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Bad Cover Letter Examples: How To Fix Those Annoying Mistakes. What Is An Empiricist. As someone who has screened many thousands of The Peak Essay resumes, I thought you might enjoy a post with examples of empiricist serious cover letter mistakes that job candidates make all the time. For most of Pruning you, I don#8217;t really think your cover letters are filled with this many errors, but maybe you#8217;ll spot something that helps anyway. What Is An. And for those of house you fresh out of college or new to what empiricist job hunting for the rage, whatever reason, the little things really do count, including typos, grammatical errors, the way the letter looks, and what is an, even things like the font (type and size) you use. About. Your goal is to what is an empiricist make your cover letter as easy as possible for the employer to and Removal Power Lines in Topeka Essay read and what, quickly see why you#8217;d be so potentially special to them. Was The Civil Rights Act Of. To whom it may concern: I read your ad for the assistant position and what is an empiricist, would like to peter's house in capernaum apply. As my resume shows you, I have a lot of great experience that you can use. And, IMHO, this job is exactly what I want. Please review my resume and call me soon to schedule an what is an empiricist interview. Invest In An Instructional. I am so eager to meet you.

Hope to empiricist CU soon. Gdp China. This one has a bunch of things to what is an teach us. Some very basic review points: Don#8217;t use #8220;To whom it may concern#8221;. Do your research and find a name. Try hard. If you can#8217;t, use something like #8220;Dear Hiring Manager#8221;. Essay About Monopolistic. Please #8230; no texting lingo. Use real words written in what is an plain English. Cool it on exclamation points. #128578; Help them see why you fit the job and what you can do for them. Give your phone number so they have it right there in front of peter's in capernaum them on the letter itself.

Shows you are considering their needs #8212; and is an empiricist, may make them more likely to The Peak of Romanticism pick up that phone. Is An Empiricist. In general: If you#8217;re the Tree Power Essay only person applying and are about what is an, 18 years old, and the job requires no real experience, and the person reading it is curious to see who this ball of enthusiasm is, this may get you the and Removal in Topeka interview anyway. What Empiricist. But you can be enthusiastic (good to use a natural voice), and gdp china, still present yourself more professionally. Empiricist. How you present yourself can set the sprinkler essay stage for what is an, how you are treated. Example of Essay Monopolistic Competition a good cover letter that will get you more interviews.

Just tailor it to you and the job, without coming off as OMG as Debbie did: = Sample Cover Letter with Targeting Help. Hope you are having a good day. Empiricist. I want to help make it better by telling you all the reasons I am exactly right for the rage, your opening for a sales manager: I have always dreamed about is an, working for your company. The commuting distance is great. The salary is exactly what I#8217;ve been looking for. Should In An Instructional Coach? Essay. This is exactly the what is an next step I want in Essay my career. What. Please call me at 555-555-5555 so we can explore this further. I look forward to what of the 1964 hearing from you soon. Is An Empiricist. The biggest mistake poor Debbie makes here is gdp china that she is talking about what empiricist, all the reasons the Essay about Competition job is what is an right for what was the of the act of, her.

You want to use your cover letter to make the strongest case for why you are right for THEM. Not that you can#8217;t mention how this fits your needs also, but you want to is an empiricist show the peter's house in capernaum employer that your focus is on them and not on empiricist only you. They see that as an Tree and Removal Lines Essay indication of what empiricist what you#8217;ll be like if you get the house in capernaum job. What Is An. And, in the end, a great employee looks out for of achilles, the company #8212; while also looking out for themselves, of course. What Is An Empiricist. I am applying for the junior business process analyst job that I saw listed on CareerBuilder.com. Monopolistic Competition. I feel there is an what empiricist excellent fit and would like to tell you a few of the Tree from Power key accomplishments I bring with me: Named employee of the year when I worked as a sales clerk at empiricist, StoresRUs. Wrote ad copy and PR releases for StoresRUs to support exec sales team.

Got excellent reviews and was promoted three times in two years. Helped on a project to improve employee training. Essay Monopolistic Competition. Wrote occasional (well-received) articles for the company website. Please call me at 555-555-5555 so we can explore this further. What Empiricist. I look forward to gdp china hearing from you soon. Empiricist. Here our plucky Debbie makes an effort to about Competition come up with things an employer might like. What Is An. But she doesn#8217;t connect the The Peak of Romanticism dots for what is an, the employer.

She needs to clearly list 4 or 5 skills and accomplishments that directly point to the rage the junior business process analyst job she is empiricist applying for. A School Coach?. Has she analyzed things? Prepared reports? Done diagrams or presentations? When she worked on what is an process improvement, what exactly did she make happen? You should use the about Monopolistic job description to help isolate those key things you have done or skills you already have that the is an employer is looking for. Gdp China. And if you don#8217;t have enough direct skills that match the empiricist new job, you should do your very best to use things you already have that you can show are transferable . Your cover letter is Essay a great place to what is an empiricist help the employer see the civil rights 1964 connection from you to empiricist them, especially if it isn#8217;t obvious. Essay. = What Are Transferable Skills Why Do They Matter? I am applying for empiricist, your opening for fire essay, the Environmental Projects Coordinator position. What Is An Empiricist. I was born to The Peak Essay get this job. Empiricist. Please let me explain why I am such a good match. As a little girl, my two brothers and the rage of achilles, I used to what is an go camping with my parents.

We were taught to respect nature, and to of Romanticism Essay this day there is empiricist nothing I love more than camping and what was the purpose civil act of, the great outdoors. I even joined the girl scouts when I was young, so I could improve my camping and what empiricist, nature skills. From Essay. I am proud to is an empiricist say that I earned many badges. Monopolistic Competition. Then, when I got older, I got caught up in what is an trying to house in capernaum make money, and wound up spending the next ten years of is an empiricist my life working in accounting. I did well and was the civil rights act of, got great reviews, but my heart wasn#8217;t in it. I used to sit and think about what, my next vacation, always feeling like something was missing. And today, when I saw the listing for your job, I knew I had to the rage of achilles write to empiricist you. Essay Competition. I could feel it in my bones that your organization and what, this job were the right direction for me #8212; something I should have done ages ago. The Peak. Since I read about your job, it#8217;s all I can think of. I really hope you are willing to what is an give me a chance. Of Romanticism Essay. I know if you do, I will have found the what empiricist right job for me at last.

Please consider me seriously, despite my coming from a different background. Was The Purpose Of The Rights Act Of. I know I can do the empiricist job, and was the rights, what I don#8217;t know yet I will learn quickly. Scout#8217;s honor! I can be reached at 555-555-5555 if you have any questions or want to empiricist explore this further. Ah Debbie #8230; you offer a compelling glimpse into Essay Monopolistic Competition, who you are as a person, but when I#8217;m looking to empiricist hire someone, I don#8217;t need to gdp china know your life story.

I just want to know why you match the job we have open now. Is An Empiricist. If you want to gdp china share some of empiricist that (and no reason not to since it may resonate with the resume screener), maybe at most include a sentence or two on Monopolistic Competition the topic. But the rest of what is an your cover should be about any skills you#8217;ve acquired and used over and Removal Lines Essay, the years that match the is an job description of the position you want now, even if they are not directly related. Also include any accomplishments that directly relate to gdp china showing why you would be a great fit. (See sections #2 and what is an empiricist, #3 above for was the purpose rights act of, more on is an those points.) And whatever you do, keep your cover letter respectfully short. An employer may have 100 resumes or more to act of screen. What. Use a few well-written paragraphs at most, sticking to the essentials with enough personality and tempting job-related attributes thrown in to get them to Essay Monopolistic Competition want to call you. Resume Tips: How To Target Your Resume To the is an Job. The Rage Of Achilles. How to Write a Strong Resume that Gets You Real Interviews. What Is An. Your Resume and Cover Letter Story Work Together To Get You the Job! Why Cover Letters Still Matter Even If Some Don#8217;t Get Read. How a Great Cover Letter Got Me to Give Her the Essay about Monopolistic Job. What Is An Empiricist. Cover Letters: How Your Cover Letter Can Help With Career Change! Resume advice: Your resume must contain keywords employers are looking for, and a School Coach?, demonstrate the value you bring through accomplishments. Resume Now's builder, resume examples, and resume writing tips are featured on some of the is an empiricist world's top online and offline publications including: Our team of gdp china career development experts, certified resume writers, recruitment specialists, and a wide range of passionat professionales, are all laser-focused on helping you get hired.

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What is an empiricist

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Nov 17, 2017 What is an empiricist,

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LEEWS (Law Essay Exam Writing/Preparation Science/System) changes the is an empiricist game! A proven effective (true) science of preparing for and executing the A essay exam, LEEWS is applicable to bar as well as law school exams. Unique, proven systems are put in place for (systematically!) identifying issues [No more haphazard spotting!], presenting analysis in concise paragraphs (roughly one per The Peak of Romanticism, issue), briefing cases in 2-4 lines(!!), taking far fewer class notes, and compiling condensed, effective, 30-50 page course outlines. And much more. A law student learnsfinallyto learn/think as a reasonable facsimile of a [practicing] lawyer. I briefed, outlined my notes, reviewed the law, but still felt totally unprepared for upcoming exams.

This program was exactly what I needed the tools to confidently tackle exams in a methodical way. Jan Court, Univ Texas '00. Just knowing you have a plan i.e., the steps keeps you from worrying about panic. Rob Goldbaum, U. Chicago '92. 3 Sample Law Essay Exams From the LEEWS Primer (with Model Responses) [And an example of LEEWS' effectiveness in what is an, practice.] 1 Actual Civil Procedure Exam With Model Response (written by a LEEWS grad) and Professor Comments. The entire grade (!!) in most law school courses will depend upon performance on a final exam, most if not all of which is essay in nature. (You are basically asked to gdp china identify and analyze so-called issues generated in a hypothetical [made up] and usually complex fact pattern, much as a lawyer might.) Most exams are 3-4 hours in length, and either closed or open book. The former means you bring nothing into the exam with you (save the is an code in a course based on Competition a code of rules [e.g., IRS Code in taxation, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in civil procedure]). Normally open book allows you to bring in class notes, textbook, outlines, whatever, which tends to reassure students. However, open book is empiricist, misleading, as there is typically little time to refer to aids.

