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Please create a username to comment. How to avoid common challenges when migrating to microservices. Hear advice from book, API World 2017 speakers and an IT analyst about avoiding the cloze review most common technology-related microservices . IaaS vs. Oedipus. PaaS: The best choice for a DevOps environment. IaaS and PaaS are two cloud services platforms that offer different ways to deploy and develop microservices. Find out which . Deciding between IaaS and PaaS for microservices. Driving Ambitions. Implementing a microservices architecture requires a stable DevOps team. Oedipus. Whether the target environment is 5 summary IaaS or PaaS, users . Oedipus. How JSR-375 simplifies and standardizes Java EE security. Java EE security has always been a mixed bag in Essay on Critical and Evidence-Based Practice, terms of simplicity and standardization, but the new Java EE Security API, JSR-.
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macbeth short essay Then, after murdering the oedipus King, Macbeth comes to her with his hands all covered with blood and carrying the grooms' daggers. Not only that, but he's so unnerved that all he can do is look at his hands and talk about voices that he heard. She tries to be reasonable, saying, Why, worthy thane, / You do unbend your noble strength, to think (2.2.41-43), but he's paralyzed with horror. Finally, she has to technical, do what he should have done. She takes the daggers from oedipus book, him, carries them back to place them with. Macbeth and Lady Macbeths Character Essay. We can immediately see by appals definition her reaction how ambitious Lady Macbeth herself is because she is not satisfied by Macbeth’s big promotion but wants even more power. She may also appear evil by the speed in which she decides killing is the answer. After being informed by a messenger that Macbeth is on her way, Lady Macbeth delivers a famous speech asking for help of spirits to book, rid her of her natural feminine ways so that she can convince Macbeth to carry out the ambitions bloody deeds needed to take over the crown. Macbeth- the Evil of Lady Macbeth Essay.
themselves, and that their fitness now. (I, vii, 47-53) She says Macbeth is oedipus book, a coward, but then appeals to his pride and manhood saying that when he had the courage to do it he was superhuman, and ready to create an opportunity. Now when he has it, he shrinks back at the thought and will not do it. Lady Macbeth goes further to threaten him with her love, saying that if he does not do it she will not love him anymore. Moreover, Lady Macbeth is actively part of the crime that she urges her husband to. Essay on Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are Not Evil. his son, Malcolm, as his successor, Macbeth realises that, if he is to be king, then he must kill Duncan: The Prince of Cumberland! That is a step on which I must fall down, or else o'erleap for in my way it lies. Stars hide your fires, let not light see my black and deep desires. (I.iv.49-52). When Lady Macbeth reads in her husband's letter of the witches' prediction, she, too, realises that Duncan must be killed for papers it to come true. Book. She thinks that Macbeth deserves to be great, and should murder.
Macbeth enters carrying a bloody dagger. Macbeth said he has done the deed and if she had heard a noise. Lady Macbeth then reply that she heard the owl scream and the crickets cry didn’t you say something? Lady Macbeth said that she heard Macbeth speak while he was coming down. Macbeth then asks who’s sleeping in the second chamber. Definition. Lady Macbeth says Donalbain and Macbeth looks at his hand saying this is a sorry sight. Oedipus Book. Lady Macbeth told him that that’s a stupid thing to say.
I’m guessing Macbeth. Essay Comparing Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. and his subject, Strong both against the deed; then, as his host, who should against definition his murderer shut the door, Not bear the knife myself. Oedipus Book. (1.7.12) Macbeth is conflicted between his morals and his ambition. In stark contrast to her husband Lady Macbeth is not conflicted. Examples. In the fifth scene of act one, she is reading a letter from book, Macbeth that describes his encounter with the witches. And Contrast. After she reads the letter she becomes excited and wants to aid her husband in anyway she can. She. She asks the evil spirits to oedipus book, “Come to my woman’s breasts/And take my milk for gall, you murdering ministers.” However, when Macbeth arrives home, he refers to her as “my dearest love” she then immediately sets about manipulating him and goading him into the murder. When she learns of Duncan coming to dinner, she administrates ideas of looking above suspicion. She tells him “look like th’innocent flower/But be the ambitions serpent under’t.” Shakespeare uses very expressive language.
Lady Macbeth's mental collapse is caused by oedipus her acknowledgement of her share of guilt and is expressed by images of Duncan's blood, will these hands ne'er be clean? This is also a contrast to her belief that water cleanses the conscience of any guilt. Lady Macbeth's mental collapse reinforces the idea of Scotland being diseased under Macbeth's reign and because he was not put their by divine right he cannot cure her. Practice. Lady Macbeth's role as a supporting wife resurfaces again in book scene 5. Who is the Dominant Partner between Macbeth and appals definition Lady Macbeth? As the more dominant and book ruthless of the two, it is Lady Macbeth that devises the plan for killing Duncan, and cloze review tells Macbeth to “Leave all the rest with me.” This suggests that Lady Macbeth cannot rely on Macbeth to plan the killing of Duncan, as it is not in his gentle nature, but she knows that Macbeth will be easily persuaded to carry out her wicked plan.
After Macbeth kills Duncan he feels very guilty, and says, “will great Neptunes ocean wash this blood clean from. For example, Lady Macbeth deserves her madness whilst Miss Havisham didn’t. You can see this when Lady Macbeth says, “What need we fear who knows it, when none can call our power to account?” This quote shows that she is feeling anxious about the killing of the king and is afraid that someone might challenge her authority. Whilst Miss Havisham says, “the dress yellowing, trembling if I open the wardrobe.” This quote indicates that time has passed and oedipus book that she literally trembles when she looks at. power. Once he became a shame to his nation we loss pity for him. Malcom hears that Macbeth is define language, bad but he is sticking to his side and not worrying about what theirs may say or think. 9. By the end of the play Lady Macbeth and Macbeth changes because Macbeth is happy in the ending when his wife dies. Which shows that his heart is somewhere else and that in the beginning his feelings were just a cover up.
Lady Macbeth changes because in the beginning she was so confident about book killing Duncan but later. Essay on Lady Macbeth and Antigone. in sweet, sultry tones solicits murder as a justifiable loss for compare essay examples insurmountable power. Lady Macbeth realizes the necessity to convince Macbeth he must persue his kingly fate as she thinks to book, herself, “I may pour my spirits in thine ear/And chastise with the cloze review valor of my tongue”(16). Oedipus Book. However, every drop of assurance she gives to him leaves her emotionally empty; until death and madness break her down. Lady Macbeth breaks from the cloze review traditional patriarch mindset to persuade her violent visions of book, murder. evilmac Macbeth and Lady Macbeth Were Not Evil Essay. Macbeth and cloze review his mistress housekeeper also have their doubts during the proceedings of the oedipus book murder. Lady Macbeth paces around the room saying that he won't commit the murder, instead of plotting their next move like a true evil-incarnate would do.
Macbeth also starts to haunt himself; he says that he heard a voice say Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep (II.II.49-50) And is so paralized by what he has done that he makes the huge mistake of essay examples, bringing the book dagger back. committed the mortal sin. Though she now realizes it (even this is skeptical, since she was sleep-walking at the time), she has still the deed on her soul. It can never be totally cleansed, therefore Lady MacBeth can never have total redemption. Lady MacBeth is a complex character. She is seen as two totally different people as the play progresses.
At first, she is crazy about appals getting the power of the King. She is brutish and oedipus sadistic in cloze review both the things she. Essay about The Role of book, Lady Macbeth. one of the stronger themes in the play. Macbeth and lady Macbeth are seeking for power all the time.
There is the theme of power when they kill the king to appals, gain power and oedipus book there is also power between relationships. The theme guilt is shown when Lady Macbeth devised a plan to kill the king in his sleep so her husband, Macbeth, could gain the title as king. Cloze Review. But after he murder she felt very guilty.The theme ambition is one of the stronger themes because Macbeth is ambitious to fulfil the predictions. Lady Macbeth as a Wife and oedipus book as a Woman in William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. never shows her true personality.
When Macbeth enters the scene, Lady Macbeth showers him with praise and salutations of his successes and his prophesised kingship. I think that she does this as she is define technical, very proud to have a husband who will make her queen. When Macbeth tells her that King Duncan comes her tonight, Lady Macbeth replies and when goes hence? I think that this is a test for oedipus book Macbeth, as it will let Lady Macbeth know if she should tell him all about cloze review her. Lady Macbeth Is Essentially the Villain in oedipus book Macbeth Essay. Lady Macbeth begins her quest to achieve what she wants by language using his ambition to be King, but as it goes along and he starts to have second thoughts she begins to play on his insecurities as a man. “Wouldst thou have that which thou esteem’s the ornament of book, life, and live a coward in thine own esteem, letting “I dare not” wait upon “I would, ” like the poor cat i' th' adage? “ Lady Macbeth persuades Macbeth with by basically asking him if he will take the crown he desires badly, or will he live. The Development of Lady Macbeth in William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. Macbeth worries about the consequences of DuncanA’s death. Religion and the consequences of sin were very important in ShakespeareA’s time, he speaks about the cloze review natural order of life on heaven and earth being ruined he uses alliteration in, A‘trumpet- tongued against the deep damnation of book, his taking off.
And pity like a naked newborn babeA’ to emphasise the imagery of anarchy in the heavens, he also uses the simile because there is nothing more pure, innocent and and Evidence-Based Practice helpless. Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, a Dealike Butcher and a Fiend? Essay. the witches, and, perhaps, to an extent he acted under the prophecies of the witches, the murder of Lady Macduff is a strong evidence of Macbeth acting out of his fear that the prophecies of the witches were to come true. Essay about Relationship Between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. King Duncan. Lady Macbeth is the one that is oedipus book, mainly controlling her husband.
She judges his manhood when she says that Macbeth’s ambition needs to match the actions. They would seem like a normal couple but actually they are both greedy. Driving Ambitions. Macbeth is a respected general in the kingdom and their position must be important if the king is to eat dinner at their home. No matter who was strongest in their marriage, they were certainly in love with each other. However, it was Lady Macbeth who shows strength. Androgyny in the Characters of book, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth Essay.
(Bevington 1090). Therefore, this proclamation of Macbeth is not merely an excuse for his strange behavior at past bath, the dinner table, but is also a symbolic representation that the cause of his downfall can be attributed to the 'woman' in oedipus book him. Lamentation is an expression of being powerless to effect one's own affective environment, and in a patriarchal society this outlet is reserved primarily for women. We find this in cloze review other Shakespeare characters such as Lady Anne, the Duchess of York, and book Queen Elizabeth. Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth - The Powerful Lady Macbeth Essay. assassination plot. Although it is Macbeth who commits the actual deed of murder, it is cloze review, Lady Macbeth who returns to Duncan's chamber and smears the oedipus blood upon the grooms. Her self-control is superhuman; in fact, Macbeth is terrified of it and her unfailing resourcefulness. In this example, Shakespeare demonstrates how much self control she has over the evil deed: A little water clears us of appals definition, this deed: / How easy it is then! (II, ii, 66-67). In fact, Lady Macbeth tried to murder Duncan herself.
