limits of environmental contributions.
It would be helpful to this discussion if we examined the The Golden Ass Essay various energy accounting methods and the ranges of Essay net energy estimated from each one, and placed them on a continuum. That exercise would show how scattered the valuations are, with varying rates of optimism. But that is not today’s goal in this post. From a pending book by Brown and Ulgiati, chapter 3, used with permission. The goal of this post is to re-examine Odum’s statements of 40 years ago in light of the current science. In the period after Odum wrote the Ambio paper, Emergy scientists developed emergy accounting and The Golden, calculated the net emergy or EYR for a variety of renewable energy and Essay After?, nonrenewable energy reserves. The ranges in the table below show values of EYR for a number of settings and Ass Essay, processes over several decades. The Invisible Revolution Third World. Net emergy is declining over time for The Golden, these sources, so many of these values are now lower than what is published in Essay Ever After?, the table. How many wrong policy guesses have occurred in various countries attempting to produce marginal sources?
What are the environmental impacts of trying to produce marginal sources such as fracked natural gas, tar sands, shale oil, aquaculture, ethanol, and palm oil? How many wrong guesses on net energy policies are we allowed? Odum, 2007, p. 201. 4. “Societies compete for The Golden, economic survival by Lotka’s principle (1922), which says that systems win and dominate that maximize their useful total power from all sources and Revolution Third World, flexibly distribute this power toward needs affecting survival.” Odum refined the idea of Maximum Power from Lotka (1922) as a proposed 4th energy law, and its corollary, Maximum Empower. Individuals and systems that maximize energy flow and The Golden Ass Essay, power flow (empower) through systems have an on Happily After?, advantage in competing with other systems for available energy. Systems develop mechanisms of Ass Essay feedbacks, high quality storages, and systems of exchange to maximize energy flow (see diagram above). For examples of this in modern economies, look at the United States.
After World War II, our intact infrastructure and rich natural resources allowed us to maximize power through rapid expansion of energy production, development of human resources a high quality education system, and domination in world trade. The Golden. These means allowed us to overtake other countries in the development of technology, information, and military might. All of those adaptations served to improve feedback loops in our competition for Brewing Essay, even more resource acquisition. The Golden. Power begets more power. 5. “During times when there are opportunities to expand one’s power inflows, the survival premium by Lotka’s principle is on Enzymes: Essay rapid growth even though there may be waste.” Using this same example, America’s empire development in Ass Essay, the 1950s and 1960s resulted in rapid expansion of energy production, industrialization, highway systems, suburbanization, industrial agriculture, and finally a high-tech information society.
Competitive and predatory capitalism, an expansive, debt-based financial system, and a large construction industry promoted rapid growth which gave the United States a great advantage in global trade, creating inequities and power imbalances. 6. “During times when energy flows have been tapped and there are no new sources, Lotka’s principle requires that those systems win that do not attempt fruitless growth but instead use all available energies in long-staying, high-diversity, steady-state works.” from Mark T. Alpha-Amylase Essay. Brown’s Democracy Lecture. When Odum wrote this paper 40 years ago, he was hopeful that global opinion and national policies could be changed through central planning so that societies could avert catastrophe by The Golden Ass Essay, slowing growth and achieving a climax society in relative steady state. But that did not happen. We are now in overshoot, and over the past 40 years, signs that the United States and the world at large are slowly losing emergy flow per capita can be seen in indirect proxies such as failing wages, failing middle class, and collapsing empires. On Happily. While some countries are doing better than others, the global trend in emergy flow is downwards. Maximum Power dictates that countries with less energy will adapt through increased efficiency. We can see this happening in the United States, for The Golden Ass Essay, example, in slowing growth of various industries, including transportation and construction. 7. “High quality of life for New Belgium Brewing, humans and equitable economic distribution are more closely approximated in steady-state than in growth periods.” For points #7 and #8, I will let Odum’s words speak for The Golden Ass Essay, themselves: “During growth, emphasis is on competition, and large differences in Activity Based (ABC), economic and energetic welfare develop; competitive exclusion, instability, poverty, and unequal wealth are characteristic.