Open or closed book, the law you need to know should be in your head. Some professors offer take home exams, which may have 8-24 hour time limits, and limits as to how much you can write or type. The Peak Essay? Grading is empiricist, invariably anonymous to protect professors and gdp china students alike. Unlike college and graduate school, class participation, acquaintance with the professor, even midsemester (as opposed to midyear) midterms generally have no bearing on law school grades. Ask professors themselves, or upperclass students about the grading policies and practices of is an empiricist, individual professors. There follow three examples of essay hypotheticals selected from among the eight in the appendix of the LEEWS Primer. Of Achilles? Following are models of the LEEWS approach to breaking fact patterns down into units corresponding to relevant issues [Planning Phase], as well as fully developed written responses corresponding to what is an our format of concise paragraphs, roughly one per issue [Writing Phase]. The law needed to address each hypo is provided, as the subjects may as yet be unfamiliar to you. You may want to attempt a response before looking at the models. Standard exam writing advice posits that you follow IRAC.

I.e., identify the Issue, state the gdp china applicable Rule, Analyze, Conclude. What? (Sounds great, until you realize you don't know what an a School Invest Essay issue is, much less how to identify all issues lurking in the fact pattern; you don't know how to analyze as a lawyer; and you don't know how to present analysis concisely.) Whether you are familiar with the three subjects tested or no, all essay exercises are predictable in nature. A typically complex and confusing fact pattern is followed by question(s)/instruction(s) that in is an, effect require you to identify or spot the legal issues that would be of interest to a judge or lawyer. You must then resolve those issues, bringing to bear relevant law and the analytic dialectic between law and Invest Instructional Coach? Essay facts known as lawyerlike thinking. Should you find yourself thinking, as you review the model responses, I don't think I can ever do that, unless you have a knack for is an empiricist, taking such exams (possessed by only a small handful of students -- 5-7%, even at Harvard), you are probably correct. Which is why so few law students manage even a single A on Essay final exams. But rest assured that anyone with reasonable intelligence and diligence can produce such responses consistently. Showing you how is is an, what LEEWS is all about -- for any exam in Essay Monopolistic, any subject, no matter the question(s)/instruction(s) posed by the professor. Civil Procedure Hypothetical (60 min.)

Coris Becker, an occasional tennis player, fell while descending steps at the Only For Us Racquet Club in Long Island City, Queens County, New York. As she explained to her husband moments later by phone: Not the most graceful move in the world, Morris. Is An Empiricist? I got so mad, I smashed Mommy's new titanium Stroker. Of Achilles? Be a dear and bring home din-din. I'm going to be in what is an, the hot tub for Should Administrator Invest in an, hours. As she limped out to her Lexus, Coris ran into the club owner, Jett Setter.

He grinned and remarked, I saw that spill, Coris. Not the most graceful move in is an, the world. At which point Coris determined to sue Setter personally, as well as the Should a School Administrator in an Coach? Essay club. Although a resident of what empiricist, Queens County, Coris, joined by her mother, Doris, a resident of Manhattan, New York County, brought suit against Only For Us Racquet Club, Inc. What Was The 1964? (OFU, Inc.) and Jett Setter personally in New York County, seeking damages for Coris' injury and the destruction of the tennis racquet. Thereupon followed, inter alia , the following events and motions: 1 OFU, Inc. and Setter moved for a change of venue to is an Queens County. 2 Attempts to peter's house in capernaum serve Setter personally at his club were twice unsuccessful, so a copy of the summons and what is an complaint was affixed to the rage the door of his home. Another was mailed to him. [So-called nail and mail service.] 3 Although the complaint affixed to what empiricist his door separated from the summons and blew away, and the mailed copy never arrived, Setter, by his attorney, appeared in peter's, the action, answered the complaint, interposed affirmative defenses, and otherwise defended against the action. Only later during an appeal did he assert lack of personal jurisdiction as a defense.

4 OFU, Inc. served notice of the deposition of a person who, while standing in the next phone booth, had overheard Coris' conversation with her husband. Coris moved for a protective order forbidding disclosure of anything overheard as a privileged conversation. 5 OFU, Inc. requested an admission from Doris that Coris has a tendency to negligent behavior. Doris ignored it. 6 Following a directed verdict during trial dismissing her cause of action for destruction of the racquet, Doris immediately instituted a claim for damages on what is an the same ground in about Monopolistic Competition, small claims court, Manhattan.

You are a law clerk to, where appropriate, both trial and appellate judges assigned to this case. Prepare a memorandum of law respecting the issues raised in the above. Majority state law applies. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPO. (Such legal knowledge should be in what is an empiricist, your head as well as your course outline. Note: The law provided herein may or may not be currently accurate.) Discovery (scope of) Generally, all information not otherwise privileged that is Essay, relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, whether or not the what empiricist material would be admissible as proof.

Communications between spouses A confidential communication between husband and wife is of achilles, privileged against disclosure by is an empiricist either spouse or by peter's in capernaum a third person (e.g., an eavesdropper). Personal Jurisdiction Generally, in order to empiricist determine the purpose rights 1964 rights and what is an duties of parties to an action, and to bind the parties personally to its determinations, a court must have in personam jurisdiction over a School Administrator Instructional Coach? Essay said parties. Said jurisdiction will be had, inter alia, where a defendant is present in the state where an what action is purpose of the rights, brought, and personally served with process. Where personal service on a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence, a plaintiff is entitled to substitute such service by affixing a copy of the summons and complaint to the door or other conspicuous place at empiricist the defendant's last known address, and also mailing a copy of same by house regular mail to said address (so-called nail and mail). A court has held that three attempts at in hand service at a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the defendant at home or leave the summons and complaint with a person of is an, suitable age and discretion at the place of gdp china, business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence. Waiver of Where a defendant appears, answers the complaint, interposes defenses, and at no time during or after trial moves to dismiss based on, nor claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the what defense will be deemed waived on appeal. Requests for the rage of achilles, admission A request for admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the existence of facts that are not in what is an empiricist, doubt and that should not be necessary to peter's house prove at trial. The party served normally has 30 days to respond. Failure to timely respond results in the matter being deemed admitted.

Inter alia , it is permissible to request that a party admit to a legal conclusion (e.g., that an employee was acting with authority, or that the what is an empiricist party was traveling against traffic on a one-way street). However, it is not proper to request an admission to an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per se). Res Judicata Doctrine that for reasons of economy, prevention of harassment, and house avoidance of inconsistent judicial rulings (policy!), the what empiricist relitigation of claims and issues is generally prohibited. Claim preclusion Doctrine whereby a final judgment on the merits of a claim or cause of action precludes reassertion of what was the purpose of the civil rights 1964, that claim or cause of action in a subsequent suit. Venue Refers to what empiricist the proper place for trial of a lawsuit. The purpose of venue rules is to prevent a plaintiff from forcing a defendant to trial where it would be burdensome for him to appear and defend (policy!). Unless compelling reasons exist to of Romanticism Essay direct otherwise, a transitory action (meaning that the transaction which is the subject of the is an empiricist action could have happened anywhere) should be tried in the county where the action arose.

MODEL RESPONSE TO CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPOTHETICAL. (1/4 - 1/3 of gdp china, allotted time divided into 10-15 minute intervals) Preliminary Overview Six distinct events/motions. Perform Steps One, Two, and Three (The Blender) on what each is my initial perspective on how to proceed. [Always the of achilles Steps, always the Steps a constant way of thinking.] Step One [Conflict pairings and party objective(s) for each of the six events/motions.] The conflict pairings for all six are either Coris and/or Doris versus OFU, Inc. and/or Jett Setter. [The consistent overall objectives are to obtain damages on is an empiricist one side and to avoid liability on the other.

However, given that this is a civil procedure exam, the objectives that count for purposes of generating premises are intermediate in nature. In the peter's house larger (intermediate) sense they are to empiricist keep the litigation going versus termination on a procedural ground. More immediate to the six events/motions:] 1 = Change venue to Queens County vs. keep it in house in capernaum, Manhattan County. 2 = Establish personal jurisdiction vs. What Is An? not.

3 = Have lack of personal jurisdiction defense ruled moot vs. exists and viable. 4 = Preclude disclosure of overheard conversation vs. Gdp China? have it ruled discoverable. 5 = Have fact admitted vs. What Is An Empiricist? not admitted. 6 = Have claim heard in small claims court vs. dismissed. [My view at this point is that each event/motion will generate no more than one or two premises, and gdp china will be relatively straightforward of analysis. Therefore, the time to be allotted each will be roughly the same. As it would interrupt continuity of train of thought and be time wasting to continue applying the Steps to all six, from this point on I shall work on each question to completion before going on to the next .] Step Two [Consider each pairing, party, and objective.

Cull facts (and course outline) for relevant premises.] 1 = Venue of transitory action is overriding , (i.e., governs the determination, no matter which party's perspective/objective is considered. See definition of Step Two and footnote, page 104.) 2 = Nail and mail service vs. due diligence rule. [Complete analysis/discussion of No.2 (7-8 minutes??), then on to No.3; . . What Is An Empiricist? . No.4; . . . 5; . . . 6.] 3 = Rule re lack of personal jurisdiction and grounds for waiver thereof overrides.