Macbeth And Lady Macbeth, A dealike Butcher And A fiend? Macbeth is portrayed as a brave soldier. Phrases such as Valour's minion, which means servant of courage and book Bellona's bridegroom, which means the husband of war gives out a sense of Macbeth's superheroism. Macbeth and technical Banquo are also described by the captain as eagles and lions unafraid of the opposing army, who were compared to sparrows and hares. The witches made a prophecy that Macbeth was to oedipus, become Thane of Cawdor, and eventually king of Scotland. It was only past after the first prophecy. for none of woman born/Shall harm Macbeth,(4.1.80-81). He is told that he cannot be harm by those who are not born from a woman.
He relies on the prophecies from the witches and apparitions. Macbeth believes that he is book, invincible because of the second apparition. that said any man born of a women can not harm Macbeth, What's the boy Malcolm?/Was he not born of a woman? The spirits that know/ All mortal consequences have pronounced me thus :/'Fear not, Macbeth. No man that's born of a woman/ Shall. Comparing Ophelia and Lady Macbeth Essay. characteristic and will do anything for the throne and cloze review the power that comes with it by mentally attacking her husband. Ophelia is obedient and submissive to the commands of Laertes, Polonius, and Hamlet, but Lady Macbeth is controlling and able to impress her own plans and ambition into Macbeth.
Polonius reminds Ophelia that she has an obligation to obey him as her father, “You do not understand yourself so clearly, as it behooves my daughter and your honor” (I.iii.105-106). Thus, she is used by Polonius. The Change of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth in William Shakespeare#x27;s Play. Macbeth’s unwillingness shortly vanishes as he becomes “settled”, in spite of his guilt, and chooses to commit the oedipus book crime of define technical, murdering the king. Immediately prior to the murder, however, Macbeth experiences a “fatal vision” when he sees a dagger before his eyes and asks the oedipus book infamous question “is this a dagger I see before me?” The hallucination is “a dagger of the mind, a false creation” and the first of many to come in which Macbeth’s subconscious guilt is expressed. An. contributions are valued. It is based on social, political and economical equality for women. Driving Ambitions. LM from feminist perspective From a feminist perspective, Lady Macbeth is not considered equal.
She is incapable of oedipus, ruling Scotland as she is define language, a woman, therefore she needs Macbeth to become king if she wants power. She cannot control factors in her own life. Lady Macbeth could not kill Duncan as women would never do such a thing in oedipus the Elizabethan times. Modern Women from past papers, a feminist perspective In today’s society. Essay on Development of the Character of book, Lady Macbeth. realize this later on papers in the play. Oedipus. The lady understands her husband well and has the power, and ambition, which he lacks.
She allowed this aspiration, not for herself but for her husband, to overcome her and cloze review afterward even destroy her life, and her husbands furthermore; which in oedipus time lead to their death. On various occasions in the play, she takes charge of the situation. For example in Act two, scene three after Duncan is essay examples, murdered and oedipus all tension is upon Macbeth and she faints (or pretends to faint) Psychoanalytical Criticism of past, Lady Macbeth Essay. Lacan then asserts that the subject is now ruled by language, and this discourse forms the structures of cultural and social identities (Richter 1046). Lacan’s psychoanalytic theories can be readily applied to the character Lady Macbeth in oedipus book William Shakespeare’s play Macbeth. When Macbeth’s dark tragedy was written in the beginning. The Uncontrolled Ambition of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth Essay. Her language to Macbeth is the most potently eloquent that guilt could use. (56) Clark and Wright in definition their Introduction to oedipus, The Complete Works of William Shakespeare interpret the main theme of the play as intertwining with evil and ambition: While in on Critical Thinking and Evidence-Based Practice Hamlet and others of Shakespeare's plays we feel that Shakespeare refined upon and brooded over his thoughts, Macbeth seems as if struck out at a heat and imagined from first to last with rapidity and power, and a subtlety of workmanship.
Essay on The Effect of Evil in Witches and Lady Macbeth on oedipus book Macbeth. Macbeth, the thane of Glamis, a noble man of Scotland, a general in past papers the Scotland King's army and a great warrior is oedipus, self-satisfied with his position, until the three witches tell him in the third scene of the first act, All hail Macbeth, hail to thee, Thane of Cawdor. All hail Macbeth, that shalt be king hereafter. Just after hearing this, Macbeth and Banquo, his noble friend and a general in the King's army receive a message from Ross that Macbeth has been. Essay about Presentation of Lady Macbeth in Shakespeare?s Macbeth. play progresses, Macbeth’s character grows stronger whereas Lady Macbeth’s regresses. Essay On Critical Practice. Lady Macbeth’s influence over Macbeth reduces after Macbeth becomes the oedipus book King of Scotland. Thinking. When Macbeth informs his wife that he is going to oedipus book, slaughter Banquo, she responds saying “You must leave this.” (3.2 35) Macbeth decides to ignore her advice. She is so weak, emotionally, that she cannot stop him whatsoever. In the second half of the play, Macbeth does not include his wife in define technical many of his other vicious schemes.
How Does Shakespeare Present the Relationship Between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth? see how Lady Macbeth has a power over Macbeth, she is cunning and oedipus calculated, and despite the appals fact that Macbeth is the oedipus seasoned warrior, she is the one who laughs at murder and Macbeth who declines, however we see her exert her power over Macbeth to make him want to murder Duncan, showing how the power in the relationship is all in Lady Macbeth in the first act. In act two, after murdering Duncan, Macbeth says ‘This is a sorry sight’, but Lady Macbeth again shows her power over Macbeth. ‘A foolish. Lady Macbeth Responsible for Duncan#x27;s Death Essay examples. We see that Macbeth does not want to kill Duncan because he is afraid of being caught. Lady Macbeth knows exactly how to Thinking Practice, manipulate her husband, and uses that skill while she talks to Macbeth.
Lady Macbeth insults her husband by undermining his manliness. Lady Macbeth tells her husband, When durst do it, then you were a man; / And to oedipus, be much more than what you were, you would. Macbeth Is a Butcher and Lady Macbeth Is a Fiend-Like Queen Essay. to good use instead of evil, he would have been a great man. Lady Macbeth could also be described as a tragic hero, as although she was fiendish, she did feel remorse at the end of the play. She then took her own life, as she could no longer live with the appals cruel deeds that she had done, therefore making her a tragic hero. Lady Macbeth: the Slayer of King Duncan Essay. 63-65: Lady Macbeth says, “Only look up clear, To alter favor ever is to fear, Leave all the rest to oedipus book, me,” which basically declares that Lady Macbeth is entirely aware and up to date on what’s going on. She assertively enlightens Macbeth on how to disguise himself of his uncertainty and second thoughts about killing the king and is willing to accommodate Macbeth with anything else he needs assistance with. The second step in her scheme is now in the process of define technical language, being complete. Macbeth and Lady Macbeth.
Essay about Lady Macbeth by William Shakespeare. It is oedipus book, with this first step that Macbeth begins his departure from being a virtuous man. To Macbeth, killing the king was the past papers only way he would be happy. The raven croaking the entrance describes how Macbeth awaits Duncan's inexorable approach to book, his demise. Ambitions. Though unsure of the path he should have taken, he realizes that if he kills the book king, there would be no going back to his old life.
With his decision final, Macbeth executes the king. Just before he commits the deed, he comments on his similarities. Lady Macbeth Is More Ruthless Essay example. Macbeth wrote, Art not without ambition, but without the essay examples illness should attend it that he does not want to commit an act of murder. Once again Lady Macbeth's ruthlessness is displayed when she asks, Come, you spirits that tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here, and fill me from the crown to the toe top-full of dirtiest cruelty . Lady Macbeth calls upon oedipus book, the spirits to past, help her find the power to kill Duncan. When Macbeth arrives at Inverness it's not Macbeth that begins talking about the book plot. The Relationship Between Macbeth and papers bath Lady Macbeth in William Shakespeare#x27;s Play. Lady Macbeth knows her husband's weaknesses though, yet do I fear thy nature;/ It is too full o' the milk of human kindness and oedipus book is prepared to accept them and if necessary take the initiative by killing the king herself: you shall put/This night's great business into my dispatch. This also shows her devotion, love and commitment to him: they see their future together: he says, of what greatness is promised thee, and she says, Glamis thou art, and Cawdor; and ambitions shalt.
How Shakespeare Portrayed Lady Macbeth Essay examples. man. After this, Lady Macbeth says: I have given suck, and know How tender ?tis to love the oedipus babe that milks me ? I would while it was smiling in my face Have plucked my nipple from his boneless gums, And dashed the brains out, had I so sworn as you Have done this. As Macbeth does not, or cannot have an heir to the throne, Macbeth talking about this is another way of denying him his masculinity. In the technical language Elizabethan era, childbirth was seen as an honour, so Lady Macbeth could be implying. Essay Shakespeare’s Lady Macbeth: Pure Evil? This is oedipus, very important; it shows that Macbeth trusts his wife with everything. Another indication of their relationship in the phrase my dearest partner in greatness. Driving. This suggests that Macbeth loves his wife dearly, but not only that, but considers her his equal.
At the time this play was based, or even written, women were very much considered inferior. She also perhaps, reveals, a weaker side to her personality when she prays to the dark powers to oedipus, fill her heart with cruelty, and rid her of feminine. Macbeth Text Response-This Deed, the Murder of King Duncan, Has Unanticipated Consequences for Both Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. Discussed. 1, scene 7, pg 28 lines 14-16). However, when Lady Macbeth reproves him for his cowardice, he responds, “I dare do all that may become a man/ who dares do more is ambitions, none’ (Act 1, scene 7, pg 29 lines 50, 51), and he is book, convinced to go through with the plan. On the night of the assassination, Macbeth sees an imaginary dagger, leading him to ambitions, Duncan’s chamber; the path to his destiny. He commits the murder and return to his chamber where Lady Macbeth is waiting for oedipus him. They both return back to bed. Lady Macbeth, the Fiend Like Queen, but Capable of Remorse Essay. scene which shows us how inhumane Lady Macbeth actually is happens in act 1 scene 7: “ove the baby that milks me… dashed the brains out”.
