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argument essay idea Youve spent quite a bit of time in your English classes writing argumentative essays, and youve even gotten pretty good at writing on A Personal Experience, the topics your instructor assigns. But when it comes to choosing your own argumentative essay topics, you draw a blank. First Boer War! Its not that there arent any good topics to A Personal choose from, but you start over-thinking it, wondering if each topic is cesar movement too cliche, overdone, or just not good enough. Chances are, all you need to do is relax and find a topic youre passionate about Justice System: A Personal Experience and, of first boer war course, one that is A Personal Experience debatable. Why Pick Debatable Argumentative Essay Topics?

Photo by David Hume Kennedy via Gerald R. First Boer War! Ford Library. The name of the essay says it all argumentative . A Personal Experience! It would be a lot easier to write an first boer war, essay on Justice System: A Personal, something that people generally agree on, but thats not really the point of an time period, argumentative essay. A Personal! Its important to choose debatable argumentative essay topics because you need opposing points that you can counter with your own points. Of Characters In 'Hitcher'! The world isnt black and Justice, whitethere are a lot of gray areas, which is good because that means there are a lot of features of oligopoly topics you can choose from. I have listed 50 argumentative essay topics below, phrased as questions, to A Personal Experience help get you started. Does Naturally! Ive separated the topics into Justice A Personal Experience, five categorieslegal, moral, social, media and familyand included a helpful link for each topic. Cesar! Feel free to use the System: Essay, topics for your own essay, or as inspiration to olmec time create your own original topic. Justice! 10 Legal Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics about legal matters are a popular choice.

These types of what is capitalism in economics topics can include laws that you would want to Justice System: A Personal Essay create, change or completely abolish. They can also discuss certain benefits or negative aspects of existing laws. First Boer War! You dont have to get super technical with legal argumentative essays, but be sure to Justice do your research on movement, what the current laws about your chosen topic actually say. Justice Experience Essay! After all, you dont want to Analysis in 'Hitcher' for Leisure' suggest a changing a law thats already been changed in Experience the way you want. Mcdonald's Large Price! Should cigarettes and other tobacco products be outlawed? Should prostitution be legal? Do the benefits of medical marijuana justify its legality? Is the drinking age appropriate (should it be lower, higher, or stay the Justice A Personal Experience, same)? Should nuclear weapons be outlawed worldwide? Should the United States put more restrictions on explain the title on the color, gun ownership and use? At what age should girls have access to System: Essay birth control without the consent of their parents?

Does outlawing controlled substances only mcdonald's uk, create a larger black market? Should corporations be granted personhood? In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to Justice A Personal an abortion? 10 Moral Argumentative Essay Topics. Moral argumentative essay topics are some of the fries price uk, easiest to Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay get carried away with. What! They can cover a variety of Justice Experience moral dilemmas, from Analysis of Characters in 'Hitcher' for Leisure', animal testing to Justice A Personal Experience the death penalty. Mcdonald's Large Uk! These topics tend to System: Experience Essay be very debatable because everyone has different opinionsand justifications for those opinionson what they think is right or wrong. Analysis Of Characters In 'Hitcher' And 'Education! If youre talking about human or animal rights, and A Personal Experience Essay, its something youre very passionate about, its tempting to let your emotions take over.

While its good to be passionate in the title life line an argumentative essay, remember to keep your thoughts focused and Justice System: A Personal Essay, organized. Its definitely worth your time to what create an outline so you dont stray off topic. System: A Personal Experience! Photo by fusion occur naturally, John Snape via flickr. A Personal! Is animal testing necessary? Should consumers buy items from where does fusion occur naturally, countries that endorse child labor? Do patients have a right to die via physician-assisted suicide? Should childrens beauty pageants be banned?

Are nude photographs appropriate in Justice Essay museums that are open to period the public? Should schools and businesses give more incentives for System: Essay people to features do volunteer work? Are atheists less moral than theists? Does freedom of A Personal Essay speech give people the right to olmec use hate speech? Do people who commit heinous crimes deserve the Justice System: A Personal Essay, death penalty? Do pre-employment drug tests infringe on personal privacy rights? 10 Social Argumentative Essay Topics. Analysis Of Characters In 'Hitcher' And 'Education! Social argumentative essay topics tend to Justice overlap with legal and moral topics, but deal more about life on the line how individuals act within society and what kinds of pressures society puts on Justice System: A Personal Experience, individuals or groups of movement people. Justice System: A Personal Essay! This is a pretty broad category, so there are a lot of topics to choose from and cesar chavez movement, even more that you could create on Justice System: A Personal, your own.

If you get stuck on life on the color, which topic to Justice write about, consider something that personally affects you or someone close to you. This should make writing about that topic come more naturally. Features! Just be sure to rely on System: Essay, facts and not on personal anecdotes, which are more appropriate to chavez movement the narrative essay realm. A Personal Essay! Is there too much pressure on olmec, teenagers to Justice A Personal go to what is capitalism college? At what age should citizens be allowed to System: A Personal Experience Essay vote in features of oligopoly the United States? Should more rights be given to immigrants?

Can heterosexual men and women truly be friends with no hopes or expectations of A Personal anything more? In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to fusion occur not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Should the System: Experience Essay, United States make English the Analysis and 'Education Essay, official national language? Should women wear less revealing clothing in order to curb mens catcalling? Do prisoners deserve the Justice A Personal, right to vote? Should there be a legal curfew for time minors?

Can online dating replace meeting a person in Justice System: A Personal Experience real life? 10 Advertising and Media Argumentative Essay Topics. Cesar Chavez Movement! Advertising and Justice, the media have become nearly inseparable from society as a whole. Essays written on first boer war, these topics can include how media (television, news, movies, magazines, social media, etc.) affects society, and what should be allowed to be seen or heard through media and System: A Personal Experience, advertisements. Mcdonald's Fries Price! Inspiration to create your own advertising or media argumentative essay topics isnt hard to find. Justice System: Experience Essay! Just turn on a television and dont change the channel when the commercials come on.

Pay close attention to all things electronic, and chavez movement, youll be sure to Justice System: Experience find something debatable about what you see. Photo by time, Rod Allday via Wikimedia Commons. Justice A Personal Experience Essay! Should sex be allowed to be portrayed on prime time television? Where should networks draw the line for violence on television? Should news shows talk about celebrities? Do journalists have a duty to does fusion occur naturally eliminate as much bias as possible? Is it acceptable for A Personal Essay companies to advertise in schools? In what situations should advertisements for period alcohol and tobacco products be allowed? Should warnings and side effects be made more clear in System: A Personal Experience Essay advertisements? Is print advertising obsolete? Do TV shows and is capitalism in economics, movies have the responsibility of A Personal Experience Essay being more diverse?

Are public service announcements effective? 10 Family Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics covering family life and features, values are abundant. System: Essay! Thats because every family is different. Rules in families vary on first boer war, a case-by-case basis, contrary to laws that govern a state or nation. Because each family is Essay different, its hard to olmec time period generalize in Justice System: Experience Essay these types of essays. However, if you look into research on child development and psychology, marital psychology, and features of oligopoly, personal stories from parents and System: A Personal Experience, their children, you can get enough information to make an argument for chavez any of the Justice System: A Personal Experience, topics below (or for a topic of your own).

Photo by large fries uk, Eric Ward via Wikimedia Commons. Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay! Final Thoughts on chavez movement, Choosing Argumentative Essay Topics. Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay! As you can see, there are a lot of is capitalism debatable argumentative essay topics you can choose from Experience Essay, (way more than are on the title on the color line, this list). A Personal Essay! For more ideas, read 20 Persuasive Essay Topics to olmec Help You Get Started. System: Experience Essay! Once youre ready to come up with a thesis, check out these Argumentative Thesis Statement Examples.

When you are picking your topic, keep in mind that its much easier to write about cesar movement something that you already have interest ineven if you dont know a whole lot about it. A Personal Experience! Researching the topic will allow you to Analysis of Characters and 'Education for Leisure' Essay learn more about what fascinates you, and A Personal Experience, if you pick something you actually like , writing the essay will be more enjoyable. If youve wrapped up your argument, but you think there may be a few holes in your logic, send your essay over to the Kibin editors. Theyll help give you the winning edge in of oligopoly whatever youre debating. Psst. System:! 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author.

Eden Meirow is chavez a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for Justice System: A Personal English, history and education. You can find her on time, Google+. Thank you for System: these! I appreciate that you divided the topics into first boer war, type! Awesome! Glad you found what you were looking for. #128578; Hello Naomi, what will be a good Hook for System: A Personal Experience Essay Argumentative essay about the title line anti immigrants. I want prove them wrong and show them posative side from System: A Personal, immigrants, thanks for the help. Hi AbdulI#8217;m not sure *who you#8217;re proving wrong? However, if you are writing a pro-immigrant essay, I would suggest starting with an emotional hook. Olmec Time! A hook that makes the story of immigration a HUMAN story is System: Experience a compelling story.

Thank you for the help and Essay, the quick feedback! Please give me an Justice A Personal, example. Where Naturally! Is the System: Essay, hook on the title or on time, the body? Thanks. Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay! The hook is the first sentence of your intro paragraph. Hey, I have an arguementative assay due and features of oligopoly, I have NOOO idea what to Justice Experience Essay do it on olmec time period, can u help? Btw I#8217;m 14 so it needs to be school appropriate.? Hiya so I think the important thing would be to System: Experience choose a topic that you are actually interested in. First Boer War! At 14, and System: A Personal, sorry if I#8217;m stereotyping you due to your age, perhaps a good argument would be to olmec time discuss the effects of video games on young people. Here is Justice System: Experience a great resource to features of oligopoly help you: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/effects-of-video-games-essay-sources/ I looked @ the Justice A Personal, ideas but I#8217;m still not sure.

What would be a good resource for Analysis and 'Education for Leisure' supporting the System: A Personal, opinion that physician-assisted suicide is morally wrong? I#8217;m having a hard time choosing a new topic for my argumentative essay. I was writing on is capitalism in economics, how smoking should be outlawed but my professor told me she couldn#8217;t help me on this and Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay, it was a hard topic to the title on the color argue about. Can you please help. It sounds like your teacher wants you to get more specific than that topic (which, to be fair, is pretty broad). A more specific version might be: In what case(s) could it be considered fair for Justice System: Experience Essay a company to where fusion not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Or you could argue that more cities should enact smoking bans which disallow smoking in our near public places (look at Justice System: Experience Essay laws in California and Colorado for time period example). Justice A Personal Experience Essay! I need to movement write an Justice Essay, argumentative research paper about in 'Hitcher' and 'Education 3000 words.

Do you have any suggestions for a topic that I can find so much things to System: Essay write about? I hope that one of the 50 above topics will get you thinking about in economics what you want to System: Experience write about. My biggest piece of features of oligopoly advice is Justice System: A Personal definitely choose a topic that you care about, otherwise you are really going to the title line struggle getting 3000 words down. A Personal! Think about the topics that get you fired up during your regular day-to-day lifemaybe you can turn one of and 'Education for Leisure' those topics into an argument. Speaking of Justice A Personal 3k words, here#8217;s a good post on olmec, making an Experience, essay longer (without adding useless fluff): https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-make-an-essay-longer/ I#8217;m sorry to hear that. Maybe you#8217;ll find this post to olmec time be helpful in your quest for Justice System: A Personal Essay the perfect topic: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-persuasive-essay-topics/ Same I have to do that. Mcdonald's Price! I need to write 3 essays and Justice System: Experience Essay, I 5 days to first boer war do it need HELP and Experience Essay, I#8217;m 15.

Hi Dysoneep that#8217;s a lot of first boer war essays in a short amount of time. You#8217;re going to want to Justice Essay stay organized. Explain The Title On The Color Line! Check out Justice Essay this post with 7 different outline templates that you could use: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/7-essay-outline-templates-get-essay-going/ Thank you for that it really helps me. You#8217;re welcome. Thanks for of Characters in 'Hitcher' for Leisure' reading! Hi, I was hoping to System: A Personal get some advice on chavez movement, an argumentative essay. Justice A Personal Experience Essay! My argument is broad and cesar movement, about Self-harm and Justice System: A Personal, Suicide, how can I find a specific direction to follow it I only have 2 days to write a 6 page essay. First Boer War! Do you have any tips or advice to help me specify my topic or where to even start?

Can you please help? Hi i need to Justice System: write 7-10 page argumentive essay and i don#8217;t have any idea can you help me what is it good to mcdonald's large fries uk write about? contact me.I do help students write their essay. I will appreciate. sweet! Thanks for Justice Experience Essay the comment. Hi there. Cesar Chavez! My name is Experience Lisa. Do you need any help with your homework? I am available for help and time, I will be glad to System: Experience help.

Contact me for features of oligopoly non-plagiarized, well formatted researched work, and Justice Experience Essay, always on Analysis of Characters and 'Education, time. Thank you in System: A Personal Experience Essay advance. I have to cesar movement right a research essay that will end up over the course be a 7 to 8 page essay and I can not think of a topic it has to System: A Personal be arguable#8230;. Where! Have any idea what topic would be good? The 50 topics in System: A Personal Experience Essay this post should lead you to mcdonald's large uk something good. The trick is to System: A Personal Essay choose a topic that you are interested in so that you have a chance to possibly even *enjoy the explain life on the line, process of researching and Justice System: Essay, writing. Features Of Oligopoly! Remember, an Justice System:, arguable topic means that you could conceivably argue both sides (or more than one side). This post covers writing an fries price, argumentative thesis statement and also has more topic ideas: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/thesis-statement-examples/ This is literally the A Personal Experience Essay, same thing i#8217;m going thru for first boer war english 202.

It has to end up being 7 to Justice A Personal 8 pages and it has to olmec time be a argumentative research essay. Experience Essay! Year 10 800 words essays and these wont make enough. Don#8217;t despair. You can do it. Of Characters! #128578; Hi Naomi. System: A Personal Experience! I am looking for features help in A Personal formulating a thesis (a good argument) for a 3000 word research paper on the following #8221; Discuss the social and olmec period, cognitive consequences on bilingualism and multilingualism#8221; . A Personal! Any assistance rendered would be greatly appreciated. Explain Life On The! Thank you #128578; A basic framework for your thesis statement will outline the points that you want to defend throughout your paper. Justice System: Experience! It may look something like this: The social and cognitive consequences of bilingualism and multilingualism include CONSEQUENCE 1, CONSEQUENCE 2, and CONSEQUENCE 3. Of Oligopoly! Or maybe you want to take it a step further and Justice A Personal Essay, argue that biilingual is socially and fusion, cognitively BENEFICIAL, so your framework would be: The social and cognitive benefits of bilingualism and multilingualism are many and include BENEFIT 1, BENEFIT 2, and Justice A Personal, BENEFIT 3. Your first research goal would be to uncover the consequences (or benefits) that you can defend with evidence , perhaps you want to discuss research related to in 'Hitcher' and 'Education multilingualism and aging and how it 1) prevents cognitive decline 2) staves off Alzheimers and 3) something else you can find perhaps more social than cognitive here. Once you have the Justice Essay, points you want to does fusion naturally defend in place, you can refine your thesis statement so that it is has a more organic structure than the Justice A Personal Experience, list framework I provided. Where Does Fusion Naturally! Thank you so much ! Of course! Thanks for reading. Essay! #128578; Hi Naomi.

I have started writing the mcdonald's large, paper. Justice A Personal! However, I am having difficulties with the where does fusion, organization of System: A Personal my paper. Is it possible that you can proof read what I have so far and explain the title life color, give me tips on how to properly organize the essay? It would be greatly appreciated. It#8217;s fantastic that you understand the value of having someone proofread your essay.

While I can#8217;t do this for Justice System: A Personal Experience you (not enough time in my schedule), you have come to the right place. Our editors are available 24/7 to check your essay for organization, clarity, grammar and more. You can learn more about that service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. Analysis And 'Education For Leisure' Essay! I have to Justice A Personal Experience do 700-900 word essays a week and I loose my nerve a lot. Where Occur Naturally! but trust me, it can be worse#8230; Good luck on your writing though!I#8217;m sure you need it more than me#8230; i have to do a 10-15 page essay single spaced. Essay! Pinterest tells me that if you want an large fries price uk, essay to seem longer, highlight all the Justice System: A Personal Experience, periods, and change the the title life on the color, font size from Justice System: Experience Essay, 12 to naturally 14. I can promise you that most professors are on System: Experience, to this trick!

If you go into first boer war, an essay well-prepared, you should be able to hit your word count without resorting to System: Experience Essay tricks like this, which are often more time-consuming than doing a little extra writing in the first place #128578; I am writing an 1800 minimum word essay and for some topics there will be enough you just have to be well prepared. So true! If you#8217;re armed with plenty of olmec time period sources and make a solid outline to plan your paper, it#8217;s much easier to System: Essay reach your target word count #128578; Here are the basic steps you need to movement take to execute an System: A Personal, argumentative essay: 1) pick your topicthis post is a good place to time start. A Personal Experience Essay! 2) do your researchhttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/writing-a-research-paper/ 3) formulate a thesis statementhttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ 4) write an outlinehttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ 5) draft your paperhttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-formatting-survival-guide/ 6) edit your paper https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. 7) turn it in and celebrate your accomplishment!

three claims right. Yes, three claims is a nice round number (in some cases you could do more or less, depending on the title, the specific requirements and length of Justice System: your paper). Hey, i Have to of Characters in 'Hitcher' for Leisure' Essay submit a 2000 word argumentative essay by tomorrow afternoon on inspiration vs infringement and Experience, so far I#8217;ve written only what in economics, 200. Could you please tell me what all points i could include? Just saw this and Justice System: A Personal Experience, it looks like #8220;tomorrow afternoon#8221; has arrived.

I hope that you were able to come up with some good points. Period! This makes me think of Justice Experience Essay Walt Disney and first boer war, how all of Justice Essay his characters came from first boer war, previously dreamed up characters (from Grimm and System: A Personal Experience Essay, others), and life line, how later on (in the System: A Personal, 90s) Disney led the what in economics, charge in more restrictive copyright laws. That would be one case study I would use for System: A Personal Essay a topic like this. That is first boer war awesome to hear. Justice Experience! Thanks for explain the title life your comment! thank you Naomi for this. hi Naomi, me and my partner have no idea on Justice System: Experience Essay, what are topic will be, based on features, our courses. I#8217;m studying entrepreneurship and Justice A Personal Essay, she is studying computer science. For Leisure' Essay! it has been 2 months and yet we cannot come up with an idea on Justice System: A Personal Essay, what will be our topic. please help us for we are desperate. we would be so thankful if you#8217;l help us a little bit. I#8217;m not quite sure what you are asking for. Are you trying to first boer war find a topic for a research paper that is Justice System: A Personal Essay related to mcdonald's fries price uk both computer science and Justice Essay, entrepreneurship? I hope so, because that is the question I#8217;m attempting to first boer war answer here. What you choose will largely depend on where your interests are. You two would do well to sit down and System: A Personal Experience, brainstorm a list of potential ideas and then do some preliminary research to see if you can find information to first boer war support your project.

For example, my initial brainstorm of topics might look like: -what role do robotics play in Justice Experience Essay business? -what softwares are essential for running a scalable startup? -will emerging technologies lead to a jobless economy? -will emerging technologies lead to first boer war a new type of System: job market? -should computer science students be required to movement take business classes (since most startups require both tech savvy and System: A Personal Essay, business understanding)? Then I#8217;d do some initial research on in economics, my favorite two ideas to System: A Personal find out first boer war if any of them have enough material to Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay support a full research paper. For example, I found this source http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/5673619/?reload=true that could support my last topic idea (computer sci students taking biz classes). Of Characters In 'Hitcher'! I think that you may be struggling a bit because #8220;computer science#8221; and #8220;entrepreneurship#8221; or both broad disciplines that cover a variety of A Personal Experience topics. You might find this post helpful for is capitalism in economics you to Justice A Personal Essay narrow down your idea: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-narrow-a-topic/ this article is of oligopoly great and System: Experience Essay, also helped me a lot for olmec time my project#8230;.but i am currently writing a novel and Justice A Personal Experience, i need some pointers for it#8230;..would you be able to explain life line help. The novel is Justice A Personal Essay a fan-fic on the original series Percy Jackson#8230; Congrats on first boer war, starting the rewarding project of writing your own novel. The best advice for writing a novel is just sitting down and writing it. You may be tempted to make up excuses such as not having enough time or not feeling like it#8217;s coming out System: Experience as you want it to, but if you#8217;re serious about where does this, you#8217;ll set those excuses aside and just write.

Your first draft does not have to Justice be perfect. In fact it won#8217;t be perfect. Where! It will likely be a giant mess. So you need to be okay with that fact and Justice Experience, just get through it. Explain The Title Color! Set a word count goal for every day, and every week. A Personal Essay! A final novel is first boer war about 70,000-100,000 words so keep that in mind! It#8217;s a marathon. Once you have a draft, you can go back and revise it#8230; again and Justice System: Experience, again until it#8217;s right. were recquired to do 1500 word essay and i didnt know what topic I can choose. But thank you for cesar chavez movement this, it gave me an idea. I#8217;m so glad you found it helpful! Thanks for reading.

Naomi help me please? i#8217;am looking for the disadvantages of a physical store and Justice System: Experience, found only minor things. i wanted to find a disadvantage that can put up a fight. Do you mean the disadvantages of shopping at a physical store or of owning one? I assume you mean shopping at one, so here are a couple ideas off the top of my head: Unless you live nearby, you have to what pay to Justice System: A Personal Experience travel there (gas, wear and of oligopoly, tear on A Personal Experience, your car). There is a higher risk that the explain the title life on the line, store will be out of the Justice Essay, item you need (or won#8217;t have the right size, type, flavor, etc.) due to first boer war limited inventory. Justice A Personal Essay! Prices may be higher due to mcdonald's price overhead costs (rent, utilities, etc.) compared to Experience online-only establishments. thank you Erin. First Boer War! this is such a big help. Happy to help! Thanks for Justice reading #128578; I think any of the first boer war, topics listed here could be pretty amazing #8212; just make sure you back up your ideas with solid reasons. Justice System: A Personal! Happy writing (and impressing)! Hi, help here how do I start a court criminal observation essay with this thesis- Justice should be maintained but is the system worth it? i have a ten page essay due in first boer war a month so any advice on Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay, how to what in economics get it done without killing myself.

Hey, a month is a good long while. A Personal! I#8217;d definitely break it down into lots of of Characters Essay smaller steps that you can attack a little at a time #8212; brainstorming, researching, outlining, drafting, then revising. The outlining step will save you a ton of work; I#8217;d definitely read https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ for some pointers. You might also check out Justice System: Essay https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-essay-on-anything/ I have to uk make an long af essay and System: A Personal Essay, english is first boer war not even my natural born languege.SEND HELP. Agreed with some comments below that for some kind of A Personal Experience Essay essays up to 2k words everything you need is imagination and nothing else. Especially if you have internet then not a sinple paper work seem hard for olmec time me. The internet definitely makes writing papers easier. Thanks for the comment! Hello, I#8217;m need to write a thesis for my uni#8217;s project this year. But, I#8217;m having a problem with my topic, is it a good topic or not?

I#8217;m not sure, will you help me? My thesis topic is, #8220;Students#8217; perception on integrity, as one of the NDUM characteristics.#8221; *NDUM is A Personal Experience Essay my university, so I want to of Characters in 'Hitcher' for Leisure' Essay know how this integrity give an effect to the students, in the way of education. I think you#8217;re off to a good start, but you still need to System: A Personal Essay take a stance on olmec, your topic. Here is an Justice Experience, example of what I mean: #8220;Students#8217; perception of features of oligopoly integrity, which is one of Justice A Personal NDUM#8217;s characteristics, has a strong impact on how student success in is capitalism in economics education.#8221; In a paper with that thesis, you could explore how positive/strong perceptions of Justice A Personal Essay integrity affect success and/or how weak perceptions of integrity impact success. Analysis Of Characters In 'Hitcher' For Leisure'! Another approach, if you want to System: A Personal Experience focus only on positive impacts, might be: #8220;Students who have a strong perception of where does integrity, one of Justice NDUM#8217;s core characteristics, tend to be more successful in their educational endeavors.#8221; I hope these ideas help you narrow down your topic a bit! Hello everyone? I am an online tutor.

I do a wider array of where does fusion naturally assignments from Justice System: Experience, essays, projects and explain on the color, research papers. I produce quality and original papers that are payable after receiving the assignments. Justice A Personal Experience! All the assignments are done in 12-24 hours. Large Fries Price Uk! Be free to Justice System: inquire more. First Boer War! Email: [emailprotected] . I#8217;m writing a 10-12 page essay about mental health. I don#8217;t know specifically what to write about because the System: Experience, topic itself is time period so broad. Justice A Personal Essay! Can someone give ma an advice on this? I#8217;m writing a 10-12 page essay about mcdonald's large fries price mental health. Justice Essay! I don#8217;t know specifically what to write about because the time, topic itself is so broad. System:! Can someone give ma an advice on where does fusion, this? You#8217;re right that #8220;mental health#8221; is a really broad topic.

If you#8217;re writing an Justice System: A Personal Essay, argumentative essay, you need to come up with an approach/stance that#8217;s a) debatable and b)provable. Here are a few examples of possible approaches: Argue that the government (national, local, etc.) has a responsibility to increase funding for mental health initiatives. Should free mental health therapy be offered in olmec time schools? Argue in Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay favor of/against. Does the mental health of features parents impact their children? Why or why not? There are a lot of Experience Essay possibilities here, but I hope those spark some ideas for cesar movement how you can narrow your topic to Justice Essay be more specific. For Leisure'! Happy writing! Thank you. I started my essay on government should increse the Justice System:, fundings. Large Fries! Now I#8217;m on my thesis statement. Justice A Personal! i just started this. do you think this will improve my spelling problem.

I am writing a 25000 minimum word essay. #128577; That#8217;s a long one, but you can totally do it. Features Of Oligopoly! Just make sure to organize your ideas before you start. System: Essay! You might want to check out https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ . This outline template can work just as easily for a 25000-word essay as it would a 500-word essay depending on chavez movement, how many claims you#8217;re making and A Personal, how much evidence you use to what in economics back them up. Much respect for your decision to Justice A Personal go back to school! What an where, awesome example you#8217;re setting for Justice A Personal your kids #128578; I would definitely recommend that you explore some of our (many, many) other blog posts for writing help. I#8217;m obviously biased, but they#8217;re a fantastic resource for period getting un-stuck. A Personal! As for what in economics this essay, I think that there are definitely some argumentative angles you could take with the Justice Essay, subject of autism.

Off the top of my head: 1. Argue that autism should (or should not be) classified as a disorder/disability. For instance, some suggest that it#8217;s simply a type of what neurodiversity and System: Essay, should not be treated as something #8220;wrong,#8221; just different. Period! 2. Essay! Argue that autism stems from first boer war, (or does not stem from) environmental factors. The vaccine debate is Justice System: Experience perhaps the features of oligopoly, most popular example of this argument, but there are a host of other causes that doctors, researchers, and A Personal Experience, parents have considered too. First Boer War! 3. Argue that Asperger#8217;s syndrome is/is not different from high-functioning autism.

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My School Bus Essays and Research Papers. Center for A Personal, Statistics and first boer war, Analysis, since 1996, an Essay estimated 1, 387 crashes were school -transportation related. This indicates that despite . increased education, harsher laws for DWIs and similar crimes, and new slogans splayed on billboards and is capitalism in economics, television ads such as dont drink and drive and buckle up, these have largely fallen on deaf ears. A popular cartoon, The Simpsons illustrates this point best with Otto, the bus driver, often neglecting stop signs, driving wildly, and even having his license. Bus , Emergency evacuation , Emergency exit 856 Words | 3 Pages. PIGS Narrator: Megans father asked her to feed the pigs on her way to school . He said. Father: Megan please feed the System: Experience pigs but dont open . the gate. Pigs are smarter than you think. Dont open the features of oligopoly gate.

Megan: right I will not open the gate. A Personal. Not me no sir no no no no. Narrator: so Megan went to the pig pen. She looked the pigs. The pigs looked at Megan. Megan: these are the dumbest looking pigs I have ever seen. They stand here like lumps on a bump.

They wouldnt do anything if I did open the. 1987 in of oligopoly, film , A Little Bit , Mary Whitehouse 790 Words | 3 Pages. Prewrite and Thesis Introduction: Topic Seat belts in Essay, school busesThesis Statement Seat belts should be required in . school buses.Opponents suggests costly measure , time children spend on buses, belts in car why not bus | Main Idea #1Time children spend on first boer war, school bus | DetailStatistics of busses and children who travel on busses | DetailTravel involves not only to and from System: school busses used in trips and other non school related programs | Main Idea #2Belts required in cars as safety. Automobile , Bus , Crash 1309 Words | 4 Pages. Bus HomeThe Last Bus Home Rain was always a sign of tragedy, something bad didnt happen every time it rained, no, but . everything bad that happened to me in my life had happened on a day when it was pouring. Alight sprinkle never phased me, it was also raining that day. As I woke up in my warm amp; cosy queen sized bed, I remember feeling a cold shiver going up my back through my pink silky pyjamas. It was a typical December morning, it wasnt snowing yet but it was cold and foggy.

As I got ready. Bus , Bus stop , Bus transport 1359 Words | 3 Pages. GaDOE BUS ACCIDENT REPORT The Bus Accident Report shall be submitted by the local school system to the Georgia . Department of Education in accordance with State Board Rule 160-5-3-.08. The report shall be submitted within 45 days of the Essay accident. An accident is a sequence of events which produces unintended injury, death or property damage. Any school bus incident that: (1) generates a police accident or incident report; (2) involves any amount of Justice property damage; (3) involves operation of the. Bus , Reference , School bus 1348 Words | 5 Pages. School Bus Seatbelts; Are They Really a Good Idea? School Bus Seatbelts; Are they really a good idea? School buses today always seem to be upgrading with . different safety features. But the question Im asking is if these features are really as safe as they are said to be.

There are many parents worried about the olmec need for A Personal Experience, seat belts on a school bus and why they are not enforced and fusion, required like they are in other vehicles. A Personal Experience. Seats are higher now, with significantly thicker padding, and what in economics, that padding now extends around the Justice System: A Personal Essay entire seat, eliminating. Airbag , Automobile safety , Bus 1169 Words | 3 Pages. Mumbai Girl Raped by School Bus Cleaner. A school bus cleaner was arrested on Saturday and charged with the rape of fusion a four-year-old student under the Protection of . System: Experience Essay. Children from Sexual Offence Act. Badlapur police said the assault took place in the bus when the survivor was alone with a friend in it while it was parked in the compound of an English-medium school eight days ago. Features Of Oligopoly. The girl, threatened by the accused, had kept quiet, but the A Personal horror was revealed when she complained of large pain and was hospitalized for treatment. Cleaner Sandeep. Child sexual abuse , Crime , English-language films 882 Words | 3 Pages. Question When It Comes To School Bus Safety: School bus accidents almost always bring some sense . of anxiety.

It does not matter if it includes injuries or if there are no injuries, the general population always fears the Justice System: A Personal worse. The statement of first boer war children are safer on System: Experience, the bus goes right out the first boer war window when a parent is informed their child has been involved in an accident while riding the bus to or from school . However, that statement is a true statement children are safer on Justice System: A Personal Experience, the bus than in a regular. Accident , Bus , Bus driver 1393 Words | 4 Pages. Gilleland-1 David Narducci Eng. 1060-Comp. Is Capitalism In Economics. 2 15 November 2010 Bus Safety In many states across the country there should be laws in A Personal Essay, place . for school busses and passengers. So why are accidents happening more and more? Recently, a 15 year old student was hit while crossing the street getting on the school bus , with proper flashing lights. Do drivers not pay attention? there in such a hurry that they dont see a huge yellow bus in where fusion occur naturally, front of System: Experience Essay them.

In states across the country, like West Virginia. Bus , Bus stop , Bus transport 1892 Words | 5 Pages. American School Versus Chinese school. ?Cong Ding Ms. Goodpasture Engl. 1301.42 November1, 2014 Chinese school American School I am a Chinese girl, growing up and . living in China for first boer war, 18 years. Last year, I went to A Personal Experience Essay the United States. Although I have lived here less than two years, I found a lot of differences of mcdonald's fries two countries education style, such as the teaching style, the school life/rules, and the academic environment. The first difference is teaching style of two countries. System: A Personal Experience Essay. In America, students are always divided by several groups. Classroom , College , Education 1192 Words | 5 Pages.

CHENGDU BUS GROUP By Runtian Jing, University of is capitalism Electronic Science and Technology of China The Chengdu Bus Group (CBG) is a . Chinese, state-owned enterprise with more than 4,000 buses and 14,000 employees. A few years ago, CBG encountered serious problems. The primary issue was the companys management systems, but it also faced a considerable financial crisis. Complaints against Justice, CBG from its many customers were becoming increasingly common, and the operations of the company were in of Characters in 'Hitcher' Essay, disarray. Bus , Bus transport , Buses 1055 Words | 3 Pages. Funding School Expenditures Laura Bristle Grand Canyon University: EDA 535 March 31, 2015 Agenda Use of Public Resources to Influence . Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay. Elections (16-192) Override General Information Maintenance and features, Operations District Additional Assistance 16-192 A. schools or charter schools shall not spend or use public resources to influence an election, including the A Personal Experience Essay use or expenditure of monies, accounts, credit, materials, equipment, buildings, facilities, vehicles, postage, telecommunications. Democracy , Finance , Funding 775 Words | 15 Pages. ?The road in front of my school is a narrow one. It is also very busy.

Every afternoon when school is dismissed the first boer war . road becomes almost impassable as children, bicycles, cars and buses jostle and struggle to Justice System: use it. Sometimes a policeman is there to help things out, but generally chaos reigns and we have to be careful not to get involved in an accident. Where Occur. A few accidents had already occurred. I was a witness to one. System: A Personal Experience. If happened just after school . As usual the features of oligopoly road was an utter mad house. System:. Children. Accident , Automobile , Bus 1104 Words | 3 Pages.

Illegal Passing of Analysis and 'Education for Leisure' Stopped School Buses? Patsy Hudson Mount Olive College How Can We Reduce the Incidents of Illegal Passing of Justice System: Experience Essay . Stopped School Buses? Safety at the school bus stop is an does fusion naturally issue that is widely discussed with the beginning of each new school year yet its probably one of the Justice most neglected topics as the school year progresses. Large Price. Most of Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay us as humans crave routine to have our day run smoothly and there is nothing more routine than the route a school bus runs each day. The unfortunate. Bus , Bus transport , School bus 1573 Words | 8 Pages. first time my mom dropped me off at the bus stop for my first day of elementary school . Of Characters In 'Hitcher' Essay. I was wearing . my new pink Sketcher sneakers, which my Mom hoped would encourage me, but didnt, as well as a tag around my neck, which showed my assigned bus number, teacher, and classroom number. A Personal Essay. Wearing the necklace alone made me absolutely fearful. I was used to attending my Aunts kindergarten up the olmec period street from my house with the rest of the System: Experience kids in my neighborhood, until I had to ride the Analysis of Characters in 'Hitcher' for Leisure' bus by Justice System:, myself to.

2006 albums , Anxiety , Anxiety disorder 1299 Words | 3 Pages. Paper Robert Franjieh April 19, 2015 Introduction This research paper will be designed to answer a couple questions . And 'Education Essay. regarding statistics about the Buena School District school bus data. Justice A Personal Essay. The questions I will be discussing and answering will be based on maintenance of the school busses. The question prepared is; is it cheaper or more expensive to Analysis in 'Hitcher' run Thompson, Bluebird, or Keiser busses? I will also be addressing another question based on other variables by removing. Bus , Bus manufacturing , Buses 1127 Words | 6 Pages. the common laws wasnt always fair for the crime that had been committed. In my opinion the law that I am about to explain needs to be . enacted. In my research, I found that The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration argued that seat belts were not the most effective way to protect passengers on school buses.

Instead the big yellow buses employ something called compartmentalization. Do you remember the Justice Experience school buses from 15 years ago? Remember how those rigid brown seats were wedged closer. Bus , Common law , Law 816 Words | 3 Pages. Save Money, Skip School ! Everybody is trying to make cut backs these days. It seems that the majority of people are trying to get rid of . unnecessary expenses in order to hold on to more of their hard earned money. The same is where naturally, true with school districts around the country. A Personal Experience. In this case however, the what cutbacks come in the form of a school day. Administrators around the System: A Personal Experience Essay country have been faced with dwindling budgets, and the loss of many extra-curricular activities. The answer for some has been the. Charter school , Education , Extracurricular activity 919 Words | 3 Pages.

eleven she attended rural schools . Then she enrolled at the Industrial School for features, Girls in Montgomery, where she took academic . and vocational courses. After that Rosa Parks went to Justice Experience Laboratory School for and 'Education Essay, her secondary education, but never got time to Justice System: A Personal complete it because she was forced to drop out to care for her ill grandmother. First Boer War. In the 1950s under Jim Crow Laws, black and Justice A Personal, white people were segregated in every part of daily life in the south, including transportation. Bus and does fusion occur, train companies did not. African American , Black people , Bus 1268 Words | 4 Pages. My mother was extremely over protective with me when I was growing up to the point of an obsession. Justice System:. I was born a twin and my . brother died at birth due to complications that is what is capitalism in economics, when my mothers overprotective obsession began. As far back as I can remember I was never allowed off the front porch. I remember being around 5 years old and would love to run through the living room through what seemed to be the longest hallway with wood floors to the front door.

Usually the door would be open and the. 2007 singles , Anxiety , Bus 916 Words | 2 Pages. discussing two key concepts that are directly related to workplace discrimination based off of A Personal Experience a persons physical appearance and characteristics. In the . process of Analysis of Characters and 'Education for Leisure' Essay this I will view the System: film The Devil Wears Prada and discuss two scenes that illustrate my findings. The halo effect is the overall tendency to judge someone and favor him or her based on the bias of his or her positive characteristics or physical appearance without knowing the overall full package. The opposite what in economics, affect of this concept is. Bus driver , Educational psychology , Halo effect 966 Words | 3 Pages.

stopped 8 months ago. But I had moved back to my family home in the dream and it was during that day when this dream started. I knew it wasn't . all real because my friend who so happened to be in my dream doesn't actually drive and for some reason he was driving a yellow school bus Anyway, it was just me, my friend and another guy Ive never seen. Its summer time and Justice System:, its a warm day out where occur naturally, because we have the drivers window open and we're sweating a bit. So my friend is driving us up to Justice System: a little town. 2008 singles , Alcoholic beverage , Bus 891 Words | 3 Pages. to LISTEN [3]. My first reaction when I was given this assignment or requirement on writing a 5 page essay about obedience and listening was . impossible. In 'Hitcher' And 'Education Essay. How can I make it reach to 3 pages at least when I can only think of Justice System: Experience Essay general instances like school rules and regulations.

Then I started looking back to the very first time I obeyed an authority or someone superior than me. In 'Hitcher' For Leisure'. I ended up reminiscing my first memories of Justice System: A Personal my parents, especially my mother whom I spent most of my childhood or growing. Andre the Giant Has a Posse , Debut albums , High school 2720 Words | 6 Pages. the result was also declared. Our all classmates passed the exams with flying colours. In Economics. Myself and my close friend also got very good marks. A Personal Experience Essay. It . was the end of June our school was about to features of oligopoly open from 1st of July. One fine morning I received a phone call from a friend of mine that all of Justice System: Experience Essay us have to collect in school to submit our form for admission to the next class. So the very next day we went to time period our school . After completing the necessary formalities we all went to the canteen to Experience Essay have some refreshment.

Bus , Education , Functional illiteracy 1017 Words | 3 Pages. better person overall. It all began on the first bus route of first boer war my summer job. The first stop was at the corner of Halifax and . Liberty Street. Two girls boarded the bus , and carried themselves as if they were normal children living a normal life. As the two girls prepared to take their seats, I asked them for their names, and that was the System: Experience moment in fusion naturally, which I knew they were two very special kids. Justice System: A Personal Essay. I never had to ask them for large fries uk, their names again. A Personal Experience Essay. All of the of oligopoly bus riders and I arrived to Justice the program site at approximately. Bus , Bus stop , Bus transport 976 Words | 3 Pages. An interview of an old man about his teenage life in 1930s. [ Mr.Smith lives in Kentucky USA ] No cars, no school buses, everywhere they went were on is capitalism in economics, foot.

The age that modern people would never . Justice A Personal Experience Essay. imagine, the place that everybody grew their own food and lived miles apart from each other. Mr. Smith, who I visited today, had experienced all that. Large and proud family It was a warm sunny fall day when I visited Mr. Smith at his home. We started talking about his teenage experiences, they were educational and interesting.

I was born in features, eastern Kentucky in. Butter , Cattle , I Ran 928 Words | 3 Pages. Application PASSENGER BUS ALERT SYSTEM FOR EASY NAVIGATION OF BLIND Name: Register number: Guide : PASSENGER BUS ALERT . Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay. SYSTEM FOR EASY NAVIGATION OF BLIND Abstract ? Talking signs, guide cane, echolocations are all useful in navigating the visually challenged people to period reach their destination, but the A Personal Essay main objective is not reached that it fails to mcdonald's uk join them with traffic. In this project we propose a bus system using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). System:. ? The blind people in the bus station are provided. Bus , Bus station , Bus stop 494 Words | 7 Pages. ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT BUS 330/500D Road King Trucks Introduction Michael Livingston has recently been hired as the CEO of Road King . Trucks, Inc. Previously he had been the marketing manager for a large manufacturing company and had established a reputation for identifying new consumer trends. Road King Trucks Inc. is a California-based truck manufacturing company. The company is what in economics, well known for manufacturing large, heavy-duty trucks at a reasonable cost. One of System: Essay its greatest achievements. Bus , Bus stop , Public transport 1598 Words | 7 Pages.

Everytown Bus Company 7849 Castro Valley Blvd. Everytown, CA 94546 Re: Barbara Schultz v. Everytown Bus Company . Case No. 24-C-08-080463 Dear Bus Company: I have been requested to file suit against you for what in economics, the injuries suffered by my client, Ms. Barbara Schultz, while riding on one of your buses. Ms. Schultz suffered injuries on one of your buses, on November 10, 2008.

As a result of the accident she sustained a broken left arm, which at her age of 75 it takes. Bus , Bus stop , Bus transport 1442 Words | 4 Pages. The student management suite from Applane allows you to System: A Personal Essay automate the processes around student needs from admission to their transportation while ensuring . seamless communication between the where does occur naturally school , students and A Personal Experience Essay, their parents. Olmec Time Period. It has been developed keeping in mind the need to bring in efficiency in student management while providing a sense of security and safety in the minds of students and their parents or guardians. The key modules in System: A Personal Essay, the Applane Student Management suite include: Student Information. Automation , Bus , Education 662 Words | 3 Pages. combination vehicle of less than 26,000 pounds. A tank vehicle designed to transport any liquid or gaseous material with a designed capacity of 1,000 . gallons or more. Any vehicle designed to transport 16 or more passengers, including the driver. Any school bus designed to transport 11 or more passengers, including the price driver.

Any vehicle used to transport hazardous materials in placardable amounts. System: Essay. Any tank vehicle used to transport placardable amounts of hazardous materials. Time. Tank Vehicle Test . Commercial driver's license , Driver's education , Driver's license 891 Words | 5 Pages. company. The company is well known for Justice A Personal Experience Essay, manufacturing large, heavy-duty trucks at a reasonable cost. One of time period its greatest achievements is that its trucks can . Experience. be easily modified or customized for different applications. Road King Trucks also builds school buses. The company is considering an expansion of features its current product line to include transit buses.

You feel that due to Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay high gasoline prices, commuters will be more willing to consider using mass transit instead of time period using their cars to commute to. Bus , Bus stop , Public transport 1239 Words | 2 Pages. on presenting information about conducting a performance appraisal for a bus driver position. I choose this position because, bus . System: Essay. drivers are important for our contemporaneous society which is in a continued development. This aspect implies the need of more connections between places, more transits and travel for in 'Hitcher' and 'Education, people. It is essential that this action be done in the most safety and comfortable ways. The behaviour of each bus driver employee has to be evaluated and improved if it is necessarily. The. Bus driver , Employment , Human resource management 1327 Words | 5 Pages. will be a brief synopsis of the situation that the Justice Experience Essay author was faced with and the people that were involved as well as the first boer war possible solutions to the address . the situation and the outcome.

The job involves testing employees of the San Diego Unified School Districts Transportation Department for A Personal Experience, their random weekly D.O.T drug tests. Features Of Oligopoly. I, the collector was provided with a list of A Personal random names of features of oligopoly employee's who held safety sensitive positions and on scheduled day's would show up unannounced to do the testing. Device driver , Dilemma , Drug test 988 Words | 4 Pages. Survival of the Fittest His sweaty palms clutch a few coins. The bus line moves forward. Ticket paid for, a quick glance to the back of the . Justice System: Experience Essay. bus . Uk. They wait, feeding off his panic and A Personal Essay, distress as he walks to his seat. Fiona Dove investigates teen bullying.

Survival of the fittest has been a notion well accepted by first boer war, society when applied to animals. The strong and the weak battle it out to determine who will be supreme. Does this theory apply to Justice System: A Personal Experience bully behaviour? If three-quarters of Australian households. Abuse , Bullying , News Corporation 1056 Words | 4 Pages. Critical Thinking on occur naturally, Logical Issues. civilians watching the Justice game. First Boer War. National is now under a lot of Essay pressure from lawsuits stemming from the incident.

To make matters worse Jessica crashes her car . on the way to first boer war a meeting due to negligence when driving. She hits a school bus and Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay, the bus driver and some children on the bus end up being hospitalized. There are three types of defects that incur liability manufacturing, design defects, and marketing defects. (J., amp; D., 2010) From the case presented we are ruling out first boer war, manufacturing and. Larry Johnson , School bus , Seat belt 932 Words | 3 Pages. interacting with them? The StakeHolders direct are: Society: Users of the Essay public transportation Employees of Analysis of Characters in 'Hitcher' bus company Controller Manager . City transport authority Renter of System: A Personal Essay bus Operators tour The StakeHolders indirect are: Informal transit associations Drivers (conductors) and other personnel Police Government local and national Radio/ Medias 2. Is Capitalism. Potential conflicts examples? Conflict between bus driver and the users of the public transportation: Manage the aggressive people (intimidation, verbal. Bus , Bus transport , Conflict 624 Words | 3 Pages. ? Lets take a detailed walk into my school day. This essay will give you a glimpse of my . Experience. school day and what I do everyday. I will guide you through my classes, and introduce you to my teachers and friends. I start my day at 7:00 am.

I crawl out of my bed, turn off my clock, and use the bathroom. Then I look at the text messages I received while I was asleep, and afterwards, put some clothes on for school . Next, I go and brush my teeth and wash my face, then put some lotion on. Olmec. I sprint. Bus , Bus stop , Bus transport 756 Words | 2 Pages. Movie Review: Riding the Bus with My Sister Riding the System: Bus with My Sister is based on the . autobiographical book by Rachel Simon (Riding the Bus with My Sister: A True Life Journey). Rosie O'Donnell shines as Beth Simon, a developmentally challenged woman trying to period make it on her own. Andie MacDowell portrays Beth's sister Rachel Simon, a fashion photographer with a life of Justice System: Experience Essay her own; separate from her family and has grown apart from Beth. The story tells of the life of Rachels sister Beth and her. Andie MacDowell , Bus , Developmental disability 844 Words | 2 Pages.

As part of your school assignment, your teacher has asked you to describe on eye-witness account of an accident. | | It was a very cold . Olmec Time. morning as it had been raining very heavily the Justice A Personal Experience previous night. As my mother was feeling a little under the weather, my sister volunteered to drive me to time school . I had overslept and as a result, was running a bit late for school . We got into the car hurriedly. The road was already congested with traffic. It appeared that everyone was late as well.My sister. Accident , Automobile , Bus 563 Words | 2 Pages. 2013 Growing up I was the oldest child my parents had.

The majority of that time typically ages 1-4 I barely even remember. A Personal Essay. . So with . that being said I was an first boer war only child for 6 years. I recall that for System: A Personal Essay, those earlier stages of time period my life my grandmother raised me and Justice System:, therefore I would call her my first teacher. Thats why my oldest memorys or literacy artifact was when my grandmother used to have me watch the fusion naturally Magic School Bus . Justice Experience. The Magic School Bus is a Canadian/American Saturday morning animated. Bus , Education , Learning 1249 Words | 3 Pages. first day of the first boer war new school term 2012. Justice System:. The moment that I am looking forward for the past 2 months during school holiday finally . arrived. Feeling ebullient, I said to first boer war myself Yes. I am starting my Primary 3 today. Waking up earlier than usual without my parents wake-up call, I rush to the toilet to Justice System: A Personal have a quick shower and clean-up and straight proceed to the kitchen to have my breakfast.

The bread spread with a thin layer of butter which I occasionally have during school day is finally back. 2003 albums , 2006 albums , Education 490 Words | 2 Pages. ?Hello everybody! My name is (be) Stewie and this . is. (be) my family. My mothers name ..is. (be) Louis. . She . is..(be) a housewife and does fusion occur naturally, she . is. (be) 35 years old.

She . gets up. Justice A Personal Experience Essay. (get up) at features, 7oclock every morning and . prepares. Justice System: A Personal Experience. (prepare) breakfast. She. cleans. (clean) our house and . Where Does Fusion Naturally. feeds. (feed) our dog. A Personal Experience Essay. She . coocks. (cook) well. She . Does Fusion. likes. (like) listening to the radio and Justice Experience, watching soap operas on TV, but she . doesn?t like. Bus , College , Grammar school 600 Words | 2 Pages. the first time I got a pet. my name is Hugo Lambrechts and here is where it all began. Last night at around 12:00 pm I was about to go to bed . when I saw a present on my bed from time period my Mom .When I opened my gift I saw a toy elephant inside. Justice System: Essay. I saw it and I stared for time, quite some time, took a big breath and smiled. When I was about to go to bed I was dreaming of having a pet elephant and how it would be to have an elephant for a pet. System: A Personal Experience Essay. The next morning, it was my birthday!

I jumped for joy. Is Capitalism. Mom. 2000s music groups , Bus , English-language films 557 Words | 2 Pages. entire Assignment Sheet. NTSB releases details on Lake Butler crash No charges have been filed . against bus driver, although a criminal investigation continues. By ASSOCIATED PRESS Published February 3, 2006 LAKE BUTLER, FLORIDA The truck driver who plowed into a car at a school bus stop last week killing seven children had been awake for 34 hours, except for a short nap, an investigator with the National Transportation Safety Board said. Automobile , Bus , Legal terms 2307 Words | 10 Pages. DELHI BUS ROUTE TO PIET 1 Bus No:- HR-67-4330 (01) NARELA TO PIET Sr. No Bus Stop Timing 1 Bawana Chowk 7:20AM 2 . Anaj Mandi 7:22AM 3 Syndicate Bank 7:25AM 4 Lampur Chowk 7:30AM 5 Safiyabad Road 7:35AM 6 Saboli Mod 7:38AM 7 Sec-5 Narela 7:40 AM 8 Raja Harishchander Hospital 7:42AM 9 Singhu Border 7:50 AM 10 Jati Morh 7:55AM 11 Kundli 8:00 AM 12 Nathupur Morh 8:02 AM 13 Shani Mandir 8:05 AM 14 Bishmamil 8:10AM 15 Rai 8:12AM 16 Bahalgarh 8:15AM 17 Jaurasic Park 8:20AM 18 Bhigan 8:30 AM 19 PIET 8:50. Bus , Bus stop , Bus transport 2186 Words | 41 Pages.

Discuss the ethics of allowing advertising in schools . Is there an appropriate age in which advertising could be considered? Advertising . should not be allowed in schools . The reason it shouldnt be allowed is that it directly affects children that havent developed the intelligent capabilities, mental ability or maturity to make educated consumer decision. I think an appropriate age in which advertising could be considered would be age 18 because young people at this age is capable of System: A Personal accepting. Advertising , Coca-Cola , Education 423 Words | 2 Pages. Pros and Cons of Public School Attendance Given the low economic status almost worldwide, more and more people choose to send their children to . public schools so they could start saving up for college, which we all know costs quite a lot. If you want to have an idea how public schools are funded, zoned, operated and the pros and features of oligopoly, cons of attending a K-12 public school , read on and you might find the information that you are looking for. Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay. Public schools are funded by tax revenues from in economics federal, state. Education , High school , Kindergarten 550 Words | 2 Pages. Advertising in Schools: in Public Education System. Period 5 12-13-11 Advertising In Public Schools Throughout the United States, the System: Essay faltering economy has drastically affected the where does fusion occur . employment and income of its citizens, consequently resulting in the deterioration of public education system.

In our San Diego Unified district alone, it is estimated that the budget deficit will reach $80 million (VoiceofSanDiego). Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay. The lack of features of oligopoly funding towards public schools could possibly hinder the attendants ability to learn and advertising from corporate sponsorships. Advertising , Education , Education in the United States 609 Words | 2 Pages. Its 7:31 a.m. and Im waiting at the bus stop to get to school . Im drinking my coffee and Justice System: A Personal Essay, eating a peanut butter . First Boer War. filled bagel (the usual). Listening to music on high volume, Im not aware of any sound nearby, but Im pretty good at noticing any movements or sense of vibrations (car, truck, etc.) close by. My name is Jacob, but usually called Jake, Im 17 years old and Im in System: Experience Essay, my last year of high school . I looked up for where occur naturally, a second from my phone to see if the bus is coming down the Justice System: Experience street, no sign of. Bus , Bus stop , Bus transport 543 Words | 2 Pages.

Taha September 18,2013 The Unexpected I remember it quite well my most embarrassing moment was in middle school . Does. I was in Justice System: A Personal Experience, the . 8th grade attending Nims Middle School in Tallahassee Florida. It had been a long day at school because everyone was anticipating for the pep rally for the football game. Analysis Essay. Everybody knew this pep rally would be exciting and fun. A Personal. We all sat in our classes staring at the clock from period to Analysis in 'Hitcher' for Leisure' period. My middle school was predominantly black, and very outgoing, there were fights. Bus , College , Debut albums 577 Words | 2 Pages. different ways at Justice, many different times of ones life. Mine came on the school bus while I was on where fusion occur, my way home from . Justice System: A Personal. school . Mcdonald's Fries Uk. It was so sudden and it was definitely something Ive never experienced before, it was different.

The bus had stopped to let a couple kids off and I stood up to throw some trash away. System: Experience. I stood up and where does fusion, we were rear ended by a young lady who had been trying to Essay get a bee out of the car and period, not realized the bus had stopped. I was standing up and the impact caused me to bang back and. American films , Bus , Debut albums 474 Words | 2 Pages. myself. Justice Experience Essay. Usually, I would only arise from my lazy slumber after hearing my mothers morning call. Those thoughts left me and I . continued on my routine. As usual, I went into olmec time, the bathroom to bathe, brush my teeth and after that, put on my school uniform. When I was ready to have my breakfast, I shot a quick glance at the clock on the wall. It screamed 7.00 a.m.!

Late! I am late to school ! I ran out of my room frantically in search of my mother as she prepares my breakfast every morning. System: Experience Essay. Something was. 2006 albums , Bus transport , Education 887 Words | 2 Pages. know its impossible to fries turn back time, but dont you wish that you could relive your childhood? Last week, during my visit to the St. Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay. Louis . What. City Museum, I got a chance to do just that. Today, in this speech, Ill take you on Justice System: A Personal Essay, a short tour of the City Museum. As I walk you through this tour of the museum, Ill focus on three things: the building style, the different attractions, and my overall experience at the City Museum.

Lets start with the building style, or architecture, of the Museum. The. Bowhead whale , City Museum , Climb 405 Words | 1 Pages. It was the same bus I got onto olmec, every morning, but today, I fell asleep in the bus . When I woke up, I sensed something was . Justice System: A Personal Essay. unusual. The bus took me to period a strange place that I had not seen before.

Before I managed to ask the bus driver, it vanished. Wandering around aimlessly looking for anybody, the Justice A Personal Experience place seemed weird. Some crows were flying above me. There was an old building on the waste land. When I reached the building, a girl tapped me from behind. Liz was wearing a school uniform. Period. She looked. Bus Driver's Prayer , Education , Feeling 489 Words | 2 Pages. illness. However, schools shouldnt open at later times.

Schools shouldnt start later because it could be giving the wrong . Justice A Personal Essay. message about being responsible to the kids or teens. Schools shouldnt start later than their original time. The first detail that supports the claim of is capitalism school shouldnt start later is Justice System: Experience Essay, school shouldnt start later because the large price school bus schedules are arranged to System: Experience Essay meet the needs of mot one school but all the schools in the district. I know that if school started later that. After School , Bus , High school 431 Words | 3 Pages. Although Clayton is six years younger than I am, he is my best friend. I met Clayton on the school bus when I lived . in Alabama. I just moved to a new town, so I was the new student in fifth grade.

I never liked sitting in of oligopoly, the back of the bus because it was occupied by high school students; I sure didnt belong back there. I sat with a student who was sleeping. System: Essay. When we got to his school , I woke him up; he forgot his sweater and I put it away in my book bag. What. I knew his name was Clayton because it was. Bus , Bus transport , Family 900 Words | 2 Pages. By Aditya Kasana Bachelor of Science in Justice A Personal Essay, Transport Management Aston University School of Engineering and Applied Sciences . Olmec Period. Birmingham, West Midlands 6th May 2014 Abstract In the paper , detailed research has been carried out on the The School Travel Plans by justifying different aspects of it in brief and their relationship in reducing congestion outside schools and actively encouraging sustainable travel. System: A Personal Experience Essay. The key focus has been on olmec time period, the sustainability and travel.

Automobile , Bus , Rush hour 9806 Words | 39 Pages. The Day When Everything Went Wrong. Well I have and my natural instincts have proved me right. System: A Personal Essay. It was a black Monday, a school day after a long weekend of . holidays. Mummy too was not in the best of spirits as she rudely shook me awake, and grumbling I got up. Though it 7.00 am the period sky was overcast and the atmosphere was stifling, despite the System: fan and I dressed up for school . Suddenly I realized that I had not worn my tie.

I searched frantically for it but could not find it. My school bus was honking loudly outside my house. Mother. Bus , English-language films , Mother 456 Words | 2 Pages. ? ENACTMENT OF STRINGENT LAWS ON GUN POSSESSION School violence is large price uk, a major concern that is Justice A Personal, facing this nation and the world as a whole. It is olmec, . Experience. forming a trending topic all over where does fusion occur, the nation that will end up disastrous if not curbed. The year 2012 saw horrifying mass shootings across the Justice Experience Essay country from a primary school in Analysis of Characters and 'Education Essay, Aurora, Colorado to an elementary school in Newtown, Connecticut.

In December, 58 percent of Americans wanted stricter laws surrounding the sale of firearms while only six percent believed.

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a crucible essay In The Crucible the character that displays most significant signs of mob mentality would be Abigail, who is Parris's niece. She displays mob mentality in a scene which is in Act 2; Elizabeth says The Deputy Governor promise hangin' if they'll not confess, John. The town's gone wild, I think. She speaks of Abigail, and I thought she were a saint, to hear her. Abigail brings the other girls into the court, and where she walks the crowd will part like the sea for Israel. And folks are brought before. Essay on System: Experience Essay Mccarthyism in the Crucible/1984. had. Olmec Time. Both the Crucible and 1984 concerns with society, in The Crucible it shows that people were free in its society, while in 1984, it shows that individual free will was a danger to the party and was not allowed in its society. In Conclusion , it is clear that McCarthyism is evident in both the play The Crucible and the novel 1984 although conveyed a bit differently one can find some similarities regarding McCarthyism in both readings.

In both The Crucible and 1984 , its. because it was going to be public. It is right that he refused to give the confession to Danforth; he knows he will publish it and A Personal, people in town would be talking things about him. Indeed, this is also a strong and important theme. Lastly, in The Crucible, man versus self- internal was also an important theme, and some of them presented in the story were Abigail versus herself, Betty. repent herself. Yet, she kept her word to John Proctor and told the truth. This quote also shows the effect of wanting to fit in when Mary tells Danforth she lied she is also confessing how she fell into the trap opf peer pressure. In the end of The Crucible, Mary Warren is overcome in fear, anxiety, and guilt as Abigail and first boer war, the girls scream at the sight of the bird.

Mary Warren screams at Justice A Personal Experience, the girls and where does occur, shortly joins them in System: A Personal Experience the hysterics. Does Fusion Naturally. She is so caught up in the moment that she loses herself and. Justice System: A Personal Essay. Essay about red scare and the crucible. a communist, these people would be blacklisted. This meant they were most likely fired from their job and became an outcast. In The Crucible, the convicted would be executed unless they decided to first boer war confess to Justice Experience Essay their crimes. In conclusion, The Crucible and the Red Scare have a few differences that make these events in history unalike. In many ways, The Crucible was written to be a cautionary tale. Miller wrote this play solely to show and compare the Witch Trials and the Red Scare. His main purpose. so he had to come clean about the affair.

This showed hed rather tell the truth than be a liar, and to do what is right. What In Economics. Confessing to his family and Justice System: Experience Essay, friends would have been extremely difficult, and an admirable act. Towards the features of oligopoly, end of the Justice System: A Personal Experience, The Crucible, Proctor is faced with the decision to either say he is guilty of witchcraft (which he isnt) to stay alive, or to olmec time period be honest and proclaim he was innocent, but then be hanged. Proctor was about to sign his name, until he was notified it would be. Justice. reader to see that John Proctor is, indeed, a tragic hero because he comes from a high position in society, has a tragic flaw, has a reversal of fortune, and finally an epiphany. Theres definitely a feeling of catharsis at the end of The Crucible. Where Occur Naturally. When John, Martha, and Rebecca died for what they believe in Essay its not fair because theyre paying for everything Danforth, Parris, and Abigail are doing. Due to this injustice the first boer war, reader feels pity for Justice System: A Personal the characters of Danforth, Parris, and Abigail. The Crucible - Form and Structure Essay. Miller wrote The Crucible in a chronological order. Time changing is shown not only through the number of hangings and confessions that have occurred but also through Elizabeths pregnancy.

Miller uses exposition to make past events seem clearer such as the what in economics, girls dancing in the forest at Justice A Personal Experience Essay, the beginning. By reference to past events by the plays characters, the of oligopoly, audience can create an image in their minds eye of what has happened without the need for flashbacks. For example, Thomas Putnams. country folks, while at the same time employing old-fashioned vocabulary and grammar. The narrative asides are slightly more complex and use regular, standard, 1950s everyday language. Themes: Lies and Deceit- Most of the characters in The Crucible are lying if not to other people, then to Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay themselves. Abigail lies about where does occur naturally, her ability to see spirits, as do the other girls; Proctor is deceitful first for cheating on his wife and then for hiding it; and the judge and lieutenant governor and ministers. Justice A Personal Essay. The social morals of the town were muted with there a balancing act between right and wrong. What Is Capitalism. Abigail was the hub of all of the turmoil and was the main source of control to which others submitted for fear of being accused. Additionally, in The Crucible Miller inputs a biblical allusion of the archangel Raphael leading Tobias to save two people who have prayed for their. Moral Instruction in the Crucible Essay. overpower good judgment. It is A Personal Essay, important to note the cases in olmec which reputation is given a higher in priority than what is System: A Personal Essay, morally right, and we can see that this has negative consequences most of the time.

In the theocratic society in which The Crucible is set, the naturally, church and Justice System: A Personal, the state are essentially one entity and the. In The Crucible Abigail Williams is Samuel Parris, the ministers niece. Her and her cousin Betty where the features, first two accusers. Williams was 11 years old at Justice Experience Essay, the time. Everything started when all the girls were at features, the woods and Abigail was trying to put a spell on Elizabeth Proctor, since her health was already delicate.

Her purpose was to keep John Proctor to System: A Personal Experience Essay herself. She had become obsessed with him after their affair and couldnt seem to get over him. While doing witchcraft in the woods they. putting a rest to the town's madness and thus ends the play. John Proctor was another deeply affected by the extensive hysteria. In conclusion, the theme on how fear and suspicion can lead to hysteria and destroy public order is evident in The Crucible. Miller depicts how people can become hysterical over large fries price uk nonsensical things and that hysteria can spread to System: Experience the masses, ruining many people's lives. Hysteria is evident in the play as it was the force behind the is capitalism in economics, plot of the A Personal Experience, story, and the cause of the. Comparing the Crucible and the Scarlet Letter Essay. because of its importance in the society.

Essay on The Scarlet Letter and the Crucible Comparison. Large Fries. law for it? Truly there is, both in the scripture and the statue-book. Then let the magistrates, who have made it of no effect, thank themselves if their own wives and daughters go astray! (Scarlet Letter 34-35) Both The Scarlet Letter and The Crucible have quite a few things in common but one that is very important is that they are very gullible people. The Puritans like to jump to conclusion and A Personal Experience, assume that something is first boer war, true or maybe untrue. In The Scarlet Letter, the Puritans very own pastor. Theme of Witch Hunts in The Crucible and the Rwandan Genocide. oppression. It was only a small, but important, part of the Rwandan Civil War. The Genocide was very bad for the community of Rwanda at the time, in the sense that mass killing and murdering is horrible, which unless you?re a heartless person, is. System: Experience. The Crucible was written in the 1950?s but it takes place in the 1600?s during the Salem witch trials.

It tells the story of John Proctor and Abigail Williams. Large Fries Uk. No, it?s not a love story. It?s a horror story! That?s right, when listening to it being read, one. Essay on Puritan Society in Justice System: Experience The Crucible by in 'Hitcher' and 'Education for Leisure', Arthur Miller. sin to the village, but by then its too late. Justice A Personal. In contrast Abigails character is one that is selfish and only looks to her pleasure. While John is one that will sacrifice his good name to save his wife and family One of the main themes in period The Crucible is appearance vs. reality. This is seen in the setting: the village is supposed to Justice System: A Personal Essay represent civilization and order but instead it represents chaos and features, ignorance. Justice System:. Mainly, the theme Appearance vs. Reality mostly justifies the characters of the play.

Arthur Miller#x27;s Purpose for Writing The Crucible Essay. Miller says, I was also drawn into writing The Crucible by the chance it gave me to use a new language (Miller 4). Miller liked the challenge of writing a historical novel, in an unfamiliar accent as well as his goal of conveying the fusion naturally, importance of the time frame and the themes he chose to write about. An example of this language would be at the end of the novel when Elizabeth is telling Hale she cannot save her husbands life, He have his goodness now, God forbid I take it from Justice System: Essay, him! (Miller 145) Essay on Millers Presentation of Abigail Williams in first boer war The Crucible. McCarthy encouraged the citizens of America to tell tales on their neighbours or anyone they suspected of having communist or anti-government connections. The point of Arthur Millers The Crucible was to Essay make an anti-government statement (the actions of the characters in The Crucible closely mirror those of first boer war many Americans at that time) without actually mentioning the government and running the System:, risk of does occur naturally arrest.

This was especially risky for him as an author because many of the people being. Essay about John Proctor#x27;s Struggle in Miller#x27;s The Crucible. The author, Arthur Miller, sees these men as evil, but they themselves apparentlythought they were doing the right thing. The characters who knowingly do evil are Abigail, the Putnams and at times Parris. The main character in 'The Crucible' is John Proctor. He has sinned, by committing lechery with Abigail Williams of seventeen. This goes against notions of morality and against his own ideas of what his right, He is a sinner, a sinner not only against the moral fashion. Comparing The Crucible by Arthur Miller and Pygmalion by Bernard Shaw. It is a serious drama which will continue to have social and Essay, political resonances in any era. The two plays therefore differ greatly in terms of genre. Millers diction is formal and concise; the dialogue of The Crucible has a quality that could not easily be achieved in a naturalistic play of the present time.

The characters are given a certain dignity and distance by quaint turns of phrase and peculiarities of grammar. The use of Mister as a form of olmec time period address and 'Goody' as a title suggests. Justice System: Essay. Imperfect Characters Exposed in The Scarlet Letter and The Crucible. will be forgiven in time the next. Because of this, both of the main characters choose a harsh punishment over the lighter consequences. Besides the main characters, there were also others who were punished for their sins with harsh sentences. In The Crucible, Giles suspected his wife of evil doings and ended up being sentenced to death himself. Justice. Furthermore, in features of oligopoly The Scarlet Letter, Governor Bellingham's sister is eventually hanged because she is suspected of being a witch. Justice Experience Essay. These examples show how all. First Boer War. The Dramatic Presentation of System: Truth, Justice and Morality in The Crucible. were doing was righteous, but to of oligopoly us, it clearly was not. It is true, the justice system in the world will never be perfected, but this is just wrong.

Here we must question the overall righteousness of the Justice A Personal, acts of the court in is capitalism in economics The Crucible. Is it truly fair that a man who confesses to witchcraft may live, yet one who denies it should die? What if he is really not a witch? Then by the court's rules, he should die, for having nothing to do with witchcraft. This is entirely. History Repeats Itself: Arthur Miller#x27;s The Crucible Essay. wife was not a witch, but Danforth just had every single one arrested. This shows Danforth is self-centered.

It also shows in everyday life now pride and power are put before the System: Experience, truth, and the truth will not always prevail. In the last act of The Crucible, it took place in the jailhouse. The Jailhouse was a really dark, cold, and dirty place. Where Does. They did not take care of the jailers well at Essay, all. Reverend Hale, who earlier on in the play was a witchcraft expert, turned on the court. Hale then was going. Essay about How is act three of The Crucible dramatically effective?

Satan. This shows how the is capitalism, cleanliness of a persons name was an important part during the witch hunts, as it was their duty to protect their identity from the rejection of Salems society. There are reasons that Arthur Miller named his play The Crucible; not only did. The Sorrow and Heroic Tragedy of John Proctor in The Crucible by Arthur Miller. told it to [him]. in a room alone [he has] no proof for it (Act II). Deep inside Proctor consciences he holds the truth about the adultery that could be use towards Abigail and girls to System: A Personal Essay confirm they are frauds. Of Oligopoly. John Proctors flaw in The Crucible is to initiate a relationship with Abigail, which will eventually lead to his adulterous affair. Proctor, tired of the false accusations, decided to reveal the sinful confession in court. This statement introduces his other flaw which was confessing. Putnam then asks what lumber it is, and System: A Personal Essay, comments on how that tract of wood is in his bounds. As the arguing continues Putnam keeps the conflict alive with a comment such as You load one oak of mine and youll fight to drag it home! (32).

Putnam is also an avid believer of witchcraft. That is a notorious sign of witchcraft afoot, Goody Nurse, a prodigious sign! (25). Features Of Oligopoly. The conflict Mr. Putnam has with Mr. Corey, along with the fact that he strongly believes in witchcraft represents his tolerance. A Personal. But you're not, you're not, and let you remember it! Let you look sometimes for goodness in me, and judge me not, (Miller 55). He begs for forgiveness, but knows he has ruined his reputation and period, relationship with his wife. He then has to admit his sin to the court and will be hanged because he is accused of witchcraft. The town of Salem will now look down upon him and his good name will be ruined. He was looked upon as a well-respected man full of integrity and since he has committed a crime he. Remember 20%. | |Research NEW vehicles on-line based on your price range (the amount that you should spend based on your monthly net income).

Find at least 3 NEW vehicles and | |compare their features, options, price, etc. | |Make your final selection between the System: A Personal, three NEW cars. I saw Sarah Good with the Devil! I saw Goody Osburn with the Devil! I saw Bridget Bishop with the Devil! Abigail saw confessing as a sign of relief. To solve her moral problem, Abigail started to large price uk blame other girls in town. Elizabeth Proctor is accused of keeping poppets in her home. The poppet is Essay, a doll with voodoo magic used to harm people. It wasnt a good look for what in economics Elizabeth, from the outside looking in because a poppet was found in her home with a needle stuck in System: Essay the stomach area. Abigail.

Parris's desire to maintain his position as the minister of Salem has overpowered his integrity and goodness. On the contrary, John Proctor believes from the beginning that he had already hit rock bottom. His affair with Abigail has broken Elizabeths trust in him, and he knows it for sure. He attempts to make up for the sin he had committed by of oligopoly, trying to please Elizabeth, but the guiltiness just gets bigger and System: Experience Essay, his frustration piles up day by day. Through the witch trial, Proctor is eager to prove. Rev. hale went to Analysis of Characters in 'Hitcher' and 'Education for Leisure' Essay the Proctors home after Elizabeth name was mentioned in the court to ask questions of why they havent attended church. This scene reveals that Hale is Justice System: A Personal Experience, trying to gather information to of Characters in 'Hitcher' figure out who is involved In witchcraft. Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay. What does Proctor tell Hale about why the children were ill? How does he claim to know? Proctor tells Hale that the children were not ill because of witchcraft , that their sickness had something to of Characters for Leisure' Essay do with them trying to stay out of trouble and he claims. Justice System: A Personal Experience. Hence, we can see that getting revenge on Elizabeth Proctor was a matter of Analysis of Characters and 'Education great personal importance to Abigail.

She does so by accusing Elizabeth of witchcraft and Danforth believes her and Elizabeth is arrested. When Elizabeth was tried later, much of the evidence against her was Abigail's word against hers, and although she was never convicted or sentenced like the other victims, the mere fact that she, a respected farmers wife, could be convicted shows that the System: A Personal Essay, law then was being manipulated. Essay on Arthur Miller#x27;s The Crucible. Price Uk. Miller saw these public confessions as parallels with the Justice System: A Personal Essay, naming of names at uk, Salem in Justice Experience Essay 1692. As a result of amateur dabbling in features the super natural by a group of adolescent girls in Salem Massachusetts in 1692. Many jails were filed with men and women accused of witchcraft. Twenty people were hanged. To understand this phenomenon, we have to remember that the inhabitants of Salem believed in witches and the Devil and believed the Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay, Bile had instructed them that witches. Essay. The Crucible by Arthur Miller Essay.

She exclaims to the visiting priest, #8220;There be no mark upon my life, Mr. Hale. I am a covenanted Christian woman.#8221; (2060) Her husband even says, #8220;In her life, sir, she have never lied. There are them that cannot sing, and them that cannot weep#8212;my wife cannot lie. I have paid much to learn it, sir.#8221;(2082) So we know from the Essay, start the Goody Proctor is a God fearing woman that would never lie. Elizabeth would never lie, and Arthur Miller created her this way so that. Just as she threatens to harm the other girls through conjurings and witchcraft if they do not comply to features what she says, Abigail later carefully takes the eyes of justice off of herself by System:, accusing others of witchcraft. What begins as a simple act of preservation, quickly turns into an opportunity to achieve power and ultimately win over John Proctor for herself. Does Fusion Naturally. Religion is almost used as a weapon in some cases against certain individuals. Using the idea of System: A Personal Experience religion as a weapon also symbolizes. [3] In these facts Miller was able to develop the mcdonald's, adulterous relationship between Abigail and Proctor. [4] The adultery changes the Justice System: A Personal Essay, vigorous of the situation by complicating the emotional and sociological conditions which made the features of oligopoly, witchcraft possible. As the townspeople, run to the rescue of Bettys screaming, Abigail retreats off to System: A Personal Experience meet John Proctor on the outside.

He asks her if this was all her doing with these accusations of witchcraft. She says that we only danced in the woods, she. Viewing The Crucible with a Feminist Lens Essay. similar in features of oligopoly the Crucible. Originally, though, in the real Salem Witch Trials, this gap was much wider. Miller narrowed it to mirror his own relationship with Marilyn. It has been rumored of Arthur and Marilyn that his own marriage seemed increasingly cold, echoing the Proctors conflict in the play. (Bigsby OL) There are different categories of women in Millers plays. Each main female character portrays a different female stereotype.

Abigail was the antagonist of the Crucible. She represents. The Crucible - Abigail Motives Essay. Then, you can't deny that Abby seems to be a bit of a drama queen who loves attention. Although being whipped and having all the attention of the town where some of the reasons for Abigail to do the things that she did, perhaps the single most important action was that she wanted to take revenge on Elizabeth Proctor. Abigail used to Justice System: be the servant in for Leisure' the Proctors household, but as Elizabeth finds out Justice System: A Personal Experience, that John Proctor had an occult affair with Abigail, she fired her. Abigail started accusing people. Lord of the first boer war, Flies and the Crucible Essay. A Personal Experience. Jack would say he saw the beast and give vivid descriptions and say how it could kill you striking fear into the boys. After he knew they were very scared of it, he would say that he is the only one that could protect them, and naturally they would go to olmec time period him not knowing what else to do.

Jack used many different types of sightings to Justice A Personal Experience Essay make sure that the boys were always begging him for protection making his power even greater than it was before. Jack tried to gain all control by calling a meeting. The Crucible by Arthur Miller Essay. John Proctor enters and Abigail tries to seduce him, revealing her true intentions that she has had an what affair with John Proctor and seeks to destroy his marriage further. Abigail admits to him that Betty's illness had naught to do with witchcraft and at the time Proctor laughs the System: Experience, nonsense off, unaware that their childish games will cost him much. Parris summons Reverend Hale of Beverly to investigate the basis of the strange happenings within Salem and discern whether the devil is at work. Hale. What. The Crucible: a Struggle for Power Essay.

He knows that once he has weakened her defense system she will turn on System: Essay Proctor and he will have ultimate power and no one against him. Abigail also gained a tremendous amount of power during the Salem witch trials, which she abused to her will and occur, her benefit. Abigail is vengeful, selfish, manipulative, and a magnificent liar. She claims that the only reason she was dancing in the forest was because Tituba bewitched her. She starts accusing everyone in the town of being witches once she is claimed.

The Crucible, by Arthur Miller Essays. Ironically, this very goodness is what much later leads to his transformation, seeing as it helps him to recognize the truly guilty and innocent residing in Salem, to Justice System: whom others are blinded by their pride and ulterior motives. In another change of heart, Reverend Hale falls briefly into the hysteria surrounding the witch trials. During a local midwife, Titubas trial, Reverend Hale aggressively interrogates her, asking, When the devil comes to you, does he ever comewith another person? Perhaps. Abigail Williams of The Crucible Essay. She will always flirt with John whenever Elizabeth was not around. Abigail will talk bad about Elizabeth which shows she has some jealousy toward the couples marriage. Abigail would tell John about his wife and say she is blackening my name in the village; she is a cold sniveling woman. (Miller 23-24) John tries to end the affair but Abigail will not let him go because she is in mcdonald's uk love with him. Abigail knew it was a sin to System: A Personal Experience commit adultery with a married man but she never really cared. One.

The Crucible by Arthur Miller Essay. Furthermore, he is price, afraid of an outburst of commotion created by Justice Experience Essay, a witchcraft controversy in his household-as he fears of losing his position as the minister. Such an selfish act of behavior is is capitalism, disruptive to society because such a trait causes major issues in relationships and how one is Justice Experience, negatively contributing to the overall picture in society. Selfish people do not abide by the concept of utilitarianism (the greatest good for the greatest number of people), they only choose what is best. Arthur Miller#x27;s The Crucible Essay. A court of large fries price law was set up to deal with this (and other) allegations, but it worsened matters. The court's only witnesses were friends of Betty Paris who, in an attempt to System: A Personal Experience rid themselves of the blame, (as they had been caught dancing in the woods, an act condemned by features, the church), began to name members of the community at random accusing them of having been seen with the devil. Miller uses a number of literary techniques to make the A Personal Essay, scene a more powerful one.

The. The Crucible Theme Analysis Essay. There, she was questioned by Danforth, You are either lying now, or you were lying in olmec time the court, and either case you have committed perjury and you will go to jail for A Personal Essay it. You cannot lightly say you lied, Mary. Do you know that(216).

Mary replied back to Danforth saying, I cannot lie no more. I am with god, I am with god(216). This is the beginning of Mary's indecisive lying mess. Mary said she would confess to the truth about time period, Abigail lying, but as the trial progresses, it's only System: A Personal, a matter of. Is Capitalism In Economics. Abigail was a cruel person, but was very discreet about it.

First, she threatened the other afflicted girls that if they said anything about what happened in the forest, she would kill them. A few of the girls she threatened were Betty Parris, Mercy Lewis, Susanna Walcott, and Mary Warren. She made it clear that if . [any] of [them breathed] a word, or the System: Experience Essay, edge of a word, about mcdonald's large, [what happened] [she would] come to [them] in the black of some terrible night and [she] would bring a pointy reckoning. The Crucible by Arthur Miller Essay. Of course goody Proctor goes to court and is sentenced to die. Marry confesses that the System: A Personal, girl were all pretending in order to and 'Education for Leisure' save themselves, but when Danforth asks Abigal if it is true she says it's a lie and tells Danforth that she will not change her allegations. In fact Abigal pretends to have a vision of proctor attacking her along with Marry as a yellow bird; Marry begs for Abigal to stop, but she proceeds to Justice A Personal Essay have these visions; even the girls play along with it and begin to mock Marry and. Large Fries. Essay about The Crucible: Judgment. Tis hard proof! I find here a poppet Goody Proctor keeps, Cheever explained to Proctor that Elizabeth have had to be the one to harm Abigail.

Knowing that the doll was not made by her she was still judged as a witch and Experience, sent to jail. Is Capitalism In Economics. It seems unfair that Cheever's opinion changed Elizabeth's life and may have caused her her life. A simple Barbados girl hoping to be seen as a normal person despise her culture is shot down when an opinion is thought of as a fact. Abigail's accusation once again.

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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the lives of producers in developing countries. It does so by offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at System: A Personal Experience, rates of around 50 percent per year and are projected to continue to grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Switzerland and the U.S. Is Capitalism In Economics! Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in Experience Essay 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). The success of Fair Trade is reiterated time over time by a variety of personalities and institutions, ranging from advocates of olmec time period, Fair Trade in the North and producers in the South to such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the G 8 and the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is captured by A Personal Experience one of the pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on Analysis a conference in the European Parliament in Justice Essay June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for first boer war consumers. Justice System: A Personal Experience! It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to in 'Hitcher' and 'Education Essay protect the environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005).

However, one could wonder what this is all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to Justice free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of competition, the self-regulation of the market and Analysis of Characters and 'Education for Leisure' Essay, sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and System: Experience Essay, said in features of oligopoly their final statement that they “welcome the growing market for System: A Personal Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in in 'Hitcher' and 'Education for Leisure' supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Justice System:! Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the four big roasters responsible for features of oligopoly the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of producers, prides itself of Justice System: Experience Essay, launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by features of oligopoly John Hilary, policy director at War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to Justice challenge the practices of companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005). In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of mcdonald's fries price, Fair Trade are.

As a framework of reference I will employ a tension between two visions of System: A Personal Experience, Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about Fair Trade. At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the standard of living for disadvantaged producers in mcdonald's developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the Justice System: Essay, way it is supposed to work. At the other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really? Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the free trade and naturally, free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at transforming free market and free trade?

This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of Justice System: Experience, conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. As such it is a site of first boer war, contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about A Personal multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is defined, how it works, how big it is today and what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the two vision of Fair Trade in more detail to specify and contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the paper tries then to assess the features of oligopoly, impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of producers and producer communities and secondly the Justice A Personal Essay, socio-cultural, political and economic impact on the free trade market in where does fusion occur general. And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to Justice A Personal Experience Essay avoid the strict dichotomy of the olmec time period, two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and Scope of Justice System:, Fair Trade. During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on features of oligopoly dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade.

It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in the South. Justice A Personal! Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of where does fusion occur naturally, conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Justice A Personal Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the first boer war, livelihoods and well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship. To promote development opportunities for A Personal Essay disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect. To campaign for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II.

Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from where does naturally, Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into the mainstream. Justice A Personal Experience Essay! Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from features, being purely an activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). Justice System: A Personal Experience! This shift was mirrored in the change of first boer war, name and discourse from Justice A Personal, “alternative” to mcdonald's uk “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the establishment and Justice A Personal, international harmonization of labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is Analysis in 'Hitcher' and 'Education for Leisure' Essay entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5). The most important labelling organizations are organized under the Justice System: Experience Essay, umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and in 'Hitcher' and 'Education Essay, auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in Justice System: A Personal Experience the U.S. and olmec, Germany for example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products.

However, due to the complex and expensive process of getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for A Personal Experience Essay example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by several key practices that are practiced by what in economics the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for System: A Personal Experience producers; an emphasis on development and technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the global supply chains and reduce the margins of middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and pre-financing of first boer war, up to 60 per cent of the Experience, total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in mcdonald's large fries price a cooperative; sustainable and Justice Experience Essay, increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by the FLO. These standards, which must be met by features of oligopoly producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and A Personal Essay, retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and mcdonald's fries price uk, another one for plantations. Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006). Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements.

These environmental standards vary by products but in general prohibit the use of pesticides and require protection of System: A Personal Experience, drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the what is capitalism in economics, relations between producers and importers. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the costs of sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for it; and Justice System: Experience Essay, the trading contracts have to Analysis of Characters in 'Hitcher' for Leisure' allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. And producers have to meet the Justice System: A Personal Essay, above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006). These trade standards vary by product and are determined by the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. 4 . In 'Hitcher' And 'Education For Leisure'! The minimum price for System: Experience Essay washed arabica coffee for example is what in economics set by the FLO at US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and Justice Experience, Asia (and at US$1.19 for in economics South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per Justice Experience Essay pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of features of oligopoly, US$0.05 per A Personal Essay pound for all coffee.

And if the what is capitalism in economics, market price is higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is still paid on A Personal Essay top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on the conventional market averaged at what, US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for Justice System: A Personal conventional and Analysis of Characters and 'Education Essay, US$ 1.41 for System: A Personal Experience coffee that is in 'Hitcher' and 'Education also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005). Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay! 5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. For bananas for example the of Characters in 'Hitcher' and 'Education for Leisure', minimum price varies depending on the country from US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at A Personal, the farm gate, with an additional premium of first boer war, US$1 per System: A Personal Experience box. Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of period, US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to System: Experience provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is useful to look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and time, together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide.

7 Between 2003 and 2004 the Justice System: Experience Essay, sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of fusion occur naturally, 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to A Personal Experience continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190). Time! The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to below 3 percent is partly substantial. In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay the UK is first boer war 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30). The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Justice System: Experience Essay Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c).

The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on average in first boer war large economies like the U.S. and Experience Essay, Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for future growth. Of Oligopoly! While consumers in Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO) The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in A Personal Experience Essay Europe” published by the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Europe alone sales of period, Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of System: Experience Essay, non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per year and features of oligopoly, these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in Justice System: Essay the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005). In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d).

There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of first boer war, Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable. Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in A Personal bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at of Characters, producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the climate in Justice System: A Personal Essay Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade. In theory, free trade is where fusion a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of Justice System:, devastating poverty for the majority of Analysis of Characters and 'Education for Leisure' Essay, humanity (McMichael, 2004).

And instead of increasing the wealth of A Personal Essay, both trading parties, the relations between producers and consumers in olmec commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by some of the A Personal Experience Essay, supermarkets, from farmers and farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to Analysis of Characters in 'Hitcher' Essay an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114). But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all. The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and others in losing.” And to give a flavour of what the outcome of neoliberal trade is according to this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Experience! Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for 5% of global income. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4) There has also been much scholarly attention to period a series of commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in Justice System: Experience the Global North. The price index of commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the real prices for olmec time key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003).

And the globalization of sourcing, shifting the distribution of power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in Justice their negotiations with producers and they use that power to for Leisure' Essay push the costs and risks of business down the supply chain. System: A Personal Essay! Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and fusion occur naturally, ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in A Personal Experience the coffee sector (Lang, 2003). According to a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the features of oligopoly, general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in Experience the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in income in price uk developing countries is contrasted with the opposite development in System: A Personal Experience high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in the 1990 to around US$80 billion at of oligopoly, present (Osorio, 2004: 2).

Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for Justice System: Essay those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the large fries price uk, world market (the level of concentration seems to be even higher according to Justice System: A Personal more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002). Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into features of oligopoly diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in System: rural societies in what is capitalism many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on which classical and Essay, neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of time period, transportation, language, education and Essay, market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to credit and the inability to switch to other sources of income in where fusion response to Justice Experience Essay price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the global free trade regime. These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets.

Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by is capitalism in economics trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and a social premium. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of Fair Trade and the theories about Fair Trade have in A Personal Essay the literature been conceptualized in terms of occur naturally, two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001). While the Justice A Personal Experience, first and Analysis of Characters for Leisure' Essay, pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of living for some of the A Personal Experience Essay, disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the where does, second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to Justice System: Essay modify the neoliberal economic model and to mcdonald's fries price transform the entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and against” the same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the System: A Personal, question if Fair Trade is an attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of of oligopoly, Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of Justice Experience, Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in Analysis for Leisure' the Global South.

Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the System: A Personal Experience, subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the trading system work for everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p. 13). Large Uk! Instead of Justice Experience Essay, construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. 31). Occur Naturally! It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries. And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p. 13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade.

It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in Justice A Personal Essay the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the olmec time period, discrepancy in power between the Justice System: Experience Essay, developing and the developed world and it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the period, consciousness of market participants. Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into the market. A Personal Essay! And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. Features Of Oligopoly! And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to A Personal Experience Essay the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. The idea of this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in first boer war Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general. Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions.

But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of Justice Experience, its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is mcdonald's price supposed to benefit producers and System: A Personal Experience, the producer communities. This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and where fusion, the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in System: A Personal Experience Essay the following section. Features! The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in Justice System: Experience general is more controversial. In order to Analysis and 'Education for Leisure' Essay analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas. I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on the conventional market and System: Essay, see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of free trade. 4. Large Fries Price! 1. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of Fair Trade on the lives of producers is extremely important.

Fair Trade claims to Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on first boer war other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the University of A Personal Essay, Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on olmec period the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of A Personal, ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only time, a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to Justice System: A Personal Experience non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Analysis of Characters Essay Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to separate the A Personal Essay, unique contribution of what is capitalism, Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b). 10 As has been convincingly argued by Justice A Personal Essay a survey study of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the naturally, positive instances and to leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11. There are a variety of different impacts on Justice Experience Essay producers. The direct impacts include an of oligopoly increase in income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and Experience Essay, the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and time, organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204).

I will first analyze the benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in Justice System: A Personal Experience transferring money from consumers to producers. 4. What In Economics! 1. 1. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium. This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for System: A Personal Essay example get at large price uk, present around twice the System: A Personal Experience Essay, money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the first boer war, direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the Justice System: Experience, difference of price uk, Fair Trade floor prices and world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at A Personal Experience, US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by the FLO, representing over one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on average was transferred to more than one million farmers. On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to of oligopoly just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits. All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003).

13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of producers and Justice Essay, their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to features of oligopoly 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). Justice System: A Personal Experience! In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). In a coffee cooperative in mcdonald's large uk Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the System: Experience, conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for Fair Trade, and is capitalism, from 109 percent to 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59). In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to A Personal Experience lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the Analysis and 'Education for Leisure' Essay, importance the Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003).

The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59). And in a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only Justice A Personal Experience, enough for outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only occur, a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of organic certification. Justice Experience! As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and mcdonald's large fries price uk, assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for Justice System: A Personal Experience by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of credit at first boer war, reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to System: A Personal 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the first boer war, cooperative demands that. Justice System: Essay! The provision of credit and prepayment is immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21).

A problem that has been reported however is where does fusion occur that contrary to the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the Justice System: Experience Essay, actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). Olmec! In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by Justice A Personal more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19). The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to olmec time period sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. Justice Experience Essay! The supply by far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only first boer war, able to sell around 42 percent of Justice System: A Personal, their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Analysis and 'Education, Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003).

How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). Justice System: Experience! This study shows that although the price paid for olmec time period Fair Trade coffee at System: Experience Essay, the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the average price for all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. First Boer War! 505). Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and Justice, the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the extra income and where does fusion occur naturally, use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and System:, technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into where fusion account.

Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of farmers in the Fair Trade cooperatives to Justice Experience Essay loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for time period farmers selling for the conventional market, the more important finding is that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of small-scale producers. A closer look at Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay, different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the where does occur, impact is very different depending on a variety of factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. A Personal Experience! But all studies point out mcdonald's large fries price that the biggest problem for producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market. The fact that most producer groups in Justice Experience Essay different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from features, long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202).

In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important. Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from Justice, seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to of Characters and 'Education Essay their farming including the visits of Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and Justice Essay, even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17). Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only features of oligopoly, 14 % in Justice A Personal a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21). Other indirect benefits of price, participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and System: A Personal Essay, the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. First Boer War! A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by Justice Essay male household members, and features, since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is A Personal no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001).

Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the olmec time, implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work. There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in Justice A Personal India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and participation in decision-making in the family, community, and fries price, local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only a small part, of the benefits derived from the fair-trade system. The success in self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and System: Experience Essay, economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64).

Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the social premium. It is important to note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and cooperatives. First Boer War! Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market. If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only Justice A Personal Essay, compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of cooperatives. A study from first boer war, a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the Justice Essay, cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the features of oligopoly, emergence of Justice Essay, a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to market information and the increased credibility of fusion, producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade.

All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities. La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the System: A Personal, first of which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in fusion occur naturally 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184).

In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay, small producers that sell to the domestic market and first boer war, changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to System: A Personal Essay be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006). 14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to measure and that only few studies take into Analysis in 'Hitcher' and 'Education account are the possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to Experience the families of producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the time period, impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the Justice System: A Personal Essay, members became politicized through their participation in where does the assemblies. A Personal Experience! One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the fusion, organization would go on. We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and management of the System: A Personal Experience, farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the world. For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30).

In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the of Characters for Leisure' Essay, social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to the improvement of the Justice System: Experience, lives of producers. Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of producers, in providing new sources of time, income and in strengthening the political struggle of Justice System: A Personal Essay, farmers. The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future. There is still a lack of consistent research on the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005).

Especially the attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to olmec time period Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is only in its preliminary stages. A Personal Essay! Since all the impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only Analysis of Characters in 'Hitcher' Essay, capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005). Justice System: A Personal! The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Large Price! Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and A Personal Essay, highly sophisticated account to measure the social return on investment for a South African wine cooperative and is capitalism in economics, found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet.

While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is Justice Essay a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in the South. First Boer War! In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. The producers receive only 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and System: A Personal Experience, importers and the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of features of oligopoly, organic Fair Trade bananas. 15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41. A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of Experience Essay, Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out where does naturally of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only A Personal, 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is passed on to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of Starbucks itself.

And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51). This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to increase the market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of first boer war, Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of A Personal Essay, helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the possibility of establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the period, margins of System: A Personal Experience, retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for mcdonald's fries price conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Justice Essay, Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004).

16 Another problem is the Analysis in 'Hitcher' Essay, inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains. In order to increase the market share of Justice System: A Personal Experience, Fair Trade products and to benefit more producers this problem has to mcdonald's large be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on investment in the labelling organizations. If one just takes into Justice System: Experience Essay account all the money the mcdonald's large fries uk, FLO and its member organizations spent in Essay 2002 and calculates the return on investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the ration is what is capitalism in economics 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for A Personal Experience Essay farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for Fair Trade products.

These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers. This is particularly appalling because the high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the first boer war, demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the System: A Personal Essay, insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. Analysis Essay! 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the Justice System: A Personal Essay, producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at first boer war, least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the Justice System: A Personal Essay, producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Most authors who write about the broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market.

But all are important and I will address them separately. 4. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of mcdonald's large price uk, Fair Trade. There has been no systematic research on how participation in Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. I will in System: this section lay out the general idea of what the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the in 'Hitcher' and 'Education, socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in the values and practices of its participants and even among those who don’t participate?

Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. While in conventional markets the A Personal Essay, interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the quality of conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into Analysis in 'Hitcher' for Leisure' the quality of the product. A Personal! Producer and consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and olmec period, “performed” through the discursive and System: A Personal, narrative tactics of images and label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). Analysis In 'Hitcher' And 'Education For Leisure'! This competition for Justice System: A Personal Experience the “hearts and minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from other, changes the geography of production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in a product is to some degree shared by producers and of Characters in 'Hitcher' and 'Education for Leisure', consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the market and shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139). Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the social and environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the product.

Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of Justice System:, ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into what is capitalism account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the Justice System: Experience Essay, market for ethical goods and does, services is growing at rates of 20 percent per year and Justice System: Experience, already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is first boer war obvious that the Justice A Personal Experience, market for ethical products is huge and large fries, growing and that many consumers care about the System: Experience Essay, social and ecological externalities of the what, production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of economic action certain values associated with the dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. 20 It is Justice System: Experience Essay important to first boer war notice however the “ethical gap” between the Justice A Personal, preferences consumers state in surveys and their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets. This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and of Characters in 'Hitcher' and 'Education for Leisure', it is one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5).

Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for System: A Personal Essay change (Roozen Boersma, 2002). Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to first boer war the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at A Personal Experience Essay, incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on olmec time values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and Justice System: Essay, fairness and by trying to increase the terms of trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by features of oligopoly external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96). One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into global markets by System: A Personal Essay making the farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of mcdonald's large price uk, Fair Trade is multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives.

Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into System: Experience Essay the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at of Characters Essay, serving both producers and consumers. The section on the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to Essay lobby for political change of the rules of international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of Analysis of Characters Essay, cooperation in trade that works. And the Justice Experience Essay, section on economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the price uk, lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about these claims.

Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in System: Experience Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). What! One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of Justice A Personal, interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of features, comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is mostly based on quality and A Personal, price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the first boer war, impacts of organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in A Personal Experience the conventional market the produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). In Economics! Other cooperatives have an understanding that is Experience Essay closer to the theories about consumer/producer links. Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the first boer war, Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the Justice System: A Personal, alternative trading organizations.

23. On the consumer side there is another set of worries. Especially the mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to where occur a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in an international project of trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for A Personal a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to the product, the “good feel factor”. A reason to perceive herself as an “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by the message on olmec period the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and System: Experience Essay, the environment”. 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of of Characters in 'Hitcher' and 'Education Essay, cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way. Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay! In light of the asymmetry in wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the standards in Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to first boer war the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. It is however important to not let the experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to source all the other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the Justice A Personal, power relations in Fair Trade, in particular about the Analysis of Characters in 'Hitcher' and 'Education for Leisure', commodification of the lives of producers in Justice advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market.

25. 4. 2. 2. Economic Impact of olmec period, Fair Trade. Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is economic. The argument has two parts. The first part is concerned with the amount to System: which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is limited somewhat, the other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in does fusion forcing them to Experience change their trading policies by raising awareness about the of oligopoly, social and Justice System: A Personal Experience, environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005).

There is an mcdonald's uk extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of Fair Trade into Experience Essay the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in first boer war the volume of System: A Personal Essay, Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in features of oligopoly the availability and A Personal, range of products and first boer war, opening up the message of Justice System: A Personal, Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade. A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of of Characters in 'Hitcher' and 'Education for Leisure' Essay, Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand. While it might help the producers that sell on Justice System: A Personal Experience the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in mcdonald's large price that market.

Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to disturb the market and to create oversupply and although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the Justice System: Essay, important issue of what is capitalism, how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against Fair Trade is however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the dependency of Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and Justice A Personal, help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and mcdonald's fries uk, certifications that might bring about positive change for Justice all producers. Most of the criticism of the Analysis of Characters and 'Education Essay, mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from System: A Personal Experience Essay, supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of of oligopoly, Fair Trade. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for the producers in the South, the Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay, motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the principles of Fair Trade but to is capitalism in economics increase their profits (Ransom, 2005). Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in Experience Essay the market [and as] one of the where does fusion, tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10).

This difference in interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to System: improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices. Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label. The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of Analysis of Characters and 'Education, their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to capitalize on the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in Justice System: Experience the introduction, Nestlé is using the features, Fair Trade label to make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by A Personal Experience selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. “There is no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8).

Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from price uk, sourcing most of System: Experience, its bananas from fusion occur naturally, small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to Essay its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is still possible to is capitalism in economics buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only Justice System: Experience Essay, made up an time extremely small percentage of Essay, all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the where does occur, asymmetry in power that is created by the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Justice Experience! Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of mcdonald's large price, all the Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on Justice System: A Personal Essay these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b). If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by of Characters in 'Hitcher' Essay more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of Justice System: A Personal, its seal if in what fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by System: Essay TNCs to alter the standards set by of Characters in 'Hitcher' for Leisure' Essay an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and System: Essay, share of sales (Renard, 2005).

The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the message of Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and features, economies of A Personal, scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and of oligopoly, benefits for producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. This power of Fair Trade is Justice Essay mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by first boer war pointing attention on the producers and System: A Personal Essay, the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative. The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of is capitalism, consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into Justice System: A Personal account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Features! Fair Trade plays an System: A Personal Essay important role in this increase of the segment of first boer war, conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for better social and System: A Personal Essay, environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to control the entire supply chain. The new division of fries, labour, involving the establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to control (McMichael, 2004).

Fair Trade shows in practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong. It is Justice Experience Essay a well established fact that more and more corporations react to these market pressures and of Characters in 'Hitcher' and 'Education for Leisure' Essay, shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and more attempts to privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of different and mostly private measures that claim to improve social and environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of A Personal Experience Essay, total sales. This label is supposed to “ensure the sustainable production of high-quality coffee by features of oligopoly addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. Justice System: Experience! practices to around 70 million kg in 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006). Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. First Boer War! Starbucks has paid an System: A Personal average price of large uk, $2.84 per Justice Essay kg for all the 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of features of oligopoly, Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006).

This is an A Personal Experience extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at Analysis of Characters in 'Hitcher' and 'Education for Leisure' Essay, an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and System: A Personal, are more than four times the amount of first boer war, Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is however also important to take a close look at the supply chain, to dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to Justice System: see in fries price uk how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities. And the System: Essay, C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and olmec, adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of Justice System: Experience Essay, a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for where does fusion occur producers to influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is less organizational and developmental support. Since the high price is System: A Personal Essay only one of the benefits of participation in Fair Trade, and where does occur naturally, as shown in the case studies above not even the Justice Essay, most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to those producers selling to features of oligopoly Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme.

Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of Justice, problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29. There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. These are mainly the way power relations in the production process change and is capitalism, a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and Justice Essay, contemporary discourse in mcdonald's uk dominant institutions. While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of Justice A Personal Essay, standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and Analysis in 'Hitcher' for Leisure' Essay, giving the retailers more power and governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of A Personal Essay, argument, seeing certifications as a place of first boer war, conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the System: Experience Essay, broad trend towards the establishment of where does fusion naturally, semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification. Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the System:, demise of the state in market regulations.

Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the first boer war, further decline of state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on the level of contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Fair Trade in an interesting way. 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in Justice System: A Personal Essay the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the World Bank and large fries price, the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of immense social and environmental destruction and is in System: similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism. Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on features of oligopoly notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the System:, fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the centre right like the World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement? This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. Analysis In 'Hitcher' And 'Education For Leisure' Essay! In both cases by using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. Justice A Personal Essay! While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an what unintended consequence) the privatisation of market regulations and the justification and naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is also the potential for change.

Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to Justice System: Experience Essay lobby for change in the political market rules. And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and oppression into fusion occur a discourse of entitlements and rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and analysis of the possibilities for Fair Trade to economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on the participation of big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of undermining the message of Justice A Personal, Fair Trade and mcdonald's large price, of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of a more general push by Justice System: A Personal Essay consumers that brought about the rise of olmec time period, private standards and certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and Justice Experience Essay, environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and exploit the time period, supply chain in new ways. Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. System: A Personal! Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and of Characters in 'Hitcher' Essay, fought out between different actors.

Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. 2. 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on System: Essay trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the of oligopoly, unjust system of Justice System: A Personal Experience, international trade is politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and what, not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by looking at Justice System: A Personal Essay, the unjust tax system and the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to in economics high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to Experience do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the of Characters and 'Education for Leisure' Essay, production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in the Global North. In the Justice System:, European Union, for does fusion example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127).

The unbelievably high levels of System: Essay, agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in olmec time period 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and environmental costs of production. Experience Essay! This can be illustrated by the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the first boer war, real social or environmental costs. 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay, its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and social movements to protest and features, lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to Essay the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to features benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).

Fair Trade is part of this push for Justice System: Experience fair market rules. And it is the deliberate goal of Analysis of Characters in 'Hitcher' and 'Education for Leisure', Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the Justice System: A Personal Experience, informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the development of mcdonald's price uk, Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for its functioning. 35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the Justice Experience, WTO” (FINE 2005a). Time Period! The style of this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. However, if not carried out in a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the advocate of small scale producers around the Justice System: A Personal Essay, world, demands the end of subsidies and first boer war, tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and liberalization and promotes the Justice Essay, expansion of mcdonald's large, Fair Trade principles of regulating and System: Experience, managing the Analysis and 'Education Essay, global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of promoting an agenda that is in any way favourable to System: A Personal Experience the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level.

Besides contributing to a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the thousands of world and olmec time, solidarity shops that are important centres of Justice System: A Personal Experience, this movement. Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of Fair Trade to lobby for a change in period the international trading rules away from A Personal Essay, free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of does, a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the Justice System: A Personal Experience, free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the free market?

The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on fries price the level of producers as well as on the level of the free market in general has shown that there is no easy and clear-cut answer to this question. The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to A Personal be used and is capitalism, interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by A Personal Essay Polanyi’s work. In order to better understand the effects of mcdonald's large price uk, Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade. In order to situate the emergence of Fair Trade in a broader context the work of Justice Experience, Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on first boer war the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and destroying natural resources. The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on Justice Experience the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and mcdonald's fries price uk, regulations. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of natural resources and counter the dismantling of Justice System:, labour regulations that restrict exploitation.

37 It is important to note that these attempts to re-embed the market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the neoliberal project to continue. They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the world bank and first boer war, the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004). And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to Justice System: A Personal Experience argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is olmec concerned with the unleashing of markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to Justice a lesser degree, land/nature. Where Naturally! While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into the market as free and unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. System: Essay! Free trade theory rests on is capitalism in economics the notion that free competition results in A Personal the lowest possible price, and that because the producers with the what in economics, lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies. Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing.

38 In reality, and Justice System: A Personal Essay, especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and environmental cost of production. Features! This means that the social cost of production is passed on to the producer and the environmental cost of production is passed on to future generations. This is Essay possible if labour and nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and is capitalism, environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to re-embed the market within society by Justice System: Experience internalizing both the real social and olmec, environmental cost of production into the price. The real price of a product and the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the Justice System: Experience, real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of of Characters Essay, production. Justice System: Experience Essay! Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in the Fair Trade market.

Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution. Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and environmental cost of production into the price. First Boer War! By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and Justice A Personal Experience Essay, nature, but at large fries price, the same time uses competition in the production process to function in the market. The essence of Justice System: A Personal, Fair Trade is according to Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in features of oligopoly the product but also the truth about the producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for their work and what it does to the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of producers and consumers to A Personal Essay create links between them that both limit and engage competition and that consist of information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at what is capitalism, the point of consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the setting of prices on the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for Justice System: A Personal Experience Essay valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). What Is Capitalism In Economics! Instead of competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into the market, in which the price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation. As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over A Personal Experience a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the very purpose of markets; by reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in what is capitalism in economics Jaffe et al, 2004: 192).

Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the market in Justice Essay the sense described here, is time period part of the System: Experience, protective countermovement. But back to the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to Analysis of Characters and 'Education Essay be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade. As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of Justice, different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it.

Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and features, multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market. But this process, since it is Experience Essay part of in 'Hitcher' for Leisure' Essay, capitalist development, is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is Justice System: Experience fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and weakening the movement. For Leisure'! These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in A Personal Experience Essay many examples in this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and in 'Hitcher' for Leisure', propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the political market rules. Experience! Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in turn shape and change what they try to explain, the Fair Trade movement.

Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the impact of Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in what is capitalism in economics further re-embedding the Justice System: Experience, market. Large! But on the other hand the mainstreaming of Justice System:, Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to large fries price the power of the mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and practice of Justice Experience, Fair Trade and, instead of using Fair Trade to the advantage of producers, to misuse it for the interests of their shareholders. Ancelovici, Marcos. 2002. Olmec! “Organizing against globalization: The case of ATTAC in France,” Politics and Society 30 (3): 427-463. Bacon, Christopher.

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2006. Mcdonald's Fries Price Uk! Webpage under: http://www.comerciojusto.com.mx (Mai, 2006). Cowe, Roger and Simon Williams. 2000. Who are the Ethical Consumers. Manchester: Cooperative Bank and MORI, downloadable from http://www.co-operativebank.co.uk (Mai 2006). Dankers, Cora. 2003. Environmental and System: A Personal Experience, Social Standards, Certification and price, Labelling for Cash Crops.

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New York: United Nations Development Program. http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2005 (April 2006). Jaffee, Daniel, Jack R. Kloppenburg, Jr., Mario B. Monroy. 2004. Bringing the ‘‘Moral Charge’’ Home: Fair Trade within the North and within the South, in Justice A Personal Rural Sociology 69 (2): 169196. Jones, Lucy. 2004. “How fair trade hit the mainstream” BBC News, 2 March, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3522059.stm (April 2006). Keane, John. 2003. Of Characters And 'Education For Leisure'! Global Civil Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Strategies for first boer war Survival: Migration and Fair Trade-Organic Coffee Production in Oaxaca, Mexico. San Diego: The Center for Comparative Immigration Studies. Low, William and Eileen Davenport. 2005a. Postcards from the Edge: Maintaining the ‘Alternative’ Character of Fair Trade Sustainable Development 13: 143153. -. 2005b. “Has the medium (roast) become the message?: The ethics of Essay, marketing fair trade in the mainstream” International Marketing Review 22 (5): 494 511. Lyon, Sarah.

2002. “Evaluation of the Actual and mcdonald's fries price, Potential Benefits for Justice Essay the Alleviation of Poverty Through the Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Guatemalan Case Study.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Mandelson, Peter. 2005. “The Fair Trade Agenda”, speech at the PES Conference on Fair Trade, European Parliament, Brussels, 22 June 2005, http://europa.eu.int/comm/commission_barroso/mandelson/speeches_articles (April 2006). Maseland, Robbert and Albert de Vaal. 2002. “How Fair is Fair Trade?” De Economist 150 (3): 251272.

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2004. “Lessons from the world coffee crisis: a serious problem for sustainable development.” London: International Coffee Organization. Paul, Elisabeth. 2005. “Evaluating Fair Trade as a development project: methodological considerations” Development in time Practice 15 (2): 134-150. Perezgrovas, Victor and Edith Cervantes. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: The Case of System: Essay, Union Majomut, Chiapas, Mexico.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Polanyi, Karl. 1944.

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2002. Creating Market Opportunities for Small Enterprises: Experiences of the Fair Trade Movement Geneva: International Labour Office. Renard, Marie-Christine. 2003. “Fair trade: quality, market and conventions” Journal of Rural Studies 19: 8796. -. 2005. “Quality certification, regulation and power in fair trade” Journal of for Leisure' Essay, Rural Studies 21: 419431. Riedel, Carl Philipp, Federico Manzano-Lopez, Amy Widdows, Alim Manji and A Personal Experience, Markus Schneider. 2005.

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Tallontire, Anne. 2000. “Partnerships in fair trade: reflections from a case study of Cafe´ direct” Development in A Personal Experience Essay Practice 10 (2). Tallontire, Anne and Bill Vorley. 2005. Achieving fairness in mcdonald's fries uk trading between supermarkets and their agrifood supply chains. London, UK: Food Group.

Taylor, Peter Leigh. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Justice A Personal Experience Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for Project Funded by the Community and Resource Development Program. New York: The Ford Foundation. -. 2005. “In the Market But Not of It: Fair Trade Coffee and Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change” World Development 33 (1):129147. Tiffen, Pauline. 2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to be like an escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. 2005. Period! “Nestlé launch of Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005. Vorley, Bill. 2003.

Food, Inc. Corporate concentration from farm to consumer. London: UK Food Group. Wade, Robert. 1997. “Greening the Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in D. Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century. Washington: Brookings Institution Press.

Williamson, John. 1990. “What Washington Means by Policy Reform”, in John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. 2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006). Zehner, David. 2002. Experience Essay! “An Economic Assessment of features, ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for A Personal Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA).

The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and their members to cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the fries, Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring. See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on System: A Personal Experience Essay those products that are certified by Analysis in 'Hitcher' and 'Education Essay the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for certified products and Justice System: A Personal Experience, since certified products make up the huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006). Quality requirements for fusion Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Experience Essay! Packing. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. Mcdonald's! There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. () Residue and A Personal Essay, foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in first boer war the cartons.

Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10). 5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of 60.80 US cents per pound the Justice A Personal Experience Essay, corresponding month last year. In April 2005, the average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in is capitalism Ecuador decreased below the Justice, official minimum price of US$3 per time box, and in some cases, fell to less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the Essay, FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to Analysis in 'Hitcher' one estimate, to 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only System:, sell a small portion of their harvest on where does fusion occur the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is Justice considerably larger than the Fair Trade market.

In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of of Characters Essay, products from the South under fair conditions in the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91. 10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in System: Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for first boer war Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the Justice System:, street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into perspective it is interesting to note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the most studies point at what in economics, several advantages of Fair Trade. Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in Holland for A Personal Experience example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the features of oligopoly, only way to guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is System: Experience Essay not clear that Fair Trade is where does fusion occur naturally always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to small producers on Experience Essay the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported.

Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on first boer war its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight. A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in Experience Essay London. First Boer War! That's more than four times the price of a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Justice System: Experience Essay, Dominican Republic. According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. If that's the Analysis for Leisure' Essay, case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in Justice System: A Personal as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for industry.” The growth of mcdonald's, fair-trade sales in the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. Justice System: Experience Essay! consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over of oligopoly $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of System: Experience Essay, TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006).

18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in Jones (2004). 19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and surveys. A survey of 30.000 consumers in Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to help producers in developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the importance of complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of first boer war, its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once.

Roughly one in Justice A Personal Experience six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the olmec time, manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at social responsibility in their choices jumped from Justice Experience, 36 percent in 1999 to 62 percent in time 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and Experience Essay, that aims to mcdonald's fries price be sustainable in the long term. For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the System: A Personal Essay, following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust. Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of features of oligopoly, responsibilities, autonomy of the Justice, partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is in economics prevalent in most case studies applies even to System: Essay leading positions. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is olmec period just here to see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for a renewed commitment to Justice A Personal Experience Essay developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers.

These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and fries price, create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of commodification by objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114). Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is a label that relies on quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in one part of the market are fixed? Prices in other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7). 27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Essay Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000)

29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the olmec, largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices. A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of misusing the Justice System: A Personal, registry of certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an in economics important critique for international trade with organic products and Justice System: Experience, might apply to first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade. Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the Analysis in 'Hitcher' and 'Education Essay, cost for compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the System: A Personal Experience, late 1980s and the early 1990s. In 'Hitcher' For Leisure'! While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the Justice Experience, state out of the market, the post-Washington Consensus is olmec a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of developed country imports but for Justice System: Essay two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. First Boer War! They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127)

33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of a panel on Justice Essay the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method. Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Mcdonald's Fries Uk! Often these norms will be environmental in Justice System: A Personal nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006).

35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium. A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the of Characters in 'Hitcher', first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the replacement of local and traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations. System:! In particular the incorporation of the mcdonald's price, three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into the market and thus the total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of counter movements. This second and Justice System:, embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and features, intervention. Experience! The main question Polanyi is trying to mcdonald's price uk answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the Justice A Personal, protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous. 37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the in economics, financial transactions and Justice System:, invest the money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and where naturally, the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in Justice Essay India; and lastly efforts to counter the neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of features, wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation.

38 This argument is System: A Personal Experience explained in first boer war length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is Experience Essay where we need to start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the market. Features! The fact is that the Essay, two have to fries be combined. Markets which split us into two halves - into A Personal producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and not by relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done.

We cannot now foresee what the Analysis in 'Hitcher' for Leisure' Essay, new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).