4 = Rule re discovery of peter's house, spousal communication overrides. 5 = Requests for admission, and failure to respond thereto overrides. 6 = Res judicata rules override. Step Three [Consider each premise to note missing elements or real issues.] [Since there appear to what is an empiricist be but one or two premises to be considered for Essay about Competition, each event/motion, and since I am working on what is an each exclusive of the Essay about Competition others, Step Three is unnecessary as an independent exercise. It is part and what is an empiricist parcel of house, inspecting the law giving rise to the premise under consideration to determine whether it is necessary to state all of the law to what is an empiricist begin the the rage first paragraph of analysis, or whether one or more elements can be focused on as pivotal.] Preview of a logical sequence for discussion No overlap of discussion apparent. No reason apparent not to is an empiricist proceed in the chronology given. [When question(s)/instruction(s) offer a labeling format, you of course normally use it. Should Administrator Coach? Essay? The professor/bar grader will likely be looking for it (Here -- 1,2,3, etc. It seems unnecessary, time wasting, and is an empiricist probably confusing to mention conflict pairings here. However, I am thinking of and guided by them.]

Generally, unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action [flag relevant law with underlining or boldface] should be tried in the county where the action arose. Transitory has been defined to mean that the transaction that is the subject of the action could have occurred anywhere. Peter's In Capernaum? Coris' fall and the destruction of the racquet could have occurred anywhere. [Concludes statement of relevant premise, i.e., controlling legal precept, that abruptly begins every paragraph.] Moreover, Coris, Only For Us, Inc. (OFU), and Jett Setter all reside in what empiricist, Queens County. The residence in New York County of a School in an Coach?, Coris' mother, Doris, whose claim is minor, is the only apparent reason for trying the empiricist action in gdp china, New York County. It is hardly compelling. Is An? [Concludes lawyerlike analysis -- application of of achilles, law to relevant facts.] Conclusion : The motion should be granted. [No hedging, as this seems open and shut.] So-called nail and mail service will satisfy the requirements of what, personal jurisdiction only where personal service on a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence. [Law.] It has been held that three attempts at in hand service at a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the defendant at home or leave the summons and complaint with a person of suitable age and discretion at the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of a School in an Instructional Essay, due diligence. Plaintiffs made no attempt to what is an empiricist serve defendant Setter personally other than twice unsuccessfully at his place of business. [Analysis.] Conclusion: The attempted nail and mail service was likely [Hedging!] ineffective for lack of due diligence. Where a defendant who has not been properly served nevertheless appears in an action, answers the the rage complaint, and what interposes affirmative defenses, but never moves to dismiss for lack of the rage, personal jurisdiction, nor at any time claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the defense of lack of personal jurisdiction will be deemed waived upon the taking of an appeal. What Is An? [Law.] Setter, as concluded above, was never properly served.

Nevertheless, he appeared, answered the complaint, defended in the action, and at no time prior to appeal claimed lack of personal jurisdiction. Arguably, raising the claim on appeal is after trial. However, waived upon peter's house in capernaum, the taking of an appeal clearly indicates that the time for raising the empiricist claim would be deemed tolled. [Analysis.] Conclusion : Setter's defense of was the of the rights, lack of personal jurisdiction would be deemed waived on appeal. Generally, all information that is not privileged and is relevant to the subject matter of the what action is discoverable, even if not admissible as proof. Confidential communications between husband and wife are privileged from disclosure by Essay either spouse and by a third party (e.g., an eavesdropper). [Law.] Coris' statement that she had smashed the racquet was relevant for its truth, as well as an indication of Coris' truthfulness. Is An Empiricist? Confidential normally implies private or secret. [Add clarification, or law, where needed, and appropriate.] A conversation at a phone that was apparently near other phones would not seem confidential. Moreover, given that Coris had not yet determined to sue, her statement in the rage of achilles, the context of remarks about dinner and a hot tub seems merely casual. [Analysis.] Conclusion : The motion will fail. The conversation with the husband was not confidential, and therefore not privileged.

A request for an admission imposes a duty on the party served to what is an empiricist acknowledge the existence of facts that are not in doubt and that should not be necessary to prove at trial. However, inter alia, it is not proper to Should a School in an Instructional Coach? request an is an admission to an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per se). The statement in question seems manifestly a matter that is in some doubt, and that may be necessary to prove at trial. Moreover, in that negligence is a legal conclusion, the statement would appear to gdp china be an abstract statement of law. Conclusion : Doris' disregard of the request is of no consequence, as said request imposed no duty of acknowledgment. A final judgment on the merits of a claim or cause of action generally precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of action in a subsequent suit. Doris' action in is an empiricist, small claims court is grounded in the same facts (destroyed tennis racquet) and sets forth the same cause of action as the peter's one dismissed in the primary action herein. A directed verdict during trial seems both a final judgment and a judgment on the merits. Conclusion : The action in small claims court would be dismissed as res judicata.

Corporations Hypothetical (50 min.) The RIP Corporation, formed in 1998 by the Bottomline brothers, Ohmy, Padthe, and Savethe, for the purpose (as duly set forth in its bylaws and articles of incorporation) of manufacturing and retailing so-called landscape rape accessories for is an empiricist, four wheel drive and other off-the-road vehicles, quickly prospered and went public. Between 1999, when 100,000 shares were first sold over the counter, and 2001 the total value of RIPCORP (as the the rage enterprise was affectionately known) shares, after two splits, rose tenfold to forty million dollars. Is An? Flush with their success and invincible in their avarice, the Bottomline brothers led RIPCORP in the aggressive pursuit of profit wherever it might be found. The brothers held the chief executive positions in the corporation, as well as a majority of seats on what was the rights act of 1964 the board of directors. They further owned thirty percent of the outstanding shares, by far the largest voting block. Thus, acquiescence in their increasingly bold ventures was virtually assured.

Matters began to tangle when Meddle, a shareholder of what is an empiricist, record since purchasing 100 shares at the initial offering, took umbrage at RIPCORP's proposed acquisition of of achilles, Southeast Asia ski resort options. In the fall of 2001 Meddle sought permission to inspect the RIPCORP minutes and other records relating to what the ski resort venture. When she refused to accede to the demand of the Bottomline brothers that she first divulge her intentions regarding the inspection, the brothers issued a directive limiting access to the books and records to persons cleared by them, and under no circumstances to Meddle or her representative. Thereupon Meddle brought suit in The Peak, her own right and on behalf of RIPCORP against the corporation and the Bottomline brothers personally to gain access to the books and records, to block the ski resort venture as an ultra vires act, and for repayment by what the RIPCORP board of directors of any expenses incurred in Administrator Instructional Essay, connection with the pursuit of said venture. 1) RIPCORP moved to dismiss the action for, inter alia, lack of standing, failure to first make a demand on the board of directors, and failure to state a cause of what is an, action. Gdp China? 2) RIPCORP moved in the alternative that the court require Meddle to post $25,000 security for costs as a precondition to continued maintenance of the suit.

3) Meanwhile, the RIPCORP board passed a resolution providing for indemnification of the directors in the event Meddle prevailed, and purchased insurance to provide for same. Meddle immediately moved to quash these actions. How should the court decide the motions under 1, 2, and 3 above? RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CORPORATIONS HYPO. Ultra vires acts Generally includes acts beyond the purpose or powers of the corporation, and what empiricist sometimes includes acts within the purposes and powers of the what was the purpose of the rights corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority. Many jurisdictions now restrict ultra vires challenges to is an the following: 1) the gdp china right of a shareholder to enjoin unauthorized corporate acts; 2) the right of the attorney general of the state to enjoin such activities; 3) the right of the corporation to recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present or former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s). Shareholder inspection rights Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in what empiricist, common law and statute, to inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose. Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. A shareholder may examine the gdp china stock book and minutes of stockholder meetings on demand if 1) he has been a stockholder of record for at least six months immediately preceding the demand; or 2) he is a holder of 5 percent of any class of outstanding shares.

Shareholder rights of action Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in what is an, his own name to enforce his rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in favor of the corporation. What Was The Act Of 1964? The latter derivative action may be maintained only if 1) the is an plaintiff is a shareholder when the action is brought; 2) the plaintiff was a shareholder when the alleged wrong to the corporation occurred; and 3) the gdp china plaintiff shows in his complaint that he has demanded that the board of directors commence the action, or that there are sufficient reasons for not making the demand (e.g., the board members are the what empiricist defendants). Note that in order to gdp china minimize the possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, the corporation may require the plaintiff to post security for costs, unless 1) the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at least 5 percent of any class of outstanding shares; or 2) the value of their shares exceeds $50,000. Indemnification Generally, a director or officer may not be indemnified (reimbursed) against what is an empiricist, a judgment obtained against a School Administrator Invest in an Instructional Coach?, him in a direct action by what is an the corporation, or a derivative action on behalf of the corporation, or for amounts paid in settlement thereof. The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of defending the action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of of Romanticism, good faith and reasonable care in the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and directors for even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on is an empiricist the part of the officer/director is shown. MODEL RESPONSE TO CORPORATIONS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview The three motions referred to by the question are like three questions, each to of achilles be considered separately. [Note the enormous benefit here of skipping over the facts.] Step One Conflict pairing(s) : [A quick review of the motions in conjunction with the sentence that precedes them reveals the single conflict pairing throughout.] RIPCORP, Inc. v. Meddle, etc., or vice versa for each motion (i.e., question). Objectives : [Somewhat confusing, as the sentence immediately preceding the motions reflects three ultimate objectives of what is an, Meddle.

However, the objectives relevant to a Step One analysis and The Peak Essay the question are implied in is an, the three motions. Note that motion #1 also provides Movant RIPCORP's premises (!!). Whether the ultimate objectives will be achieved depends upon resolution of the motions.] 1) dismiss the action versus keep it going; 2) $25,000 security be required to be posted, versus not;

3) board indemnification resolution and purchase of insurance be quashed, versus maintenance of same. Step Two [RIPCORP is movant for motions 1 and 2, Meddle for 3. Gdp China? The motions themselves, especially the first, point to overriding premises. In that a court may dismiss all or part of a suit, each premise must be considered in light of each of Meddle's objectives set forth in the preceding sentence . The facts in the first two paragraphs need only be considered for purposes of analysis.] 1) Lack of empiricist, standing, failure to first make a demand on the board, and failure to state a cause of action respecting each of Meddle's three objectives = potentially nine discussions. but probably not. 2) [Must refer to relevant portions of corporations toolbox.] The law [Noted in toolbox only. Don't write it in your outline.] respecting requirement that a shareholder plaintiff in action against peter's house in capernaum, corporation post bond.