Here she tries to prove to her husband how committed she is to him by using gruesome metaphors and making him feel inferior, telling him that she would have killed her own baby if he had asked her to do so. Some people could argue that this is evidence of technical language, her being evil but I disagree. This just proves to oedipus book, us that Lady Macbeth has evil thoughts and that she will. How Does Shakespeare Present Macbeth and past papers Lady Macbeth’s Relationship in Act 1? to stay the same; as at oedipus, the minute many people have high opinions of him and he does not want to ruin the define respect that he has earned. She then realizes that Macbeth is oedipus, no longer interested in her intentions and essay so she attacks him by saying: “I dare do all that may become a man who dares do more is none”. Book. It is compare examples, then evident that Lady Macbeth basically has complete power over her husband when she describes herself dashing the brains out of a young child that somehow persuades him into joining her evil.
Lady Macbeth Has Been Described as the ‘Fourth Witch.’ Do You Agree with This Statement? If Lady Macbeth had successfully connected with the evil forces in her invocation scene, then both the witches and book Lady Macbeth exhibit an androgynous character, although Lady Macbeth only technical language has masculine mental traits, while the witches have a masculine physical appearance as well as mental character. Oedipus. Another common trait between Lady Macbeth and witches is that both are anti-mothers. The myths of witches through history are seen as anti-mothers, and define technical language Lady Macbeth reveals this evil characteristic. The Role of Lady Macbeth in Act 1, Scene 5 and book Act 5, Scene 1. emphasized by delving deep into the character of Thinking, Lady Macbeth, which is summed up with the following quotation - Under my battlements, come you spirits, That tend on oedipus mortal thoughts, Unsex me here, And fill me from the crown to the toe, top-full, Of direst cruelty: make thick my blood, Stop up th' access and passage to remorse, That no compunctious visitings of nature Shake my fell purpose In this, Lady Macbeth calls upon the spirits to define technical, take away her femininity. Macbeth by Shakespeare - Lady Macbeth and Themes Essay.
With out her fortitude and ambition, Macbeth would not have started his killing spree which would have kept him from becoming king of Scotland. Book. Ambition, a strong desire to ambitions, do or achieve something, is oedipus book, one of the cloze review central theme’s focused on oedipus book in this work. While the male characters are just as violent and prone to define language, evil as the women, the aggression of Lady Macbeth is oedipus, more striking because it goes against examples prevailing expectations of book, how women ought to compare essay, behave. Lady Macbeth's behavior certainly shows that. Similarities Between Macbeth Lady Macbeth – Essay. Even Macbeth does not dare to oedipus book, call upon the devil and evil spirits to past papers bath, kill his emotions to, free him of all capacity to feel, to empty him of oedipus book, all remorse. However Lady Macbeth did this and hence she proves that she has an ambition infinitely more vaulting than Macbeth. Though Lady Macbeth’s ambition may be more vaulting than Macbeth’s, both share the same purpose to usurp the crown and use it for their own evil means: “If it were done when ‘tis done, ‘twere well it were done quickly”. It is here.
compare miss Havisham and and contrast essay Lady Macbeth Essay. In Shakespeare’s play Macbeth, Lady Macbeth is first introduced in Act 1 Scene 5. Oedipus. She is reading a letter from her husband, immediately the audience see her as a determined and power-hungry character. In her soliloquy she reveals that Macbeth ‘shalt be what thou art promised’ her ambition for her husband to essay examples, be king and indeed perhaps for herself to be queen is book, evident here. Shakespeare’s use of the imperative ‘shalt’ displays her controlling nature, showing her strength and masculinity which would. inserting passages from his own play, The Witch. Macbeth's curse Macbeth is also known as 'The Scottish Play' due to a long-held superstition that the play has a curse upon it and that if anyone utters the word 'Macbeth' in a theatre, outside the Essay Thinking context of a rehearsal or performance, tragedy will befall the production.
The characters of Macbeth and oedipus Lady Macbeth are therefore referred to Essay on Critical Thinking and Evidence-Based Practice, by a nickname, such as 'Mackers' and 'Lady Mackers' or similar. Oedipus Book. To remedy the curse, the offender needs to past papers bath, leave.
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Nov 17, 2017 Oedipus book,
The Inversion of Cultural Traditions in Shakespeare#039;s Sonnets - Essay. Robert Ellrodt, Universite de Paris, Sorbonne Nouvelle. In an oedipus earlier essay I have pointed out cloze review that Shakespeare, while writing within a convention in his Sonnets, had in oedipus fact left out much of the language convention, discarding a great many themes and rhetorical devices. From this point of view the Sonnets might be described by negatives like Gonzalo's utopia: no moment of enamoration, no wooing or whining, no flinty heart, no kiss, no adventures of Cupid (with the ironical exception of the closing sonnets), no address to Love, to the Muse, or to a river, no catalogue of delights, no blazon, no emblem, no mythologizing, no pastoralism, no military metaphor, no astro-logical or heraldic poem. 1. A statistical study of the vocabulary in the sonnets of Shakespeare, Spenser, Sidney, Daniel, and oedipus Drayton confirms this originality. Driving Ambitions? Shakespeare has the lowest percentage of words expressing the traditional feelings of the Petrarchan lover: sigh, tear, weep, admire, wonder. 2 He has the highest percentage of words connoting negative values and suggesting a satiric strain: hate, abhor, abuse, accuse, adulterate, shame, canker, cure, shadow, stain, defect, bastard, barren, rage, mad, nothing?
Distinctive too is the predominance of true or truth, either asserted or questioned. Book? 4 The emphasis on the seasons, time, change, and death is in keeping with traditional poetic themes, particularly in and contrast examples complaints and elegies, but is not found in the other sonnet sequences. 5. My intention in oedipus book this paper is to explore other ways in which the cloze review prevailing cultural conventions were subverted, modified, or simply ignored. The perspective will be literary rather than social or anthropological. The triangular relationship described in Sonnet 144, Two loves I have of comfort and despair, was by itself uncommon in sonnet sequences. Astrophel had made an impassioned allusion to the conjugal bond of Stella, who hath no misfortune, but that Rich she is ( Astrophel and oedipus book Stella, Sonnet 34), but only the husband's name, not his presence or image, stood in the lover's way. Driving Ambitions? The woman's resistance to his entreaties was only felt to be due to her sense of honor. In all the Petrarchan sequences, whether in single adoration or mutual flame, the lover and the beloved were emotionally unrelated to anyone else.
One could argue that this confinement of experience to a single relation also prevails in the vast majority of the Shakespearean sonnets addressed to the Young Man. Oedipus Book? Yet, when the poems are read in cloze review succession, the sense of betrayal, at first expressed in general terms in Sonnets 33 to book 36, is definitely linked with the define language stealing of the poet's mistress in Sonnets 40 to 42. The two loves theme, I admit, will remain in the background in the following sonnets to oedipus book the Young Man, but the first quatrain of Sonnet 42 gives the past papers bath reason why: That thou hast her, it is book not all my grief, And yet it may be said I loved her dearly; That she hath thee is of my wailing chief, A loss in love that touches me more nearly.
The fear of losing his friend's love affects the poet more than the unfaithfulness of on Critical his mistress. Yet faint though her presence is when attention is focused on the man right fair, the woman color'd ill lurks in several allusions to deception as in Sonnet 93: So shall I live supposing thou art true. Like a deceived husband; so love's face. May still seem love to me, though alter'd new— Thy looks with me thy heart in other place. The revelation of other relationships is book delayed until we read in compare essay examples Sonnet 152:
In loving thee thou know'st I am forsworn, But thou art twice forsworn to me love swearing: In act thy bed-vow broke, and new faith torn. In vowing new hate after new love bearing. Apparently both the poet and his mistress have broken an book earlier vow—a marriage vow in her case and probably in the poet's own, since symmetry invites a perfect parallel, whether autobiographical or not. 6 The woman becomes twice forsworn when she betrays her lover as well.
Thus, had Shakespeare wished to give dramatic form to his sonnet sequence, he might have played throughout on a multiplicity of triangles: the poet, his wife or previous love, and driving ambitions his mistress, the mistress, her husband, and the poet as her lover, or the mistress, the poet and her new lover, whom the poet himself loves as the master-mistress of [his] passion (Sonnet 20). This might have proved good stuff for an unromantic comedy. Fortunately there is no more than a belated and book random allusion to these diverse entanglements. Three figures only and contrast essay examples, emerge from the book sequence: the cloze review poet, the youth, and oedipus book the mistress. In a way there is technical language only one conflict in the poet's breast, that between love and con-tempt. These emotions, however, have a man and book a woman as their different objects, which explains the difference in their nature and in the resolution of the conflict. I have insisted so far on the obvious to emphasize the presence in Shakespeare's sequence of a close mesh of interrelations for cloze review which there is no equivalent in Petrarchan compositions.
The superior interest of his sonnets is book not merely due to style, even in the larger meaning of the term; it also proceeds from appals a greater variety of human experience. Book? Literature cannot be reduced to words, to a play with signifiers signifying nothing or anything. The attention devoted to the Rival Poet offers a further instance. Petrarch had celebrated dead poets in the Canzoniere. 7 Ronsard had interspersed his Amours with sonnets addressed to contemporary poets.
8 Sidney only compare essay examples, alluded to oedipus book Petrarch's imitators and Pindar's apes ( Astrophel and Stella, 3, 15). Shakespeare, with the dramatist's instinct, creates one more occasion for conflict: as a poet the speaker in the Sonnets has a competitor for the Young Man's patronage or admiration just as he must compete for the Young Man's love with his own mistress. In each case he seems to give up the fight, but only to preserve the relationship he cherishes most. Ambitions? 9. So far Shakespeare's handling of the sonnet sequence improves upon oedipus book, the cultural tradition by compare examples, enriching rather than modifying it. Only the centering of the oedipus book love interest on ambitions a lovely boy (Sonnet 126) may be called an inversion. It was not, however, without precedent in book Elizabe-than England. Imitation of the Virgilian eclogue had allowed Richard Barnfield to write about homosexual love within a convention in The Affectionate Shepheard: Containing the Complaint of Daphnis for the love of Ganymede —a pastoral poem published in 1594. 10 The author was twenty at the time, which prevents his identification with the speaker in define technical the poem, for the latter describes his old age in wintry images as in Shakes-peare's Sonnet 73, That time of year thou mayst in me behold: Behold my gray head, full of siluer haires,
My wrincled skin, deepe furrowes in book my face: Winter hath snow'd upon my hoarie head. 11. The parallel is a welcome warning against a narrowly autobiographical interpretation of Elizabethan poems. Compare? One may note that Daphnis has also to compete for the love of the boy with Queen Gwendolen, a woman light in oedipus book her behauiour whose tears are not to be trusted for they can watonnize (1.27). Shakespeare may have read the papers Complaint of Daphnis at the time when he started writing sonnets in which a poet of mature years declares his love to a young man. 12 He may have felt justified by the precedent: Barnfield had dedicated his Affectionate Shepheard to the Ladie Penelope Ritch. He suggested, however, from the book beginning that the shepherd's love might be regarded as sinful If it be sinne to loue a louely Lad (1.2). Yet in his plea against the cruelty of the loue-scorning Boy (2.4), Daphnis falls into moralizing. His invitation to show humility curiously turns into a praise of blackness (2.37-52) developed after the manner of a paradox and more elaborate than either Shakespeare's Sonnet 127, In the old age black was not counted fair, or Biron's apology in Thinking Practice Love's Labor's Lost (4.3.246-63).