During steady state, competition is controlled and eliminated, being replaced with regulatory systems, high division and diversity of labor, uniform energy distributions, little change, and growth only for replacement purposes. Love of The Golden stable-system quality replaces love of net gain. Religious ethics adopt something closer to that of those primitive peoples that were formerly dominant in zones of the world with cultures based on the steady energy flows from the sun. Essay. Socialistic ideals about distribution are more consistent with steady state than growth” (Odum, 1973, p. 222). 8. “The successfully competing economy must use its net output of richer-quality energy flows to subsidize the Ass Essay poorer-quality energy flow so that the total power is maximized.” “In ecosystems, diversity of species develop that allow more of the energies to be tapped.
Many of the species that are specialists in getting lesser and on Happily Ever, residual energies receive subsidies from the The Golden richer components. For example, the sun leaves on top of trees transport fuels that help the shaded leaves so they can get some additional energy from the last rays of on Happily Ever After? dim light reaching the forest floor. The system that uses its excess energies in The Golden Ass Essay, getting a little more energy, even from sources that would not be net yielding alone, develops more total work and more resources for total survival. In similar ways, we now use our rich fossil fuels to keep all kinds of goods and services of our economy cheap so that the marginal kinds of energies may receive the subsidy benefit that makes them yielders, whereas they would not be able to generate much without the subsidy” (Odum, 1973, p. 223). 9. “Energy sources which are now marginal, being supported by hidden subsidies based on fossil fuel, become less economic when the hidden subsidy is removed.” Stephanie McMillan Code Green. There are many examples of marginal or net-negative energy sources that are only being produced because of Essay example hidden or overt subsidies. Hidden subsidies may consist of unfair trade, such as inputs to processes via expansion of empire, cheap goods from China such as solar photovoltaic panels, or rare earth minerals from Afghanistan. Ass Essay. In an in the World Essay, empire, many resources are subsidized through military actions or unfair trade that do not get calculated into costs of goods–yet these costs impact societal power.
Externalization of environmental damage is another large covert subsidy. Ass Essay. Costs of goods do not include environmental costs of damage and pollution which get absorbed by the broader society over time. Overt subsidies include tax credits, production subsidies, or agricultural subsidies. How many overt or covert subsidies are involved in the creation of corn and marginal ethanol fuel in of sharon, the diagrams below? Which components are not reflected in Ass Essay, the economic price? If you want to learn more about this specific topic or what inputs contribute to an emergy analysis, the folio by Brandt-Williams (2002) analyzes the emergy basis including the inputs for 25 Florida agricultural commodities. Cambell 2008 Emergy Brief Comparative Corn Production 4 states. 10. Starch Hydrolyzing Alpha-Amylase. “Increasing energy efficiency with new technology is The Golden, not an energy solution, since most technological innovations are really diversions of Costing (ABC) cheap energy into hidden subsidies in the form of fancy, energy-expensive structures.” One of the ways that systems maximize empower is to develop high quality storages of information, materials, and energy that increase power inflows. New technology is highly transformed, energy-intensive machinery and processes that add to the transformity and Ass Essay, emergy basis of resources objectives processes.
Technology acts as a driver to promote faster use of The Golden energy. Symbolism. Technology in and of itself cannot power a system. For example, high-tech GMO-modified seeds, pesticides, fertilizers, feed lots, aquaculture, and other technologies expand rates of power flow through the system, technology by itself is useless without energy. Technologies add to Ass Essay, the emergy basis of produced foods. Rose Symbolism. While the The Golden Ass Essay required other fuels, chemicals, and services allow larger yields in the short run, the system creates more wastes and is not sustainable when the Starch Enzymes: Alpha-Amylase Essay fossil fuel subsidies are withdrawn.
We are told that energy sources that are marginal at present will become producible in the future, through technological innovations. We tell ourselves that smart grids and net metering will make solar photovoltaics the renewable resource of the 21st century. Or electric vehicles are touted as energy solutions, even though the solar emergy required for Ass Essay, an electric car is even higher than that of an internal combustion engine car, due to hidden costs of electricity, batteries, and new infrastructure. It is time for us to look beyond the hoods of our cars at Starch Hydrolyzing the real cost to The Golden Ass Essay, society, beyond the sticker price. Ortega Miller-Soybean Comparison Odum, 1987, Crafoord Lecture, modified from A. Brown. So, forty years after the original article, what is Odum’s track record on accuracy? Except for his hopeful stance on on Happily Ever a climax steady state, Odum and colleagues’ estimates of which sources measure net benefits to The Golden, society seem to be on track. This is part 1–that’s enough for human objectives, now. The Golden Ass Essay. There are ten more important principles from that article to be covered in Part 2 at a later date. I’ve avoided discussing nuclear and solar photovoltaic in Starch Essay, this first part of the series, as Odum covered those specifically in the ideas in the next section of his paper.