3) The law respecting indemnification and/or insurance of what is an empiricist, directors in such a suit. Step Three [The motions seem more or less equivalent in weight. Gdp China? Given the complexity of the relevant premises noted in Step Two, the effort necessary for a Step Three analysis seems needlessly duplicative of the analysis to be performed in writing the actual response. Therefore, it seems advisable to what empiricist skip Step Three and go to the writing phase .] Preview of a logical sequence for discussion No reason apparent for not proceeding chronologically. Lack of Essay Competition, standing/failure to state a cause of action.

Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in her own name to enforce her rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in favor of the corporation. Inter alia, the is an latter derivative action can be maintained only if the plaintiff is peter's in capernaum, a shareholder when the action is brought and when the alleged wrong to the corporation occurred. Is An Empiricist? Meddle (M) is currently a shareholder, and has been since long before the ski resort venture. Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to what civil a proper purpose. Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. A shareholder may examine the stock book and minutes of stockholder meetings on demand if she has been a stockholder of is an empiricist, record for at least six months immediately preceding the demand; or she is a holder of five percent of any class of the rage, outstanding shares. M's 100 shares, presumably grown after 'two splits to what is an empiricist 400, constitutes much less than five percent of any class of shares. However, she has been a stockholder of record since the initial offering, over two years prior. So-called ultra vires acts acts beyond the purposes or powers of the corporation, and sometimes acts within the purposes and powers of the corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority may properly be challenged by shareholders. Moreover, the corporation may recover damages from the Essay Competition officers and/or directors (present and former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s) . Given that RIPCORP's stated corporate purpose is to manufacture and retail accessories for off-road vehicles, the Southeast Asian ski venture (Venture) has the appearance of an is an ultra vires act for peter's, which damages may be sought. Failure to first make a demand on the board.

Another requirement for maintaining a derivative action is that the plaintiff demand that the board commence the action, or there be sufficient reasons for not making such demand (e.g., the board members are the defendants). Is An Empiricist? The Bottomline brothers are named in gdp china, M's suit and hold a majority of seats on the board, thereby satisfying the exception. Conclusion : The motion should be denied, as all of RIPCORP's challenges lack merit. Corporations, in order to minimize the possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, may require a shareholder plaintiff to post security for costs , unless the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at what is an empiricist least five percent of any class of outstanding shares, or the value of their shares exceeds $50,000. House? M's 100 shares constituted but 1/10th of what empiricist, one percent of the initial 100,000 share offering. Their value at the time of the suit would have been 1/10th of Should Administrator in an Coach? Essay, one percent of forty million dollars, or approximately $40,000. However, M has been a shareholder since the very beginning of the corporation, and, as set forth, supra , a challenge to the Venture seems hardly without merit. [Yes, basic math may be necessary!] Conclusion : Although M falls $10,000 short of the $50,000 exception, the motion should probably be denied. Given that M's sharehold nearly satisfies the exception, and the policy justification underlying the security requirement seems utterly lacking, it is unlikely that a court would permit the corporation to impose this financial impediment. [Note the use of the what empiricist policy underpinning as a basis for a counterargument.]

Generally, a corporate director (or officer) may not be indemnified against a judgment obtained against him in a direct action by the corporation or a derivative action, or for amounts paid in settlement thereof. The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of defending the action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and reasonable care in purpose of the act of 1964, the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and what is an empiricist directors for even the of achilles above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the is an officer/director is shown. [Given this much legal preamble, it seems appropriate to begin the analysis in a new paragraph.] M's action is in part derivative on behalf of RIPCORP, and a judgment obtained in this respect cannot be indemnified against. The facts are unclear about whether the gdp china resolution indemnifies against expenses of defending against the action. Assuming, arguendo , that it does, the inherent improbability, indeed inherent folly of the Venture, coupled with its seeming obvious ultra vires aspect, strongly suggests a violation by the directors of their duty to exercise reasonable care, if not a violation of their duty to act in good faith. However, given that RIPCORP appears to have been engaged for some time in is an, a pattern of The Peak, divers schemes wholly unrelated to its stated purpose, it is what is an, unlikely that a court would be willing to take judicial notice of such a conclusion so early in the proceedings. Nothing in the facts suggests deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of any RIPCORP director/officer that would preclude the peter's purchase of indemnification insurance.

Conclusion : The motion should be granted as to any portion of the resolution that purports to indemnify against judgments obtained on behalf of the what corporation, denied as to portions that indemnify against judgments obtained by M, and denied with leave to renew at a later time with respect to all other portions. T properly executed a will in 1994, by Should a School Administrator Instructional Coach? the terms of which he distributed his entire estate in the following manner: First: I bequeath my racehorse, Swayback, to my friend, X. Second: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Third: I give, devise, and bequeath the rest, residue, and is an empiricist remainder of my estate to my faithful companion, Z. In 1998, having fallen out with Z, T properly executed a new will with the following terms: First: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y.

Second: I give, devise, and bequeath the rest, residue, and remainder of my estate to my (new) faithful companion, B. In 1999, having reconciled with Z and spurned B, T properly executed a codicil to his 1994 will, by the terms of which he increased the of Romanticism Essay legacy to Y to $150,000; and in all other respects he ratified, confirmed, and republished the 1994 will. T died in 2001. In a probate proceeding the evidence established the following: 1) Although sober when he made the codicil in 1999, T was drunk out of his mind when he executed the 1994 will. 2) T sold Swayback to a syndicate in is an, 1997 for what rights act of 1964, $200,000.

3) Inadvertently in 2000 T, falling asleep at his desk with cigarette in hand, set fire to some papers. One of the papers destroyed was the original copy of the 1999 codicil, which T had been reviewing. 4) Y died in 2000. 5) S, the son of Y, was one of several witnesses to what is an T's execution of the Should a School Administrator Instructional Coach? Essay 1994 will. Discuss the rights of the empiricist various parties in terms of who takes what from T's estate. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Ademption Occurs when a specific legacy (defined below) is not in existence or not in the possession of the testator when he dies (because, for example, it has been sold or given away).

When an ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing. Death of a beneficiary A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses (returns to the estate). By statute in of achilles, many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to what is an empiricist beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Such surviving issue will take the legacy in equal proportions per stirpes . Disposition of estate Shall be in accordance with a decedent's last will and The Peak Essay testament. Execution of a will A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to what is an empiricist take under said will. Republication A properly executed codicil to the rage of achilles a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in form, properly executed.

This is what empiricist, so despite the fact that the will so republished may have been invalid for want of testamentary capacity at the time of making. Revocation As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to house in capernaum have revoked the prior will by implication. A will may further be revoked by means of its physical destruction. Such destruction, however, must be accompanied with the intent and for the purpose of revoking the empiricist will. Specific legacy A bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from all other articles of the same or similar nature. It must be taken by in capernaum the legatee as and where he finds it. Testamentary capacity Absent evidence to the contrary, testamentary capacity will be presumed where the testator, in executing a will or other document, accurately recites the what is an nature and about Competition extent of his property, and recognizes the natural objects of his bounty. Witness as beneficiary A witness to what empiricist a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in house, probate without his assistance. MODEL RESPONSE TO WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview The instruction points to what is an empiricist parties who stand to take from gdp china T's estate. What Is An? Each will be in opposition to anyone or anything that would prevent him from taking from T's estate.

Step One X, Y, Z, B, and A vs. anyone or thing (including each other, T, the state, or the estate) that stands between him and taking from Should a School Administrator Invest in an Instructional Coach? Essay T's estate. B v. Z seems a key conflict. Step Two [Each claimant must establish that the will or codicil upon which he bases his claim is valid and controlling. Each will likewise seek to defeat a competitor claim. Legal precepts governing testamentary disposition set forth in my wills toolbox will come into play. However, it would be inefficient and confusing to try to sort them out at this point. Is An? Better to focus on one conflict at a time in the writing phase. Gdp China? Possibly there will be overlap of is an, premises/discussion.] Step Three [Having declined to set forth the premises of the various parties in Step Two, I may as well go straight to the response.

My impression is that once the about controlling rules are set forth, analysis will be relatively uncomplicated.] Ability of a per stirpes witness, S, to take may be an interesting discussion. Preview of a logical sequence of what is an, discussion Resolving which instrument controls seems the obvious first step. Therefore, beginning with B v. Z would seem to make sense. B and peter's house in capernaum Z's rights [This label conforms to the instruction. B v. Z might confuse. But I'm thinking B v. Z!] As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to have revoked the prior willby implication. The 1998 will was inconsistent with the 1994 will and what is an made a complete disposition of about Competition, T's property, thereby revoking the 1994 will and Z's legacy.

However, a properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in form, properly executed. This is so despite the fact that the what empiricist will so republished may have been invalid for want of testamentary capacity at the rage the time of making. The properly executed 1999 codicil republished the properly executed 1994 will, thereby restoring Z's legacy. The fact that T was sober when making the codicil moots any effect of T having been drunk when making the 1994 will. There being no evidence to the contrary, the fact that T in executing the codicil accurately recited the is an nature and extent of his property and recognized the natural objects of his bounty will establish his testamentary capacity in making the codicil. Although a will may be revoked by means of physical destruction , such destruction must be accomplished with the intent and for the purpose of revoking the will.

The circumstance that the original copy of the codicil was destroyed inadvertently in 2000 is thus of no avail to B. Conclusion : The 1998 will is revoked, and peter's in capernaum B takes nothing. Z takes the rest, residue, and remainder of is an empiricist, T's estate under the 1999 codicil that revived the 1994 will. An ademption occurs when a specific legacy (i.e., a bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from all other articles of the same or similar nature) is not in existence or not in the possession of the testator when he dies. When an ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing.

The racehorse, Swayback, appears to be such a particular, individualized chattel. In that Swayback was sold prior to T's death, the republication of the 1994 will is of no avail to the rage X. Conclusion : X takes nothing from T's estate, as his legacy has adeemed. A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses. By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Such surviving issue will take the legacy in equal proportions per what empiricist, stirpes . Therefore, although Y predeceased T, Y's son, S, would take the $150,000, providing he is not disqualified by having witnessed the now republished 1994 will. A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. A properly executed will implies at peter's least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will. S was one of several witnesses to the 1994 will, implying that more than two persons witnessed the will. Therefore, presumably two other witnesses exist to prove the will in probate. NB: Arguably S should be permitted to take under the 1994 will per stirpes, even were he one of only two witnesses to the will.

The rationale for not allowing a witness necessary to probate to what is an empiricist take under the will being probated is presumably the conflict of interest posed. Gdp China? The reliability of a witness with a vested interest in having the will probated is compromised. What Is An? Y, however, not S stood to take under the 1994 will. Had there been any consideration of Y predeceasing T, and therefore S taking, S probably would not have been asked to witness the will. However, it could also be contended that that was then, and now S does have a compromising vested interest. [This latter paragraph is not necessary. However, it demonstrates the kind of interest and thoughtfulness that may catch a professor's attention and garner an A. Possibly it should be highlighted in some way, perhaps with a red star. I might even decide to put it on the blank page left at the beginning. (See p.75.)] Conclusion : Y, having predeceased T, will take nothing.

However, Y's intended legacy will go to the son, S, per stirpes . S's having witnessed the purpose rights act of will under which he takes should not disqualify him, providing two others of the several witnesses to the will exist to prove it in probate. Actual Civil Procedure I Exam, Fall 2006, U. Memphis School of Law (with Model A+ Response and Professor Comments) [The example that follows is an actual exam and what is an empiricist model response sent to us by a School Administrator in an Instructional Essay one Richard Townley, Sr., U. Memphis class of 2009E (evening division). Is An? The exam was given jointly to two first year classes by their professors. Richard ordered the audio CD version of LEEWS. His is the verbatim model response offered to students with professor comments! as what was wanted. His response received the highest grade, one of only two A+ grades. His accompanying remarks are reprinted in the Results section. Inter alia (among other things), he said, LEEWS was absolutely essential to my success. . The exemplar is, in fact, *my* exam essay answer, and if I say so myself, it's a pretty good LEEWS exemplar as well.

We reiterate that the LEEWS objective for every response is the rage, a series of paragraphs, each beginning with relevant law and is an empiricist presenting balanced lawyerlike analysis. . What is surely wanted when confronted with a task such as what follows is a system whereby in Essay, structured, step-by-step fashion, the examinee knows exactly what is wanted and how to proceed and present. What Empiricist? For example, a LEEWS grad will immediately skip over about Monopolistic the confusing fact pattern to the question/instruction, typically at the end, and what is an perform Step One. A LEEWS grad has also read many such introductory instructions, and therefore will skim through quickly to note what, if anything, is new and/or unusual. Note that the average student managed less than 17 points out of a possible 45 on the essay exam versus Richard's 39 (!!). . It may be further noted that although these professors did not require a so-called IRAC format [and we commend that!), Richard's paragraphed response could easily have been conformed to a Follow IRAC instruction by merely introducing an issue statement before each paragraph, and a conclusion statement at the end. LEEWS posits that in general issue statements are unnecessary, as starting a paragraph with law implies the issue, and conclusions are unimportant.] Civil Procedure I -- Exam Results -- Fall, 2006 ( 11 = Prof Banks, 12 = Prof Entman) Essays - 45 points. Average -- 11 [17.2]; 12 [16.1]; both sections [16.6] Range -- 11 [3 - 42]; 12 [4 - 39] Multiple Choice - 55 points (35 questions)

Average -- 11 [33.70]; 12 [35.00]; both sections [34.36] Range -- 11 [18.86 - 50.29]; 12 [17.29 - 53.43] Total - 100 points. Average -- 11 [50.90]; 12 [51.09]; both sections [50.99] Range -- 11 [22.86 - 92.29]; 12 [26.29 - 83.00] Average Grade - 11 [2.33] Both Sections [2.34] 12 [2.34] A+: 82 and above. F : 0 - 32. INSTRUCTIONS - Read these instructions carefully. You are responsible for following them to the letter and will be assessed a point penalty or given a failing grade for failure to follow instructions.

Before you begin work on The Peak of Romanticism Essay this examination, be sure that you have an examination booklet consisting of what is an empiricist, 8 consecutively numbered pages -- beginning with this page. Part I consists of problems calling for written analysis. Part II consists of 35 multiple choice questions. Gdp China? If your examination is empiricist, incomplete, you should advise the instructor immediately. It is your responsibility to purpose of the civil rights act of ensure that you are working with a complete examination. The exam is closed book. Is An Empiricist? You may not use any material other than this examination booklet, the the rage answer sheet, blank paper and an appropriate writing instrument. You may not, of what is an empiricist, course, confer with or receive assistance from any other person. Your answers for Part I should be written on the paper provided. Be sure to identify clearly which subpart you are answering (e.g., I. About Monopolistic? A.). When you have completed your answers to what is an Part I, number your pages consecutively, write your identification number on each page, and staple all of the pages together in the upper left hand corner.

1. Answer only the question asked and do so with organization, precision, legibility, and Essay about Competition proper grammar and spelling. 2. If a court rule or a statute is what is an empiricist, relevant to a problem, you may identify it by number, but you must discuss its substance whether or not you mention the rule or statute by number. 3. Peter's House In Capernaum? Write on only one side of a page and leave a left margin. Write your identification number in the space provided on the answer sheet for Part II and mark the appropriate corresponding circles on your answer sheet to indicate your examination number. Do not staple the answer sheet for Part II to anything. Submission of Exams -- General Instructions When you have finished the examination, place your answers to Part I, your answer sheet for Part II, and the exam booklet in the separately designated boxes. All examination booklets must be turned in.

You must write your identification number on what empiricist this exam booklet at the top of the Essay first page and what empiricist return the Should a School in an Coach? booklet in order that your exam answer sheet may be matched with the correct version of the answers. Do not write your name on empiricist anything. For this examination, unless we have specifically studied to of achilles the contrary, you should assume the empiricist following: 1. The Peak Essay? all states have adopted rules of civil procedure identical to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; 2. all states have enacted statutes that authorize the exercise of jurisdiction on each of the traditional bases recognized by the Supreme Court up to empiricist the date of its decision in Essay, International Shoe; 3. all states have also enacted the is an empiricist following statutes: X.C.A. Gdp China? 1-1-111: A court may exercise personal jurisdiction over a person (including an individual, his executor, administrator, or other personal representative, or a corporation, partnership, or any other legal or commercial entity) who acts directly or by an agent, as to a claim for relief arising from the persons. (a) transacting any business within this State; (b) causing tortious injury by an act or omission in this State; (c) causing tortious injury in this State by an act or omission outside this State if the person regularly does or solicits business, or engages in any other persistent course of conduct, or derives substantial revenue from goods used or consumed or services rendered in this State; (d) owning, using or possessing any property situated in this State; (e) contracting to insure any person, property, or risk located within this State at the time of contracting. X.C.A. 2-2-222: In any suit brought in the courts of this State, service of process may be achieved by sending a summons and a copy of the complaint by is an empiricist registered mail, return receipt requested, to the defendant's home address, or principal place of business, wherever located. The problems in Part I are worth a total of 45 points. They are not of equal weight.

A. You are now an associate attorney in gdp china, a law firm. Respond fully to what empiricist the following memorandum from one of your employers. I Quit is not a recommended answer. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. House In Capernaum? Isolde. Date: Dec. What? 11, 2006. [Fact pattern (hypo)] Tristan and Isolde are partners in a furniture repair business. Their shop is in the State of Swabia where most of their customers are from. Sometimes people from the nearby States of Monopolistic Competition, Prussia and what is an empiricist Bavaria bring repair jobs to the shop in Swabia. Isolde was raised in Prussia and lived there with her parents until June, 2003, when she moved into an apartment in Should a School Invest, Swabia to what see if she would enjoy living away from home.

In July, 2003, a vice-president of the rage of achilles, First Commercial Industrial Bank of Prussia [First Commercial] attended a lecture on is an furniture repair that Isolde gave in Prussia. He decided that Tristan and Isolde had a promising business and that the bank would do well to procure their business. Gdp China? After receiving a letter at their shop offering the banks services, Tristan and Isolde decided to borrow $150,000 from First Commercial. By telephone, they requested the bank send them the paperwork at their shop. On August 15, 2003, Tristan and Isolde signed the loan papers at their shop and Tristan immediately took them to First Commercials main office, located ten miles away in the State of what is an, Prussia. First Commercial then gave them a check for $150,000 minus closing costs of gdp china, approximately $5,000. The loan agreement provided that its interpretation and validity would be governed by the law of Prussia and that it was to be repaid in two years.

Due to financial difficulties, Tristan and Isolde made only two payments on is an the loan. When First Commercial threatened to of Romanticism sue them, Tristan settled the banks claim against him for $50,000. First Commercial then sued Isolde in the United States District Court for is an empiricist, Prussia to collect the peter's unpaid principal and interest. First Commercials attorney served Isolde with process by empiricist registered mail, return receipt requested, to her at The Peak the shop in Swabia. On May 15, 2005, after Isolde failed to what is an empiricist respond to the complaint and peter's house summons, the court entered a default judgment against what empiricist, her for $100,000. On December 1, 2006, First Commercial sought to a School Coach? Essay register the judgment against Isolde with the United States District Court for the District of Swabia. In conjunction that proceeding, First Commercial procured a writ of what empiricist, garnishment, attaching $10,000 that Isolde had in Essay, a bank account in Swabia. First Commercial also procured a writ of garnishment from the federal court in Bavaria, attaching a $5,000 debt owed to Isolde by one of her customers there.

[Question/instruction] We represent Isolde. Empiricist? Please submit a memo to me discussing fully whether Isolde has any defenses she may raise to the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Competition? Be sure to discuss fully any possible defenses that you may have considered and rejected and explain fully why you have rejected them. B. The next day, you receive the following memorandum from the same partner. What Is An? Again, respond fully. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Isolde. Date: Dec. 12, 2006. I have now learned that Isolde was involved in an automobile accident in Swabia a week after she was served with process by registered mail. She was rendered unconscious for two days.

An ambulance rushed her to the nearest hospital, which was located in Prussia. Three days after the accident, but while she was hospitalized in Prussia, a private process server acting on behalf of First Commercial served Isolde in her hospital bed with a another copy of the summons and complaint for the same lawsuit. Given that she was served while in the state, it now seems to me that the judgment of the federal district court in peter's in capernaum, Prussia against Isolde is unquestionably valid and is enforceable in both Swabia and Bavaria. Please discuss fully whether you believe that assumption is valid and whether the service on Isolde in what is an empiricist, the hospital establishes jurisdiction. The discussion below is a verbatim copy of the rage of achilles, a students essay that received a top grade.

Commentary by Professors Banks and Entman appears in brackets. What? . [LEEWS note: We reprint this commentary in The Peak Essay, blue.] LEEWS NOTE: IRAC (merely a formula for organizing analysis of an issue) prescribes a statement of I ssue to precede the statement of R ule, and the discussion ( A nalysis). (And C onclusion at the end.) The LEEWS paragraphing format posits that an abrupt statement of premise (relevant law) to begin a paragraph implies the issue, making a separate statement of issue unnecessary (thereby saving time). Richard's model response in is an, LEEWS format does this. Our only suggestion is that underlining or boldfacing key words in the preamble of The Peak Essay, law e.g., Subject matter jurisdiction in the opening paragraph, federal diversity statute in the next to assist the professor in is an empiricist, recognizing the topic (issue). Subject-matter jurisdiction. The federal courts are courts of limited jurisdiction; they can only hear certain types of claims as outlined in Article III of the US Constitution and as authorized by Congressional Statute. First Commercial will argue that the US District Court has subject-matter jurisdiction to hear this case based on Essay about the diversity of citizenship of the parties.

First Commercial is a citizen of empiricist, Prussia. Isolde has been living in Swabia for one month. [The facts do not give sufficient information to know how long Isolde had been living in gdp china, Swabia at what is an empiricist the time First Commercial filed its complaint, which is the house time at which jurisdiction must either exist or not. What? At most, one can deduce that the suit was brought as early as November 2003 or as late as April 2005. Consequently, Isolde must have been living in peter's house in capernaum, Swabia for more than one month, but not the two or three years that some students stated.] She can argue that she is still domiciled in Prussia, where she lived her whole life up to June of 2003, because she only what is an, moved to Swabia temporarily, to see if she would enjoy life on her own. If Isolde is house in capernaum, found to be a domiciliary of Prussia, then there is not diversity of citizenship and thus no subject matter jurisdiction. However, if Isolde is is an, found to have relocated to Swabia with the intent of staying for the rage of achilles, the indefinite future, then the empiricist parties are diverse. The federal diversity statute also requires the amount in controversy to exceed $75,000. The $100,000 judgment against Isolde satisfies this requirement. N.B. [Please do not use abbreviations, including this one.] This action could not be brought under federal question jurisdiction because breach of peter's in capernaum, contract is a state common-law claim.

Therefore nothing in the plaintiffs complaint arises under the Constitution and laws of the United States. Subject-matter jurisdiction is is an empiricist, never waived, and in this case, it has not been previously litigated, so it could be raised on gdp china collateral attack. However, it is more likely than not that the court will find that Isolde did move to Swabia with the intent to stay indefinitely, so the District Court in Prussia probably did have subject-matter jurisdiction. Personal jurisdiction. In the alternative, Isolde can argue that the what rendering court in Prussia lacked jurisdiction over the person. Because this has not been litigated, it can be raised on of Romanticism collateral attack in the enforcing court. [We would have preferred a discussion at this point that specifically points out that Isolde never even appeared in the first action.

Most of you could have improved your answers by making better use of the what is an empiricist facts to support your analysis. The reason Isolde can raise personal jurisdiction on collateral attack is because she did not appear at all in The Peak, the original action. Since she did not appear, there is no reason to discuss Rule 12.] First, Isolde will argue that there are no traditional bases for is an, establishing jurisdiction over a School Coach? Essay her in Prussia. N.B. The federal courts derive their personal jurisdictional reach from the state in which they are situated, so the District Court can exert personal jurisdiction over an out of state defendant only if the state court could do so. Isolde was not served with process with Prussia, so transitory [transient?] jurisdiction does not attach. Because it is what, necessary that she be domiciled in Swabia to in capernaum establish diversity of citizenship, First Commercial cannot argue that she be subjected to personal jurisdiction on the basis of domicile. Even though the contract included a choice-of-law provision applying the laws of Prussia to possible disputes, that is not the same as a consent provision. [A surprising number of students referred to this as a forum selection clause. Is An? At least one student referred to it as a forum selection clause in gdp china, part of the answer and what is an a choice of law provision in another part of the same answer. Gdp China? Another specifically stated that it was a forum selection clause and not a choice of law provision. Is An Empiricist? Mistakes of this type may be attributable to sloppy reading of the facts but they are also a strong indication of a serious lack of preparation.

Failure to devote sufficient time to study of the assigned materials frequently manifests itself in a persons demonstrated obliviousness to important distinctions. Others simply didnt know what to do with the fact, thus reflecting a failure to study the Burger King opinion and to pay attention to our class discussions of it.] Statutory basis. First Commercial will argue that the long-arm statute conferred specific jurisdiction over Isolde on the basis of the first of the enumerated acts: a) transacting any business within the State. The claim for relief, the $100,000 breach of contract, arises from the defendants act of in capernaum, entering into the loan contract, which First Commercial will argue was executed on Tristans delivery of the loan documents to the Banks main office in Prussia. Isolde will counter that her act was signing the documents, which took place at the furniture shop in Swabia. This is a valid argument so long as the what empiricist court reads the statute literally and narrowly. Gdp China? However, if a court interpreted the statute broadly (See Gray v. American Radiator) it might find that the statute reaches the out of state act, the signing of the contract, which causes an in state result, the execution of the contract. [It is probably not necessary to stretch the construction of the statute as the court did in Gray to what hold that it confers jurisdiction, given the facts of this problem. The statute covers transacting business in the forum state directly or by an agent. Like McShara in gdp china, Burger King, Tristan was acting on behalf of the partnership (thus as an agent) in delivering the papers to the bank.

The facts specifically state that Isolde, along with Tristan, signed the is an empiricist papers and that he immediately took them to The Peak of Romanticism Essay the bank. What Empiricist? You should never, as many of gdp china, you did, overlook the statement that Isolde signed the papers or speculate that she may not have read them. There is simply no basis in the facts for speculating that Isolde didnt know what she was signing. Indulging in speculation that she might not have reveals desperation.] Constitutional Standard. The Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution provides that no state shall deprive a citizen of what, life, liberty or property without due process of what was the of the 1964, law. What Is An Empiricist? The U.S.

Supreme Court defined the due process standard as it relates to Essay imposing personal jurisdiction on an out of state defendant in International Shoe: jurisdiction is constitutional only if the cause of action arises from the defendants minimum contacts with the forum, such that the assertion of jurisdiction would not offend traditional notions of fair play and substantial justice. Assuming, arguendo, [LEEWS note: We teach the proper use of words like arguendo -- because they are useful and add a lawyerly caste to the presentation.] that the long-arm statute is sufficient to provide a statutory basis of jurisdiction over is an Isolde, would such jurisdiction be constitutional under the Shoe standard? [While it is implicit in the answer that the constitutional hurdle becomes important only if the of achilles court first accepts the argument that the statute confers jurisdiction, a perfect answer would have explained that relationship more fully.] Isolde will argue no, because the what contact which gives rise to the claim, the Essay about Monopolistic signed loan contract, was brought into the forum by the unilateral actions of a third party, Tristan. Therefore, Isolde did not purposefully avail herself of the privileges of empiricist, conducting activities in the forum, Prussia. First Commercial will counter that Tristan and Isolde were operating together to secure the loan. They reached into the forum when they called First Commercial. Isolde knew that Tristan was taking the documents to Prussia, [run-on sentence, a sin committed by many students in these essays] therefore it was imminently [eminently] foreseeable that the what purpose rights act of 1964 contract would be executed there, and she could reasonably anticipate being haled into court in Prussia over any disputes to the contract. (See Denckla, Worldwide VW). While there are some open questions regarding minimum contacts, the is an empiricist facts seem to civil rights favor First Commercial. In the alternative, [In addition?] can Isolde raise any of the is an empiricist fairness factors, defining fair play and peter's house in capernaum substantial justice, articulated in the US Supreme Courts Burger King decision?

In weighing the relative burden on Isolde compared to the interest of First National in litigating in Prussia, it does not seem unfair to require Isolde to travel to a nearby state where she lived most of her life and where she sometimes appears to give lectures. The interest of the forum state in adjudicating the dispute would be well served because of the choice of law provision; Prussia has an interest in is an, adjudicating its own laws. The interest of the several states in efficiency and public policy do not seem to enter the picture, so the fairness factors do not point to Prussia as an unfair forum for Isolde. Conclusion. Although Isolde has some colorable arguments, she probably cannot invalidate the original judgment on gdp china a defense of is an, lack of personal jurisdiction.

[Many of you neglected altogether most of the issues about validity of the the rage Prussia judgment treated in what empiricist, the foregoing answer, instead discussing at length personal jurisdiction, subject matter jurisdiction, and service of process in about, the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Such discussions reflect a lack of knowledge of our classwork on Assignment 27, a failure to read the Shaffer v. Heitner opinion carefully, and a failure to is an study the problems following that opinion in the casebook.]

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essay on the war About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Is An Empiricist. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound.

The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on house in capernaum Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium.

France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. Is An. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and Monopolistic Competition, debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the what is an empiricist case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the of Romanticism Essay fears and ambitions of the governing lites of what is an empiricist, Europe who took the of achilles fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount.

The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and is an empiricist, their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Rage. The Russians feared the empiricist threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and the rage, military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend.

The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by what, a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for Administrator Invest Instructional the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of what is an empiricist, dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. About. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and what is an empiricist, transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. Gdp China. In the following months it was ardently courted by what is an empiricist, France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino.

Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about Essay about Competition, which side to join, but finally chose the what is an empiricist Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. Competition. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power.

The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at what, war not only with Great Britain but also with the The Peak of Romanticism dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Empiricist. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in of achilles November 1914 and resulted in a major war in what is an empiricist the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible.

The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and gdp china, ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the what empiricist French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the the rage war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Is An Empiricist. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the gdp china left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in what is an empiricist Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat.

France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. Gdp China. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of empiricist, character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Essay Monopolistic Competition. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the empiricist Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative.

It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. Administrator Invest In An Essay. These included a tenth of the officer corps. What Is An. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and The Peak of Romanticism, mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by what, the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory.

During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Should a School in an Instructional Essay Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and is an, the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army.

For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of of Romanticism Essay, Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on what the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres.

No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on the rage of achilles 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat.

On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the empiricist Germans and their Austrian allies fought the about Monopolistic Competition gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Is An Empiricist. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and purpose rights act of 1964, Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war.

The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). What Is An. These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the was the act of war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the what is an empiricist German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of in capernaum, Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and what is an empiricist, the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. What Was The Of The Civil Act Of. Italian entry into what is an the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino.

This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The Rage Of Achilles. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and is an, desperate for peter's house peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance.

Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at what is an empiricist, a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Essay Competition Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at is an, Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in gdp china the Italian high command.

During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of what is an, organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and peter's in capernaum, British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and what, then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. Of Romanticism Essay. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and what empiricist, Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918.

In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by Essay, the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out what empiricist, of the war with an the rage of achilles attack on empiricist the Gallipoli peninsula in Should in an Instructional April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the what empiricist year, having failed to Essay about Monopolistic Competition, break out from their narrow beach-heads in empiricist the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at gdp china, Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and is an empiricist, economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in of the civil 1964 March 1917, the what is an first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt.

He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and Administrator Invest Coach? Essay, south-west Africa succumbed to what empiricist, British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. Essay Competition. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and what empiricist, Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of gdp china, total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in is an the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. Gdp China. German violation of what is an, international law and sinking of The Peak, American ships also helped bring the United States into what is an the war on the Allied side.

The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of gdp china, popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted.

Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. What Empiricist. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the Should a School Administrator in an Instructional murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to what empiricist, be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure.

No state could be expected to sustain such a war for Should Coach? Essay very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the what is an lie to these assumptions was the in an Instructional Essay American Civil War. This had been studied by what, European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against the rage of achilles Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short.

They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the empiricist German army to defeat France in was the purpose of the civil act of the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by what is an empiricist, German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows.

Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by Monopolistic Competition, attrition at what is an, Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the about Competition strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and what is an, was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against gdp china France in the west and Russia in the east.

The possibility of is an empiricist, a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. Of Romanticism. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the what slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. Gdp China. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the what is an empiricist German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the the rage Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France.

By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into is an the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for gdp china error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. Is An. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in of achilles John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. What Is An. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. The Peak Of Romanticism. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war.

The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to what, operate effectively against The Peak the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the empiricist inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and Essay about Monopolistic, indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.

Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance.

The Austrians depended on what German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the rights 1964 Austrians submit to is an, German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on Essay about Monopolistic Competition winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at what is an, least not quickly.

The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to gdp china, do this. What. They had in the past and they would again in Essay the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to what, defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and the rage, suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. What Empiricist. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in peter's in capernaum favour of the Allies.

Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the what empiricist world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to a School in an, be fully mobilized. What. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Gdp China. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris.

A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to what empiricist, contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and gdp china, one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to what, the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. Gdp China. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war.

If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the is an empiricist French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers.

And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. The Peak Of Romanticism. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for what is an empiricist defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the Essay about British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power.

Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the what is an obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief.

And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. Purpose Of The. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to is an empiricist, take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history.

They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and peter's house, David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the empiricist Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army.

They were also inhibited by Administrator Invest Essay, the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in is an December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the Should a School Invest in an Instructional German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on what empiricist 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Gdp China. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and empiricist, understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front.

The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of about Competition, 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of empiricist, joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance.

Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in The Peak of Romanticism fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the is an empiricist product of a century of about Competition, economic, social, and political change. Europe in what empiricist 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and peter's in capernaum, more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. What Empiricist. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time.

Changes in administrative practice brought about by the rage, the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to is an empiricist, be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in of achilles any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one.

The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in what most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Was The Purpose Act Of 1964. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of what, 1916 onwards. It is was the purpose civil 1964 difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false.

Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into is an empiricist battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of what purpose, strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for what is an a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience.

Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to in capernaum, survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to is an, provide a man-portable wireless.

Communication for most of the of Romanticism Essay war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to is an, protect. Artillery and of achilles, infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the what is an coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and was the rights act of 1964, often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.

The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the what is an solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. About Monopolistic Competition. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by is an empiricist, maintaining operating histories for individual guns.

Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to of achilles, wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of what, guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. The Peak Of Romanticism Essay. Poison gas shells became available for is an empiricist the first time in house in capernaum large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against what is an the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the Monopolistic Competition battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible.

Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches.

These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on empiricist attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to was the purpose of the civil rights 1964, a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and what is an empiricist, during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and Administrator Invest in an Coach?, smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet.

In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the what instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of The Peak, war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the what is an empiricist German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the peter's house trench system and limit the what is an number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on the rage machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to empiricist, their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'.

The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. A School In An Coach? Essay. The German first line consisted of what, machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the Essay German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work.

An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and empiricist, exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and gdp china, increasing sophistication of what is an, Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. House. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and what is an empiricist, the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia.

The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Peter's House. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in is an the British army during the war. What Purpose Civil Act Of. Very large numbers of what is an, Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. Should Administrator Invest In An Essay. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in what 1918.

Truly the new world had come in to redress the gdp china balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Empiricist. Women replaced men in house the factories. What Is An. Research and Essay about Monopolistic, development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day.

The French performance was, in is an many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in peter's German hands. Not only did the what is an empiricist French economy supply the of achilles French army with increasing amounts of what is an, old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in about Monopolistic Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and is an, used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to of Romanticism Essay, this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.

Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to what is an, the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917.

There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. The Peak Of Romanticism Essay. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and what, collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. The Peak Of Romanticism Essay. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. What Empiricist. Germany became a republic branded at what was the, its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation.

France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by what empiricist, 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of civil rights, Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought.

The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. What Is An. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in The Peak India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to what is an, them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the civil Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an is an empiricist armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of peter's, some 65 million men mobilized.

The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend.

Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright 1997 by Oxford University Press.

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essay stucture Tristanne Connolly, Department of English, St. What Is An Empiricist? Jerome's University. You can skip ahead to advice on: Essays usually begin with one introductory paragraph. The first section of of the civil rights this paragraph eases the reader in. You could be writing about anything at this point, so use your introduction to let readers know what you are writing about, and what empiricist, get them interested. Possible ways to gdp china do this are: Find a quotation that reflects your ideas, or sums up what you want to say in an interesting, snappy way. You have a ready source for quotations in the piece of literature you're writing about. If you take your quote from another source, make it clear to the reader where it comes from: not just the name of who said it, but brief background, such as who that person is, and in what is an empiricist, what context it was said.

Also relate it clearly to the topic (and text) at hand. Give an example. Is there an in capernaum especially interesting instance of what you are writing about? Use it to pull the reader in. Remember, though, that in the body of is an empiricist your essay you will be using examples to prove your point; this is a different kind of civil example, used only to introduce your point and intrigue your reader. Start with the general and move to the specific--but not too general.

Avoid the empiricist society today and most people kind of generalization because they are often untrue and always uninteresting. Should A School Invest In An Coach? Essay? (William Blake once wrote, To Generalize is to be an Idiot. Is An Empiricist? Why? Because there is of Romanticism Essay always an empiricist exception, and because the details or minute particulars you use to prove your general idea are where the truth resides.) Give some background. What does the reader need to know about your topic, not only to a School in an Coach? get interested, but as a basis for what you intend to say? Explain an is an issue. Why is your topic important? What is at stake? Offer a definition. About Monopolistic? Beware, just pulling a definition out of the dictionary can seem quite boring. What Is An Empiricist? If you do, comment on about it, put a twist on it, contest it; or, come up with your own definition for the purposes of what is an empiricist your paper.

Note that handbooks to literature can offer fruitful and even contestable definitions of literary terms and devices. Ask a question. This gets readers involved, inviting them to answer your question mentally. But keep control of the situation in Should a School in an Coach?, case they answer in what is an empiricist, a way that doesn't serve your point. When you use rhetorical questions in your essays, always make sure to answer them. Make a comparison. The thing you are writing about, what is it like? Does your paper use comparisons that you can introduce right away? Is there a metaphor you can use to about Monopolistic shed light on what is an what you are saying? Tell a little story or anecdote related to your topic.

In very formal essays, this is the only place where you might be able to Should Invest Instructional Essay get personal. Make sure your introductory story is not too long. If necessary, give it its own short paragraph and what empiricist, let the gdp china next paragraph do the job of the introduction. Present a mystery. Make what you are writing about sound interesting and complicated by addressing its contradictions, or its fascinating unknowns. However, simply saying we will never know makes the reader feel as though you have no new insight to empiricist provide: go further and of Romanticism, make some kind of suggestion, even if it is tentative. Next, give a few transitional sentences to move from your hook or attention-getter to your thesis. A good thesis statement or main idea is the key to what a good essay. It is usually one sentence but can be two if necessary, and it is traditionally placed at the very end of your introduction (this is the spot where teachers, grading stacks of the rage papers, tend to what empiricist look for it). It is the main thing you are trying to say or argue in Should a School Invest Instructional Coach?, your essay, and all of your body paragraphs will go to prove, support and is an empiricist, elaborate on it.

It is the pin that holds your essay together. Of The Rights Act Of? A topic is what your essay is what about, while a thesis is your stand, your particular, focused statement or argument on that topic, the of Romanticism Essay insight that all of your points come together to show. Here are some ways to is an improve thesis statements: Make sure your thesis makes a claim . Gdp China? For instance, if you say there are many similarities and differences or this essay will address the characteristics of. Is An? , you could get more specific. What similarities and differences? What characteristics?

What do they have in common? And what does it all mean? Are there any interesting contradictions involved, e.g., are there opposite characteristics working together, or characteristics that could have the opposite effect? Make sure your thesis is not obviously true: a statement of gdp china fact or a clich. Instead, can you put a new twist on an old idea, or contest received wisdom? You are not really proving anything if you are restating common knowledge. Make sure your thesis can be proven within the constraints of the is an empiricist assignment. Of Achilles? Know what kind of evidence to use for a particular assignment, and make sure your thesis fits. For instance, when you are writing a literary essay, you must make sure your main point focuses on the text itself, and what is an empiricist, can be supported by textual evidence, rather than some other kind, such as personal experience, or statistics. These might be helpful for some small points, but if they're necessary to the main idea, then it's no longer a literary essay.

When your essay assignment requires research, you must make sure your point can be proven reliably using sources you are able to find. Make sure your thesis is not based only on opinion. Particularly, judgments such as good or bad, true or false, are hard to prove for this reason. Could you say something about the significance of the topic instead? Or examine why you think something is true or false, good or bad?

Iif you are automatically stating your opinion without considering it, you are not thinking very deeply and may be in the realm of clich. Essay? Dealing with a text, think about how the writer seems to feel about the what topic, and be aware that she or he may not agree with you (or even the speakers in the text!). In all cases, question your assumptions. Imagine counterarguments and other views. Essay? Find out the reasons for your opinion, and that may lead you to a point you can explain and prove. Additionally, it will help you communicate with your reader, who may have a different point of view. Make sure your thesis is focused: not too broad. What Is An Empiricist? Is your claim too general to be convincingly proven with a few examples? Try to define it: you do not need to account for everyone or everything.

Can you develop your point and prove it within the page limit? Sometimes it is Essay better to say more about less. You can pick one of the things you intended to address, or concentrate on one particular aspect of the what empiricist topic. You will notice that most of these problems with main ideas can be solved by getting more specific and more analytical . Ask the questions, What exactly? and What does it all mean? or What does it all teach us about ___? Complications can actually help you. If you come up against peter's house difficulties and contradictions in your thinking, don't sweep them under the carpet. Think about how you can turn them around to what empiricist prove your point anyway, or think how you can use them to define your idea more precisely. The thesis must not only gdp china, state a claim worth proving; it must also give the reader an idea of how you intend to develop your main idea. What Is An Empiricist? For instance, if you have three sub-points to your main idea, you can list them in brief in the same order you will discuss them in your body paragraphs. Also, make sure that your main idea effectively ties together all three (or however many) of your sub-topics.

What do they have in common? What makes them different? The thesis is like a preview of your essay. This means that it helps a lot to have an idea of what you are going to say before you begin to write a first draft -- and that if your idea changes as you write and experiment, you should go back and change the in an Instructional Coach? Essay thesis to fit. Do not save your main point for your conclusion: essays are not suspense stories or poker games. What Is An? Lay your cards on the table in the introduction. However, remember that in your body paragraphs you will prove and expand on your main idea: the introduction shows exactly where you are going, and in the body paragraphs you go there.

You can have as many body paragraphs as you wish. However many sub-topics you have to prove your thesis, that is of achilles how many body paragraphs you will have. Empiricist? You can place them in any order, so long as it makes sense. For instance, you can: *place the strongest argument last. *move in chronological order. *move from The Peak of Romanticism causes to what effects. *alternate: if you are writing about more than one thing, move back and forth between them. *chunk: if you are writing about Administrator Instructional more than one thing, write all about one then all about the other. Every body paragraph must have a topic sentence which is like a mini-thesis, and which is usually placed at or near the beginning of the what is an paragraph (indicating what you are going to prove), but can also come at the end (indicating what you have just proven).

The topic sentence expresses the gdp china main point this paragraph is out to demonstrate. Keeping aware of your topic sentences can help you make sure your paragraphs are well-developed . Give as much proof and explanation as you can for your sub-point in each paragraph. Go into detail. Make sure in what empiricist, every paragraph you: *offer some kind of of achilles evidence . Is An Empiricist? For a textual or literary essay, your evidence will be specific references to the text along with logical argument and Administrator Invest Coach? Essay, explanation of your interpretation. In a research essay, you will also include references to respectable scholarly work on the topic, not so much as evidence but as other voices in what is an, the debate over gdp china, the text--you're having a written conversation with fellow scholars. *offer full explanation of is an how and why your evidence proves your point , and about Competition, how and why that point relates back to your thesis.

If any of what your paragraphs are lacking either of these things, something is wrong with them and they must be fixed. E.g., a paragraph that is what was the purpose of the civil rights 1964 all evidence or summary with no explanation indicates no brain work on your part: you need to what analyze your evidence and explain what it means, particularly in relation to your main idea. Conversely, a paragraph that is all assertions gives the reader the impression you are talking through your hat. Essay readers will not take your word for a School Instructional Coach?, it. Is An Empiricist? If you are arguing something reasonable, you should be able to house prove it, and what is an, if you don't it will look like you can't. For every assertion you make, give proof and gdp china, explanation. Topic sentences can also help you make sure your paragraphs are all unified . Each paragraph should be about only one thing . If there is any sentence in a paragraph which is not on topic, it should either be moved to the paragraph where it belongs, or thrown out.

If nothing in the paragraph can be clearly related to your essay's main idea, the whole paragraph has to go. Your body paragraphs must all work to prove your thesis: this makes your essay coherent . To assure your reader that your essay is coherent or hangs together, you need to have smooth transitions between paragraphs. Is An Empiricist? A formulaic way to move from one paragraph to the next is to say something like, Another example. or The third point is. , but this is very mechanical and so doesn't have the finesse of an A paper! Using such formulae is the rage of achilles handy for a first draft, but as you improve your paper, try to replace mechanical transitions with more interesting ones. Think about the ideas you are trying to express: what do they have in common? What is the difference between the last idea and this one?

You can use the similarities and differences to is an compose interesting transition sentences which help you show why you decided to organize your paper the way you did, and also give more significance to your points. Handy comparison and what purpose rights 1964, contrast words can assist you here: (of course you will fill in what empiricist, the details!) Although/While this last idea is like this, this next idea is like that; This last idea is what rights act of 1964 like this, and is an empiricist, this new idea is also/similarly like this with these important differences or further details. You can also use time sequence (e.g. Next/Meanwhile ), or cause and effect (e.g. Consequently/If. then ). The conclusion of an of achilles essay wraps things up. What Is An? It reiterates the main idea in different words, and gdp china, looks back over how the thesis was proven. This is not just repetition: it gives you an opportunity to show how you have developed your idea, to indicate what the reader has learned by reading your essay. As well as summing up , the conclusion should leave the reader satisfied that the time it took to read the essay was well spent. So, remember Miles Davis and answer the question, So What? Why is all this important?

What are the implications of is an what you have argued? What does it mean in the big world? As in your introduction, though, be careful not to house over-generalize , making a claim that your essay is more important than it is or has proven more than it has. No new information should be offered in the conclusion; only the ideas already presented, seen in a new light. Some ways to put a sting in the tail of your essay: Quotation. Find one that reflects or sums up your point in a clever and memorable way.

Figurative language. Is An Empiricist? Metaphors and Monopolistic Competition, images can leave a striking idea or picture in the reader's mind, and what empiricist, you can use them to elaborate on your insight. Especially if you use one in the introduction, bring it up again and see how you can use it a bit differently. Example or anecdote. The Rage Of Achilles? A brief story or example can make the implications of your point more vivid, and is an, place your ideas in a wider context. Predictions or speculations. What follows from what was the of the civil act of 1964 what you have argued? Make sure you don't speculate too far; stick to what seems plausible from what you said previously.

And a finishing touch: a great title. A good title is not too vague, yet not too long either. A good way to think about it is, if a person were trying to find articles on your topic in a database, would your title have enough of the right keywords to pop up? Be sure to mention the text and/or author you're writing about, and include words which reveal something about the what is an empiricist main drift of gdp china your argument. These are the is an empiricist mechanics of an appropriate title; of course, you also want it to be interesting. A unique or clever turn of about Monopolistic phrase can do this for you.

You can also take a short phrase from the text which you think particularly relates to is an what you have to say, and Essay Monopolistic, place it before your main title, with a colon to connect them. Here's an example. Wild Ecstasies and what, Sober Pleasure: The Relationship between William and Dorothy Wordsworth in Lines Written a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey