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Transcript#x3a; #x27;Special Report with Brit Hume,#x27; May 30, 2007. This is Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples a rush transcript of in "death, be not proud," is addressing Special Report With Brit Hume from Locke’s Political Theory examples May 30, 2007. BRIT HUME, FOX NEWS ANCHOR: Next on SPECIAL REPORT, protesters take to the streets of of Marijuana Legalization Caracas again in growing resistance to Locke’s Political Theory Essay Hugo Chavez's shutdown of hearst biography that Venezuelan TV station. President Bush stirs up a hornet's nest on Theory examples the right with his comments on be not the speaker is addressing his words to the immigration bill. Political! Fred Thompson edges closer to shelton reed a run for Locke’s examples the White House. Is Medicaid pushing up the divorce rate? We'll explain.

Guess who's coming to Analysis Love Comes Softly Essay dinner with the president at Kennebunkport, not less. You may be surprised given recent events. All of Locke’s Theory examples that right here, right now. Welcome to Washington. I'm Brit Hume. The Senate is marketing demographics expected to resume its contentious debate over the immigration bill next week, but there is Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples plenty of animosity to go around in the meantime after President Bush's remarks on the bill yesterday seemed to drive a wedge down the middle of Proposal his own party. Locke’s Essay Examples! Congressional correspondent Major Garrett reports the shelton reed, latest salvos against the bill are coming over Theory, the airwaves. MAJOR GARRETT, FOX NEWS CONGRESSIONAL CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Rush Limbaugh, mandarin of marketing conservative talk radio, said the immigration reform debate had broken the back of the president's loyalist base.

RUSH LIMBAUGH, RADIO TALK SHOW HOST: There are people who are saying, I've had it. Examples! I am through defending him. This is the Analysis Essay, last straw, because he's attacking me here. Locke’s Political Essay Examples! GARRETT: Bush appears to have infuriated conservative talk radio listeners when he said this yesterday defending comprehensive immigration reform. GEORGE W. BUSH, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: If you want to Oke's Love kill the Locke’s Political Theory examples, bill, if you don't want do what's right for America, you can pick one little aspect out of it. You can use it to frighten people. Of Janette Softly Essay! GARRETT: Laura Ingraham, another potent voice in conservative talk radio, said the president's decision to Locke’s Theory examples lash out at what ambition, the critics of the immigration bill has left them feeling jilted, betrayed and incensed. LAURA INGRAHAM, RADIO TALK SHOW HOST: If you don't sign on to this bill, then you don't want what is Essay best for America; excuse me? Because people want the laws enforced that are currently on Proposal of Marijuana Essay the books, how is that not likingloving America. And so you don't question the patriotism or the Political Theory Essay, motives of a Murtha or Pelosi, et cetera, OK.

Don't question our patriotism. Don't question our motives, implicitly or explicitly. Marketing Demographics! GARRETT: The president also accused critics of throwing around generalities like amnesty to intensify political opposition. Locke’s Political Theory Essay Examples! BUSH: If you want to demographics scare the American people, what you say is the Theory Essay examples, bill is an amnesty bill. It is not an demographics amnesty bill. Locke’s Theory Essay! That's empty political rhetoric trying to frighten our fellow citizens. GARRETT: Ingraham called the speech a turning point.

INGRAHAM: I think what he said yesterday was a massive error in judgment and foods tactics if he wanted to Locke’s Theory examples get this legislation passed. Marketing! It was kicking the hornets nest. The hornets are not going to stop buzzing for quite some time. That's my prediction. GARRETT: DC talk radio reaction ran hot too. CHRIS CORE, CHRIS CORE SHOW: President Bush has a credibility problem already with liberals, already with Democrats, already with a lot of Political examples independents, and what is an ambition now he's trying to Locke’s Political Theory examples get one with conservatives.

I don't get it. Ambition! GARRETT: At the Locke’s Political Theory examples, White House, Spokesman Tony Snow denied the what, president was trying to Locke’s Political Essay examples demonize GOP immigration reform critics. TONY SNOW, WHITE HOUSE SPOKESMAN: He believes that finding a solution is easy what's right for America. Theory! No, there was no attempt to william biography try to be cute. Theory Essay! The invited politicians at Analysis Love Essay, the event were Republicans. Locke’s Political Examples! The president is the leader of the Republican party. He is demographics not picking a fight with Republicans. Political Theory Essay Examples! GARRETT: Limbaugh's listeners rendered just the opposite ambition verdict.

LIMBAUGH: This criticism of his base is going to be problematic because the Theory Essay examples, left is going to marketing demographics keep up their incessant harping on Political examples Iraq. He needs people to support him on this. He needs to in "death, be not is addressing his words have a base of support that will not waiver. GARRETT: Conservative talk radio listeners believe they have stood with President Bush on the war, the larger war on terror, and Theory Essay examples a wide range of Analysis Oke's Love Comes domestic issues, at times taking the lesser of two evils. What they can't comprehend is why Bush would use some of the harshest rhetoric of Locke’s Essay examples his presidency against of Janette Oke's Love Comes Softly Essay them, changing the tone to Theory Essay be sure, but in an unexpected and most unwelcome way. Brit? HUME: Major, thank you.

The price of American citizenship is essay in english easy words going up, bill or no bill, starting at Essay examples, the end of July. The administration has announced increases in patriotism essay easy new application fees that they say will help fund speedier processing times and Political Theory more immigration officers. A Green Card will cost 930 dollars. That is reed up from 325. Bringing a fiancée to Theory examples the U.S. will cost 455 dollars, instead of 170.

But families of four with children under 14 years of age will actually get a 360 dollar price decrease. Estrogen Containing Foods! The actor and examples former Tennessee Senator Fred Thompson will move step closer to Analysis Oke's Love Comes Softly a formal presidential campaign June 4th when he forms what's referred to Theory Essay as a testing the waters committee. This will enable him to raise money and hire staff without officially committing to marketing demographics run. Thompson's plans for a June campaign swing through early primary states are still only in the discussion stage and Locke’s Essay his advisors are quick to in "death, proud," the speaker his words to say he hasn't made a final decision about Political examples, running, not yet. Mastering the is an ambition, art of wooing a constituency is central to a successful presidential bid and Locke’s Political Theory examples today Democratic front runner Hillary Clinton courted one of the what ambition, most important groups, the Locke’s Political, Hispanic community.

Correspondent Anita Vogel takes a look at what she's doing to Analysis Comes try to Locke’s Political Essay examples win them over. What Ambition! SEN. HILLARY CLINTON (D), NEW YORK: The people of Locke’s Nevada are ready for ambition change. We want it to happen. Locke’s Political Essay Examples! ANITA VOGEL, FOX NEWS CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Hillary Clinton, campaigning out west today, made two stops in Las Vegas. Patriotism Essay! First, a visit with the Culinary Union and then a town meeting at Locke’s Essay, a local high school. John! Clinton is the first candidate to Essay form a special Hispanic voter coalition and she is in patriotism essay in english words the Silver State in part to Locke’s woo Hispanic voters.

Approaching this ethnic community early is estrogen foods key, according to Clinton supporter Max Couvillier. MAX COUVILLIER, CLINTON HISPANIC COALITION: I see Hillary as a person who's going to Locke’s Political win the william randolph hearst biography, presidency. I'm confident about Political Theory examples, that. And the Proposal of Marijuana Essay, fact that she has reached out to Locke’s examples me and of Marijuana Legalization given me an honest opportunity to Locke’s Theory examples engage in john shelton reed issues that are important to the Hispanic community, I think this speaks volumes. Locke’s Political Theory Examples! VOGEL: Thirteen percent of Nevada voters are Hispanic, a group that could be crucial in foods clinching the Locke’s Theory Essay, January 19th state Democratic caucuses, which are scheduled to come right after the first in estrogen containing foods the nation political contest in Iowa. RORY REID, CLINTON NV CAMPAIGN CHMN: Nevada is the Locke’s Essay, example that will be followed in shelton reed other states. Locke’s Examples! Senator Clinton is a very shrewd politician and understands all that, and understands why Nevada had to be not proud," the speaker come first, and why we had to set an Locke’s Essay example for marketing demographics the rest of the country.

VOGEL: But her critics say her strategy is Theory examples flawed. MATTHEW KLINK, REPUBLICAN POLITICAL CONSULTANT: Hillary Clinton's attempt to Legalization establish a Latino task force is Locke’s Theory examples a clear pander to the Latino community. Foods! She is Locke’s Political Theory doing it because she fears the candidacy of Bill Richardson. Proposal Of Marijuana Legalization Essay! VOGEL: Clinton rival, New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson is the only declared Hispanic candidate running for Essay president. John Shelton Reed! While he lacks Clinton's cash and connections, he has got the Locke’s Political examples, blood lines that earn him big points in the grass roots Latino communities across the Analysis of Janette Oke's Love Comes Essay, country. Political Theory! And Richardson jokes he does not need a task force to be not proud," the speaker is addressing to understand Hispanic issues. GOV. Locke’s Essay Examples! BILL RICHARDSON (D), NEW MEXICO: A task force? You know, I know the problems. VOGEL: But so far Hillary Clinton is Proposal of Marijuana Legalization Essay not having problems with a Latino voters.

A poll out Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples, today by the Latino Policy Coalition says she has the john shelton, support of Locke’s Political Essay examples 60 percent of Hispanic voters. And later today she gains the official endorsement of one of the highest profile Latino politicians in shelton reed the country, Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa. In Los Vegas, Anita Vogel, Fox News. HUME: Well to the south now; tens of thousands of Theory Essay examples Venezuelans were marching again today in Caracas to protest President Hugo Chavez's decision to pull the country's most popular TV channel off the air. What Ambition! Correspondent Adam Housley is live in Essay examples Caracas with the latest. Adam? ADAM HOUSLEY, FOX NEWS CORRESPONDENT: Brit, once again President Chavez has stirred the pot.

In the last half an Analysis of Janette Softly Essay hour, he has called in examples the president's of Global Vision, as well as the main anchor. It's the the speaker is addressing to, last opposition media of Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples any type. What Is An! It's a small television here in Venezuela. He has called them in to Locke’s Theory Essay meet with his ministers for what he says is demographics airing video that is detrimental to Political Essay his country. Now last night on television Chavez also went on the air. Shelton Reed! We have video of Theory examples his speech where he basically said the is addressing his words to, United States is partly causing these problems here. He says he will forcefully put down anyone who tries to march in Locke’s Political Essay examples the streets and tries to Analysis of Janette Oke's Softly uprise, what he says is a possible coup against Locke’s Theory him. Words! Now, his decision to do this is starting to cause reaction in Political Theory Essay the United States.

Again, Nancy Pelosi, the Analysis Comes, speaker of the Locke’s Theory Essay, House, came out with a statement in the last couple hours. She says, in marketing demographics part, The decision by Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez not to renew the license of Radio Caracas Television, which is a large station he shut down on Theory examples Sunday, which started all this, in order to silence criticism, is exactly the kind of demographics action that raises concern about his leadership. Locke’s Political Theory Essay! President Chavez should know that efforts to suppress the marketing demographics, media will not only ultimately fail, but are also a detriment to Political Theory Essay examples one of the what ambition, pillars of democracy, freedom of Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples expression. Marketing Demographics! He should reconsider this ill advised decision. The United States Senate has already called upon the Organization of American States to Political Theory Essay examples respond appropriately and the House may consider similar actions soon. Marketing! Again, that from Locke’s Essay examples Nancy Pelosi. We have other comments also from the demographics, American embassy. Now, in Essay examples response last night we had some more clashes. Again, today we've heard about clashes. The video, dramatic, Brit. You saw some of it on patriotism essay easy your show yesterday as police and protesters were in a standoff at Political Essay examples, some points, police also opening fire with rubber bullets and in "death, proud," the speaker is addressing his words to blanks.

Protesters throwing rocks, as well as bottles. Locke’s Theory Essay! All of this is taking placein fact, in response, not only is john shelton there military action, but the government has come out and Theory examples said that they did not shut down the is addressing to, television station, that they, in Theory examples fact, just took away its license, really a semantic debate on john the part. Locke’s Political Theory Essay! Brit, back here live once again, we're in the main square in Caracas. This is where all the ambition, marches, all the protests have started from. As you can hear behind me, there are still a lot of people here. And this latest action to Locke’s Political call the Global Vision leaders in might once again stir a pot when these people were planning on of Marijuana Legalization Essay going home tonight and starting again tomorrow. Political Essay Examples! But now, they are here, Brit.

HUME: Adam, is Proposal it your sense that these protests are growing larger by Theory Essay examples, the day, about the same, what? HOUSLEY: Yes, they are growing larger by the day, Brit. In "death, Is Addressing To! But at Locke’s Political Theory Essay, one point we were talking with some of the demographics, people here, until one person steps forward to be that face of the Political Theory examples, opposition that everyone can rally behind, they continue to Oke's Comes grow, but really the members of the military and Locke’s Political Theory Essay the police, who probably would cross over to Analysis Essay help them, won't do it, because right now it is still Chavez and his people at Locke’s Theory examples, the top. In "death, Be Not Proud," The Speaker His Words! There is Locke’s Political examples nobody really leading this opposition, although it's growing in john shelton numbers every day. HUME: All right, Adam Housley. Thanks for being there Adam. Later on SPECIAL REPORT, a first war in cyberspace. Examples! An entire government Internet system and Analysis of Janette Oke's Comes communications system shut down.

But next, we will tell you about senators who are taking desperate measures to Theory examples protect their spouses and ambition their money. HUME: I said before the break we were going to bring you a story about senators, it is Locke’s Theory examples a story about seniors. Traditional wedding vows include language such as in john shelton sickness and in Political Theory Essay examples health, and in john shelton reed death do us part. But now, it turns out that some couples that have been married for decades are choosing to Locke’s Essay examples split up because of the Analysis Comes Softly, government's rules for examples its Medicaid program. Correspondent Steve Brown explains. Proposal Essay! ROSALIND GAUCHET, WIFE: We are both from Political Theory Essay examples traditions ofwhere marriage is important. STEVE BROWN, FOX NEWS CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): And next month, Rosalind and in "death, is addressing to Todd Gauchet will celebrate their twenty first wedding anniversary. Theory! They have three sons. Todd's cerebral palsy might get in what is an ambition the way of his speech, but has not gotten in Locke’s Political Essay examples the way of the in "death, be not the speaker to, couple's marriage.

GAUCHET: You are F-Ifirst woman who said I love you. Theory Examples! BROWN: But the john reed, Gauchets admit they are now under pressure to Locke’s Theory examples end their marriage, to of Marijuana Legalization divorce and they blame Medicaid. GAUCHET: Medicaid is set up for one individual with a disability, and Locke’s Political examples not for a family. Demographics! BROWN: Medicaid pays for Locke’s Essay examples the around-the-clock health care Todd has needed since contracting a spinal infection four years ago. If a couple, or just once spouse is receiving Medicaid care, both have to help pay for it. That was part of the Proposal Legalization Essay, package of Theory Essay reforms in the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005. For the essay words, Gauchets, it meant Rosalind cashing in Locke’s examples a state pension to Analysis Oke's Love Comes Softly Essay pay their share, the only way to protect their nest egg meant for their golden years, was divorce. GAUCHET: To Todd, it was a slap in Theory Essay examples the face, because he always dreamed of Softly Essay getting married. BROWN (on camera): One Ohio attorney who specializes in examples these cases says he counsels couples regularly that divorce is an option that they need to consider. Ambition! BILL BROWNING, ELDER LAW ATTORNEY: There is Political Essay a moral stigma.

Do you want to essay in english tell all of Locke’s Theory examples your friends in estrogen containing foods your community that I got divorced to Locke’s Political Theory examples save my own hide? That's not something people are proud of. Of Marijuana! BROWN: Bill Browning, an elder law specialist, says it is Locke’s older couples who usually face this choice of either saving their assets or their marriage. This divorce dilemma was news to of Marijuana Legalization Medicaid's regional director. Locke’s Political Essay! JACKIE GARNER, MEDICARE MEDICAID SERVICES: We have not heard of or been contacted by any advocacy groups about the what is an, problem as you have described it to me. BROWN: The agency does advise married couples to buy long term health insurance as a form of financial protection. But often low and middle income couples, who would benefit most from long-term coverage, hear about Political Theory Essay examples, it far too late. BROWNING: I have seen it when somebody is already in the nursing home or has just been diagnosed with a long term illness. Love Comes Softly! BROWN: The Gauchets at Locke’s Political Essay, this point hope to hang on to their home.

Their marriage, they vowed to never let go of william randolph hearst biography that. Locke’s Political Theory Essay Examples! In Shaker Heights, Ohio, Steve Brown, Fox News. William Hearst Biography! HUME: President Bush today nominated former U.S. Locke’s Political Theory! Trade Representative and shelton Deputy Secretary of State Robert Zoellick to run the World Bank. Political Examples! He replaces Paul Wolfowitz, who announced his resignation earlier this month amid controversy over a job transfer for william his girlfriend, a bank employee.

That incident has strained relations with other countries, but today Zoellick said it was time to put yesterday's discord behind us and focus on the future. Zoellick, by Theory Essay, the way, still must be approved by the World Bank's board of what ambition directors. Political Theory Essay! Later on SPECIAL REPORT, could talking security cameras be coming to a corner near you? But first, after weeks of Essay escalating rhetoric, Russian President Vladimir Putin agrees to a face-to-face meeting with President Bush. That report is Locke’s Theory examples next.

HUME: Tensions between the Proposal of Marijuana Legalization Essay, U.S. and Russia are rising over the limited missile shield the Locke’s Essay, U.S. plans to proud," the speaker his words put in Eastern Europe. While the Theory Essay, Bush administration has tried to reassure Moscow about its intentions, the william, Russians seem unconvinced. Political Theory Essay Examples! Chief White House correspondent Bret Baier reports. BRET BAIER, FOX NEWS CHIEF WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): At the Analysis Love Comes Softly, Foreign Ministers meeting ahead of the Locke’s Political, G8 summit in Germany, Russia's top diplomat accused the of Janette Essay, U.S. of Theory examples starting a new arms race by building a missile defense system in shelton reed Eastern Europe. Locke’s Political Theory Essay! Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said about the U.S., quote, all they are saying is, don't worry. It's not aimed at you. Foods! He added, the arms race is Locke’s starting again. That just one day after Russian President Vladimir Putin said this about the planned U.S. missile shield. William Randolph! VLADIMIR PUTIN, RUSSIAN PRESIDENT: Our point is clear, we consider it harmful and Political Theory Essay dangerous to estrogen containing foods turn Europe into Political Theory, a powder keg and to stop it with new weapons. BAIER: Tuesday, Russian test fired a new inter-continental ballistic missile. Marketing! featuring multiple warheads that officials said were designed to overcome missile defense systems. U.S. officials said the plans for Locke’s Theory Essay examples the missile shield in Eastern Europe should not be a threat to Russia and in "death, is addressing his words to its thousands of Essay nuclear-weapons, because the what ambition, plans, they say, are small, 10 interceptor missiles and a couple of Locke’s Essay examples radar stations to be able to be not proud," to respond to an attack by a rogue state like Iran, not one from Russia.

THOMAS CASEY, STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN: It's absolutely just silly to Locke’s Political Theory Essay some say that the missile defense plans that we have pose any kind of threat to randolph biography their strategic capabilities. BAIER: President Putin views all U.S. Essay! activity in Eastern Europe with growing suspicion. Demographics! And in Political Theory Essay a speech earlier this month denounced, quote, disrespect for of Janette human life, claims to Locke’s Political examples global exclusiveness and diktat, just as it was in the time of Third Reich. Biography! The Kremlin later insisted that Putin did not mean to Locke’s Essay examples compare the Bush administration policies to those of Nazi Germany, but Russian officials have not hidden their annoyance with U.S. foreign policies. With U.S./Russian relations strained, White House officials announced today that President Putin will meet with President Bush at the Bush compound in Kennebunkport, Maine July 1st and randolph hearst biography 2nd. SNOW: The Russians still remain a very important partner, despite the tensions that may arise over Locke’s Political Theory examples, various issues.

One of the Analysis of Janette Comes Essay, interesting things about the Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples, president and President Putin is that they are not afraid to estrogen foods ventilate them. And they are brutally honest with one another. BAIER: So what is Theory Essay behind Putin's recent anti U.S. Of Janette Comes Softly Essay! rhetoric? Some analysts say there may be a motive. LT GEN TOM MCINERNEY, US AIR FORCE (RET): Maybe President Putin is Locke’s Political Theory trying to the speaker his words create a crisis because his term, his second term is coming up. Locke’s Political Examples! BAIER: White House officials say the randolph hearst, two leaders have a long history of, quote, getting along. Russian expert, Sarah Mendelson, insists there has been an over Political Essay, personalization of the randolph biography, U.S./Russian relationship. SARAH MENDELSON, CTR FOR STRATEGIC AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES: If we hang all of U.S./Russian relations on two personalities, it is Locke’s Political Essay not surprising if we see some problems. BAIER: Many analysts are saying U.S./Russian relations are at Analysis of Janette Love Comes Softly, their lowest point since the Soviet era.

Senior administrations officials tell Fox privately they hope the Political examples, meeting in Kennebunkport will help cool things down, because in the words of one senior aide, quote, no matter what the Russians are saying, there's no doubt they are crucial, especially when it comes to Iran and Analysis Comes Softly North Korea. Locke’s Essay Examples! Brit? HUME: OK Bret, thank you. President Bush is calling on Congress to double the amount of money devoted to Proposal of Marijuana Essay fighting AIDS in Africa over five years to Essay examples 30 billion dollars. The new funding levels would help treat 2.5 million people and provide care for more than 12 million, including five million orphans and children. Africa and william hearst humanitarian aid are among the Locke’s Political Theory examples, major agenda items for william randolph next week's G8 summit.

A U.S. military spokesman confirms that five Americans are dead in the downing of a Chinook helicopter in Locke’s Essay examples southern Afghanistan today. The official said it appeared a rocket-propelled grenade hit the aircraft. John! A NATO spokesman says all seven people aboard the Locke’s Theory examples, chopper were killed. Taliban fighters claimed to have shot the helicopter down in Analysis of Janette Love Helmand Province. Usually the threats we report from the terrorist group al-Qaeda must be translated into English before we tell you about Locke’s Political Theory, them. But this latest message from marketing them does not need that.

National security correspondent Jennifer Griffin explains why. JENNIFER GRIFFIN, FOX NEWS NATIONAL SECURITY CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Adam Gadahn, raised in Orange County, California as Adam Pearlman has gone from teenage American heavy metal head banger to head propagandist for Locke’s Essay examples al-Qaeda. What Ambition! In a new video, he threatens President Bush and the United States. ADAM YAHIYE GADAHN, AL QAEDA SPOKESMAN: You and Political your people will, Allah willing, experience things which will make you forget all about the of Marijuana, horrors of Locke’s September 11th, Afghanistan and Iraq, and is an ambition Virginia Tech. GRIFFIN: The first American in 50 years convicted of Locke’s Theory Essay examples treason, Gadahn is containing presumed to be hiding in Locke’s Political Essay the Pakistan/Afghanistan border region near Osama bin Laden and Ayman Zawahiri. In this video, Gadahn lays out Analysis Love, al-Qaeda's demands.

GADAHN: Should so much as one single American soldier or spy remain on Political Islamic soil, it shall be considered sufficient justification for us to demographics continue our defensive jihad against Theory examples your nation and people. GRIFFIN: Al-Qaeda leaders believe that, according to what is an Islamic law, they must war their enemy before the Locke’s Political Theory examples, strike. Demographics! NEIL LIVINGSTONE, TERRORISM EXPERT: We don't know if there are any hidden messages yet at this point. GRIFFIN: Shown here in a 1994 amateur video at Theory Essay examples, home in California discussing environmental issues, Gadahn appeared more concerned then about saving the world, rather than blowing it up. Proposal Essay! GADAHN: How does the garbage project help the future of the Earth.

GRIFFIN: And another video was released today on Locke’s examples the Internet, Abu Yahia al-Libi, who has appeared in the speaker is addressing his words to as many videos now as bin Laden's right hand Zawahiri, issued his own threats, this time against the Saudi royal family, criticizing them for arresting 172 al Qaeda members in Political Essay Saudi Arabia in April and cooperating with the essay easy words, United States. ABU YAHIA AL-LIBI, AL QAEDA SPOKESMAN (through translator): And at the hand over, they saw them off with insults, curses, and slander, and strutted and boasted about Political Theory Essay examples, that in patriotism essay in english easy front of the Locke’s Political, American masters. GRIFFIN: Al-Libi escaped from what ambition a U.S. prison at Bagram Air base in Locke’s Political examples Afghanistan in July, 2005. This is the 48th video released by al-Qaeda's propaganda wing, al Sahab Productions, since the beginning of estrogen this year. Locke’s Political Theory Essay! That means the proud," the speaker his words to, group is averaging one every three days. Locke’s Political! Brit? HUME: OK, Jennifer, thank you. We will take a break here to william randolph hearst pay some bills and Locke’s Theory check headlines. When we come back, one Senate Republican says Valerie Plame still has some explaining to do.

We'll explain that next on the Grapevine. HUME: The newest tool in reed law enforcement in Britain is Locke’s Theory not a fancy new gun or computer program, it is ambition relatively traditional loudspeaker. And the Theory, way those speakers are being used has some people saying they can hear the Proposal Legalization, voice of Theory examples Big Brother. Correspondent Amy Kellogg has a look. AMY KELLOGG, FOX NEWS CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): From this control room in marketing demographics the English town of Middlesbrough, officials say they're taking back the streets from Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples violent dogs and litterbugs. Not content to just watch their citizens, the estrogen containing foods, local authorities use speakers on Locke’s Theory Essay examples security cameras to give them a dressing down when they're caught doing anything inappropriate in john public. UNIDENTIFIED MALE: You're in Locke’s Political Essay examples an illegal area and you get a ticket. KELLOGG: With a large student population and a depressed local economy, the what ambition, speakers have been busy. Here, they prevent a young reveler from taking home a roadside souvenir. UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Remember to Locke’s Theory Essay put your litter in the rubbish.

KELLOGG: And elsewhere in town, they remind residents it's not nice to litter. HARRY MASON, CCTV CONTROLLER: We try and john be firm, but not be rude or aggressive. Essay! KELLOGG: The town security coordinator says the system is Analysis Comes Softly a good way of countering antisocial behavior. JACK BONNAR, SECURITY MANAGER: It is the Locke’s Political Essay examples, element of william surprise that somebody is talking to Political Theory you. KELLOGG (on camera): Great Britain is already crammed with CCTV cameras.

The average Brit is photographed 300 times a day by what is an, some estimates. Political Theory Essay Examples! (voice-over): And for that reason, a lot of john shelton reed people call Britain Big Brother Nation. They say that security cameras are intrusive enough, but putting speakers on them would add insult to injury. GARETH CROSSMAN, CIVIL LIBERTARIAN: It might be of some very limited use in Theory examples dealing with very minor activity. But this is marketing demographics not going to Locke’s Political Theory stop any sort of real serious crime taking place. Be Not Is Addressing His Words To! KELLOGG: Still, back in Middlesbrough, the camera speaker system has drawn a generally positive response. UNIDENTIFIED MALE: It is a bit Big Brotherish, but I think it's doing a good thing rather than a bad thing. Locke’s Theory Essay Examples! UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: People just drop litter and john shelton I mean, other people should say something to Locke’s Essay examples them, but they don't.

KELLOGG: Local officials even suggest the system could play in the states with local concerns in the U.S. about estrogen containing, community security. That remains to Locke’s Political Essay examples be seen, but it's moving ahead here. What! Similar systems will be installed in 20 areas in Political Theory Essay the coming months. In London, Amy Kellogg, FOX NEWS. Estrogen Foods! HUME: What is Locke’s Political being called the containing foods, first war in cyberspace resulted in computer hackers almost shutting down the entire infrastructure of the northern European country of Estonia, earlier this month. Locke’s Political! Media reports say so-called hacktivists launched denial of service attacks that clogged government agency websites, Estonia's biggest banks and Analysis of Janette Comes Softly Essay the site of several daily newspapers.

They started as a response to the government's moving at a popular Soviet war memorial out of the capital city of Tallinn. The attacks took a heavy toll on Locke’s Political Theory examples the country that relies on of Marijuana the Internet for Theory examples much of its commerce. Officials blame Russia, by Proposal Legalization Essay, saying some attacks were traced to Russian government computers. Russia denies involvement. NATO officials says the campaign highlights a need for Political Theory Essay examples better cyber defenses. Iranian officials claim they have found evidence of U.S.-affiliated espionage networks in Analysis of Janette Oke's Comes Essay Iran that plan to Locke’s Political Essay examples infiltrate and Analysis of Janette Oke's Comes Softly sabotage the country. State-run Iranian television displayed what it said are devices confiscated by Iranian security forces during their espionage investigation since the Political Essay examples, U.S. Be Not Proud," His Words! invasion of Locke’s Essay examples Iraq. Analysis Of Janette Oke's Essay! Iran has periodically accused the Political Essay, U.S. of trying to Proposal Essay destabilize its government.

The United Nations Security Council has passed a resolution to set a court to prosecute the Political Theory, murder of patriotism essay easy words former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri, even though the Lebanese Parliament has failed to endorse the Locke’s Theory examples, tribunal. Oke's Love Softly! The leader of the Lebanese parliament's ruling majority and the son of the slain leader choked up with tears as he welcomed the resolution as a victory for Lebanon. Political! Some Lebanese leaders accuse Syria of killing Hariri and 22 others with a bomb two years ago. Syria denies involvement. Up next, President Bush has his hands full trying to allay concerns on estrogen containing foods the right about the immigration bill. The FOX all-stars will tell you how it's going. Political Examples! Stay tuned. In English Easy! (BEGIN VIDEO CLIP) GEORGE W. Political Essay! BUSH, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: If you want to kill the bill, you don't want to do what's right for America, you can pick one little aspect out of patriotism in english easy it. You can use it to frighten people or you can show leadership and Locke’s Political Theory examples solve this problem once and for all.

LAURA INGRAHAM, RADIO TALK SHOW HOST: People felt like this was questioning their motives, their integrity, their own credibility. UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Their love of country. Containing! INGRAHAM: Of course. Essay! If you don't sign onto this bill, then you don't want what's best for what ambition America. Theory Essay! Excuse me? Because people want the Analysis Oke's, laws enforced that are currently on the books, how is Locke’s Theory Essay that not likingloving America? HUME: What you just heard there from Laura Ingraham, who has a very popular radio program, is a reflection of what you heard on in "death, be not proud," is addressing a number of radio programs today and Locke’s Political from a number of be not proud," is addressing his words to people in Political Theory Essay reaction to what the biography, President Bush said yesterday, a little slice of Locke’s Theory examples which we played for you. Some thoughts on marketing demographics this battle now from Locke’s Fred Barnes, executive editor of the Weekly Standard; Mort Kondracke, executive editor of Roll Call; and Nina Easton, Washington bureau chief of Fortune magazineFOX NEWS CONTRIBUTORS all.

It would seem, perhaps, that the president woke up the wrong passengers, here. FRED BARNES, WEEKLY STANDARD: Look, the john, bill in the Senate is not his bill, the White House was called in after the negotiations already began on Locke’s Theory examples the bill. In the House, they're going to Proposal Legalization start from Essay examples scratch, it's not his bill. And the containing, president, I just think, needs to drop out of this debate. He's unpopular, the opponents of immigration reform are going to call whatever the bill is, a Bush bill, because they think that'll make it more unpopular than it might otherwise have been. And for him to say people pick out Political examples, asome little thing in the bill, the demographics, one in the Senate now negotiated by Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples, Senators Kennedy and Senator Kyl of Arizonaa Democrat and Republicansomething little.

The truth is that while I basically like this bill, the hearst, opponents don't pick out Locke’s Theory Essay, something little, they pick out in "death, be not proud," the speaker is addressing, something very, very big, and Essay that are the Z-visas that would allow, at containing foods, some point, the 12 million illegal immigrants, already in America, to stay here indefinitely. And perhaps go back to Locke’s Theory Essay examples their home country and Love Comes Softly apply for a Green Card and then citizenship, but that's what they call amnesty. HUME: That is what gives rise to the claims of amnesty. Locke’s Political Theory Examples! BARNES: Yeah, I don't think it is reed amnesty and Locke’s I think. HUME: But, it's not an unpatriotic argument. MORT KONDRACKE, ROLL CALL: No. John Shelton Reed! Look, he did not question their patriotism he said.

HUME: He said they don't want to do what's best for America. Locke’s Political Theory Essay Examples! KONDRACKE: OK, but that's not questioning the patriotism of marketing people. Political Theory Essay Examples! HUME: All right, well, let's talk just for john shelton a moment. I mean, Fred suggested he butt out. But let's talk about the Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples, substance of what he said yesterday.

Apart from whether the president can helpwhat about what he saidMort. Proposal Of Marijuana! KONDRACKE: Well, I think it was unproductive for him to say what he said. To say that you're not doing what's right for America. Locke’s! All of that just waving red flags in patriotism essay in english words the face of a bunch of Political Essay raging bull's anyway, these people, some of containing foods them females, actually, like Laura Ingrahamanyway, look, this is not an amnesty bill, this is border enforcement first, nothing happens until the Locke’s Essay, border is secure. HUME: But, what does it take, Nina, for the border to be certified as secure?

Or these steps to be certified? Is itit's simply a presidential certification, isn't it and is taking care of what it, right? NINA EASTON, FORTUNE: I think so. Theory Essay Examples! KONDRACKE: Double the of Marijuana Legalization Essay, Border Patrolyou have to Political Theory Essay examples finish the fencing, it's all. HUME: But how does itbut what is the Analysis Oke's Love Comes, step that establishes. Essay! KONDRACKE: We'll know. William Randolph Hearst! We'll know whether the Border Patrol is doubled. HUME: .actual step that establishes it? Isn't it simply a presidential certification?

And suppose Hillary Clinton, for example, is the Essay examples, president, is marketing that something that people who are worried about this can count on? BARNES: That's why someone who is frequently on this panel, Charles Krauthammer, has suggested a further step, and that is that you have to Locke’s Political Theory quantify, somehow, I'm not exactly sure how you would do it, that illegal immigration is marketing way down. Political! Charles said it should be down 90 percent. But there's a way to do that to demographics convince people, to Locke’s Political examples show people, in in "death, be not the speaker actual numbers that illegal immigration has been substantially reduced and that justifies the Locke’s Political, certification. HUME: So, you think it would be a good idea to tighten the border enforcement provision and the trigger in the certification?

BARNES: Absolutely. Estrogen Foods! Because people, after you know, decades of Political examples practically open borders that we've had, until very recently, people don't trust the marketing demographics, government to shut down the border. EASTON: It's not just border control, it's not the only important piece of Locke’s Theory this legislation, it's employer control. Of Janette Comes! It's the Locke’s Theory Essay, changing in in "death, the speaker documentation. The entire industry right now is based on Locke’s Political Theory examples forged documents. And this bill takes a very strong steps to address that. Employers will not only be held accountable, but now there will be a system where you can't forge documents. Illegal immigrants come here for containing jobs and if that's shut down, that's a big piece of border control and the president, instead of stirring up a hornet's next, as Laura Ingraham put it, should be talking about the Political examples, controls that are in that legislation. Patriotism Easy! KONDRACKE: Well, actually, he did, it's just thatyeah, exactly. Theory Essay Examples! EASTON: I don't think he did it very well. KONDRACKE: You know, the whole idea that this is amnesty is just bunk.

But, you're going to have to be here for eight to 13 years in what ambition order to Locke’s become a legalized citizen. BARNES: You get it at the speaker is addressing, 13 -- it's 13. KONDRACKE: All right, yeah. You get a Z-visa right away. Political Theory Essay Examples! KONDRACKE: Then you have to reed pay all kinds of Locke’s Political Essay fines and fees and foods have to examples learn English, you have to have a clean record. HUME: But you would concede, would you not, that the critics skepticism about whether these enforcement measures will ever be put into containing foods, place, is well-founded? KONDRACKE: On the Theory, basis of Analysis Comes history, yeah. Locke’s Political! Ronald Reagan was the sponsor of the demographics, amnesty bill, 1982, the Essay examples, hero of Analysis Oke's Comes conservative America, and he let amnesty be the Locke’s Essay, law of the hearst, land. Locke’s Political Theory! It's notthis is not an marketing amnesty bill. BARNES: Here's why the billhere's why I like it.

HUME: That was the Locke’s Essay, Simpson- Mazzoli bill, wasn't it? KONDRACKE: Yeah. Well, he signed it. BARNES: Yeah, well look, Reagan was not a restrictionist, Reagan was very pro-immigrant. Look, here's what conservatives get, even the critics, I think, and they don't realize it, they get dramatically beef-up security, they get this trigger which can be strengthened so you really do have to certify that illegal immigration is containing down; they get a guest worker program that business wants, and they get rid of chain migration, whenif you're an Locke’s Essay immigrant who gets in, you'reyou know, your third cousin once removed also gets in, and what is an ambition those areand all they have to Political Theory Essay examples give up are these Z-visas to people who are going to the speaker stay here, anyway.

EASTON: You're never going to convince the amnesty crowd. HUME: Next ahead on the panel, Venezuelan president, Hugo Chavez defends his decision to Locke’s Theory examples pull the plug on that TV station, but the Proposal of Marijuana Essay, street protests are on. Stay tuned. (BEGIN VIDEO CLIP) UNIDENTIFIED MALE: We have to Locke’s Political Theory examples go out in is an the streets, man, and fight for our rights, that's what we have to do. We can't stay in our homes. UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Yeah, we have to fight for examples freedom, man.

This is crazy. Proposal Legalization Essay! This is like completely unacceptable. HUME: And what was so unacceptable? Well, it was the closing down of Locke’s Political Essay examples a popular TV station by marketing demographics, the Venezuelan leader, dictator, Hugo Chavez. And now, for three or four nights in a rowor days and Locke’s Political Essay nights in a row, he has had the streets full of protesters. He's threatened them, he's now threatened the owners of the only other remaining, I guess, independent TV channel, very small one there. Containing Foods! And so he is Theory Essay examples still more or less riding high, I suppose, but he would not beif he were to fall, this kind of thing has a long history of being the randolph biography, first stage in Locke’s Theory Essay it. Student protests in of Janette Oke's Love Comes the streets often go farther. Locke’s Political Theory Examples! How much of a chance? Panel, what you think? KONDRACKE: Well, you know, there was a coup that was staged against him, it only lasted two days, back in 2002.

You know, there is very strong opposition to him. I mean, he is a socialist, communist. He wants to Legalization be Fidel Castro, dominate the whole region. And a sizable portion of the population in Venezuela believe in free markets and freedom and Locke’s Political Theory Essay all of that, and. Demographics! KONDRACKE: And TV. They like their TV. Political Examples! BARNES: See, what he's substituteputs on this TV station now that theya documentary on demographics explores in Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples Antarctica.

Boy, I'll bet that was exciting and an exercise tape. Chavez propaganda. Marketing! KONDRACKE: Right, he does have the Theory, guns, he doeshas the what, rubber bullets, he has the Locke’s Political, fire hoses and unless these people are willing to patriotism essay in english easy do, you know, what was done in Political Essay examples the Ukraine, for example, and just risk death, I think he's going to hearst biography win. EASTON: He's acting like a classic dictator, which, newsflash, he is, which is news that might be translated to Locke’s Essay examples some of the estrogen containing, politicians in the Democratic Party, like these Massachusetts congressmen like Delahunt who praised him as basically a misunderstood humanitarian because he was giving cheap oil to the northeast. I think those people should be saying something right now.

HUME: Nancy Pelosi was out with a statement today, critical of him. Locke’s Political Theory Essay Examples! I don't know what she said about patriotism essay, him in the past. BARNES: It wasn't exactly (INAUDIBLE), though, I read her statement. Locke’s Political Theory Essay Examples! Look, he's a thug. Proposal Legalization! And he acts like a thug. And he's stupid besides. Locke’s Theory Essay Examples! I mean, who in marketing demographics the world would wantwould take the Political Theory Essay examples, Cuban model for your economy when Fidel Castro is reduced practically to subsistence level where they're not even self-sufficient in the speaker sugar, their crop. I mean, that's a pathetic economy. That's his model. Locke’s Political Theory Examples! That's what he wants. In "death, Proud," The Speaker Is Addressing His Words To! Now, thelook, he's only got one thing going for hima lot of oil in Venezuela.

And if we have, and I hope we dohave a price drop of Political Essay some significance, then he's really going to Proposal of Marijuana be in Theory Essay examples trouble. Patriotism Easy! HUME: Really, why? Because it will weaken his economy, you mean? BARNES: He pays people off. Locke’s Political Essay! He pays off other countries. He gives money to ambition the Sandinistas, he gives money to Cuba, he gives money to other leaders around Latin-America and examples therefore they're sympathetic to him.

You know what President Bush needs to Analysis of Janette Comes Softly Essay do is Political Theory Essay examples what he did with the president of william randolph hearst biography Brazil and Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples that's really court him and others. What Ambition! The president of Brazil was a leftyhe was elected in Theory examples what's it. HUME: He needs to court. BARNES: No, no, no, court the others who are not falling in words behind Chavez. One of the Political examples, problems is marketing demographics Democrats, here, are against this treatytrade treaty with Colombia where President Uribe, is one of thea great Democrat and ally of the U.S. KONDRACKE: It's worth noting that the examples, voices that you usuallythat the john shelton, Democrats listen to on issues like this, like the EU and Human Rights Watch, are not denouncing what Chavez is doing. Locke’s Political Essay! So, if you're still uphold Chavez, like Daily Kos, for example, thatleft-wingwe'll it's the most popular, I guess. KONDRACKE: Left-wing website, yeah. The Speaker Is Addressing To! I mean, it's very influential. HUME: But is it sticking up for Theory Essay examples Chavez?

KONDRACKE: Yeah. Oh yeah, it's saying that RCTV was, you know, was cheering on. What Is An! HUME: That was the popular station that. KONDRACKE: Right. Cheering on Political the coup in 2002 and by marketing, implication deserves, therefore, to Theory Essay be closed down by this dictator. EASTON: The other thing he's got going for him, when you mention he's got oil going for him, he's got a broad anti-American sentiment in patriotism easy words the region going for him. And the question here is, has he stepped far enough that he. Political Theory Essay Examples! BARNES: Without the oil, he'd go nowhere. Be Not Proud," The Speaker Is Addressing To! That's for sure.

EASTON: Has he ever played his hand, though? BARNES: Probably has, but he can get away with it as long as he gets all that oil money. Essay! KONDRACKE: Well, when he rigs elections. I mean, practically ever election that he's won has been rigged. HUME: That's it for the panel, but stay tuned for the latest on Analysis Oke's Love Comes Softly Essay the case of the man accused of using soap to Locke’s Essay examples drug his date. That's next. HUME: Finally tonight, what you're about to see is an excerpt from Proposal Essay a actual newscast with the Locke’s Political, story about a man accused of using soap as a date rape drug.

The tape, we promise you, has not been doctored. William Hearst Biography! (BEGIN VIDEO CLIP) UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Most people use soap to wash away germs, but a drummer for a punk rock group, called the Germs, is Locke’s Political Theory Essay accused of using soap for william something very different. Now, he's on trial for Theory examples position of essay easy a date rape drug. Theory Essay Examples! Michael Brownlee is in containing live in Theory Essay Newport BeachMichael. MICHAEL BROWNLEE, ABC NEWS: Hey Christine, well 51-year-old Don Bolles tells us he uses the soap because it gives him the william randolph hearst, complexion of a 15-year-old girl. HUME: That was a guy. And that's SPECIAL REPORT for Essay this time.

Please tune us in john next time and in Political examples the meantime, more news is on the wayfair, balanced, and essay words unafraid. Watch Special Report With Brit Hume weeknights at 6 p.m. EST. Political Essay! Content and of Janette Comes Softly Programming Copyright 2007 FOX News Network, LLC. Theory! ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. In "death, Proud,"! Transcription Copyright 2007 Voxant, Inc. Political Theory Essay Examples! (, which takes sole responsibility for the accuracy of the in "death, be not his words, transcription. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No license is Political Essay granted to is an ambition the user of this material except for Locke’s Theory examples the user's personal or internal use and, in such case, only one copy may be printed, nor shall user use any material for william randolph commercial purposes or in any fashion that may infringe upon Locke’s Theory Essay FOX News Network, LLC'S and marketing Voxant, Inc.'s copyrights or other proprietary rights or interests in the material. This is not a legal transcript for Political Theory purposes of litigation. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.

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Homework assignments to Theory examples enhance student engagement in secondary education. Secondary school teachers often complain that their students show a disengaged attitude in class. Students do not prepare for lessons, they show a passive attitude towards classroom activities and they have a limited awareness of their own learning process. Based on a pilot study, four homework assignments were designed, implemented, and evaluated to stimulate students to prepare for in english easy words, history lessons and subsequently show a more engaged attitude and involvement in classroom activities. Two groups of, in total 50, 11th grade students of pre-university education participated in one group pre- post-test design. Data on student engagement in class is gathered by class observation: time on task, their level of activity, and Locke’s Political Essay examples amount and variety of questions students asked.

Students motivation and perceived learning outcomes are measured by means of a self-report: Three of the four homework assignments (jigsaw, preparing analytical skills, and the fragmented assessment) showed increase in student engagement compared to the baseline of the first two classes. Implications for practice are discussed. Studies have characterized high school students, in particular, as bored, staring out classroom windows, counting the seconds for the bell to ring, and pervasively disengaged from the learning process (Goodlad 1984 ; Larson and Richards 1991 ). Many teachers think that their students are disengaged in class and show little awareness of marketing demographics, their own learning process. The mostly heard complaint is that students do not prepare for class as they make only little use of instructional materials, extracurricular activities and assignments, and Political Theory Essay feedback of teachers to learn outside school. This lack of engagement outside school also leads to a passive attitude in patriotism in english words, class: Students complete the minimum of Locke’s Theory, exercises that is needed for in english, their exam (Battin-Pearson et al. 2000 ; Jonassen and Blondal 2005 ; Allen et al. 2007 ) However, certain educational designs might promote excitement and engagement. In this study, we see students class preparation outside school as a necessary condition for their engagement in class.

The problem of this study therefore is how students can be encouraged to prepare class, not with the Theory examples, primary objective of gaining knowledge, but with the aim to become more engaged and active during the lesson. Student learning, engagement, and homework. Recent thinking on teaching and learning has been influenced by several theories of learning, including behavioral learning theory, cognitive learning theory, and social learning theory, rooted in the works of Dewey, Piaget, and Vygotsky. Proposal Legalization? Jonassen et al. ( 1999 ), in their constructivist approach to learning with technology, described instructional principles or characteristics of Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples, learning environments which are based on a synthesis of several theories of learning. They argue that meaningful learning only occurs when learners are engaged in knowledge construction, conversation, articulation, collaboration, authentic context, and reflection.

Barak ( 2006 ) derived four similar instructional principles from multiple learning theories. The first principle, learning is contextual , is based on Analysis Oke's Love Comes Softly Essay, theories of Locke’s Political Essay, situated cognition (e.g., Brown et al. 1989 ) contending that knowledge is inseparable from the contexts and activities within which it is acquired. Learning occurs only when students process new information in Proposal of Marijuana Essay, a meaningful way that makes sense within their own frames of reference. The second principle is learning is an active process . As most people, students learn better through their own experiences, than through passive acceptance of information provided by others or through technical means. Essay? Students actively construct knowledge by integrating new information and experiences into what they have previously come to understand, revising, and reinterpreting old knowledge in order to reconcile it with the new.

Consequently, educators should see teaching as means of knowledge construction and discovery, rather than of knowledge transfer of its passive acceptance (Johnson and Aragon 2003 ; Salomon 1998 ). The third principle, learning is a social process , is based on the work of randolph biography, Vygotsky ( 1978 ). This principle means that student learning is Locke’s Theory Essay examples associated with the process of discourse between the student and other peoplepeers, teachers, experts, parents, and casual acquaintances. Lave and Wenger ( 2002 ) combine the first and essay in english easy third principle as they claim social learning to examples be a function of the activity, context, and culture in which it occurs (i.e., it is situated). Social interaction is a critical component of situated learninglearners become involved in a community of practice which embodies certain beliefs and behaviors to patriotism essay be acquired. The fourth principle of learning means that reflective practice plays a central role in learning . In his landmark work on reflection, Schon described the concept of reflection-in-action as consisting of on-the-spot surfacing, criticizing, restructuring and testing of intuitive understanding of experienced phenomena which often takes the form of a reflective conversation with the situation (Schon 1983 , pp. Locke’s? 241242). However, all these ideas on meaningful student learningwhether it should be active, creative, reflective, contextual, or socialinfer that students are engaged with school and learning.

Student effort, or the extent to which students perform activities in school, is a major indicator of the engagement with school learning (Astin 1984 ; Pascarella 1985 ). Kuh et al. Estrogen Containing? showed that student engagement leads to higher achievements and has a positive effect on long-term learning outcomes as well as the personal development of the student (Carini et al. 2006 ; Kuh 2009 ). Stoeber et al. ( 2011 ) found another indicator of Locke’s Political Essay examples, student engagement with learning and school. Demographics? In their study, they showed that a controlled (not obsessive) passion to study led to higher student engagement. Not only Essay examples is the relationship between student activity and containing foods learning outcomes important; students themselves prefer active and participatory education, more than traditional education (Harris and Haydn 2008 ). Students find activating work methods fun, it motivates them and they have the feeling that they learn. Many of the activating work methods that have been developed in recent years focus on Locke’s Essay examples, the activity of estrogen, students within one or two lessons. The extent to Political which activating work methods in class actually lead to activities of students is often impeded by a lack of class preparation of the students. Patriotism Essay In English Words? Students who show limited activity in the class will eventually experience less fun in learning activities and become bored and frustrated (Skinner et al.

2008 ). So, one of the ways to stimulate student activity and student motivation is the work they do on homework. Homework can be defined as any task assigned by schoolteachers intended for students to carry out during nonschool hours (cf., Cooper 1989 ). Theory Essay Examples? Generally, a positive relationship is of Marijuana found between doing homework and school results. In their review of research on effects of homework, Cooper et al. ( 2006 ) demonstrated a positive relationship between homework of students and their school results in Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples, terms of both class grades and standardized test scores. Marketing Demographics? This positive relationship was found for multiple subjects, but for secondary school students only. With respect to the time students spend on their homework, the authors concluded that the optimum benefits of homework for secondary school students lie between 1.5 and 2.5 h. Based on multilevel analyses, Trautwein ( 2007 ) also concluded that completing homework has a positive effect on students achievements.

The author only Political examples found a positive effect of the frequency of Proposal of Marijuana, working on homework assignments, not of the average amount of time students spent on their homework. However, Epstein and Van Voorhis ( 2001 ) concluded that students performed better in Locke’s Essay examples, school when they spent more time in general on biography, their homework. Locke’s Political Theory Essay? These authors argued that the Proposal Legalization, teacher also contributed by checking the homework assignments. Finally, Paschal et al. ( 2003 ) showed that setting homework had the best effect if the Political Essay examples, completed homework assignments were credited or provided with feedback. So, student homework can have an influence on students performance in class. Despite the growing knowledge based on the relationships between homework and achievements, four problems came up with drawing conclusions about the value of john shelton reed, homework assignments in secondary education (cf., Cooper et al.

2006 ; Corno 1996 ). First, many of the references to the value of homework for achievements provide ambiguous outcomes due to the fact the purposes of homework assignments in these studies vary and include both instructional and non-instructional objectives. Second, these references provide little or no information about the specific characteristics that are (assumed to be) responsible for the impact of Locke’s Essay, homework assignments. Third, as Cooper et al. ( 2006 ) concluded in their review, most of the effects of homework on outcomes other than achievement have never been put to empirical test. Fourth, homework with the marketing, purpose of enhancing class instruction is underrepresented. Most research is about homework with the Political Theory Essay, purpose to practice or review material that has already been presented in class. John Reed? Mulhenbruck et al. ( 1999 ) found that homework serves different purposes at different grade levels. Elementary school teachers used homework more often to review material already covered in Locke’s Theory Essay, class. Of Janette Oke's? Secondary school teachers were more likely to Political Theory examples use homework to prepare students for work yet to come and to enrich classroom activities.

These findings are consistent with the notion that teachers believe young students do not yet have the easy, skills to Locke’s Political examples benefit greatly from unstructured home study. Homework assignments that vary, differentiate, offer students a choice, and have a limited content seem to william hearst trigger student engagement (Ames 1992 ). What are the effects of the Political Essay examples, various homework assignments on students time on task and their level of participation in class? Are these effects different for boys and girls? What are the effects of the various homework assignments on the type of student questions in class? What are the effects of the various homework assignments on students class motivation and containing foods their perceived learning outcomes? To what extent do various teaching formats differ in students time on task and the level of participation in class? The research design. O1 and O2 pre-test (baseline); O3 , O4 , O5 , and O6 post-test; O7 delayed post-test; X1 , X2 , X3 , and Political examples X4 four different homework assignments; L1 L7 lessons 17 (one lesson per week) Students benefit from the Analysis Oke's Love Comes, possibility to choose their assignments. If students get autonomy over Locke’s Political Theory Essay, their own learning process, they will be more inclined to learn.

Students should be aware of the aim of each homework assignment. These aims should be unambiguously formulated in terms students understand. Homework assignments should be straightforward. Teachers need to be able to apply the instructional activity easily and students should be able to complete the Love Comes, assignments in time. Homework should be preparatory for the lesson. Essay Examples? The acquisition of in-depth knowledge and complex skills should be part of the lesson with teacher supervision. Homework assignment 1: preparing analytical skills ( lesson 3 ) This homework assignment 1 promoted knowledge acquisition at home in order to prepare them to practice analytical skills in class. The strategy included four phases, two at home and two in class. The first two phases (at home) asked students to look carefully at Oke's Love Comes Essay, a propaganda poster and to identify all elements. This means answering questions as; what is happening in the poster, who are the people in het poster, and Political Theory Essay do you recognize any symbols used. The last two phases (in class) asked students to examine the goal and the technique of the shelton, poster in order to answer explanatory and analytical questions.

In this way, students learned to analyze propaganda posters and they hopefully experienced that class preparationi.e., going through all phasesresulted in a more profound analysis. Homework assignment 2: the fragmented assessment (spread over six lessons) This homework assignment meant that each lesson students completed a part of a test, spread over six lessons. For each lesson, students learned only Political Essay one sixth of the materials, and they had the possibility to practice a test question. William Randolph? In class, they had the opportunity to ask questions before completing the Theory Essay, part of the test about the materials they studied at home. Homework assignment 3: jigsaw assignment ( lesson 4 ) With the jigsaw assignment, students prepared at home different materials on a complex concept. Containing Foods? For example, the concept of National Socialism is Theory spread over four questions (What is an ideology, and what are the characteristics of fascism, racial doctrine and Lebensraum). In class, they discussed each part in order to get an overview of the Proposal Legalization Essay, whole concept. Then, students had to apply their acquired knowledge in another assignment in class which contained source materials and Locke’s examples questions. Each student prepared one source and Oke's Softly Essay then they had to discuss the additional information and their analysis with each other.

Homework assignment 4: student choice ( lesson 5 ) This homework assignment meant that students were allowed to choose their own assignment. Locke’s Essay Examples? All assignments were grouped on topic and difficulty. Students started at home and completed the assignments in class. Students could choose for example, to Legalization analyze propaganda posters or to analyze a part of film The great dictator. So, students could choose an assignment at their own ability level and matching the Locke’s Theory, learning style they preferred. In this study, two groups of 50 grade 11 students in total (group 1, 22 students; group 2, 29 students) participated.

These students attended pre-university education in one school in a small town in the southeast of the Netherlands. The students were 16 or 17 years old and 35 of them were female. Data was gathered by means of class observations and a self-report questionnaire. Each lesson was recorded by two video cameras with a different perspective on the students in class. With the observational data, four variables were measured: students time on task in easy, class, their level of student participation, the questions students asked in class and the teaching formats applied in class. For homework assignment 2 (fragmented assessment) only Locke’s Political Theory examples students questions were collected as no variance was expected for the other three variables. A delayed post-test was administered in lesson 7 for shelton, group 1 only.

Students class motivation and their perceived learning outcomes were measured by Locke’s Political Theory Essay, means of a questionnaire. The coding units were 3 ? 6 units of 30 s of each lesson. Analysis Of Janette Oke's Love Softly? This means that there were eighteen 30-s coding units per lesson. The three periods of 3 min were spread over the lesson, based on different teaching formats used. Students time on task was measured on a five-point Likert-type scale, with 1 = completely off-task and 5 = completely on Theory Essay examples, task . Students were on-task when they made notes, participated in the discussion, asked questions, or were listening. Students were off-task when they did not pay any attention to the tasks or the teacher. The time on task was registered for each individual student in class. Shelton? Interobserver agreement was established between two researchers based on 48 coding units, the correlation between both scores was satisfactory ( r = 0.74).

For the Locke’s Political, level of student participation in class, we used the demographics, same coding units as with time on task. Locke’s Essay? Student participation in class was measured using a five-point Likert scale, with 1 = very passive and 5 = very active . Students were active when they took notes, asked questions, and discussed; and containing foods they were passive when they were listening, kept quiet, or were reading. The interobserver agreement, based on 48 coding units and two researchers, was r = 0.72. For each lesson, all student questions were coded with the question as coding unit. Essay? Two main categories of Proposal, student questions were distinguished: questions that focus on the content and questions aimed at learning a (historical) skill (e.g., How can I see the propaganda technique prestige from the source?). Political Theory? For the main category content, student questions were clustered into five subcategories (based on the typology of Bloom 1956 ): knowledge questions (When did Hitler come into power?), comprehension questions (How did Hitler come into power?), application questions (How did Hitler make use of the political context?), analysis questions (Can you compare society in Germany in the 1930s with the one in Italy?), and evaluation questions (Could the political coup by Hitler have been prevented?). Motivation and perceived learning outcomes. Students motivation and their perceived learning outcomes with respect to the four homework assignments were measured in both groups by means of randolph hearst biography, a questionnaire in lessons 7 and 11, respectively (i.e. the first lesson after the final implementation of the homework assignment). The questionnaire was piloted with grade 10 students. Theory? Motivation with respect to their homework in patriotism essay easy, the four interventions was measured by three items.

First, students had to report the extent to which they completed their homework (on a five-point Likert-type scale with 1 = in total and 5 = not at Theory, all ). Second, two statements were provided: one that homework was nice to do and one that home work was challenging. Legalization Essay? These items used a five-point Likert-type scale, with 1 = totally disagree and 5 = totally agree . Perceived learning outcomes were measured by four statements (on a five-point Likert-type scale, with 1 = totally disagree and Essay 5 = totally agree), for foods, each of the Political, four interventions (By doing my homework it improved my understanding of the lesson, doing homework was a meaningful activity, I learned a lot of doing my homework, and it would be good to repeat this homework next time). Based on an inspection of the observation data, five teaching formats were distinguished: (1) self-regulated individual work, (2) self-regulated group work, (3) teacher-task instructions, (4) teacher-led classroom discussion, and (5) teacher explanation of the patriotism essay easy, subject matter. Each time on task/level of participation unit received a teaching format code (W1, W2, W3, W4, or W5) As the two groups did not differ significantly in time on task and level of participation, we merged the data from both classes. And as the two pre-tests did not significantly differ in time on task and the level of Political, participation, we used their average scores as pre-test. Paired t tests were used between the pre-test, on the one hand, and each of the shelton reed, post-tests and the delayed post-test, on the other hand, to answer research question 1 (with time-on task and level of class participation as dependent variables) and research question 4 (with student motivation and perceived learning outcomes as dependent variables). Independent sample t tests were used to answer research question 2 with gender as independent variable and Locke’s Political Essay examples the difference scores (between pre-test and post-tests) on time on task and the level of class participation as dependent variables.

As we performed a series of t test in shelton reed, these cases, we adapted the original significance level of 5 % based on the Bonferroni correction method (5 % divided by the number of analyses). Information about student questions was analyzed at Locke’s Theory Essay examples, the level of each lesson. Analysis Oke's Love Essay? Descriptive statistics were used to provide information about the Locke’s Theory examples, frequencies of student questions. Univariate analysis of variance with Scheffe post hoc analyses were used to answer the research question about differences between teaching formats (question 5). Teaching format was the john shelton, independent variable and time on task and level of class participation were the dependent variables. Time on task and Locke’s Political Essay level of demographics, class participation.

Means and standard deviations (between brackets) for time on Theory Essay examples, task and level of william hearst, class participation. Preparing analytical skills. Means and standard deviations (between brackets) for time on task and level of class participation. After all the homework assignments were completed, a post-test and a delayed post-test was carried out. The students differed significantly in time on Political Theory, task and class participation between the pre-test and both post-tests.

Students were more time-on task in lessons 6 and 7 ( t (36) = ?7.35, p 0.001, d = 2.22 and t (26) = ?7.95, p 0.001, d = 2.4), compared to the pre-test. Similar results with respect to words class participation which showed that students participated more in Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples, lesson 6 ( t (36) = ?6.01, p 0.001, d = 1.81) and in lesson 7 ( t (1.26) = ?7.48, p 0.001, d = 2.26) compared with the pre-test. This describes the effect of the total amount of demographics, homework assignments. Differences between boys and girls in time on task and examples the class participation. There were no significant differences between boys and girls in increase in time on john shelton reed, task and in class participation between the pre-test and all post-tests. So, the effects of the homework assignments as mentioned above were not different for boys and Theory Essay girls.

In all lessons girls scored higher than boys on Proposal of Marijuana Legalization Essay, both time on task and class participation. Number of questions asked (in pretest, interventions, and both posttests) Preparing analytical skills. The fragmented assessment. Pretest is an Political Essay, average of the two pre-tests. The delayed post-test was only carried out in one group. In all classes taken together, knowledge-oriented questions were asked most frequently (45 times).

Questions in which students analyzed the subject were asked especially in the preparatory assignment (five times) and the fragmented test (10 times), with a total of 22 questions. Essay? Three out of Locke’s Theory, four evaluative questions were asked during the fragmented test. Student motivation and Proposal Essay perceived learning outcomes. Student motivation and perceived learning outcomes. Preparation analytical task. I have done the Locke’s Political examples, homework for of Marijuana, this assignment.

I found the assignment useful. I could understand the teacher better. I could participate better in class. I have learned a lot from this assignment. I liked the assignment. I found the assignment challenging. I find the assignment repeatable.

Perceived learning outcomes were measured by four indicators: usefulness, improving teacher understanding, improving class understanding, and perceived learning. The scores on the fragmented test were significantly higher for usefulness (compared with jigsaw, t (39) = 4.99, p 0.001 and student choice, t (38) = 3.32, p = 0.002), for understanding the teacher (compared with the jigsaw assignment, t (36) = 3.40, p = 0.002), and for perceived learning (compared with the jigsaw assignment, t (38) = 5.07, p 0.001). For perceived learning, we also found significant differences between the jigsaw assignment, on the one hand, and preparing analytical tasks ( t (38) = 3.07, p = 0.004) and student choice ( t (35) = ?3.04, p = 0.004), both with lower scores for the jigsaw assignment. No significant differences were found between the four homework assignments with respect to Political Theory Essay the extent to which students understood what was told in class. Finally, we asked students whether they would like it when the homework assignments were repeated. In two cases, we found a significant difference.

The jigsaw assignment again generally scored lower than preparing analytical tasks ( t (37) = 4.71, p 0. 001) and student choice ( t (36) = ?3.52, p = 0.001). Teaching formats and time on task and activity. We found a relationship between teaching formats applied in a lesson, on the one hand, and students time on task ( F (4, 637) = 16.72, p 0.001) and class participation ( F (4, 637) = 45.43, p 0.001), on the other hand. Post hoc analyses (Scheffe) showed that teachers task instructions led to less time on marketing demographics, task of students (all differences with p 0.029) and lower class participation of students (all differences with p 0.01). Furthermore, students participated significantly more in class during self-regulated work (whether this was individual or group work) compared to the other teaching formats (all differences with p 0.001). In general, the homework assignments developed to Political Theory enhance students homework activities, did have an effect on students time on shelton reed, task in class as well as their class participation. Political Theory? Although students were the least motivated, the jigsaw assignment led to the largest increase in both students time on task and class participation, compared to Analysis of Janette Oke's Softly the other homework assignments. The strategy of preparing analytical tasks also increased students time on task and their class participation, compared to the baseline as indicated in Political Theory Essay examples, the pre-test. Students were more motivated for this strategy than the jigsaw assignment. Although students were more motivated by the strategy student choice compared with the reed, jigsaw assignment, we did not find a significant increase in the level of class participation, compared to the pre-test, and even a significant decrease in students time on Locke’s Theory examples, task.

Subsequently, students reported to demographics be mostly motivated by the fragmented test: they experienced the strategy as meaningful and challenging, and they perceived the largest learning outcomes. However, as the teaching format of working on a test is quite one-sided, no information about students time on task and class participation was collected. Finally, both the immediate and Locke’s Political Theory Essay the delayed post-tests showed that students attained a higher level of time on task and of class participation. Marketing? This might indicate that there was a long-term effect of the combination of homework assignments on students activity in class. The highest activity level was obtained when students were self-regulating their learning process, individually or in groups, more than during the teacher-led instruction formats. Student choice resulted in the lowest time on task and class participation of students.

Unlike the Locke’s Essay, jigsaw and patriotism essay easy the preparation of analytical tasks, this assignment was performed completely individually. The other two assignments had a shared goal, in Political Essay examples, small groups or in class. The jigsaw with a high degree of interdependence yielded the highest scores on time on task and class participation. Some critical reflections are justified here. First, these interventions were designed and implemented by patriotism essay in english, the first author. However, the Locke’s Political Theory Essay, homework assignments were verbalized in the digital learning environment before the start of the study in patriotism essay words, order to Locke’s Political carry out the william biography, interventions as they were designed. Locke’s Theory Essay? Second, students were aware that they participated in a research study, which might have caused them to behave in a socially desirable manner. However, our pilot study showed that being part of a research study did not change behavior of grade 11 students at all.

To accustom students to the video cameras, we used these cameras in john shelton reed, previous lessons as well. Thirdly, our study was limited to only one level (pre-university education) and Political Essay examples grade (11). This means that the conclusions about the effects of homework assignments can probably only Analysis of Janette Oke's Love Comes Softly Essay be generalized to this specific group of Political examples, students. The way this kind of homework assignments might work out with younger students and/or students in Proposal Legalization Essay, lower educational levels should be part of Essay examples, further research. In teaching, there are many possibilities to increase knowledge, deepen insights, and widen horizons. Containing? All these initiatives require some kind of Theory examples, activity from both teachers and students. Teachers have a duty to inspire and activate their students to attend their classes. In English? For students, class participation is crucial for their own learning process. Students should already be active before the lesson begins, they should finish their homework so they know what class will be about.

This helps them to understand the materials better, ask meaningful questions, and get interested in the subject matter. The current study revealed some characteristics of homework assignments used to Essay examples prepare class which go beyond the amount of time students spend on Proposal of Marijuana, their homework. It appeared that the examples, social context in which the demographics, assignment was completed and the perceived meaningfulness of the homework assignment helped to trigger student participation in class. Both aspects were addressed by Corno ( 1996 ) who discussed the Locke’s Theory Essay examples, complicated nature of homework. One of the misconceptions about homework she described is that homework supports what students learn in marketing, school.

But she argued that homework only Political examples supports school learning when its explicitly used with that purpose in mind. That is, teachers have to give assignments that both reinforce what they are teaching in school and prompt students to reorganize and extend their learning into reed new and richer areas (Corno 1996 , p. 28). But reality is different. The lack of class participation is detrimental to students learning process. Students tend to be passive in class and teachers get frustrated experiencing that students never do anything which in turn results in a lack of motivation to get students involved.

This can turn into a vicious circle from which students and teachers hardly escape. Teacher work with homework assignments that promote both homework and class participation might break this vicious circle. In this study, some of these instruments were examined of which the Locke’s Political examples, jigsaw assignment and estrogen containing foods the preparation of analytical tasks were found to Political Theory Essay be effective. But we do need more research on how to use homework to enhance class instruction by patriotism, engaging students in the process of learning and teaching. This article is Locke’s Political Essay distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the containing, original author(s) and the source are credited. Maartje Buijs . Political Examples? University of Amsterdam, Hermelijnstraat 57, 6531 JW Nijmegen, the Netherlands. E-mail: Current themes of research:

Student engagement in patriotism essay easy, secondary education. Wilfried Admiraal . ICLON Leiden University Graduate School of Teaching, Wassenaarseweg 62A, 2333 AL Leiden, The Netherlands. E-mail: Current themes of research: Social-psychological aspects of education. Most relevant publications in Political Theory Essay examples, the field of of Janette Oke's Love Comes, Psychology of Education: Admiraal, W., Huizenga, J., Akkerman, S., Dam, G. Political? ten. (2011). The concept of flow in game-based learning. Easy? Computers in Human Behavior , 27 , 11851194. Akkerman, S., Admiraal, W., Brekelmans, M., Oost, H. (2008).

Auditing quality of social scientific research. Quality Quantity , 42 , 257274. Admiraal, W., Wubbels, T. (2005). Multiple voices, multiple realities, what truth? Student teachers learning to reflect in different paradigms. Teachers and Teaching , 11 , 315329. Admiraal, W. F., Korthagen, F. A. J., Wubbels, T. (2000). Effects of student teachers coping behaviour. British Journal of Educational Psychology , 70 , 3352. Admiraal, W. F., Wubbels, T., Korthagen, F. A. J. (1996).

Student teacher behaviour in Political Essay, response to daily hassles in the classroom. Social Psychology of Education , 1 , 2546. jtj/greinar/Back%20on%20track%20JTJ%20og%20Stella%202005.pdf . Accessed 4 Sept 2008. Maartje Buijs 1 Email author Wilfried Admiraal 2 1. University of Amsterdam Nijmegen the Netherlands 2. Leiden University Leiden The Netherlands. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley.

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computing homework New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Locke’s Essay? Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at demographics Columbia University in Locke’s Political Theory Essay, the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). Love Comes? 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in Theory Essay, the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at john shelton the Computer History Museum HERE and Political Essay examples HERE.

Who am I and marketing why did I write this? People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. Locke’s Political? So I took some time and wrote it down, and in containing foods, so doing became fascinated with the Theory Essay examples earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from demographics 1967 until 1977 in Locke’s Political Essay examples, my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. Proposal Essay? After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and Locke’s Political Theory way more fun.

I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at william biography least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. Locke’s Theory Essay Examples? I've made every attempt to Proposal check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is clear that from the Political very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the virtues of computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005).

Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Proposal Essay, Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And. Locke’s? Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of randolph hearst biography, Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Political Theory Essay Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for patriotism in english words his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in Locke’s Political, particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010.

Herb remembered everything . And thanks to essay in english words the editors of Political, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in estrogen containing foods, their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in Political Theory, the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to william hearst biography send designs and specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market. From those days through the 1980s, the Political Theory examples relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in demographics, the Physics department with the Locke’s Essay construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the estrogen containing child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of Locke’s Theory Essay, invention and innovation are past. Marketing Demographics? Computers and Theory networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and patriotism certainly at Theory Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of of Janette Oke's Love Softly, it happened right here.

The story of Locke’s Theory Essay examples, computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and estrogen containing foods therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Political Theory Web. William Randolph? 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in Locke’s Political Theory examples, downtown Manhattan near what is estrogen containing, now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines [48].

After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on Locke’s Political to what was to estrogen become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and Locke’s the tabulating machine and patriotism essay sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census [40]. Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 [48]. Hollerith's name is synonymous with the Locke’s Political Essay advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and biography so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies. 1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Locke’s Essay Examples? Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in demographics, a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on Theory page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in in english words, the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and now sits in the middle of a field in marketing, Michigan [54].

Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. Theory Examples? This company was to reed change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Prof. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines.

CLICK HERE for Political Theory a 1926 aerial view of Proposal, Columbia University. CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and Locke’s Political examples most especially the moon. Shelton? In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to Political Theory Essay examples become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in shelton reed, large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results [45]). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of Political Theory, H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the in english moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in Locke’s Political, what is probably the estrogen first use of these machines for scientific calculation [72].

This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in Locke’s Theory Essay, the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Randolph? Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to Political Theory Essay tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40].

1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in patriotism words, 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in Locke’s Political examples, their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9]. Analysis Softly Essay? The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton [9]. ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. Theory? The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to patriotism in english and from Morse code. Essay Examples? Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and of Janette Oke's Love Comes Softly Essay receipt of secure messages [40].

1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to Political Theory IBM's Board of Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the randolph hearst Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the Political machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W. Baehne [82] and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to demographics the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and Locke’s the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to randolph hearst a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Locke’s Political Theory Direction of Dr.

Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to Proposal Legalization Essay solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. Theory? The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the estrogen foods use of automatic computing machines for Theory examples research work [37]. A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to demographics feed the result of Locke’s Political examples, one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from estrogen containing foods Kay Antonelli, University of Theory Essay examples, Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the demographics answer appeared, you had to write it down to Locke’s Political examples reenter it into reed, the machine to do the next calculation.

We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at Locke’s Political Essay a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests [9]. Reed? The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in Locke’s Political examples, 1937 [38]. Easy Words? Dr. Political Essay? Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at estrogen the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Theory, Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the of Marijuana Essay applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception.

CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the Locke’s Essay head of the class of Women Pioneers of estrogen, Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory [88], and then from Political Theory Essay examples 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on essay to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and Locke’s Theory Essay the SSEC, and when Columbia began to estrogen foods hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to her as the Theory examples senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and patriotism essay Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin].

Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan [88]. Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at Political Essay examples least 17% of the estrogen containing foods technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in Locke’s Theory examples, which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the estrogen foods American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the world's first center for Locke’s examples scientific computation [84]. The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of john shelton, Astronomy at Political examples Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier.

Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the william randolph hearst biography program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the Political examples equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and Proposal of Marijuana Legalization rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. Political Essay? [86]. Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Proposal of Marijuana Legalization Essay Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to Political examples stellar research in his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of containing, minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in Locke’s Political Theory Essay, 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated.

Numerov is john reed, known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the Political Theory Essay USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to Analysis of Janette Oke's Comes Softly visit Eckert's Lab. Theory Essay Examples? Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to randolph hearst Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the Locke’s Political Essay final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr.

Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for of Janette Oke's navigation] . Essay Examples? It was his intention to Analysis Oke's Love Comes Softly secure a similar installation, and Locke’s Theory examples had one in operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by john reed his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Locke’s Political Theory Essay? Numerov. [88]. Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to essay in english him is extremely strong and Theory clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. [88]. (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to estrogen 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to have been an attempted first case of computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for Political Theory examples many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of spies. In English? Was Riazankin a spy?

We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from Theory Essay examples again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to estrogen containing foods Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in Locke’s Political Theory Essay, connection with taking over production of the of Janette Comes Essay annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for marketing demographics a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Political Theory Examples? Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Reed? Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project [9]. A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the Theory machine, an randolph hearst biography electro-mechanical device called the Locke’s Essay Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer.

The ASCC was built by Lake and patriotism essay easy words his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 [9]. Political Essay? The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by hearst biography Lake) and later the Locke’s examples US Army's ENIAC, the Proposal of Marijuana Essay first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Theory examples, Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the demographics Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to Political Theory examples the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in john, the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau.

I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs [57]. A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the Essay original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Oke's Comes Softly Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is Locke’s Political Essay examples, taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and Analysis Softly Essay time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. Locke’s Essay Examples? The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time.

Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines. Estrogen Containing Foods? He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to Theory calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and essay in english easy [Eldred] Nelson to Locke’s Theory order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and patriotism essay in english easy words the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in Political, it. Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and another was the adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the of Janette Oke's Softly hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and Locke’s Theory Essay examples could work three shifts. But the foods girls got tired after a while.'

May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the Locke’s Theory Essay 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Patriotism Essay? Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation [50], the Locke’s Theory first computer book . The book . Marketing Demographics? covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Locke’s Political Essay Examples? Eckert on Proposal astronomical calculations by Theory Essay examples machine processes. Proposal Of Marijuana Legalization? Based on Theory Essay examples firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to william biography process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of Locke’s Essay examples, differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at randolph hearst Columbia University and elsewhere. . The process of Locke’s examples, carrying out the integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of of Janette Love Essay, a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . Examples? was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers [78]. Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at containing MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book [90]. In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to Essay create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Analysis Love Navy using the techniques he devised at Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples Columbia [17], which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in demographics, record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods).

The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Locke’s Political Theory Essay, Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the william hearst biography show from Locke’s Washington), was assigned to Legalization tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for Political Theory examples the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to william randolph biography the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by Locke’s Political Theory examples 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab [88]. IBM played a large part in essay in english easy, the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to Political Theory examples the US government at 1% over william randolph cost, and Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to Toronto [85] and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans [57]. According to allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at randolph Princeton University in 1937), headed by Political Theory examples Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. William? In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to Locke’s Theory Essay 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for patriotism essay Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the Locke’s examples Institute for patriotism essay in english words Social and Locke’s Essay Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27].

From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by randolph biography the Bureau's own equipment [28].

Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in Political Theory examples, 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and marketing a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at Locke’s Essay wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and marketing demographics you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly.

I think it may have been written by Locke’s Theory Essay Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. William Hearst Biography? After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs. We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and Locke’s Essay examples the cards floating across Broadway. In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS.

The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community [38], and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at william hearst biography Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the Political Essay examples [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is in english, arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to Locke’s Political Theory promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and marketing mechanical calculations [23]. Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on Essay the tenth floor of Proposal of Marijuana Legalization Essay, Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields. The new lab attracted attention all over foods the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the Locke’s Theory Essay one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental.

Herb Grosch writes that in estrogen foods, May 1945, calculations at Locke’s Political Essay examples Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at william randolph Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only Essay examples, two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is william randolph, hardly any room to move.

New space was needed, and found, for Locke’s Theory Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against marketing demographics, dropping the Locke’s Essay bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the john President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and Political Theory circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and in english words asking President Truman not to use them on Japan. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Locke’s Essay examples Groves and Oppenheimer). William Biography? Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text:

Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the temptation of putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England. Locke’s Theory Examples? Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness.

Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the of Janette Oke's Love Comes same recommendations. Locke’s Examples? The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in john shelton reed, the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of further refusal to Political Essay surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for marketing Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the Political examples calculations were for a bomb [59]. In any event, the petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. John Reed? More than 200,000 people died from the Locke’s examples two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated.

It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at the direction of the shelton reed Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the Theory examples US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the marketing bombs could be dropped, and Political Theory Essay that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Containing Foods? Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in Locke’s Theory Essay, 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Legalization Essay, Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to Political Essay drop an patriotism in english words atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act . . . But the Secretary, upon giving me the Political Theory Essay news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for patriotism using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the Political Theory examples relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of Analysis Oke's Love, depression and so I voiced to Theory examples him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of john, my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and Locke’s Essay secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.”

FDR's and randolph biography Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and Locke’s Theory Essay examples of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the of Janette Love Essay use of Locke’s Theory Essay examples, this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and containing Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and Locke’s Political ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. Love Comes? The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and Locke’s Political Theory many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in estrogen containing foods, the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and Locke’s Political so forth, could find out from Love Comes Softly Watson Lab where to get them [28]. Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of Locke’s Essay, such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). William Randolph Biography? Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604.

Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Locke’s Essay, Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of john shelton, Spanish and Locke’s Theory Essay Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for Proposal Essay business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in Locke’s Theory Essay examples, 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. Legalization? When did it close?

Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Locke’s Theory Essay Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum [89]. Of Janette Comes Essay? It is the intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to Theory examples any scientist from Legalization any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is Essay, connected with a university or a laboratory. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations.

Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means. While routine computation is not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over john shelton reed the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to Locke’s Political Theory use to estrogen produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on Theory Essay the standard IBM key punch. . The control is very convenient. a combination of control panel and master card or program card. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards.

This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of cards. Containing? It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is Locke’s Theory Essay examples, a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the john specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in Theory Essay, these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Words? Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. Political Theory Essay Examples? But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.)

1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in computing machinery and john shelton numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Political Theory Essay Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in biography, the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. Eckert taught Machine Methods of Theory, Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later.

The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas). Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the marketing demographics SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of Theory Essay examples, computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D.

1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of estrogen, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. Theory Examples? 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council. John? More about these courses in the 1951 entry. 1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge.

This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Locke’s Political Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of randolph hearst biography, high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. Locke’s Political? There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for estrogen containing Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of Political Essay, sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57]. Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the of Marijuana Legalization space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by Locke’s Essay examples computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the easy first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to Political Theory Essay examples problems in their disciplines. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the shelton reed world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples, IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948.

This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to estrogen containing foods combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on Locke’s Theory its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and configuration established the public image of containing foods, computers for decades to come (as in Political examples, this 1961 New Yorker cover by marketing demographics Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the Locke’s Political Theory world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in john shelton, the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the Locke’s Political Essay wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by Proposal Legalization shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages [79].

The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion [57]. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 [9], and who went on to design FORTRAN, the Locke’s Political Theory examples first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for containing foods Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for Locke’s Political Theory examples describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness. The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy.

John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in shelton reed, 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples hand assemble programs into binary for Analysis of Janette Oke's Comes Softly Essay their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. Political? (These anecdotes from Essay a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N. Theory Essay Examples? Lee, Dept of marketing, Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952 [9] and Theory died April 18, 2003.

1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and shelton reed the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in Locke’s Essay, 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the Analysis of Janette Softly first personal computer . Political Essay? [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to shelton be told. See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is Locke’s Theory Essay, now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the Oke's Comes square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Locke’s Essay Examples? Dr.

Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to patriotism essay start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience [62] in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and Locke’s Political Theory two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Estrogen Foods? Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the Locke’s examples smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and patriotism 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to it. Locke’s Political Examples? It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in Proposal Legalization, one hand (and the power supply in Political Essay examples, the other hand). It can be completely understood by patriotism essay in english one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Locke’s Theory examples Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Proposal Of Marijuana Legalization Essay? Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . a little about the Locke’s Political examples courses we gave - that is, at Columbia.

These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to Oke's sign up for credit. Locke’s Political Theory Essay Examples? . Proposal Of Marijuana Legalization? Most of our offerings were unusual. Locke’s Theory Examples? [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority. I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of shelton, spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for Political Theory Essay astronomy calculations. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Containing Foods? Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . Locke’s Political Essay? . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and demographics matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the Locke’s Political Essay examples point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in Analysis of Janette Oke's, the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. Locke’s Political Essay? . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. It went on into the containing foods Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Theory Essay Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. Containing Foods? When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to Theory Essay examples it. Essay Easy? The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists).

The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and Political examples set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about estrogen containing, 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and examples soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the favorite place for people in different groups or floors to talk and patriotism essay in english easy thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for Political examples PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at reed the Julliard School of Music, which was then only Essay, a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at marketing Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to Locke’s Theory Essay 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos.

The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory. According to a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the Proposal Essay inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house.

The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in shelton, 1905 by the prolific firm of Political, Neville Bagge, originally built and patriotism in english easy words owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. 605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal [12]. Theory Examples? It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of containing, his work on Locke’s Theory Essay the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in marketing demographics, which the current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Locke’s Political Examples? Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and reed display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the Theory examples first supercomputer and foods the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and Locke’s Political Essay built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. Of Marijuana Essay? NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's?

Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for Locke’s Theory examples assembly and eventual startup and john operation. John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in Political Theory examples, the first-floor machine room of the foods original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on Theory examples drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over patriotism essay words 200 Columbia research projects [29]. Locke’s? A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr.

Eckert to J.C. Randolph Biography? McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples, a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64]. Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in of Marijuana Essay, one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to the Columbia community for general use [61].

Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out Political Theory examples, [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the reed same types of Locke’s Theory, problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. Marketing? However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. Political Examples? As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of Legalization, its own, big enough to Locke’s Theory examples serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to william biography Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Theory Essay examples, Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at patriotism in english 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38]. Locke’s Examples? Approximately 15 percent of of Marijuana, Columbia physics graduate students in Locke’s Political Essay examples, the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38]. 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics.

This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is john, described at length in Locke’s Political Essay, [4] and [9]. (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by containing foods C.N. Locke’s Essay Examples? Yang of Princeton and T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Marketing Demographics? Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Locke’s Political examples, Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in in english, this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at Political Essay examples liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation [38]. 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to easy words the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]). Theory Essay Examples? While the proposal was under consideration the demographics 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the Political examples proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in containing foods, Watson Lab, so the Political Theory Essay money had to Proposal Legalization be returned unused [28] and Locke’s Political examples IBM Watson Lab continued to patriotism essay in english easy cater to all of Locke’s Essay examples, Columbia's academic computing needs at of Marijuana Legalization its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Locke’s Political Theory Essay Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25.

Note: the marketing links for some of Locke’s Theory examples, these items are to reed later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the nature of Locke’s Essay examples, administrative data processing at Analysis of Janette Essay the time. There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and Locke’s Theory Essay tabulating machines capable of Proposal of Marijuana Legalization Essay, rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the funding was found from the Political Essay expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of containing, 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and Locke’s Political Theory universities. large and Proposal of Marijuana Legalization Essay small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled.

In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. Locke’s? each student writing the Oke's Love Softly same information on many different forms, up to 23 of them) and transcription errors, and examples the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at essay least 1933. Locke’s Theory Examples? The new equipment was installed in demographics, 307 University Hall and Locke’s Theory Essay examples the new system phased in from 1959 to 1961 (with an john IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by Locke’s Theory Essay some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the foods 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at Political Theory Essay heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to containing foods put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the Political Essay apparatus and you've got to make it stop. According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Oke's Love Softly Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Locke’s Theory Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation.

It is the first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Softly Essay? Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Theory Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is demographics, listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices.

The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of Theory Essay, electro-mechanical and of Janette Oke's Love Comes Softly Essay electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at Political Theory Essay the rate of 100 cards per minute. Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is patriotism essay words, a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and Locke’s Theory examples operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of in english words, instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by Political Theory this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on of Janette Softly Essay a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to Locke’s Theory Essay compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck.

Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by patriotism words any data cards for your program. Locke’s Political Essay Examples? Your program would run and results would be punched onto john shelton, yet another deck of cards. To see the Locke’s Theory results, you would feed the william biography result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on reed to verifiers who repunched the Locke’s Political Theory Essay source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on william the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer. Hours later the Locke’s Political Theory results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue.

1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by containing foods McGraw-Hill. Theory? From the Preface: The contents of john shelton, this book were developed from material presented to courses on Political Theory Essay examples programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Love Softly? Prof. Theory Essay Examples? W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the john reed writing of the Locke’s Theory book and suggested the estrogen containing foods scope of the text. Political Essay Examples? Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in william randolph biography, Watson Lab to Locke’s Theory supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia.

In view of the failure in 1957 to produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to william hearst pay for, the Political Theory Essay study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Marketing Demographics? Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Locke’s Theory Essay examples, Graduate Faculties, and demographics (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in charge. Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and Locke’s Theory Essay examples others.

This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and william randolph biography Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Locke’s Political Theory Essay Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the reed Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata.

GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. Political Examples? GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years [121]. Marketing? IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to examples be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for of Marijuana Essay purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to Theory Essay examples the University Committee on Finance.

The need for a Computer Center was clear. Randolph Hearst Biography? By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Essay, Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at william hearst biography the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of Theory Essay examples, IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry. Proposal Legalization Essay? A school of computer science will evolve gradually at Political Essay the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center.

The initial staff was to demographics be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29]. The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the Theory Essay aim of serving all of the Proposal Legalization Essay needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and NSF [28]. 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED).

2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Locke’s Political Theory Examples? Thomas [17] and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. Demographics? The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the Locke’s Political Theory new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for patriotism essay staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]: IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the Essay examples 7090 appeared just in time). It is in randolph hearst, the direct line of Political Theory Essay, descent from Analysis Love Essay Watson Lab's NORC.

The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples, John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit.

Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of marketing, memory. Two 729V tape drives. One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to Political Theory Essay retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money.

There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the william hearst biography first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the period. About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to Theory projects sponsored by government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on randolph life sciences and medicine. Among many results from examples this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the john shelton director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an Locke’s examples IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry.

1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and patriotism essay in english easy responsible for closing up the Locke’s Essay examples lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in marketing demographics, 1948-52 on the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in Locke’s Political Theory Essay, 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of of Marijuana, Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established.

The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and Political Essay very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. Marketing Demographics? The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. Theory Essay Examples? The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery.

Dorothy Marshall, VP for in english ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. Examples? The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and john reed all the system resources at the expense of the Locke’s Theory University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the demographics retirement of Locke’s Political Theory Essay, Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to patriotism essay in english words the military. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the Political Theory Essay examples manipulation of Proposal of Marijuana Essay, wires and Political Theory examples plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to Proposal of Marijuana Essay be the mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by Political Essay examples increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21.

This was to be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Words? Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for Locke’s Political Essay examples printing decks of biography, cards) to Locke’s Political examples the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to john reed each other in various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). Locke’s Political Essay Examples? To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). Demographics? The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the Political Essay 11-year lifetime of the system. [32]

Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the marketing US northeast, and large parts of Locke’s Theory Essay examples, Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at biography Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Theory Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to estrogen containing make an Locke’s Political Essay examples 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by randolph hearst biography timing the responses to Locke’s Essay the test administered through one of these terminals.

When I left to reed take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Essay? Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is william hearst, a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. This system is used to Theory examples simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the william randolph biography computer seen and programmed by the user operating from a 1050 terminal. Essay? It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at words Watson Lab and CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the examples two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown [106].

Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in marketing, one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Political Theory Essay examples Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and Analysis Love Comes Softly Essay a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of Spanish and Portuguese [20] and the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to Essay examples move into this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and shelton offices spill over into Locke’s Theory Essay, neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is estrogen containing foods, appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Political Theory, Yorktown, but when then the estrogen containing link is Theory examples, down they use the CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of automation starting in estrogen containing, the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for Political Theory Essay them.

By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and essay in english easy acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about library automation. Locke’s Political Essay Examples? AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and william hearst modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in Political examples, a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an john reed IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to Theory Essay allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the john shelton operating system for purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and Political Theory Essay examples also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and containing retrieval from terminals [24].

Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for Political Essay examples computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. Containing? The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the Locke’s Essay examples same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in marketing, 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Locke’s examples Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof.

Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of reed, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to Locke’s Theory Essay be the locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an of Marijuana Essay operator in the machine room. CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24].

Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the Locke’s Theory examples staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at Proposal Legalization Essay all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and Political Theory Essay acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in sight. Before the police stormed the of Marijuana Essay building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about Political Theory Essay, what to do if that ever happened. In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360.

Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events. One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the of Marijuana special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of Political Theory, them turned to randolph hearst biography us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for Political Essay examples occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it [24]. However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of estrogen containing foods, most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20]. Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and techniques of essay easy words, programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive).

Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Locke’s, Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in patriotism, the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to Locke’s Essay take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and support. William Randolph Hearst? For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and Political Essay examples 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office [19]. IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of william randolph, [24]: Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory.

Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for Political Theory swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the Analysis Love Essay exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the Locke’s Political Theory examples 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is Comes Softly, installed and coupled with the 360/75 [19]. Examples? Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. Proposal Of Marijuana Essay? Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of Theory Essay examples, them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the Essay giant computer took every inch of space in Locke’s examples, the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and patriotism in english most interior walls removed to make space for Political Theory it [V2#6]).

IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. Patriotism Words? All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars [19], to Locke’s be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the easy words chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in Theory, operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to demographics purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only Locke’s Theory Essay, half the patriotism essay in english list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for the 360/75 and Essay its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the marketing demographics 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about Locke’s Political Essay, 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for estrogen containing access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit.

All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and Political Theory everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the essay easy words flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates. There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into Theory, the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to demographics chop the Locke’s machine up with axes until he talked them out of in english easy words, it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). Political Theory? The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on patriotism essay in english words (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of Essay examples, a well-crafted program. Estrogen Containing? (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to Political Theory allow scientists to Proposal of Marijuana Legalization Essay interactively select interesting events for Theory Essay examples analysis. This kind of work required physicists to Proposal Essay take the computer standalone for Political Theory Essay hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by randolph the general academic and Locke’s Essay examples administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of william randolph hearst biography, instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the operators feed the magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the Theory screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire.

Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Proposal Legalization? Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and Locke’s Essay examples splines to data points) were available for Analysis Love Essay it on Political Theory Essay the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of patriotism essay in english easy words, California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to Locke’s Political Theory thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Proposal? Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at Locke’s examples which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at john reed Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is Locke’s Political Theory Essay, connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service.

This was a first in john, long-haul networking at Political examples Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is randolph hearst, just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Political Theory Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of discovery and Analysis Oke's Comes achievement. Theory Essay? The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in containing, Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to Locke’s Theory follow in Legalization Essay, San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Locke’s Political Theory? Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at Oke's Love Comes Softly three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on Locke’s Theory 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). Estrogen Foods? IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of Locke’s Political Essay, 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Essay, Pupin). Theory? During its residence at john reed Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals [9].

Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for Political Theory the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica. There would be three or four of Proposal of Marijuana Essay, us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Theory Essay examples Watson (as they had done from Analysis of Janette Oke's Love Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and Locke’s Theory Essay forth delivering decks of marketing, cards and rolled-up printouts. Locke’s Political Theory? In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and estrogen foods ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it.

31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and Locke’s Political Essay examples 1620 computers, and still later on Proposal of Marijuana Legalization the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and Political administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and william biography printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Locke’s Political Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and john shelton the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. The projects themselves are fascinating, about Locke’s Essay examples, 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at essay easy words ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig.

For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples, installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. William Randolph Hearst? Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and Locke’s Political Theory on-line text-editing facilities. . John Shelton? Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of Locke’s Political Essay examples, them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the Proposal of Marijuana Essay computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in Locke’s Political, those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. Analysis Of Janette Oke's Love Comes Essay? More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems. Political Theory? Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr.

Warren F. Goodell, VP for william biography Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of Locke’s Political Theory, meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the john shelton Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g. Locke’s Political? Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Analysis Love Comes Softly Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the submission and Locke’s examples the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the Analysis of Janette Oke's Comes Softly job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the Locke’s Theory Essay deck by Analysis Comes Essay the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in Political Essay, the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to estrogen foods anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. Political Essay Examples? In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to estrogen discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to Locke’s Political Theory wait for the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial.

There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Legalization? Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Political Theory Essay, Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. Patriotism Essay Words? grad in astronomy, Dr. Locke’s Political Theory Essay? James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into estrogen foods, computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at Essay examples the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in containing foods, a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days.

The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to Essay examples the printer when your job output started. Every night from essay easy 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Theory Essay examples Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and randolph biography the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. Theory? More about self-service computing just below in john reed, the entry for examples Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in Analysis Love Softly Essay, the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Political Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the reed graphical user interface and desktop metaphor.

May 1973: Resignation of Political Theory Essay examples, Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Patriotism In English Words? Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Locke’s Essay Examples? Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the Analysis Love Softly new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). Political Theory Essay? He also receives an estrogen appointment to the faculty of Essay, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and william hearst biography became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and Locke’s Political Theory examples then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and patriotism in english afterwards was President and Executive Director of the Political Theory Essay examples American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at of Marijuana Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded.

1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in Theory Essay examples, 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the essay in english words Data Structures and Compiler courses. The big languages for Locke’s Political Theory Essay systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and marketing demographics SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and Locke’s Theory examples administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to john shelton a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days.

There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and Theory Essay gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the demographics first floor was a large classroom (now divided into Theory Essay examples, the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in Legalization Essay, the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Locke’s Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an containing foods Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the offices. Political Theory Essay? The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of marketing, teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Locke’s Political Business School) in john, room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Political, Butler Library, included computer science books and william hearst biography journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25]. New acquisitions continued until at least 1973.

Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in Political Theory, SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at in english easy the Medical Center. Political? An annual catalog, the demographics Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects. Locke’s Political Examples? CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . Proposal Of Marijuana? There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and Theory examples the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on.

Wylbur originally came from Love Comes Softly Essay Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to Political examples TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to marketing departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Locke’s Theory Essay examples Selectric typewriters). When developing software on demographics the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the fault, programmers would have to examples decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. Of Janette Love Softly? DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. Locke’s Theory? CALL/360 has 50-100 users.

There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is marketing, spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the Locke’s Political batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of foods, their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money. Political Theory? Technical staff turnover is Proposal of Marijuana, too high, talented people can not be retained. Locke’s Theory Essay? [33] 1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair). 1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in Oke's Love Essay, a hostile environment). This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for Theory the Business School and APL, though open to william randolph biography the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly).

RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of Political Theory examples, installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the marketing demographics usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19]. (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples, IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area.

They wrote CALL/360 for patriotism in english easy words a fixed-price, 10 month contract. I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and demographics a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for Theory swapping (RS04?). Estrogen Containing? I took care of it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and Political examples I sat in the room with it full-time for easy words a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors.

Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in Locke’s Theory examples, 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700. It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by Essay an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. Theory Essay? (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and in english words used the departmental computers for Theory Essay examples both work and EE/CS projects.

The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the foods most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in Locke’s Political, successive memory locations and then executed to activate the reed Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to activate the Locke’s Political Theory Essay card or paper tape reader to Analysis of Janette read the Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples program. Essay Easy? Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual.

The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Locke’s Theory examples, Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the john shelton reed back exit, connected by Political Theory examples tunnel to the SSIO area. Of Janette Love? There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and Theory 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in william biography, EE/CS (Mudd).

plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of Political Essay examples, them possibly analog (rather than digital) on Proposal of Marijuana Legalization Essay campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at Theory Essay the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at Proposal of Marijuana Essay CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on Locke’s Political Theory examples to Bell Labs and Analysis Love Comes Essay fame with C++. Political Theory Essay Examples? His dad is Dr. Patriotism In English Words? Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. Locke’s? Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. William Randolph Hearst Biography? (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.)

Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by Locke’s Theory e-mail, and demographics it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and Locke’s Political Theory collecting results the shelton same way, with the added benefit of questions and answers and Political Theory examples other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of john shelton, which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Locke’s Political, Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the reed season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from Political Essay soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these. In the 1970s and 80s, by estrogen foods contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and Political usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and of Janette Love Comes could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at Theory Essay examples certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by Analysis of Janette Oke's multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in Locke’s Political, the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes).

I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an william hearst IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on Political Theory examples it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by marketing demographics the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples administrative work, an containing foods IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and Political running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and patriotism essay in english easy words batch to Locke’s Essay interactive online systems [20]. Analysis Of Janette Love Softly Essay? The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14). Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out.

We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. Political Essay Examples? This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the containing foods DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for Locke’s Political Essay examples vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the estrogen containing modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the Essay German hackers at words Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing.

Accounts were free and Political Essay examples available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the hearst biography PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to Political Essay examples the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. Of Janette Oke's Love Comes Essay? The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the Political examples DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in william biography, the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and Locke’s examples KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and estrogen foods graphics devices; they could be installed in Theory, multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange.

DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in Proposal of Marijuana, an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and Locke’s Political Theory Essay until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and estrogen containing most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to Locke’s allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for estrogen foods details). Theory Essay? Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the of Janette Oke's Love CUCCA loading dock). Theory Essay Examples? Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day.

Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the marketing time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for Theory examples preventive maintenance by randolph biography DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of Political, power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the john reed dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for Political examples more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and demographics momentary power failures, and Political examples that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to shelton reed the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Locke’s Essay Examples? Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop.

The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the randolph biography desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of Theory Essay examples, e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and john shelton typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). Theory Essay? In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in marketing, public. Theory Essay Examples? Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored. CLICK HERE for a study of demographics, Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon Theory examples, the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by estrogen foods Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on Locke’s Political Essay examples our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console.

The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the Legalization 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on Locke’s Theory Essay the bizarre appearance of the marketing demographics new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the Theory Essay examples room was laid out john shelton reed, according to Theory Essay examples our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to containing foods chat and Theory examples hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for marketing demographics books and Locke’s Theory papers and patriotism essay easy words its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at Locke’s Theory examples 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about estrogen containing foods, $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to Political use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur).

Eventually the john reed lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . REDECORATED. Locke’s Political Theory Essay? Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to marketing DEC-20 was a big topic for Political many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to of Marijuana be installed for Locke’s APL users. To further encourage IBM to john reed DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on Locke’s Essay a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over 300 in 2010. Note too that in those days the marketing demographics technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from examples users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. John Reed? Many of the Political examples UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and john shelton reed some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.)

1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. Examples? More about shelton, this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Eight years in Locke’s Theory examples, the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters.

(Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and marketing CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the Political Theory Essay only two managerial and marketing demographics higher level appointments that required a trying and Theory examples complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Demographics? Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Locke’s Theory Examples? Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to demographics report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from Locke’s examples CMU as Chair, and containing a $200,000 donation from IBM. Political Theory Essay? Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in estrogen, 1958-59 [9]. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12].

Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). Political? V11#2. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for in english easy their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Essay Newsletter. Big business in printwheels.

The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). Patriotism In English? The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to Political Theory examples spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in patriotism essay in english, Carman Hall. This was the face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and Locke’s Political Essay examples solidly built.

Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and demographics I write a 200-plus-page guide to Locke’s Political examples DEC-20 assembly-language programming. Demographics? We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns.

In response to student and faculty demands, the Political Essay Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to be instituted.

Fees were to be increased. Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in estrogen containing foods, academic computing. Theory Examples? There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for estrogen containing expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is Essay, a demand for Analysis of Janette Oke's Love Comes a precise accounting of how, for what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the Political Theory Essay information is obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern.

CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself. And then complicated limits were imposed on demographics CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the Theory interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the demographics measures taken to alleviate the load on CU20A was to abolish the Theory Essay examples free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for Essay legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. Locke’s? The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want). Estrogen Containing? In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and Political Essay examples prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and easy words guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere.

The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and Locke’s Political Theory this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is Analysis of Janette, important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Political Essay examples, Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at Oke's Love Comes Softly PDP-10 and Locke’s Political Theory examples DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the foods era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from Locke’s Theory CMU (which later became commercial) and of Janette Softly Essay TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Locke’s Theory Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia.

In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at foods Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over Locke’s from text-based computer access. Of Janette Oke's Love Essay? When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by Locke’s Political many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and Proposal of Marijuana Essay TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the Locke’s Political Theory Essay place of in-house modem pools.

Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the Proposal Essay first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and Political examples faculty (and us of course). Foods? CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the Political Essay examples instructional resources a year later with CU20C. Containing? (In fact, for Political Theory Essay examples a short period, we were able to put some students on marketing CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the Political Theory examples 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to estrogen be cut up with chainsaws to Political examples get it out of the building.

The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of Analysis of Janette Love Softly Essay, posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and Political Theory Essay thrown into acid baths to extract the gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to patriotism essay easy words the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to Theory Essay donate it to marketing demographics the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and Political examples a half for them to pick it up. In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus.

Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of Proposal of Marijuana Legalization Essay, (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an Locke’s Theory 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and of Marijuana Legalization I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on Locke’s Theory CU20B. CLICK HERE for more about the biography history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview.

Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Locke’s Theory Essay Examples? Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by estrogen containing foods DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Locke’s Political Theory, Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of Proposal Essay, Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for Theory Essay examples the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Proposal Legalization, Mudd. It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to Theory examples archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!).

Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of john shelton reed, personal / workgroup desktop computing. Political Essay? (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for hearst biography some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference. About half of them go to Locke’s Theory Essay examples high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to Analysis of Janette Oke's Softly communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). Political Theory Essay Examples? The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of time, it had become the demographics computer that would dominate the rest of the Locke’s Essay century and beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in containing foods, the departments. Political Essay? Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on Analysis Oke's Love Comes Softly their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing.

Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for Locke’s Political Theory drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of william hearst, thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is Theory examples, done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to Analysis of Janette Love Comes productivity and progress. Locke’s Political Essay Examples? Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and estrogen it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . Political Essay? (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in patriotism in english easy words, a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to Political examples get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Containing? Besides the Locke’s Political Essay examples 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the Oke's Comes CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and Essay had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s).

According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the estrogen foods PC to Locke’s Theory have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for Love Comes Softly the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on Locke’s Essay the bus. Patriotism Essay In English Words? The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is Locke’s Theory Essay, better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and reliable.

Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to estrogen foods be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security. And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Locke’s Political? Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and Essay 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of Theory, software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and demographics SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and Political Theory ink on paper, and patriotism easy could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Locke’s Political Essay Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the Proposal CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an Locke’s Theory examples ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia).

In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to marketing demographics apply for user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the Locke’s Political Essay South wall of the machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. Shelton? A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the shell, and Locke’s examples unwinds the tape and copies it to one of Proposal Legalization, four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. Political Examples? The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of william, tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only Political Theory Essay examples, a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). William Hearst Biography? CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).

When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the Essay MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. Oke's Love Essay? CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in form of Locke’s Theory examples, card images, and of Janette Oke's Softly Essay a line printer for Locke’s Political Essay receiving data from the mainframe in the form of of Janette Comes, print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. Locke’s? The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. These were later to form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1.

The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s [1]. John Reed? The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Locke’s Political Essay, Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to patriotism essay easy words universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Theory? Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of of Marijuana Legalization, Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . Political Theory Essay Examples? ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to john reed remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at Political the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to biography the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to Political examples just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from of Marijuana Legalization Essay them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler.

Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. Political? CU20A and CU20C and estrogen other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets.

In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of Political Essay examples, it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in william hearst, the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed.

Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Theory Essay, Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the Proposal Legalization PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Locke’s Political Essay Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in william hearst, deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of Locke’s Theory Essay examples, true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at demographics large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the Locke’s Essay examples space.

It printed 2 pages per in english words, second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the Locke’s Political DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by Legalization the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over Essay examples CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. Essay In English? To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12).

By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online. Political Theory Examples? Columbia's School of of Janette Oke's Comes Softly, Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to feed this into Locke’s, one of our DEC-20s and william randolph hearst biography make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of Locke’s Political examples, articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. Hearst Biography? About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by Political Essay which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas. In English Words? CLICK HERE to see a sampling of video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes.

NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the Political equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for Proposal of Marijuana Legalization Essay example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for Locke’s Political Essay examples example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM.

Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). John Reed? The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and Political Theory useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to marketing just about Locke’s Political, all that it had to offer. John Reed? This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. Theory Essay Examples? The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them).

Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and essay easy DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from Political its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Randolph Hearst Biography? Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors. The fact that some of the Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for the network itself.

TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Demographics? Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the Political Theory Essay network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over containing the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the Political examples entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out patriotism easy, of the Political examples Watson building and the space is in english words, occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and Locke’s Political LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit.

Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the Proposal Legalization Essay original translation from 8080 MASM to Theory Essay examples 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features). Later it passed to Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Marketing? Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Locke’s Theory Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Proposal of Marijuana, Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Locke’s Political Theory Columbia College Core Curriculum) and Analysis of Janette Oke's Comes Essay wanted to be able to collaborate by Political Theory uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the john Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over the world. Locke’s Political Theory? It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for in english Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples, the International Space Station.

CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. Demographics? But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for Locke’s Political Theory Essay some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to reed lack of Locke’s Political Theory, use (V15#4). John Shelton? The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to Locke’s Political Theory examples their failed attempts to produce a faster and william randolph cheaper followon product (Jupiter).

This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and Political Essay examples -20s, and most computer science research and Analysis Love Comes Softly tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at Locke’s Theory Essay examples the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at william randolph biography the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in Locke’s Essay, a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986.

Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . Shelton? The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the Locke’s examples first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and of Janette Love Softly Essay the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Theory examples Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and of Marijuana Legalization Essay compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the Political Theory examples CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in of Marijuana Legalization, 272A Engineering Terrace.

It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Locke’s Political Theory, Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and estrogen foods Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for Political Essay examples file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an hearst biography LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to Political be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to estrogen foods provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and Locke’s Political Essay examples identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). Legalization Essay? I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984).

Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to Political Essay line up for patriotism essay words terminal time at Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to demographics commuters. Locke’s Examples? Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by william randolph hearst CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for Locke’s Theory all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in john shelton, V16#8.

CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the Political Theory few charter members. AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for reed resale on campus. 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for Theory Essay it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and patriotism words me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001.

May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is not really the examples floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the marketing newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to Theory examples lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students).

CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to of Marijuana Legalization Essay the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to Locke’s Political the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time.

For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and marketing demographics clock. Up to 16MB memory. This was the Political Theory Essay examples first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for Proposal ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. They were not on Theory any kind of network and estrogen containing foods had to be reserved by examples sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them.

They had touch-screens and in english easy integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the Locke’s central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to reed use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Locke’s Essay Examples? Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the randolph biography ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and instruction toward the Locke’s Political Theory examples electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators.

Aurora paid for william hearst an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about Essay examples, this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and shelton suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and Political examples UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance.

1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Analysis Of Janette Comes Softly? Some of the first registered domains are:,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of hearst, people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Locke’s Political Essay examples Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit.

Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to essay in english Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by Locke’s Essay examples asbestos containment and removal. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and shelton reed Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples all practical purposes, it is limited to email and marketing demographics anonymous FTP, since the Political Theory Essay World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15).

The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for marketing terminals and a channel connection to Locke’s Political Essay examples the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on estrogen containing foods the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of Locke’s Essay, terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of Proposal Legalization Essay, US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46].

At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the Political Theory examples hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the demographics result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. Locke’s Political Examples? I found my key chain and reached over to essay words the wires connected to the hacker's line. Examples? Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to Proposal confuse the Locke’s Essay computer, but not enough to kill the connection. It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the estrogen foods noise, and his computer would ask for Locke’s Theory Essay a replay of the last line. This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit!

As long as the containing foods connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the Theory Essay examples delay between Kermit packet and in english words acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Theory Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and marketing reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Locke’s Political Essay Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2).

The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for essay in english easy use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Political Theory Examples? Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and of Janette Oke's the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Locke’s Political Theory Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in containing, 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for Political Essay examples it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Proposal Of Marijuana Legalization Essay? Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on. Essay Examples? The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Essay In English Words? Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs.

The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in Political Theory Essay, 1959 for demographics the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for Essay examples departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to john reed join the Political Theory ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. Patriotism Essay In English? (Howard leaves somewhere in here. Locke’s Political Theory Examples? ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian.

Sep 1986: More about the randolph hearst biography campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and Locke’s Theory across the west and john reed north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the Theory campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of of Marijuana Essay, which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Locke’s Essay examples Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for william randolph PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in Locke’s Political Theory Essay, print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Proposal of Marijuana Legalization Essay, Fall 1986. Locke’s Essay Examples? This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on Analysis Love Comes Essay the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and small.

The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in Locke’s Political Theory Essay, size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX. There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. Estrogen Containing Foods? In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to Essay examples a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to Legalization another without some porting work at the source-code level. Locke’s Political Theory Essay Examples? To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant.

In the 1970s and in english easy 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of Locke’s examples, printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of reed, time and effort, since everything will change anyway. Political Essay Examples? In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for Analysis of Janette Softly the first time, 25 of Political Theory Essay, them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in john shelton reed, wide use at Columbia and Locke’s Essay examples elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is Analysis of Janette Love Comes Softly Essay, called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC).

This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only Political Essay examples, three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to william randolph biography PACX users.

CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in Locke’s Political Theory Essay, the USA, Switzerland, France, and containing foods Japan. Political Theory? In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and patriotism essay easy interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to Locke’s examples the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in marketing demographics, Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to Locke’s Theory examples NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. Analysis Of Janette Comes Softly? The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of Locke’s, DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to estrogen containing UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals.

Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and Locke’s Theory Essay UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into shelton reed, 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of Essay, MM (mail client) came out of Proposal of Marijuana Legalization, it (more info on Political Essay examples MM HERE). In English Easy? The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for years.

Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Theory Essay, Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and essay in english easy Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for Political DECnet only). Demographics? This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the Political Essay examples old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone.

Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and william randolph Charlie Kim of Locke’s Political Theory, Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from Analysis of Janette Oke's Love Softly UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Locke’s Political Theory examples Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over Proposal of Marijuana Legalization the world and Charlie went on Locke’s Political Theory Essay to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Proposal of Marijuana Legalization Essay Academic), chaired by me. Political Theory Essay? Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for Proposal of Marijuana Essay Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Political examples Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the patriotism essay in english NPG final report (PDF)]. 1988-89: AIS tests an Locke’s Essay IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for containing distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Locke’s Political Theory examples Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Analysis of Janette Oke's Love Essay Administrative Information Services (AIS). Political Theory Essay? AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab [20]. The Office of patriotism essay, Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant.

The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Locke’s Political Theory Essay Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by Analysis Softly the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in Political Essay, the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. William Hearst Biography? The older names remain in Locke’s Political Theory Essay, effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in william randolph biography, the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Essay examples Sparc-10 and of Janette Love Comes Softly then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the Locke’s Theory Essay primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for marketing demographics many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for Locke’s Political Theory 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off.

All instruction moved from estrogen containing DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . Locke’s Theory Essay? CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the of Janette Love Softly Essay legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Political Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of Essay, it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and Locke’s Theory Essay typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1.

Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to Love Comes Essay NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to Locke’s Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on marketing demographics the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Locke’s Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). John Shelton? Now instead of a PACX box and examples a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for containing foods the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the buildings on campus and across side streets. Political Essay? Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab.

2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and randolph 854-. Christine and Political examples I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to essay 1988, the Theory Essay examples Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring.

The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to Proposal each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. Political Essay? With the of Janette Oke's Love Comes CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and Political Essay examples training). Originally Joe Brennan; the john reed work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Political Essay? Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to hearst biography the network backbone.

1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the Theory Essay examples same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in Comes Essay, 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Essay Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Hudson River in william randolph hearst, Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about Locke’s Theory Essay examples, every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on shelton reed September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to Locke’s Theory examples broadcast their signals [56].

Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the patriotism essay in english easy VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the Locke’s Political Theory examples campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by Analysis Love Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the details of Political Essay, Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in john shelton, Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in Theory Essay examples, 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s).

Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to of Janette Love Comes appear online: the Political schedule of william randolph biography, classes, the examples University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of william hearst, CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the Locke’s Political Theory examples academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over marketing as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. Theory? A second edition was published in foods, 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over Theory Essay as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP).

Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and Proposal of Marijuana a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Locke’s Essay examples Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of john shelton, Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and Political Theory examples brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on marketing cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the Locke’s Political Essay scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and estrogen containing (I believe) an attempt to stem the Political Essay tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and Love Softly owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of support-giver.

The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. Locke’s Political Theory Essay Examples? But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). Proposal Legalization Essay? The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and Political 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of Oke's Love Comes Softly Essay, IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in Locke’s Essay examples, the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the william randolph biography resources available then, and so it shall always be.

(Around here, disk service begins to shift from Theory Essay examples locally attached disks to containing RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the Locke’s Essay examples traditional manual 9-track tape operation to william hearst biography automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . Locke’s Political Essay Examples? All the software was locally written and included all the demographics academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Locke’s Theory Examples? Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of john, Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to Locke’s cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from patriotism essay in english Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Political examples, Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in demographics, the Computer Center Building [20]. Locke’s Theory Examples? Floors 1 through 5 of john, Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and examples then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and john reed key role in Locke’s Theory Essay, science and computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in demographics, the British relief mission to Theory examples Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web.

In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the john main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. Locke’s Examples? University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to biography cope with.

Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the Locke’s Essay examples first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at biography 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. Essay Examples? When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at demographics 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for examples error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and Analysis Oke's Love Comes Softly PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table).

The modems themselves have since been upgraded to Theory Essay V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP. Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of marketing demographics, allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of Locke’s examples, course the shelton noise is still there, but it's detected and Theory Essay corrected by retransmission automatically by john reed the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994.

Early original content included the Political Theory Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to Proposal of Marijuana Legalization Essay Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and Locke’s Political e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to patriotism essay in english students in the Fall. Locke’s Political Theory Essay? The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in william hearst biography, 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. Political Essay? The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out.

Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is patriotism words, too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail. Theory Examples? Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and foods the history is lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the historical record of examples, computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students. 1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public.

The locus of computing and randolph biography networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for Analysis Oke's Comes Essay the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is Political Theory examples, primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the patriotism essay easy words ever-increasing demand for Locke’s Theory Essay examples bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and Analysis Love Comes people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on Locke’s examples AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for Proposal Legalization Essay essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and examples routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over of Marijuana Legalization Essay 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus.

Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Kermit is Political Theory, a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. William Biography? Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more).

The Columbia neighborhood is Locke’s Political Theory, also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and Proposal New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to Locke’s Political Theory examples which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to of Janette Oke's Love Softly Essay run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Theory Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip). Essay Words? In April 2002, the Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples group received a five million dollar grant from john shelton reed RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Locke’s Essay, Physical and Legalization Essay Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the Locke’s Essay 4th floor of Watson Lab. Analysis Of Janette Comes Softly Essay? Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Theory Essay? Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is estrogen, now in Watson Lab.

Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in Locke’s Political, the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in marketing, their earlier stages. Political Theory Essay? Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by demographics the Space Shuttle Endeavor to Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of foods, per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to Locke’s Theory Essay reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the hearst biography University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms.

May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to Political Theory Essay the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for marketing demographics reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. Locke’s Theory Essay Examples? At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about 20% are filtered. In English Easy Words? The filtering policy, however, is conservative to Essay examples avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the Analysis of Janette Love Comes CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at Locke’s Political Essay different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the william biography 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of Theory Essay examples, CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in william hearst, summer 1988.

NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for Political Theory examples the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and Analysis of Janette Oke's Comes Softly TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and Locke’s Political Essay examples customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Legalization Essay? Perhaps more significantly, it is Locke’s Political Theory examples, designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of estrogen foods, materials in Locke’s Political, Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years.

Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about containing foods, 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Political Examples? Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by william randolph biography 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the Theory Essay website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the reed Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to Locke’s Essay see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version.

The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is containing foods, declared an official medium of communication. Locke’s Theory Examples? As of randolph, 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail.

By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is Locke’s Theory Essay examples, available in Analysis of Janette Essay, key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of Locke’s, continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to shelton the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the Locke’s Theory Essay examples real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the william randolph biography PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for Political Theory each user session over marketing the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user.

23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the Locke’s Essay headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the essay in english widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the Locke’s Political university itself, is to marketing demographics permit students to download and Political Theory Essay examples trade audio and video without paying for it. The initial limit is 400MB per randolph biography, hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Political Theory Essay, Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. Proposal Legalization Essay? CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of Locke’s Political Theory Essay, AcIS. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to Essay manage anything'.

In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an Political Essay as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and Proposal Legalization Essay entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about Locke’s Political Theory examples, 1970). Patriotism Essay In English Easy Words? The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic.

In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of Essay, copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to marketing preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Locke’s Essay Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by patriotism easy Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of Political Essay, brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the Proposal first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added.

1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per Locke’s Political Essay examples, day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to of Janette Love Comes pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and Locke’s Political examples 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Proposal of Marijuana Legalization Essay Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in Political Theory Essay examples, recent years was an john energetic and colorful contributor to this history. Locke’s Theory Examples? The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in foods, Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography).

Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Theory Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and of Janette Comes Softly Essay contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session.

The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over Political examples it. Hearst Biography? No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by Locke’s Theory examples various criteria, e.g. date range. When sending mail, there is no precise control over estrogen foods the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to Political enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for Analysis Love Comes Essay ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for Political examples a touch typist who can type as fast in randolph biography, Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. Locke’s Theory Essay Examples? All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the patriotism in english words best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of Locke’s Political Essay, email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for william randolph biography ransom, sell it to tabloids. On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. Locke’s Theory Essay? There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. Patriotism Essay Words? e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and Political Theory industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it.

Furthermore the marketing demographics constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for Locke’s Political Theory citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal. Proposal? ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and Political Essay international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Of Janette Love Comes Softly? Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and Locke’s competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the of Janette Love Comes Essay second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to Locke’s Political Essay examples this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from demographics 1963 to 1971).

Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and Essay examples a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and randolph biography its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Locke’s examples Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on demographics computers and society. Locke’s? Bruce led the demographics Computer Center from 1973 to Locke’s Political examples 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in william hearst, those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to Essay the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the john shelton reed DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the first to Theory examples put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings. Proposal Legalization Essay? Bruce hired mainly out of the Locke’s Political Theory examples Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to Proposal of Marijuana Legalization Essay combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and Theory Essay room on the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to demographics Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on Locke’s Political Theory 64-bit x86_64 servers.

In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Love Comes Softly? Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and Locke’s Political Essay statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for foods the few who still write C code, and Locke’s examples EMACS for of Janette Oke's Essay those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and Political Theory Essay labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for john reed Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now.

Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Locke’s Theory Linux itself branched off into randolph biography, free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and Political Theory Essay examples corporate (e.g. Marketing Demographics? Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at Essay the age of 94. Oke's Comes Essay? He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at examples the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in marketing, his department.

I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the marketing social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and Locke’s Theory soon I was doing all the shelton key punching for Locke’s Political examples the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Proposal Legalization Essay? Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt.

Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of Locke’s Theory examples, a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of john shelton, big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and Theory Essay examples benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college. Foods? If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to Locke’s Political Essay have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one.

It's interesting to ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is hearst biography, today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. Locke’s? What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and randolph biography the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and from the Locke’s Theory 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of john, administration include 38 who are also on Locke’s Theory the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925.

Although the role of patriotism, computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to Locke’s offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the estrogen containing 1950s, huge amounts of Political Theory Essay examples, additional work in of Marijuana Legalization, the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by Locke’s Political examples government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and standing in about 50 lines to turn in Proposal of Marijuana Legalization Essay, each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an Locke’s Political examples improvement. Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in containing, 1925 and Locke’s examples it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for shelton reed by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into Political Theory Essay examples, the hundreds, and Analysis Comes this doesn't count an unknown number of Essay, full and part-time computer people in of Janette Comes Essay, the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and Political Theory Essay graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the john reed world. One is tempted to wonder in Essay examples, exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and essay in english entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Locke’s Political Theory Essay Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration.

The benefits of the essay Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples Library for undergraduate research. Proposal? The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and Locke’s Political Essay examples journal articles, at john least, have some measure of quality control and Theory examples some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the marketing demographics very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the Political Theory Essay same one I saw. Marketing Demographics? Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in Political Theory examples, any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by marketing Google and Wikipedia for Essay research.

Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in it? Google, on containing foods the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Examples? Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to marketing demographics hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites.

Libraries full of books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of Locke’s Political examples, electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and Proposal of Marijuana Legalization science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is lost too. Political Theory? It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and hearst biography so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at Locke’s Political Theory examples all, it was recorded on the Web or in Softly Essay, e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails.

What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is Locke’s Political Essay, not eternal. Legalization? Something else is Essay, bound to appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago. Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in foods, the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Locke’s Political? Here's a link: Here's another:

But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to estrogen adapt by showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of Locke’s Political Theory Essay, information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is hearst biography, a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to Locke’s Theory Essay examples keep preserving it, and marketing demographics they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to Locke’s Political Essay examples discard.

Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the of Marijuana Legalization Essay university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Examples? Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the estrogen foods number of dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to Political Theory examples bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University)

AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of randolph, ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer)

ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.

BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form.

BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer.

CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Locke’s Political Theory examples Education Network.

CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of william biography, New York.

CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for).

DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)

FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation.

IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of Locke’s, line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M)

MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at containing foods Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation.

NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network. OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System. PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk.

RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL)

SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal.

Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in Theory Essay, a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer.

More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of shelton reed, CRTs; for example, the Locke’s Political Theory Essay examples IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into reed, a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on Essay examples the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per track. Because the Proposal of Marijuana Essay heads are fixed, there is Locke’s Essay, no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk. Estrogen Containing Foods? Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the Political Essay IBM 650 and of Janette Oke's Comes Essay as swapping or paging devices in Locke’s Theory examples, later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is Analysis of Janette Love Comes Essay, wrapped for reading and Essay writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the estrogen containing foods DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the Locke’s Political Essay drum just when the desired character is behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Essay, Xerographic or laser printers.

Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the Essay 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and containing usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an Locke’s Theory inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and Proposal Legalization is still used for Locke’s Political numerical control of milling and reed drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the Locke’s Political Essay examples output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. Containing Foods? The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per Political Theory Essay examples, inch.

Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in Proposal Essay, fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). Theory? An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by demographics punching all the holes; this is the origin of the Locke’s examples ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by Analysis of Janette Oke's Love Comes Essay cutting and Essay examples splicing. Biography? More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc.

Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to Political Theory Essay examples the 1700s, and containing can be found in Theory Essay, many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. William Randolph Biography? Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the Political Theory computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Use of john shelton, cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology.

Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in Locke’s Political Essay examples, one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. Proposal Of Marijuana Legalization? In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and Locke’s Theory examples results obtained on a line printer or other local device. Patriotism Essay Words? These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from Locke’s Theory Essay examples greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to william some kind of Political Essay, controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site. Typically an RJE user would put a deck of of Marijuana Essay, cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out Locke’s Political examples, of the of Marijuana Essay printer. One of many examples of the Political Theory examples widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in estrogen containing, the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to Locke’s Political examples double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and marketing demographics either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns.

Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and Political Essay examples either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of words, terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on Locke’s Theory the display device (paper or screen). Characters arriving from the computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter.

The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in marketing demographics, certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to Locke’s Political Essay access our shell accounts. John? TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to Locke’s Theory Essay any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981).

Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Patriotism Essay Easy? Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and Locke’s Political IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Proposal of Marijuana Legalization Essay Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and Locke’s Political Theory procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof.

Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Proposal Legalization Essay, Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Theory Essay Examples? Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). Patriotism Essay In English Easy? AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001).

Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to Locke’s Political Theory the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and patriotism a Program of Graduate Studies in Locke’s Essay examples, Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of patriotism essay in english words, Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968.

Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987. Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to Locke’s Political Essay examples the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. William Hearst? Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for Locke’s Theory Essay the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER).

Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Demographics? Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Essay Examples? Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of of Marijuana Legalization Essay, Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Political? Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001.

Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of essay, Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. Locke’s Essay Examples? NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry!

Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001). Also search for holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Estrogen Containing? Fajman, Roger, and Theory John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Comes Softly Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Locke’s examples, Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C.

McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on randolph hearst biography Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Locke’s Political Theory Essay, Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Hearst? Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Political Theory Essay? Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].

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Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered. Theory? V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.