I am continually amazed, both at what your father understood 40 years ago, but also at how profoundly he’s been ignored over those 40 years. Why isn’t this part of basic high school curriculum? Why are so few people exposed to these concepts? Because HTO was a dangerous man. In a totalitarian system, he’d have been imprisoned, but in a capitalist “democratic” system, he’s simply out-shouted. Pity. Yes, heads can roll when paradigms shift. Net energy is so important, IMO it was HT’s most important contribution.
Yet we don’t even understand that one, relatively simple construct. Instead we get unicorns–magic technology: Every year I reread the Ambio paper and ask myself, is the world ready to get it yet? See the above reply. Ah, that’s a really good one, Mary. Really good. I’m always trying to Ass Essay, figure out how we get to an “Emergy for Everyone” exegesis of these critical concepts. This post is a real step in that. Jan said: “Because HTO was a dangerous man. In a totalitarian system, he’d have.
been imprisoned, but in Essay on Happily Ever After?, a capitalist ‘democratic’ system, he’s simply. Exactly. But HT and his brilliant work is dangerous to the bosses and. what we now call the one-percenters. And it is they and their systems, incompatible with a world of The Golden reduced energy flows, that threaten us all. as a society and a species. But the Starch Hydrolyzing Alpha-Amylase much greater danger, of. course, is The Golden, that we will, collectively, continue to fail to absorb and.
act on the insights that HT’s work has afforded us. If we do fail, it. will be despite your fine efforts. Brava! And thanks. Hmmm. Ever After?. Don’t understand the weird line breaks. Maybe need a techie consult. ;^) Hi, Doug. If you cut and The Golden Ass Essay, paste something into New Belgium Case Essay, Disqus, it picks up odd line breaks? Emergy for everyone–working on it.
It’s complex enough that I can’t start at the final product, which is the Ass Essay quantitative science of valuation. We have to begin with the reasoning behind net energy and the dialogue that led to the science–what is the energy memory of things, explained in words? I don’t think we’re able to see hierarchy in systems anymore. We are trained so thoroughly in breaking things apart and human, looking at Ass Essay the smallest piece we can find. Another Great Post. I especially appreciate those links to the somewhat “older” papers… In terms on ?how to transmit Odum?s science in of sharon, a readable way, personally I entered thanks to The Golden, David Holmgrens conceptualization of Permaculture – thats, it his words, “Systems ecology for the commons”… but still a bit difficult to grasp for people with difficulties in abstract conceptual thinking… Another Great Post. I especially appreciate those links to the “older” papers… ?how to transmit Odum?s science in a readable way, personally I leared about Essay on Happily Ever After?, Odums Energy Principles thanks to David Holmgrens conceptualization of Permaculture – it his words, PC was originally conceived as “Systems ecology for the commons”… but his book on that (Principles Pathways beyond Sustainability) is still a bit difficult to grasp for the more practical people. Thanks, Holger.
I haven’t read the book, but I suppose it goes on my list now. Here’s the cliff notes, apparently: “Essence of permaculture” is a very condensed version of the book…gives you a good idea of Davids writing style. The book is important, actually its even dedicated to H.T.Odum, and gave me a good idea of emergy concepts even before reading “A prosperous way down” and “Environment, Power Society” (the original version of 1971 and the update from Ass Essay 2008) – “Environmental Accounting” I have at home, but its a bit too difficult for me at the moment…needs time and concentration, and people to discuss the Hydrolyzing Alpha-Amylase example ideas (i do not have them around here on the mexican countryside…) – a good synopsis of The Golden Davids book is here: http://permanentpublications.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/PR-Perm-Principles-Pathways-EMILY.pdf. Though still quite “cerebral” and (at least for many PC-folks) very theoretical conceptual, the 12 PC principles developed in the book (by themselves they represent a major renovation actualization of the PC Concept) translate the sometimes complex language of Starch Hydrolyzing Essay systems ecology into easy to remember and Ass Essay, practical principles… definitely an important read. Here you get the book: and of course amazon. I’ve studied under Holmgren, and he is brilliant and has a wealth of information, but it’s too bad he didn’t hire a good editor, because his writing is Activity Based Essays, all passive voice and rather academic. But it is a rigorous and well-crafted description of Permaculture. Chapter Three of Holmgren’s Principles and Pathways is Odum 101.
I recall being shocked and The Golden, puzzled when I read that efficiency is not all it’s cracked up to be. I had to read that chapter over and over before I “got it.” Thanks again for in the Third World Essay examples, the links and book recc. I’ve got the book, and it looks really good–I’ll get to it soon. Lots of hits on the website this morning, Jan. I went to see what the fuss was about. Manchurian Candidate? LOL.
Thanks for The Golden, the props. And I really liked this explanation of yours: “There exists a “maximum power point” on the effort/efficiency curve. Go beyond that, and New Belgium Case Essay, you’re into net diminishing returns, no matter how good things look. That Prius that gets 60 MPG? It took way more resources than a first-cut look at Ass Essay materials reveals. With its heavy reliance on hi-tech semiconductors and software, it requires essentially all of modern civilization to manufacture and maintain. I think my non-computerized diesels from the ’80s will be running long after the last electronic module for Essay on Happily, the Prius ceases to be available.
A skilled machinist in a large village or a small town can keep a mechanical diesel running on locally sourced fuels, but that Prius requires a global supply chain of exotic materials that require the long-distance transportation industry, semiconductors and software that requires much of the industrial education system, and billion-dollar semiconductor wafer fabrication plants that require the banking and The Golden, finance industries. And we aren’t even to the point of resources discussing where the fuel comes from yet! (They are only rated “E85? — 15% ethanol, unlike the diesel that can run on The Golden Ass Essay 100% plant oil.)” It sounds like it’s time to take all of that frustration that you are venting in comments, and write a post for me on the topic of efficiency, max power, emergy basis? Consider this sentence, from Odum’s May, 1974 paper. It is why your father was ignored (and rightly so). “14. Energy is measured by objectives, calories, Btu’s, kilowatt hours, and other intraconvertible units, but energy has a scale of Ass Essay quality which is not indicated by these measures.” You cannot just arbitrarily differentiate energy flow, entropy, the Case Essay Laws of Thermodynamics and the rest of the natural world by a new scale using a subjective category of “quality.” This is the Ass Essay theoretical flaw in “emergy.” Okay, so let’s give up on your new paradigm and look for an even newer paradigm – a metric that crosses all platforms. Joules will work; so will kilocalories. Kilocalories have the advantage of being known by just about everyone who reads. On Happily. [And just ignore the nerdboys who insist on a difference in The Golden Ass Essay, kilocalorie measure from 14.5-15.5 C, versus 15.5-16.5 C.]
Using joules or kilocalories you can indeed compare the work done by a human to the work done by a bullock to Ever, the work done by The Golden Ass Essay, a tractor. You can also compare the embedded energy in in the World examples, the tractor to the embedded energy in a tiller. [Embedded energy is still better than emergy because it is strictly quantitative.] Those who insist on a difference in energy (like your father and yourself) just provide a way for Ass Essay, the power brokers to keep everyone confused. If you just use joules or kilocalories you can devise your own methods of Activity Costing energy auditing – AND it is applicable across the board (i.e. The Golden Ass Essay. crosses all platforms). There is no big conspiracy here. It is just hard science. Emergy does use joules as a measure, Ralphieo. Hydrolyzing Alpha-Amylase Example. The difference in the joules of brain energy that is typing this response is different than the equivalent joule used to drive my car, or to grow a cabbage in my garden. Ass Essay. They cannot be transposed. And the The Invisible Revolution in the Essay joules of brain and finger energy used to type this Disqus response is not just a couple of neurotransmitter exchanges at the axonal synapses and The Golden, finger muscles on computer keys.
This response is the result of my formal schooling, my upbringing, my cultural values that give me the passion, the knowledge of navigating the web and creating this website, and resources, some small component of both my Apple computer and Ass Essay, the associated high tech company, and human resources, the overall internet that allows you and me to talk here, today, in The Golden Ass Essay, this corner of the internet. Arguably, the joules of information energy being laid down in this response are of much higher quality, with much higher transformity, with potentially much greater impact through the wonders of copied information. People say that electrons are free on the internet . . . well, that is only the case if you don’t see what went into the making of them. This is heresy and a huge emotional threat for engineers who see technology as the answer, through “free energy.” This business of not seeing the energy memory of things is the biggest blind spot in our energy sciences. The blind spot about the energy memory of things allows us to believe that we have created a free lunch, and resources, that things are not as bad as they really are–that we can keep the current society and BAU. The Golden. I just responded to Dwig’s excellent question about the Case Essay relationship of power and efficiency on the previous Transformity post, and that explanation is useful here, so I will repost a paragraph of that response. Easy copying and sharing of information is a transformational use for the internet, even though we don’t see the true costs of both the Ass Essay internet and the original knowledge generation. Originals are expensive.
Copies are cheaper. Efficiency from a thermodynamic standpoint is the ratio of outputs to ALL energy inputs. including the “ultimate energy value of bought goods and Based (ABC), services” (Odum Odum, 1976, p. 4). But the The Golden Ass Essay contributing energies are of different qualities, and Revolution in the World, are not always readily visible from the perspective of the The Golden high tech engineer at Third World the top of the hierarchy, especially the environmental contributions. Ass Essay. Odum states that “engineers should realize that most technological advances during the last century of growth have involved the Essay on Happily Ever hidden, indirect, additional forms of energy. As such forms of energy become less, many technological advantages will evaporate. Ass Essay. What was an Starch Hydrolyzing Enzymes: Alpha-Amylase Essay example, advance becomes wasteful and must be discarded” (OO, 1976, p. 4). No it is not different. It is measured the same. It cannot even be measured! It must be calculated!
I don’t believe you are talking about the same thing that the rest of the world is talking about when it comes to emergy. Hmm, it seems to Ass Essay, me that ralpheio is rose of sharon symbolism, talking and thinking in terms of a different scientific discipline (based on his quote from Wikipedia). There, heat is heat, no matter what its effects are. Odum, however, thought and worked as an ecologist; a given amount of The Golden energy expended can do very different things in an ecosystem; in this context, the difference is very important. Here’s a loose analogy from economics: GDP as a measure of the US economy has been criticized because it counts all economic activity as equal. The expense of Essay on Happily After? building a house and the expense of tearing down a house are measured equally, regardless of the value they add to the neighborhood (and yes, both can be valuable, but in different ways).
Another example: was Superstorm Sandy good for the economy? Certainly, it caused a lot of economic activity to occur. So, various measures have been proposed to capture the value added or destroyed by a particular economic activity. Thanks, Dwig and Jan. Ralphie, I’m not sure if you are really open to ideas, or if you’re stuck on details and dogma, or just venting your spleen in an anonymous venue. Please be polite if you want to converse here. The figure below illustrates a generic energy chain which transforms energy of lower, dilute quality into higher, more concentrated forms. Sunlight becomes plants, plants are eaten by bigger and Ass Essay, bigger animals and humans, and of sharon, plants become peat, which eventually becomes coal, and is extracted to The Golden Ass Essay, create electricity by humans. For a joule to get to the higher levels and exist there, as a joule of electricity or a solar PV panel, or as DNA, or as information on the internet, it has been transformed many, many times, with associated very large losses in the form of heat entropy. Does a joule of bear exist without the supporting plants?
Does a joule of New Belgium Brewing Essay tiny energies on the internet exist without the supporting contributions from lower levels? No. And if it takes 4 or 5 joules of coal to create a joule of electricity, then there may be relative differences in the ability to do work. Complex work requires a lot of The Golden Ass Essay different kinds of high quality energy. Could we run our current society based on coal, without the electricity? No. Can electricity based on renewables run our society?
No, not so much. Can we drop too many middle layers or power flow from loss of nonrenewable energy and still have the higher levels function? Energy is transformed and upgraded through energy chains which store progressively higher quality energy as assets at each level, then feeding back at each level to promote pulling in more energy. Mary – You and Jan are being impolite, not me. If you are not willing to take criticism of Essay your ideas without taking cheap shots, you are no scientist. The commentator, Dwig, gets it but still buys into the abstract concept of emergy. Here is a tip for Ass Essay, all of you. No matter how hard you try, you cannot alter the laws of physics. You can certainly define things differently, but it is Case Essay, merely a parlor game and your definition does not square with the real world. The Golden Ass Essay. As the Wikipedia entry says so succinctly, “The idea that a kilocalorie of heat is different is absurd.”
I’m not sure I understand you. Odum writes of Hydrolyzing Enzymes: Alpha-Amylase Essay example “intraconvertable units” of energy, which you seem to The Golden Ass Essay, say only applies to joules or kilocalories. Certainly one could also use ergs or dyne-centimetres or “barrels of oil equivalent” if one wished, because all these units are “intraconvertable.” Odum then goes on on Happily Ever After? to note that not all energy is The Golden, created equal, and thus Odum originated the Hydrolyzing Enzymes: concept of “EMbedded enERGY.” I agree that the ambiguous term “quality” itself lacks quality and precision. Ass Essay. “Quality” generally refers to an immediate aspect of Essay on Happily something, rather than a historical aspect. In the vernacular, a closely regulated source of precision flow of electrons might be thought of The Golden as a “high quality” energy source, whereas the chaotic, random nature of Based a lightening bolt could be thought of The Golden as lower quality because even though it may provide vastly more power than a typical 200-amp household electrical service, it’s nature is too unpredictable to be of much practical use to anyone except for some plants that get off on the nitrogen it fixes. On the other hand, the embedded energy that goes into the making of a photovoltaic solar panel means that electrons from human such a source have a different cost to them than do, for example, electrons coming from a coal-fired power plant.
So either I misunderstand you, or I think you may misunderstand the The Golden subtle meaning that Odum ascribed to “quality” in this context. Not all electron flows are created equal! Thanks, Jan, you addressed Ralphie’s question better than I, with more clarity. My head was still resonating with the issue of energy memory, which is the application of the idea of quality. I agree that the word quality has been loosely used and open to misconstruction. Yes you misunderstood me.
Odum’s concept of embodied energy, or “emergy” was a way to differentiate between human energy and that of fossil fuels. It is The Invisible Third World, a false distinction. Energy can be low-quality because it is dissipated over a large area, like sunlight. Ass Essay. It can be high-quality because it is concentrated in a coal seam. The Invisible Third World. However, regardless of its quality, it is measured the same – in joules, kilocalories, BTU’s etc.
Arbitrarily assigning a new qualitative category and changing the measurement units to The Golden Ass Essay, fit your arbitrary standard is not acceptable. Physics trumps politics. There is a very good reason for objectives, SI units (look it up). The Golden. This is why Odum got no traction with his new units. I still think we’re talking past each other. Emergy units are not just another unit for expressing energy. No, emjoules are not at all the same thing as a statement of the energy they contain. You cannot burn a photovoltaic panel and obtain the amount of heat implied by it’s emjoule content, any more than you can cool a cooked egg and get a raw egg back. This is not politics.
It is not some “arbitrary standard.” It is Starch Alpha-Amylase Essay, measuring a different thing. One might just as well say a kilowatt-hour or a light-year is The Golden Ass Essay, just an arbitrary, political way of rose symbolism measuring time, simply because they sound like something other than what they are. I understand Systeme International units quite well, and kilocalorie is not even one of them, as it’s been superseded by The Golden, the watt*second. Jan – I am not talking past you at all. You have bought into an absurd concept. Since you cannot seem to Activity Essays, understand what I am saying (whether willfully or not I will leave to your conscience), here is The Golden, a quote from a the Wikipedia entry on emergy. “The idea that a calorie of sunlight is not equivalent to a calorie of fossil fuel or electricity strikes many as absurd, based on the 1st Law definition of energy units as measures of heat (i.e. Joule’s mechanical equivalent of heat).” Sciubba, E., 2010. On the Second-Law inconsistency of Emergy Analysis. Energy.
I understand what you are saying. You do not understand what I am saying. Good day to you! Hello Walter (Ralphieo), Good discussion here. I appreciate the worthwhile contributions of all the participants. I agree with most everything said by Mary, Jan, and Activity Based (ABC), Dwig.
I also think the points raised by Walter are significant – there are serious objections to Odum’s concept of emergy, and they need to be dealt with in a rigorous and scientifically sound way. As Dwig indicated, emergy needs to be considered in The Golden Ass Essay, the context of Odum’s work in systems ecology, and alongside the parallel concept of transformity. As Odum pioneered the field of The Invisible Revolution examples systems ecology, he looked at how these systems processes energy – in flows, storages, transformations, feedbacks, and sinks. The concept of emergy helps to quantify the energy used in these processes. To me, the concept of The Golden emergy makes intuitive sense in a number of ways. It does not make sense to me to look only at Activity Based Essays energy quantity. Energy itself is Ass Essay, a nebulous thing – we know it only by its ability to do work, which immediately brings it into Activity (ABC) Essays, the qualitative dimension. The Golden. What kind of work, and what scale of results? And yes, heat energy is human, heat energy, but does the burning of a book tell us it’s true energetic value, or is there a way to take into account all of the energy that went into making the book possible? One can argue about and refine how the math is The Golden, done to calculate it, but Odum’s efforts were an attempt to bring this closer to a common apples to apples standard, which continues to be refined (Giannantoni, 2003). I think it is an rose of sharon, extremely helpful and important concept.
I’m currently reading Environment, Power Society in the Twenty First Century, and am continually amazed by Odum’s broad perspectives and how the Ass Essay concepts interact and The Invisible Revolution in the Third examples, support one another across many systems, scales, and The Golden, depths. I think it is a work of genius. OK, having said that…I also recognize that new concepts such as emergy, and fourth and fifth laws of thermodynamics need rigorous analysis from World Essay a wide body of experts…and that blog comments are not the greatest forum to undertake such an Ass Essay, exploration. I did a quick Google search. One paper I found discussing the criticisms of emergy was “Promise and Problems of of sharon symbolism Emergy Analysis” by Hau and Bakshi. The paper above is Ass Essay, sympathetic to Odum’s view, so I also looked up one of the papers they reference as critical of Odum’s view. I chose to look up Cutler Cleveland’s paper, because I have a respect for Cleveland’s work in ecological economics and rose, the concept of EROI.
The paper is called “Aggregation and the Role of Energy in the Economy” This comment is too long already, so I won’t try to summarize the papers here. I did note to my surprise that Cleveland very early on extols the importance of energy quality. “Despite its widespread use, aggregating different energy types by their heat units embodies a serious flaw: it ignores qualitative differences among energy vectors.” Cleveland notes various researchers considering energy quality back to The Golden, at least 1960. Secondly, Cleveland praises Odum for laying the foundation of Activity Costing (ABC) research into The Golden, biophysical energy and material flows in of sharon symbolism, systems that provided the intellectual backbone for the discipline of ecological economics. He does criticize emergy analysis as being one dimensional (he has the same criticism of exergy analysis). I would be interested in hearing about any other more academically oriented criticisms or defenses of emergy and the laws of maximum em-power and hierarchies of energy. I’m especially interested if anyone has a good quote from Charles Hall on these subjects…perhaps something from the 1995 book he edited, “Maximum Power: The Ideas and Applications of H.T. Ass Essay. Odum.” Hi, David.
No, this isn’t the place for rigorous analysis, thanks. I’ve heard these complaints so many times over Essay on Happily After?, the past 40 years–yet Odum’s explanations for how the world works have been borne out over time in The Golden, what’s happening in the world today. That is such rock solid evidence for me that I’m not much interested in Alpha-Amylase Essay, these arguments. We stopped and saw Charlie and his wife in late July on Ass Essay my bike trip–it was good to see them. Here’s an email that has been sitting in my box for 2 months now waiting for some opportunity to copy and World, paste. So here’s Charlie’s take, with his permission. The Golden. I was trying to wheedle him into expanding it into New Belgium Case, a guest post, but I guess this will do: “Odum was my PhD adviser and I have written a book called “Maximum Power ” (Colorado Univ.
Press). The idea is not that entropy should be maximized but that there is selection for an optimal rate of doing each process where rate and efficiency are opposite and what is selected for is maximum power at an intermediate efficiency. This concept would operate so that organisms do not operate at maximum efficiency or as fast as possible but at an intermediate rate of each. The Golden Ass Essay. Odum thought that as resources change the location on the power curve change and successful (surviving) organisms would adjust their rates accordingly. Brewing. There was nothing necessarily about over the cliff for Ass Essay, other organisms or humans or civilizations in what he said. But it was still uncomfortable for us grad students who thought humans should restrict their appetites. I think he would say from The Invisible Revolution in the examples this perspective “If the US does not use the middle East oil then the Chinese will” but also “as the oil is depleted successful nations will adjust their spending appropriately.
There is The Golden, much more of this available on the website and elsewhere, and I have written “the continuing importance of in the World examples maximum power” published in The Golden Ass Essay, Ecological Modelling in a special tribute to in the Third Essay, Odum. Do not despair quite yet, although H.T. and I both think the world is likely to be quite different” (email, CAS Hall, July 26, 2013). The PDF version of the 2004 Ecological Modelling article is linked below: I have thoroughly enjoyed the The Golden comments this time round. Funny how I send you an email asking this very question and rose symbolism, it blows up in the comment section.
The world is a strange place and coincidence abounds. Brian, yes, I find myself wondering the same thing about the series of coincidences. Serendipity, but maybe mostly a number of connected people with two or 3 degrees of separation who are thinking about the same things. Mary, thank you! That paper by Hall is like gold to The Golden Ass Essay, me, with its review and Activity Costing (ABC), analysis of Odum’s career! I highly recommend everyone give it a read. “For most of us who have been exposed to The Golden, it [Maximum power principle] in some detail, there is no doubt as to its veracity.” “I believe it to be extremely interesting, and Starch Hydrolyzing Enzymes: Alpha-Amylase Essay, enormously more important than most things with which we fill our students’ heads.” I keep a short list of articles to recommend for basic energy literacy, and this 1973 paper by Odum is at Ass Essay the top of that list. I also love the introduction given by of sharon, Mother Earth News when they reprinted it: “In early November of 1973—during a visit to MOTHER’s new home in the mountains of western North Carolina—New Alchemist John Todd gave the magazine’s editors about the 14th-generation Xerox copy of what can conservatively be described as a dynamite paper. “We had only to glance at this extraordinary document to realize that the paper (originally written at the request of the Ass Essay Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences) is one of the most concise—yet most sweeping—examinations yet made of the resources objectives real problems of. the world.
Read it and see for yourself.” I’m also glad to The Golden, see another person here who recognizes the strong connection between Odum and David Holmgren’s articulation of Permaculture. Holmgren wrote the first Permaculture book (Permaculture One), with Bill Mollison serving the role of editor and advisor. The very first reference in Permaculture One is to Odum’s Environment, Power and Society. And as Holger notices, Holmgren’s “Permaculture Principles and Pathways Beyond Sustainability” is full of constant references to Odum’s work. Holmgren should be read side by side with A Prosperous Way Down and Environment, Power and Society for the 21st Century. These works complement and reinforce one another so well. In terms of how to apply the information, Odum focused on suggesting appropriate governmental policy, whereas Holmgren focuses on grassroots, bottom-up actions from individuals and alternative community.
In fact, the other paper at the top of my list for energy literacy is Third World Essay examples, Holmgren’s “Energy and Permaculture.” I see it as an early draft of his later book (the 12 permaculture principles had not yet been developed, but he does offer a nice list of suggested strategies). It is almost entirely a tribute to Odum. The third paper on my list is Energy Follows Its Bliss by John Michael Greer. I think misconception of solar PV electricity is that you also have to make do with less. The reality is that you can be more productive with more electricity at no cost. Well, there is the one time first cost. Which when divided out over the useful life, net to around 3 cents per kWH. The Golden Ass Essay. Do you even know how much you pay? Simple math on your electric bill divide the human objectives Bill amount by The Golden Ass Essay, the total kWH that month. I am an expert in these matters.
Here is the Costing Essays cost backup.