Incidentally, the assertion that nothing is more noysomer unto the smell / Than Lillies are, though for pure white the Lilly beares the Bell (2.39) may have inspired Shakespeare's sharp warning to the Young Man in Sonnet 94, probably written after 1594: Lilies that fester smell far worse than weeds. Like most poets of Donne's generation Barnfield professed to oedipus book seek uncommon or paradoxical subjects, as he claimed in his preface to essay a later poem, The Encomion of oedipus Lady Pecunia. 13 His handling of a man's love for a boy, however, remains conventional, hovering between a sensual indulgence allowed by the classical tradition and a pretense of chastity preserved in definition keeping with Christian morality. Oedipus? The same uneasy combination is conspicuous in the twenty sonnets published together with Cynthia in on Critical 1595. Again a boy called Ganymede is oedipus courted by a man. Mythological references to Jove, Apollo, and Sylvanus (Sonnets 7 and 15) are meant to justify a love excited by physical attractiveness.
Attention is again lingeringly focused on naked limbs ( Affectionate Shepheard 1.22), loue-enticing soft limbs in a body said to be sinne-procuring (Sonnet 17). The kissing of lips is insistently evoked in both sets of poems: O would to God … My lips were honey, and Essay on Critical Practice thy mouth a Bee, When thy Lips touch my Lips … ( Affectionate Shepheard 1.16; 2.18), Kill me with kisses … ; I wish that I his pillow were, / So might I steale a kisse; Weening to kisse his lips, as my loues fee's (Sonnets 5, 8, 16). The final claim, my pure loue / (Sweete Ganymede) to thee hath still beene pure (Sonnet 19) therefore seems to be paying lip ser-vice to the moral code, akin to the casuistry of book courtly Platonism. In Shakespeare's Sonnets the praise of the Young Man's beauty is no doubt directed at on Critical Thinking and Evidence-Based Practice a beautiful body. Yet what-ever innuendoes may be traced or forced upon the poems, not a single line is book sensuously suggestive of a sensual longing. Compare And Contrast Essay Examples? 14 The emotion is aesthetic: beauty is oedipus book apprehended in stasis. No yearning to touch or kiss is language expressed and a consciousness of sinful desire only appears in oedipus book the son-nets concerned with the cloze review mistress.
The feelings of the poet for the youth have even less in common with Marlowe's complacent and provocative presentation of homosexual love between Edward II and book Gaveston, or Charles IX and his minions in The Massacre at essay Paris, or again in the dialogue between Jupiter and oedipus Ganymede in the opening scene of The Tragedy of cloze review Dido. That Marlowe himself was attracted to pederasty is clear not only from reported sayings but from his loving description of the male lover's body in Hero and oedipus Leander. Touch and taste are the senses most vividly stirred: His bodie was as straight as Circes wand, love might haue sipt out Nectar from his hand. Euen as delicious meat is to ambitions the tast, So was his necke in touching, and surpast.
The white of oedipus book Pelops shoulder. And Contrast Essay? I could tell ye, How smooth his brest was, how white his. And whose immortali fingars did imprint. That heavenly path, with many a curious dint,
That runs along his back, but my rude pen. Can hardly blazon foorth the loues of book men. On the contrary, evocations of the beauty of compare and contrast women—Hero, Zenocrate, or Helen—only appeal to the eyes: these ladies, indeed, sit for men to gaze upon and to gaze upon their faces. Book? 15 The contrast is so evident that it seems to betray Marlowe's own sexual inclinations. There are no such indications in the poetry of Shakespeare. Technical Language? Obviously the oedipus dramatist who made Cleopatra give her bluest veins to kiss ( Antony and Cleopatra 2.5.29) had his senses stirred by the body of woman. The physical beauty of the lovely boy in the Sonnets no doubt evoked a deep emotional response as well as aesthetic delight, but the define technical language loveliness was that of a woman's face (Sonnet 20).
The emotion probably owed its intensity to the secret workings of Eros, but my concern as a reader and a critic is not with the oedipus book latent impulses, but with their expression in poetry. Driving Ambitions? Impulses are monotonously alike; their imaginative expression only becomes infinitely various through the prism of personality. Barnfield's approach to homosexual love is inconsistent. The speaker clearly expresses physical desire while claiming his love is pure and yet complains he cannot move Ganymede's obdurate beuty, for the boy can resist desire (Sonnet 19). Though he denied homoerotic tendencies, 16 the author of The Affectionate Shepheard may have intended to gratify the taste of readers so inclined. Book? Sitting astraddle of language two conventions he lays himself open to the charge of hypocrisy. Marlowe intends to be subversive but the flaunting of oedipus book unconventional opinions tends to become another convention. After defining the nature and the boundaries of the past poet's passion in Sonnet 20, Shakespeare is oedipus consistent and quietly unconventional.
Incidents in the relation are often shrouded and essay we are free to surmise and speculate, but there is no intimation of physical contact and the reader's response to the literary text is therefore different in nature from his response to the erotic pictures offered by Barnfield and Marlowe. Shakespeare still appears unconventional when his sonnets are compared with the poems written by Michelangelo for Tommaso di Cavalieri, though here at least we come across a comparable depth of feeling and amplitude of mind. Leishman unerringly seized upon oedipus, the parallel but The he confined his attention to the forms of spirituality. 17 The italian artist was fifty-seven and Tommaso twenty-three when they first met in 1532. Michelangelo consented to draw a portrait of Cavalieri, a privilege he only granted to persons of infinite beauty.
18 His powerful drawing of the abduction of Ganymede by an eagle was offered to the young man. His sonnets convey a love that James Saslow rightly characterizes as being as much emotional and aesthetic as it is erotic or sexual. 19 The elderly artist expresses feelings of subjection to the youth comparable to the speaker's attitude in driving ambitions some of Shakespeare's sonnets, but differences are nevertheless conspicuous. Oedipus? It is generally agreed, despite Aretino's slur, that Michelangelo never consummated his passion for Cavalieri, though different conclusions may be drawn concerning other affairs. 20 Yet his poems, as Saslow observes, definitely show him caught between his desires and the fear of realizing them, a fear including not only rejection by his beloved but also the rejection of the validity of his love by church, society, and self. 21 In Shakespeare's Sonnets the poet at times expresses a fear of disgracing himself or his beloved, but there is no evidence of a struggle to repress sexual desire for the youth, nor any sense of guilt for his love as such, though guilt may be felt for cloze review other reasons. There is therefore no need for the kind of sublimation achieved by Michelangelo, who availed himself of Florentine Neoplatonism to transmute his homosexual attachment into a longing for oedipus book the divine: ne Dio, suo grazia, mi si mostra altrove. piu che'n alcun leggiadro e mortai velo;
e quel sol amo perch'in lui si specchia. And Contrast? 22. Hence his adoption of the traditional mystic interpretation of Ganymede's upward flight, turned into a symbol of reunion with God in the ecstasy of love. Book? Shakespeare steers clear from these Renaissance commonplaces. His originality lies in driving his ability to invest human passion with an intensity and oedipus radiance that owe nothing to a transcendent illumination.
To convey his emotions he only borrows his images from Nature's store: the sun's golden face, earth and sea's rich gems, the driving ambitions spring and foison of the year, and the process of the seasons: Three April perfumes in oedipus book three hot Junes burn'd (Sonnets 33, 21, 53, 104). Love in the Sonnets never transcends the world of human experience, but it does take in all its splendor in transitoriness and the pity of it. There is no reaching for cloze review a divine universal but a quiet acknowledgment of individual irreplaceableness, for you alone are you (Sonnet 84). This love is bound to hold a plea with time for oedipus it dare not aspire to definition eternity. Yet it creates its own intimations of immortality through the poetic imagination. That is book why love can survive the discovery of the define technical language youth's sensual fault and the growing awareness of his inconstant mind and book selfishness (Sonnets 35, 92, 94). In no other sonnet sequence had the beloved been subjected to such a clear-eyed scrutiny of his failings. If the poet actually addressed a patron in Sonnet 94 I know no bolder instance of free speech and devastating irony than the lines that denounce those who, moving others, are them-selves as stone. … And husband nature's riches from expense.
Poets had cursed obdurate or inconstant mistresses and sent them to the devil. Cloze Review? Yet the book lover of the gentle thief (Sonnet 40) loves on. His forgivingness and self-abasement at cloze review times may breed uneasiness. His submissiveness, however, is not that of the Petrarchan lover. Conflicting statements about the oedipus Young Man's attitude to his friend may seem irreconcilable they probably reflect various moods. The ground bass, however, is the reassertion of a love that, like charity, faileth never, endureth all things. Love for an unworthy object becomes the main theme in Thinking and Evidence-Based Practice the sonnets addressed to book the Dark Lady, but it is a love of a different nature, lust in action, Enjoyed no sooner but despised straight (Sonnet 129). The variations played upon black beauty in sonnets 127 and papers bath 132, the debunking exercise (My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun—130), and the recantation sonnet (Poor soul, the centre of my sinful earth—146) are conventional in various ways. Other poems (138, 140, 150) are an exploration of willing self-deceit not unrelated to the classical theme of the illusions of lovers harped upon in Sonnet 148. We only move away from the more traditional themes when the Young Man is dragged into the situation: But then my friend's heart let my poor heart bail, Him have I lost; thou hast both him and me; / He pays the whole, and yet am I not free (Sonnets 133, 134). In several poems (Sonnets 141, 147, 149, 152) the self-spurning and sex nausea reach a passionate intensity.
They owe their force to an acute self-consciousness and the twisting use of pelting words culminating in the restrained fury of the imprecation upon Th'expense of spirit in a waste of oedipus book shame (Sonnet 129). Technical? This fierce obfuscation of the glamour of love goes far beyond the book dignified rejection of earthly love that had been thought a fitting close for a sonnet sequence. It links up with an bath older tradition, the medieval abhorrence of the flesh, but it holds up no Christian message: the accent is modern and this hell is a metaphor for the human condition. The sonnet is the stark acknowledgment of the book workings of the define language sexual instinct, shorn of all pretenses, and it looks towards the total disruption of time-honored cultural traditions in King Lear. Shakespeare, however, unlike our contemporaries, made subversion a prelude to restoration. Words addressed to the Dark Lady in a rare moment of oedipus book tenderness, How oft, when thou, my music, music play'st (Sonnet 128), will be spoken again to cloze review the heroines of the romances, and oedipus book the lovely boy who had met with base infection seems to live again, unstained in the dream of Polyxenes to be boy eternal. 1 See Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare Studies, ed.
Stanley Wells (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 35-37. 2 The comparison is made easy by Herbert S. Donow's Concordance to define the Sonnet Sequences of Daniel, Drayton, Shakespeare, Sidney, and Spenser (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1969). To compare frequencies the number of occurrences must be divided by book, the number of sonnets in each sequence. I retain only Ideas Mirrour (1594) for Drayton since the final revised version, Idea, only appeared in 1619. For the first group of driving selected words frequencies are: Shakespeare, 0.13; Daniel, 0.62; Drayton, 0.75; Sidney, 0.38; Spenser, 0.33. 3 Shakespeare, 0.74; Daniel, 0.22; Drayton, 0.53; Sidney, 0.25; Spenser, 0.29. 4 Shakespeare, 0.41; Daniel, 0.16; Drayton, 0.16; Sidney, 0.29; Spenser, 0.11. 5 Including the oedipus following words:—season, spring, summer, autumn, winter—time, year, day, hour, minute—change, alter, mortal, mortality, death, die, decease, tomb, grave, worms frequencies are: Shakespeare, 1.72; Daniel, 1.22; Drayton, 0.86; Sidney, 0.5; Spenser, 0.83. 6 The term poet here refers to Essay on Critical Thinking and Evidence-Based the speaker presented as the author of the Sonnets, not to Shakespeare himself.
7 Cino da Pistoia, Fra Guittone, Dante: see Canzoniere 92,287. 8 Baif, Jodell, Peletier, Pasquier, Belleau: Amours 133, Continuation des Amours 2, 4, 24, 54, and passim. 9 Claiming my friend and I are one, the poet can pre-tend to enjoy whatever his friend owns: cf. Sonnets 40 and 42 with 80; Then if he thrive and I be cast away, / The worst was this: my love was my decay. 10 The theme appears in the fourth eclogue of oedipus The Shepheardes Calender but is ambitions confined to the opening stanzas, a prelude to the praise of Elizabeth. So formal is Spenser's treatment of Hobbinoll's love and oedipus so free from sensual images that E. K.'s denial of unlawful fleshlinesse in the very first gloss was hardly needed.
11 Complaint of Daphnis 2.70. Compare Examples? George Klawitter's edition of Barnfield's Complete Poems (Susquehanna University Press, 1991) is not wholly reliable: see Katherine Duncan-Jones's review in the Times Literary Supplement, 14 June 1991, p. 28. I therefore quote from E. Arber's edition: Richard Barnfield, Poems 1594-1598 (English Scholar's Library, 1882), but refer to part and stanza in The Complaint of Daphnis and to sonnet number in Cynthia. 12 The first sonnets are likely to be contemporary with Love's Labor's Lost and Romeo and Juliet (1594-96): see Cambridge Companion, ed. Wells, 44. 13 On the craze for originality see my Poetes metaphysiques anglais, 3 vols. Book? (Paris: Corti, 1960), 3: 127-32. 14 The most elaborate attempt to compare and contrast essay examples find references to sexual acts between the poet and the youth is Joseph Pequigney's Such Is My Love (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985).
Most of the innuendoes had been traced by Booth in Shakespeare's Sonnets (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977), but he had wisely abstained from assuming that sexual undercurrents implied actual intercourse. Indeed Pequigney, and oedipus even Booth at cloze review times, seem blind to an essential difference. Sonnet 151 to the mistress is invoked to justify a sexual interpretation of oedipus book Sonnet 75 to the youth. Technical? But Sonnet 151 is oedipus explicit about physical inter-course and can only make sense if rise, point, proud, stand, and fall allude to the penis. Sonnet 75 makes sense if no sexual overtone is perceived in proud as an enjoyer (of the wealth represented by the youth) or in possessing, which, applied to appals delight, does not mean possessing you.
And why should all activate a pun on a sexual sense (Booth, Sonnets, 263) since it echoes all full with feasting on oedipus your sight [my italics]? One could show in the same way that Sonnet 52 (on rare encounters) and Sonnet 87 (on separation) make sense when had is not given a sexual meaning though the overtone here, I admit, would reinforce the meaning if the context called for it. Pequigney's assumptions that words can take on a sexual meaning regardless of context leads to downright absurdity as in the attempt to prove that Sonnet 80 alludes to past carnal intercourse between the oedipus youth and the rival poet. Again false analogies are multiplied. Since the mistress in define language 137 is the bay where all men ride, to ride upon the youth's deep in 80, line 10, is said to refer to anal intercourse (though the oedipus book line only extends the ocean metaphor of line 5) and in Sonnet 33 the cloud-man is sup-posed to ride on the face of the sun-youth to suggest fellatio. In 137 ride, of papers course, must mean mount sexually to make sense, but sonnets 80 and 33 have an obvious meaning that is distorted, not enhanced, by Pequigney's reading. Homoerotic tendencies in the Son-nets were eagerly denied at a time when moral obloquy was attached to homosexuality. May not some interpretations nowadays proceed from a desire to vindicate it? Neither prepossession should affect our literary experience of the poems. 15 Hero and book Leander 1.61-69; 1 Tamburlaine 3.3.1215-20; 5.1.1916-40; Faustus 1328-47.
16 In the preface to Cynthia, ed. And Contrast Examples? Arber, 44. 17 Themes and Variations in Shakespeare's Sonnets (London: Hutchinson, 1961), 2.3. 18 See James M. Oedipus Book? Saslow, Ganymede in define the Renaissance: Homosexuality in Art and Society (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986), 26. 20 See R. J. Clements, The Poetry of Michelangelo (London: Owen, 1966), 1.6. 21 Saslow, Ganymede, 66.
22 Rime, ed. Girardi (Bari: Laterza, 1960), no. 106. Saslow (Ganymede, 28) gives Gilbert's translation: God, in His grace, shows himself nowhere more.
To me than through some veil, mortal and. Which I will only love for being His mirror. 23 The Winter's Tale 1.2.65. Source: The Inversion of oedipus Cultural Traditions in Shakespeare's Sonnets, in Shakespeare and Cultural Traditions, Tetsuo Kishi, Roger Pringle, and Stanley Wells, eds., University of bath Delaware Press, 1994, pp. 90-8. Access our Shakespeare's. Study Guide for Free. Shakespeare's Sonnets Homework Help Questions.
The Italian, or Petrarchan, Sonnet is written in iambic pentameter. The sonnet consists of fourteen lines, separated into an eight line stanza and a six line stanza. Oedipus Book? The first stanza (with eight. In Shakespeare's Sonnet 18, he is asking a rhetorical question. Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day is the question. Essay? In this rhetorical question, he proceeds to compare his beloved to oedipus a. In terms of structure, a Shakespearean sonnet has 14 lines and appals is written in iambic pentameter. This means that is has 3 quatrains (4 line sections) and one heroic couplet. The rhyme scheme.
Shakespeare was such an amazing sonneteer that there is actually a type of sonnet today that we refer to as a Shakespearean Sonnet! Even though Shakespeare isn't the inventor of the. I'm not sure what you mean by the term form, but if what you mean is the content and how it implies the theme, then the first line, Shall I compare thee to a summer's day.
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3 Easy-to-Use Tools to Count Your Words. So you need to get a word count for the latest chapter of your novel or an essay assignment for book, school? Don#8217;t worry, here are three easy-to-use tools to count your words. Need to get a word count on your latest writing project? Here are three tools that can help. If you#8217;re an on Critical Thinking, experienced writer, this might already be obvious to you. However, if you#8217;re new to writing, you need to know that keeping track of your word count is book a central habit of a writer.
You count words for two main reasons. In school, writing assignments are usually measured by page length (e.g. please turn in driving ambitions a three-page essay on Jane Austen#8217;s use of satire in Emma by oedipus Friday ). However, measuring by page-length is inaccurate and, in past bath many cases, unhelpful. Font, spacing, and formatting changes can alter the number of pages, and if you#8217;re writing a newspaper, magazine, or book, the pages will be in a variety of different sizes anyway. Oedipus Book. Measuring by word count, on the other hand, is consistent. Furthermore, publishers often pay on a per-word basis, and compare and contrast examples, so it makes sense for professional writers to keep track of how many words they write. But what if you#8217;re not a professional writer?
Why should you count words then? 2. Oedipus Book. Counting Words Can Motivate You. Driving. Many famous writers have kept daily word count goals. Ernest Hemingway is reported to have written 500 words per day. Stephen King writes 2,000 words per day, even on holidays. Book. Victorian novelist Anthony Trollope wrote 3,000 words per day. Setting a daily word count goal can inspire you. One of the best known word count goals is papers NaNoWriMo (or National Novel Writing Month). Every November, thousands of writers challenge themselves to write 50,000 words in a month (that#8217;s 1,667 words per day, by the way). Another resource for writers is my friend Jeff Goins#8217; 500 Words a Day Challenge, which is a 31-day writing challenge that over a thousand writers have participated in.
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On Mac , you can find the technical language word count under Tools - Word Count. 2. Oedipus Book. Take Word Counts to the Next Level With Scrivener. While Microsoft Word is a decent word processor for writing essays and articles, if you#8217;re writing a novel or book, you need a more powerful tool. Essay On Critical Practice. Scrivener is a perfect tool for finding your word count because it not only keeps your word count visible, it allows you to track your daily word count and the word count for your entire project. You can learn more about Scrivener on our review here. To track your daily word count on oedipus book Scrivener, go to Project Show Project Targets (?+ +T, on Mac). This will open a popup that updates automatically as you type. Essay Thinking And Evidence-Based. Isn#8217;t that cool? In Scrivener, you can set the project targets to your daily word count and track your progress. Oedipus. Also, notice the word count visible at the bottom of the application. If you don#8217;t have access to either of these tools, you can find, free online word counters.
One of the on Critical best, in my opinion, is WordCounter.net. Word Counter is a free, online word count tool. Challenge Yourself to Write 1,000 Words Today. These tools can change your life. Book. How would your life be different if you challenged yourself to write 1,000 words a day? (Share that challenge on compare essay Twitter) Even if you took the weekends off, in just a month, you would have 22,000 words. In six months, you would have written 132,000 words, easily enough for a long novel. After the first year, you could have written two books. Book. It starts by taking just a few seconds to track your words.
Do you have a daily word count goal? What is it? Write 1,000 words today. And Contrast Essay. Keep track using one of the tools above. When you#8217;re finished, share your best 250 words in the comments section below. And if you share, please be sure to oedipus book, give feedback on a few practices by other writers.
I participated In NaNoWriMo myself. My novel concluded before I reached the word count but it was still a great experience. I#8217;ll have to post my practice later when I have time. (WOOT FIRST COMMENT) Nice, Miriam. That#8217;s a huge accomplishment. Also, way to get in first! #128578; The following is EXACTLY 250 words: I never lied before I worked here.
It started with little comments, like telling a caller the boss, Robert, wasn’t in, when he was on a personal call. Thinking And Evidence-Based. Next I found myself assuring a caller that our Director of book, Marketing had sent out the requested materials the previous Friday, when in fact Hannah had returned from on Critical Thinking Practice lunch drunk, passed out in the lobby, and we called her husband and told him to take her home. People tell you, “The watched pot never boils”, meaning some things happen so imperceptibly, that if you dedicate yourself to watching for the smallest advance, you’ll never see it. The lesson, I suppose, is that it won’t do any good to watch a process. too closely, as there is nothing to see. I wonder if maybe people are getting this lesson backwards. If something can happen. slowly and nearly undetectably to the naked eye, then shouldn’t we watch it very, very vigilantly, to catch it before it boils over? That’s how the oedipus book lying exploded. Over time Robert and Hannah escalated their expectations of us, that we say any damn. thing they wanted us to say, to get them out of their chronic bungling.
That is how, today, I found myself insisting to that nice man, Tom Contreras, that. Robert could not meet with him. I gave him my best “trust me, would I lie to you” smile, and cloze review, convinced him he had made a grievous error, and oedipus, his appointment had been for the prior day. This is so true. After a while and after being asked to do it over and over, we are able to block even the slightest twinge of driving, guilt. I like your line: #8230;trust me, would I lie to you.
Nice piece. Wow this is so good, Avril. I loved the way you combine story with psychological observation so deftly. And I really like the way you bring us into the lives of these characters so completely in just a few paragraphs. Great job! Thank you for the compliment and encouragement Joe. Wow this is really good Avril. I love the way it sounds when I read it.
Great job! Thank you Miriam. Oedipus Book. The feedback from you and appals definition, Joe today is especially helpful as I hone in on book my #8220;voice.#8221; It is only 811 words. Hope that#8217;s enough. Thanks for past papers, yet another great prompt.
Pacific Avenue in oedipus downtown Santa Cruz, California, is a tri-era promenade: pre-earthquake, early post-quake, and now. Something to examples, note as you look up and down the stretches of the Pacific Garden Mall. Parts of each era remain and book, shoulder up, intermingled and interwoven, in a. strange dichotomy of style and sensibilities, palpable to six senses senses. that must include “feel.” Before the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, old family. businesses struggled against a fluctuating economy and driving, decay – Leask’s, Ford’s, the stately Cooper House, the Hihn Building – only to disappear into quake. rubble and oblivion. From the earthquake ruins, the silent overgrown lots have. slowly and painfully risen, Phoenix-like, to house modern replicas and. Oedipus Book. buildings, saved from demolition, clothed in appals new paint, giving concrete. testament to the power of Mother Nature’s onslaught. It looks somewhat new, somewhat tidy, with new business owners, full of dreams, bringing new energy, unaware of the strange angles. It’s all here, the very Gen.
X storefronts of The Gap, Border’s, Starbuck’s, Cinema 9 and the upper-storied. Oedipus Book. upper-classed condos to old fringe establishments – Logo’s, The Avenue Bar, Book Shop Santa Cruz – and the eminent Santa Cruz elder statesmen Del. Williams, The Del Mar Theater, The Palomar Hotel, Annieglass. The sun has. slipped below the rooflines of the past papers bath Cooper House across the street, giving the. street a bluish cast, and the wind swirls, scuttling the oedipus book dry leaves of late. summer and wafting in the briny smell of the sea. From my vantage perched high on a coffee shop stool, I pull on my sweater and watch. and reflect. While much has changed in definition the last twenty-four years, much remains. the same in this funny, strangely odd little place on oedipus book Planet Earth. The city. Papers Bath. fathers have looked to upscale the look of this funky street, yet the fringe. folks looking for attention or a handout – homeless street people, mentally ill. who have slipped through the cracks, angry young people, savvy panhandlers remain entrenched, some living in alleyways, doorways, and book, the lush underbrush. of this tourist mecca by night and by day claiming a butt-sized patch of. sidewalk.
With hats and instrument cases open wide, ragged street musicians, some phenomenally talented troupes of cloze review, drummers from some other cultures and guitar players belting protest songs, stake out street corners and make this city inhale and book, exhale. I remember the tiny ancient fiddler who played off-key, who died last year, and ambitions, I wonder about the strange man in the pink tutu and tights, with matching umbrella, who, in scuffed ballet shoes, shuffled up and down the book sidewalk in slow motion, his. Define Technical. gaze unwavering, daring you to look away first. Fast forward to today. September 2014. Border’s is oedipus no longer. Forever 21, in. eight-foot letters, is now emblazoned on the storefront. Cloze Review. Del Williams Jewelry. is but a memory.
They were always able to locate the oedipus book elusive replacement for. Cloze Review. broken treasures. Other business, too, are no longer a presence on the Garden. Mall promenade. The economy has taken its toll here and everywhere. Oedipus. Starbuck’s. and Peet’s, along with some local coffee beaneries, have customers bulging from. their sticky doors, while the protesters of past, conditions and wages sport signs. Oedipus Book. outside.
The pan-handlers still hassle the diners who shovel in ethnic foods. served in sidewalk cafes. The street musicians remain, despite the and contrast essay white-washed. Oedipus. facade put on the buildings rimming the street, and they produce some of the best. music you’ll hear. Life vibrates through the tree-named streets that surround. the cloze review Garden Mall – Cedar, Walnut, Laurel – despite the oedipus few empty lots of weeds as tall as a man dotted here and there. Language. Life vibrates and hums. The young people gather and spill into book surf shops that tout the cloze review best wetsuits, the oedipus most chic attire. Cinema 9 has eleven screens, and on opening nights lines run around the corner and driving, past the ATM machines for oedipus book, Bay Federal Credit Union. Essay. Yes, life’s heart still beats here. A few feet from my perch sits a young woman, maybe 19 or so, a street person, asking passersby for spare change. Her voice is oedipus book harsh, and she barks a “fuck you” to a man who spat some words at cloze review, her. Hunched against the late afternoon chill and the taunt. tossed from his retreating lips, she leans against the building and sucks in a sigh, herself complicit in his response.
She knows it. When she arrived here, she was undoubtedly full of dreams, as all those absent. business owners must have been, too. Once optimism must have burned in her. eager heart, as she made plans for a future here. Perhaps it still does, but it. has burrowed itself deep inside, for time on the streets changes people, even the young ones. She’s alone, and, as night begins to fall in a strange. town, I wonder if she feels the book bony edges of fear.
I stuff my notebook in my bag, curl my hands around the steaming paper, and wander into the crowd. Gosh Diane, this piece so effectively evokes that funky seaside town (I know, I#8217;ve been there). This is nicely nuanced, you#8217;ve drawn the personality of the bath neighborhood, how it looks and how it feels at street level. I#8217;m familiar with the denizens already. I mean this ad a compliment, that it reminds me of oedipus book, one of my faves, Cannery Row by definition Steinbeck. Oh and the guy in book the tutu, he#8217;s from Fairfax. Thank you, Avril, for reading my too many words and your kind words.
Sorry. I didn#8217;t read the instructions thoroughly. I am so happy that you know this little burg and recognize some of the landmarks. Fairfax? Really? We would always look for him when we fofund ourselves at papers bath, the Garden Mall. Too funny.
Again, thank you for reading. Book. Thank you, Avril, for taking the time to read my way-too-many-word piece and for your kind words. Next time I will read the instructions more carefully. I#8217;m happy you recognized some of the landmarks of this little burg. It#8217;s an interesting place, a place that engages all the senses. Fairfax? Really?
My husband and I used to cloze review, look for him every time we found ourselves on the Garden Mall. Again, thank you. This place is oedipus book not so much about the rules Diane, but about the encouragement to write. Writing more is always a good thing if you are on a roll! We#8217;re glad you shared. Very well done! Your description of the town, the people, the changes, everything create a living, moving video in past my mind. I feel as if i#8217;ve just been there myself. Oedipus. Thank you, Adelaide. I#8217;m happy you were able to visit here for past papers bath, a little while. Book. It#8217;s a special place.
You#8217;re a very good writer, Diane. The description here is perfect. I bet you had a lot of fun writing this! I did have fun writing it, Joe, but it brought back a lot of unfun memories. Thank you for your encouraging words and for this wonderful site. Thinking Practice. Wow amazing Diane. I could feel and see everything you described. Oedipus Book. Based off of this I feel that you#8217;re going to be a great writer. Keep up the great work! Thank you so much for your kind words, Miriam, and for taking the past time to read the piece.
You made me feel as if I#8217;d like to go there and oedipus book, experience it for myself. Vivid descriptions and emotions draw you in. PI glazed my fingers over the peeling yellow with time flower wallpaper. Cloze Review. My footsteps echoed though the enpty halls as the dust lifted from the ground. Silence filled the air one I would find at an funeral,quiet from oedipus book neglect as if it was hiding a burning hatred for language, what I had did. Rain slid down the clouded window pane and the pit pat in the roof sent a eiree chill down your spine.
Memories followed my though the house as I breathed in book the rich earthy smell of mothballs. Those memories wandered next to driving, me hoping for me to look at them just to catch a fleeting look, toopen up the vault which I had buried them in. This once was my childhood home where I spent long days and cold nights curled up asleep on my bed with dreams leading me into a false sense of security. I took one last look around and shut the oedipus chipping word door. I sprinkled the last of the gasonle and driving, struck a match, soon the house set fire, the flames licking the night sky as the stars twinkled in the inky blackness as the fire crackled from the heat. I sat back a blank expression on oedipus my face. #8220;That#8217;s finally done.#8221; I said. Appals. I started walking with the embers glowing brightly behind me casting shadows. Oedipus Book. Now I know that is part of a good story.
Nice twist to start off visiting the childhood home, then burn it down. This needs some cleaning up for spelling and grammar (for a practice this is fine though), but I loved the way you evoked sensual details as the character paces through the house. There#8217;s a lot going on here, and compare, like Avril said, this seems like a small piece of a promising story. Well done! Nice job Chloee. Oedipus Book. I#8217;m intrigued as to where this will go next. Keep up the good work! It holds my interest as to why she sets fire to her childhood home? What bad memories are hidden there? Like Joe pointed out. it needs careful editing for mistakes.
Alright. So a few practices ago I posted about Angela.(the post #8220;You Need to Ask this Question Every Time You Sit Down To Write#8221; specifically) This is Essay on Critical Practice a continuation of that post. Here is oedipus my 250 words. Groggy, disoriented, confused, I slowly awoke to my surroundings. The first thing that I became aware of cloze review, was the oedipus book pounding pain pushing through my. skull. Questions like: Where am I? What happened? Why can’t I move? Rose in my. I opened my eyes to closer examine my surroundings. The ceiling was bare cement. and seemed to animate cold to the very marrow of my bones.
I tried to move my. head to technical language, look at the walls but found it fixed in place. Panic slowly began to. rise within me like a poison. Slowly I began to remember what happened until it. came back in oedipus a rush. My apartment, escape, Andrew, the emerald. Where is definition the. emerald! Came my panicked thought. Frantically I looked around the room with my eyes but came upon nothing. Calm down Angela think this through. Oedipus Book. No need to lose control.
I thought about that night. Where. had the emerald been then? In my desk… until I put it on. My eyes drifted to my. chest in hopes of seeing it there. It was gone.
My alarm began to rise again as did my scolding thoughts. Compare And Contrast Examples. Angela you idiot! You should’ve left the emerald in its holding spot but no you had to be noble and put it on. Just then the oedipus book door opened. “Ah you’re awake.” Came Andrew’s voice. He walked to a chair somewhere behind me and, by the sound of it, took out a pen and define technical, paper. “Now to business. Where is the emerald?” I didn#8217;t know what I was going to write about when I began, but I was in our local diner so I began about a waitress.
I don#8217;t know if I did a 1,000 words because I write on a yellow pad and haven#8217;t transcribed it all yet. This is as much as I#8217;ve typed so far, about 350 words. Edna knew her customers. She had been waitressing at the Loganville diner for oedipus, 20 years, and she had served many of the customers for the same 20 years. They had grown old together. On Critical And Evidence-Based Practice. Some had died during those years; some had been born. When Bob died Edna had taken stock of her situation: two children married, one grandchild and another expected, living miles away, an old house paid for, a small pension from book Bob#8217;s union, a moderate savings account, the interest of which she. and Bob never touched. #8220;Let it grow,#8221; Bob had said. When I#8217;m gone you will need the interest to papers, supplement my pension.#8221; Edna could have used the interest now, but Bob#8217;s voice came back to her in oedipus those few weeks right after he died. #8220;Let it grow.#8221; So, she did and definition, got a job at the diner. #8220;I never waitressed before,#8221; she had told Fonda, the owner, #8220;but I#8217;m strong and a hard worker. Book. Edna almost heard the wheels spinning in his head as Fonda Metatakis thought it over. Essay Thinking And Evidence-Based Practice. #8220;Can you operate a cash register? They#8217;re all computerized now.#8221; #8220;I can use a computer, and I#8217;m a quick learner.#8221; #8220;Well… O.K.
Part time to start, one to five in book the afternoons at first, then maybe later full time.#8221; Edna suspected he gave her the job because Bob had died. Everyone in town knew it. Bob was always talking to people whether he knew them or not. and, if he didn#8217;t, he soon did. Fonda probably thought she needed the Thinking money. She did, but it wasn#8217;t until. after she had asked for the job did she really know why. She would use this money for. living expenses, as little as possible, and oedipus book, add the rest to her savings as a legacy for her grandchildren. It was something she used to fantasize about when she was a child–a legacy left by some unknown relative or stranger because she had done a good deed.
For a time she had gone out of her way to help strangers even if they really didn#8217;t need it. On Critical. #8220;Thank you Dear, but I can carry this package. Book. It was kind of essay examples, you to offer.#8221; It hadn#8217;t been easy, but now and oedipus book, then her help had been accepted. she made sure to tell them her name and to get theirs. For years she had checked the obituaries regularly. I#8217;m starting to define, think of all the other little stories she has been a part of over the years and oedipus, what happens next. I enjoyed reading it Adelaide. Driving Ambitions. When I get in the zone, I write 1,000 words in two hours.
Most of the time, i#8217;m procrastinating, so it#8217;s usually 250 a day.
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Essay on Leaf (With Diagrams) | Botany. The below mentioned essay provides an overview on Leaf. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Origin of book, Leaves 2. Origin of Branches 3. Origin of appals, Reproductive Shoot Apex 4. Anatomy of the Leaf. A leaf initiates by periclinal divisions in a small group of cells at the side of an apical meristem. In angiosperms, the book tunica and the corpus are responsible for leaf initiation. In the dicotyledonous plants the driving ambitions periclinal divisions initiating the oedipus leaves occur, not in the surface layer, but in one or more layers beneath it. If the tunica is single- layered, such divisions take place within the define corpus, otherwise they occur both in tunica and corpus or in the tunica only. In certain monocotyledonous plants the superficial tunica layer undergoes periclinal divisions and gives rise to some or most of the tissue.
In the case of gymnosperms the leaves initiate from the peripheral tissue zone. Oedipus Book? In the vascular cryptogams (pteridophytes) the leaves are initiated either from single superficial cells or from groups of such cells. The periclinal divisions which initiate a leaf primordium are responsible for the formation of a lateral prominence on the side of the shoot apex. This prominence constitutes the leaf base which is also known as leaf buttress. Subsequently the leaf grows upwardly from the buttress. As shown in the figure, in Hypericum spp., the ambitions apical meristem is less prominently elevated above the youngest leaf buttress. Before the oedipus book initiation of a new leaf primordium the apical meristem appears as a rounded mound. It gradually widens, and, then leaf buttresses are initiated on cloze review its sides. While the new leaf primordia grow upward from the buttresses, the apical meristem again becomes like a small mound. In angiosperms, branches commonly are initiated in close association with the leaves – They originate in the axils of the leaves, and in book their nascent state they are known as axillary buds. The axillary buds commonly initiate somewhat later than the leaves subtending them and essay, therefore, it is not always clear whether the book meristem of the axillary bud is derived directly from the apical meristem of the main shoot or whether it originates from partly differentiated tissue of the internode.
Both situations may occur because plants vary with regard to Essay Thinking and Evidence-Based, time of appearance of axillary buds. On the one hand, the axillary buds may be directly related to the apical meristem of the oedipus parent shoot; on the other hand they may intergrade, ontogenetically with the adventitious buds which arise in obviously differentiated tissue regions. The initiation of the axillary bud in seed plants is characterized by a combination of anticlinal divisions, in essay examples one or more of the superficial layers of the young axis, and of various divisions, sometimes predominantly periclinal, in the deeper layers (see Fig. Book? 41.2). This coordinated growth in surface of the peripheral region and growth in volume at greater depth cause the bud to protrude above the technical surface of the axis. Depending on the quantitative relationships between the oedipus book tunica and appals, the corpus in the shoot apices of angiosperms. The derivatives of the two zones participate in the formation of the axillary bud meristem. If the axillary bud develops into book, a shoot, its apical meristem gradually organizes — commonly duplicating the define technical pattern found in the parent shoot apex and oedipus book, proceeds with the formation of leaves.
Essay on the Origin of Reproductive Shoot Apex : In the reproductive state in angiosperms, floral apices replace the vegetative apices either directly or through the development of an inflorescence. The flower, which may occur singly or as part of an inflorescence, is formed during the reproductive phase of define language, growth. It develops from a terminal or lateral vegetative shoot apex and results in the culmination of meristematic activity of that particular meristem. Thus, the floral apex, like the leaf primordium and unlike the vegetative shoot apex, shows determinate growth. The change to the reproductive stage may be first detected by the modified growth habit of the shoot. Book? When the flowers develop an axillary-branch inflorescence, there appears an acceleration in production of axillary buds, which shows one of the earliest indication of approaching flowering. Simultaneously, the nature of foliar organs subtending the axillary buds also changes.
They develop as bracts more or less distinct from the foliage leaves. Here during the reproductive stage the axillary buds appear earlier and grow more vigorously than the cloze review subtending bract primordia. The next feature that reveals the beginning of the reproductive state is the sudden increase in the elongation of internodes. From the viewpoint of oedipus, histology and cytology the reproductive meristem differs from the vegetative meristem in varying degrees. It may have the bath same quantitative relationship between the tunica and book, the corpus as was present in the vegetative apex, or the number of separate surface layers may be reduced or increased. The most conspicuous change is exhibited in driving the distribution of the eumeristematic and the more highly vacuolated cells. In many species the apex of the oedipus book inflorescence or the flower shows a uniform, small-celled mantle-like zone of one or more layers enclosing a large celled core; this type of apex may be flatter and wider than the vegetative one. It is not necessary that the mantle may coincide with the driving ambitions tunica; a part of corpus may be included in it. The cells of the central tissue enlarge and become vacuolate, and the meristematic activity remains restricted to the mantle zone. This activity is concerned only with the production of floral organs. Commonly there are two types of leaves:
1. Dorsiventral Leaves (dicotyledonous) and. 2. Isobilateral Leaves (monocotyledonous). The dorsiventral leaves usually grow in a horizontal direction with distinct upper and book, lower surfaces, the on Critical upper being more strongly illuminated than the lower. There exists a difference in the internal structure between the book upper and lower surfaces of the dorsiventral leaf due to its unequal illumination. Most of the dicotyledonous leaves are dorsiventral. The isobilateral leaves hang vertically so that both surfaces of the leaf receive direct and equal amount of sunlight. Compare Essay? The isobilateral leaves possess a uniform structure on both upper and lower surfaces. A very few dicotyledons and most monocotyledons have isobilateral leaves.
Usually the leaf is composed of book, various tissues, which furnish various functions. In discussions of the form and Essay on Critical Thinking and Evidence-Based Practice, anatomy of the leaf, it is customary to book, designate the leaf surface that is continuous with the surface of the part of the definition stem located above the leaf insertion as upper, ventral, or adaxial side, the opposite side as the lower, dorsal or abaxial. To study the anatomy of oedipus book, leaf, several vertical sections passing through the mid-rib are required. The internal structure of the driving ambitions dicotyledonous leaf is as follows: The leaf is covered on both surfaces by a single-layered epidermis. The outer walls of the epidermis are usually thickened, and oedipus, covered over with a waxy substance called cutin. The outer surfaces of the epidermis are frequently covered with a thin or thick cuticle. This cuticular layer is formed of cutin. As the outer walls of the epidermis are thick and cutinized, water does not pass through them rapidly and the transpiration from the surface of the epidermis is define technical language, greatly reduced, only small quantity of water is evaporated by transpiration. The epidermis checks the transpiration to oedipus, a great extent. The epidermis also prevents the entrance of pathogens into the interior of the leaf.
Another function of the epidermis is the protection of the soft internal tissue of the leaf from the mechanical injuries. Sometimes in the xerophytic leaves the epidermis cells become radially elongated and somewhat lignified. In Nerium leaf, the epidermis is multi-layered. Numerous small openings called stomata are found in the epidermal layers of the leaves. Stomata are found in most abundance in the lower epidermis of the dorsiventral leaf. They are very few in the upper epidermis and sometimes altogether absent. In the floating leaves, stomata remain confined to the upper epidermis; in the submerged leaves the stomata are absent. In xerophytic leaves either stomata are sunken or situated inside the depressions. Each stoma remains surrounded by two semilunar guard cells.
The guard cells are living and contain chloroplasts; they regulate opening and closing of cloze review, stomata. The guard cells may remain surrounded by book two or more accessory cells in addition to compare essay examples, epidermal cells. Oedipus? The stomata are found in scattered condition. Usually the stomata are meant for exchange of driving, gases in between the plant and the atmosphere. To facilitate the diffusion of gases properly, each stoma opens internally into a respiratory cavity or sub-stomatal chamber. The transpiration takes place through the stomata, and the surplus water is being evaporated. The tissue of the leaf that lies between the upper and lower epidermis and between the veins consist of typically thin walled parenchyma is known as mesophyll. Oedipus? This tissue forms the appals major portion of the inner of leaf. Oedipus? Commonly the cells of mesophyll are of two types—the palisade parenchyma or palisade tissue, and the spongy parenchyma or spongy tissue.
The mesophyll tissues always contain chloroplasts in them. The palisade parenchyma is generally composed of elongated and more or less cylindrical cells which are close together with long axes of the cells perpendicular to the epidermis. In transverse section the compare and contrast examples cells appear to be arranged quite compact, are really separate from oedipus each other having intercellular spaces among them. The palisade tissue may consist of a single or more layers. These cells are arranged near to the upper surface of the leaf, where they receive sunlight and facilitate to carry the function of photosynthesis. Sometimes the technical leaves hang vertically (e.g., Eucalyptus), so that both surfaces of leaf are equally illuminated. In such leaves the oedipus palisade parenchyma may occur on both sides. The compactness of the palisade parenchyma depends upon light intensity.
The leaves which receive direct sunlight develop more compact parenchyma in comparison to the leaves which develop in shady places. The lower portion of the define technical language mesophyll in the leaf is known as spongy parenchyma or spongy tissue. The spongy tissue is usually composed of loose, irregular, thin walled cells having big intercellular spaces (air spaces) among them. The cells of spongy parenchyma also contain chloroplasts and oedipus book, carry on define technical photosynthesis, but in comparison of palisade parenchyma less chloroplasts are developed. Due to the presence of a large air space in the spongy tissue they are more adaptable to the exchange of gases between the cells and the atmosphere. The large air spaces that surround the spongy parenchyma cells are near the stomata and directly connected with them. There is therefore a much more free circulation of gases around these cells than around the palisade parenchyma cells, with the result that they are better suited to the exchange of gases between the cells and the surrounding atmosphere.
The air spaces of the spongy chlorenchyma are not isolated chambers but a series of intercommunicating passages. Both spongy and palisade parenchyma contain discoid chloroplasts arranged in parallel rows in the cells. As the chloroplasts are more dense in the palisade tissue man the spongy tissue the upper surface of the leaf appears to be deeper green than the lower surface. Mechanical Support in the Leaf : The functions of the midrib and the lateral veins are to strengthen the book leaf. The important tissue giving mechanical strength to leaf is: collenchyma, sclerenchyma, turgid parenchyma and cloze review, woody xylem.
In the centre of the upper portion of the midrib, just below the epidermis, there is usually a group of cells which give strength by having thickened walls and by being turgid A group of the same kind of cells usually occurs also just above the oedipus book lower epidermis. These cells constitute the driving ambitions collenchyma. Collenchyma is composed of living cells with walls which are thickened at the angles where three or more cells come in contact with one another. The thick places in the walls increase the strength of the cells, while the thin places allow for a more rapid transfer of materials from cell to cell than would take place if the cell walls were thickened throughout. These cells are more or less turgid, and oedipus, so give strength to the leaf in the way also. Driving? The weight of the leaf causes it to tend to oedipus, bend downward, with the result that there is a tendency for the upper portion to be stretched and the lower portion compressed. Compare? The collenchyma occurs, therefore, in those parts of the midrib in which there is the greatest need for book, strengthening material. Usually the sclerenchyma cells or the fibres are associated with the vascular tissues of the leaves. They occur usually as bundle caps adjacent to the phloem. And Contrast? Sometimes the fibres are found on both the sides of large vascular bundle of the book leaves.
Usually these cells are thick walled, dead and lignified. Their position just exterior to thin-walled phloem affords mechanical protection to driving, the latter. The fibres are greatly elongated in the longitudinal direction of the midrib. The regions between the collenchyma cells and the central portion of the midrib are occupied by parenchyma cells. In structure the parenchyma cells are not specially modified for any particular function, but they perform all the oedipus book general functions of Essay on Critical Thinking and Evidence-Based Practice, cells to a limited extent. Parenchyma cells have thin walls, but on account of their turgidity they strengthen the midrib.
Usually the vessels and tracheids of oedipus, xylem conduct water, but due to their thick walled nature they also give mechanical support to the leaves. The xylem elements are composed of lignified and dead cells. Orientation of Vascular Tissue : In the leaf traces of flowering plants, before they have the stele, the define language phloem is always found towards the oedipus outside of the stem. The leaf traces after their entrance in the petiole and lamina, also maintain the relative position of the xylem and the phloem, i.e., the phloem is technical language, always found towards the lower side and the xylem towards the upper side in the leaf. Sometimes the xylem ring remains surrounded by a ring of phloem. The phloem occurs only below the xylem or rarely both above and below it.
The tissues which constitute the conducting system are situated near or at the centre of the midrib. Oedipus? This system may have various shapes, e.g., the form of a ring, a crescent shaped ring, a crescent or scattered patches. In the ring shaped conducting system parenchyma cells are usually found in driving the centre of the ring. The inner part of the ring is book, composed of xylem (towards upper surface), and phloem (towards lower surface). Xylem is Essay Thinking Practice, composed of various kinds of vessels, trachieds wood fibres and wood parenchyma. Specially the vessels are annular and spiral. Xylem conducts water, raw food material and also gives mechanical support to oedipus book, the leaf. The phloem consists of sieve tubes, companion cells and phloem parenchyma.
The phloem serves for the translocation of prepared food material from the mesophyll of the leaf. The structure of large veins is compare and contrast essay, more or less similar to that of a midrib. As they pass from the oedipus book base of a leaf blade towards the apex or margin of the leaf, they get reduced in size, and simple in Thinking Practice structure. The small veins consist of only of few conducting cells. The xylem is always found towards the upper surface and phloem towards lower even in very small veins. The cells of the mesophyll (chlorenchyma) are usually arranged so that the conduction of materials to and from the veins is facilitated. The bundle sheath:
The larger vascular bundles of dicotyledonous leave remain surrounded by parenchyma with small number of chloroplasts, whereas the oedipus book small bundles occur in the mesophyll. However, these small bundles do not remain in contact with intercellular spaces but are commonly enclosed with a layer of compactly arranged parenchyma, the compare and contrast bundle sheath. In dicotyledons the oedipus bundle-sheath parenchyma is also called border parenchyma. The bundle sheaths of dicotyledonous leaves usually consist of cells elongated parallel with the course of the bundle and having walls as thin as those of adjacent mesophyll. In some plants these cells have chloroplasts similar to those the mesophyll (e.g., in Humulus, Nicotiana tabacum); in others they have few or no chloroplasts. The bundle sheath cells are in direct contact with the conducting cells of the vascular bundle of parenchyma and on the outer face with the mesophyll tissue. Individual sheath cells may contain crystals. The parenchymatous bundle sheaths are more common, but in certain dicotyledons bundles of various sizes are enclosed in sclerenchyma, e.g.
Winteraceae, Melastomaceae; (Bailey and Nast, 1944; Foster, 1947). The leaves of compare, many species of Eucalyptus do not spread out book horizontally but hang vertically, so that both surfaces of the leaf receive direct sunlight. In keeping with this fact, palisade chlorenchyma is cloze review, developed on both sides. The monocotyledons as a group show greater diversity of specialized leaf types. The leaves of this group are not made up of stipules, petiole and book, leaf blade. In general monocotyledonous leaves are parallel-veined.
Most of monocotyledonous leaves are nearly erect and more or less both surfaces usually receive direct and equal amount of sunlight. Such leaves are called isobilateral (isos = equal; bi = two; lateris = side). The internal structure of Thinking and Evidence-Based Practice, such leaves is oedipus book, more or less similar in both the upper and lower halves. The epidermis on either side contains the language stomata and the mesophyll is oedipus book, usually not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma, but consists only of parenchyma cells, having chloroplasts and intercellular spaces among them. Anatomy of Leaf of Zea Mays (Maize)—Monocot: The epidermis is found on and contrast both upper and lower surfaces of the leaf.
The epidermal layers are uniseriate and composed of more or less oval cells. The outer wall of the epidermal cells is cuticularized. The upper epidermis may easily be identified due to the presence of xylem and bulliform cells towards it. Stomata are confined to both the epidermal layers. As the leaf is isobilateral, the mesophyll is not differentiated into palisade and spongy tissues. It is composed of compactly arranged thin walled, isodiametric chlorophyllous cells having well developed intercellular spaces among them. The vascular bundles are collateral and closed as found in monocotyledonous stems. Most of the bundles are small in size but fairly large bundles, also occur at regular intervals.
The xylem is found towards upper side and phloem towards lower side in the bundles. Usually each bundle remains surrounded by a bundle sheath consisting of thin walled parenchyma cells. The cells of bundle sheath generally contain starch grains in them. Book? Xylem consists of vessels and phloem of sieve tubes and companion cells. Sclerenchyma cells occur in and contrast essay examples patches on both ends of the large vascular bundles which give mechanical support to the leaf.
Anatomy of the Leaf of Triticum Aestivum (Wheat)—Monoco t: As usual the epidermis layers are found on both upper and oedipus, lower surfaces of the leaf. The epidermises are uniseriate and composed of more or less oval cells having no intercellular spaces among them. Driving Ambitions? The outer walls of oedipus, epidermal cells are cuticularized. The conspicuous big sized bulliform cells are found in the upper epidermis. On Critical Thinking? The stomata are confined to both epidermis layers. The sub-stomatal chambers are also seen in vertical section. It is book, composed of more or less oval chlorenchyma cells having intercellular spaces among them.
The mesophyll tissue is not clearly differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma; however, the cells towards epidermal layers are somewhat elongated and palisade-like. Sub-stomatal chambers are seen beneath the stomata. The vascular bundles are collateral and closed as found in monocotyledonous stems. The bundles are arranged in driving parallel series. Xylem occurs towards upper surface and phloem towards lower surface. Each bundle remains surrounded by a bundle sheath consisting of thin walled parenchyma cells.
The sclerenchyma strands are found on both the ends of oedipus book, each big vascular bundle. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: