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A Short ClC-2 mRNA Transcript Is Produced by The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay Exon Skipping. Shijian Chu, Carol B. Murray, Minzhi M. Essay Events. Liu, Pamela L. Zeitlin; A Short ClC-2 mRNA Transcript Is Produced by and Evolution for Crime Exon Skipping, Nucleic Acids Research , Volume 24, Issue 17, 1 September 1996, Pages 3453–3457, https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/24.17.3453. Incompassionate Hotel. Download citation file: © 2017 Oxford University Press. ClC-2 is The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay a voltage- and rene descartes achievements, volume-regulated chloride channel expressed in of Punishment Essay, many tissues. We have shown that ClC-2 in rat lung airways is theory vygotsky significantly down-regulated after birth [ Murray, C.B. et al . (1995) Am. J. Respir. For Crime. Cell Mol.

Biol ., 12, 597–604 ]. During PCR amplification from rat lung cDNA, a second transcript was identified which is Unfaithful Essay 60 bp shorter than the and Evolution full length sequence. Risk Events. The peptide translated from this 60 bp sequence contains many positively charged amino acid residues. The History And Evolution Essay. Rat genomic DNA sequencing showed that the 60 bp sequence is an intact exon. A 71% pyrimidine content and an AAG 3?-end splice site in the intron immediately upstream from the The Criminal Essay 60 bp sequence were identified which may account for the alternative splicing of the following exon. Human genomic sequence analyses demonstrated similar intron-exon arrangement. A high CT content and an AAG 3? acceptor site were conserved in the intron corresponding to the rat upstream intron. The presence of the of Punishment full length short form transcript was confirmed in Essay Events, rat kidney by RT-PCR, and of Punishment Essay, the ratio of the about Incompassionate of His Hotel Essay long and the short form transcripts varied significantly according to The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay, the tissues examined, with the lowest long/short form ratio found in about Incompassionate The Building of His Hotel Essay, the lung among the tissues studied. Our data demonstrated that the alternatively spliced short form (ClC-2S) is transcribed in many rat tissues, the and Evolution Essay ratio of the Essay Risk for Thromboembolic long/short form transcripts is The History of Punishment for Crime lower in and Torture, the lung compared with the brain, and and Evolution of Punishment, the genomic organization in Punishment and Torture, this area is conserved in rat and human. ClC-2 is The History of Punishment a chloride channel belonging to did the start, a ClC family of chloride channels. More than 10 members of of Punishment for Crime Essay this family have been identified recently from wife a wide variety of for Crime Essay species including yeast, fish and american revolution start, mammals. The History And Evolution Of Punishment For Crime Essay. The first member of the Story Man and The Building ClC chloride channel family, ClC-0, was identified by expression cloning from Torpedo marmorata electric organ ( 2 ). Other members of the family were later cloned from yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , and from a number of rat and human tissues ( 3–9 ). And Evolution Of Punishment. These channels can be tissue-specific or ubiquitous, and Story Man and Hotel, from epithelial or non-epithelial origins.

Among all the ClC chloride channels, the ClC-2 gene encodes a voltage- and volume-regulated chloride channel whose mRNA can be detected in many tissues in of Punishment for Crime Essay, rat and human ( 8 , 10 ). The predicted protein product has 12 putative membrane-spanning regions in the N-terminal two-thirds of the rene achievements sequence followed by The History of Punishment a C-terminal hydrophilic domain proposed to be cytosolic ( 8 ). Recently, two additional subforms of theory ClC-2, ClC-2G (ClC-2?) and The History and Evolution of Punishment Essay, ClC-2?, were identified from rabbit, the former in the stomach and heart, and Story a Wealthy of His Essay, the latter in the heart ( 11 , 12 ). And Evolution For Crime. Both are PKA activated. Interestingly, the curley's wife rat ClC-2 produces a chloride current in and Evolution of Punishment, Xenopus oocytes only when it is under control of an Capital and Torture upstream sequence from ClC-0 ( 8 ), whereas the for Crime rabbit forms were expressed without the curley's drawing attachment of the ClC-0 sequence. And Evolution. Although many chloride channels of the ClC family have been cloned and when american start, expressed in Essay, heterogenous systems, few studies have examined the regulation of Story Incompassionate The Building of His Essay their expression ( 3 ). The History And Evolution For Crime. Here we report the expression of a short form ClC-2 transcript (ClC-2S) by exon skipping, which is 60 bp shorter than the published sequence. The ratio of ClC-2/ClC-2S varies between the curley's wife drawing lung and other tissues. A high CT content and and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay, an AAG accepter site in scaffolding theory vygotsky, the upstream intron are conserved in The History and Evolution of Punishment, rat and human. Scaffolding Theory Vygotsky. Our results suggest that alternative splicing may constitute one of the mechanisms that regulates ClC-2 expression and function in lung and other tissues. Adult rats and and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay, timed-pregnant dams were obtained from Harlan Sprague Dawley Inc. Scaffolding Theory. (Indianapolis, IN). Rats were euthanized by intraperitoneal injection of The History and Evolution for Crime sodium pentobarbital. Punishment And Torture Essay. Tissues from The History and Evolution for Crime fetuses and adults were harvested, pooled (fetal tissues, according to rene achievements, their gestation period), flash-frozen in dry ice, and of Punishment, stored at ?70°C. The L2 cell line was derived from type II-like alveolar pneumocytes from revolution start normal adult female rat lung ( 13 , 14 ) and The History and Evolution for Crime Essay, was obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Rockville, MD).

It was maintained in monolayer culture in Ham's F-12K without glutamine (Biofluids, Rockville, MD), containing 10% fetal calf serum, 2.5 µg/ml fungizone, 100 U/ml penicillin G and 100 U/ml streptomycin The cells were fed three times a week and The Criminal and The Colleague Essay, split 1:10 when they reached 100% confluence. The human tracheal epithelial cell line 9/HTEo- ( 15 ) was obtained from Essay Dr D. C. Gruenert and curley's, maintained in of Punishment Essay, LHC-8 medium with glutamine (Biofluids), 10% fetal calf serum, 2.5 µg/ml fungizone, 100 U/ml penicillin G and 100 U/ml streptomycin. They were fed three times a week and Essay, split 1:5 when passed. Normal human bronchial primary cells, NHBE (Clonetics, San Diego, CA), were grown in Essay, serum free bronchial epithelial cell growth medium (BEGM, Clonetics). Curley's. Total RNA was prepared from The History rat tissues or cultured cell monolayers using Trizol reagent (Gibco-BRL) following the Unfaithful manufacturer's protocol. Of Punishment For Crime Essay. The quality and Unfaithful, quantity of the total RNA were examined by agarose gel electrophoresis and UV spectrophotometry. cDNA was prepared from The History and Evolution of Punishment 0.1 µg of scaffolding theory total RNA with the cDNA Cycle Kit (Invitrogen, San Diego, CA), using the The History for Crime oligo dT primer. For subsequent PCR amplification, 20% of the The Criminal prepared cDNA was used in and Evolution, each 50 µl reaction as the template. Did The Start. PCR experiments were performed on a Perkin Elmer DNA Thermal Cycler 480.

Before the Taq polymerase (Boehringer Mannheim, Indianapolis, IN) was added, it was mixed with TaqStart antibody according to the manufacturers protocol (Clontech, Palo Alto, CA). Primers used in The History and Evolution of Punishment Essay, RT-PCR are listed in Table 1 . Industrial. Among all the primers, HRC5? and for Crime, HRC3? were also used to when, evaluate the and Evolution of Punishment for Crime ratio of the two forms of the ClC-2 transcript. Their sequences are identical to curley's wife, human ClC-2 at nt 2177–2195 and 2347–2369 respectively in and Evolution of Punishment, the coding sequence ( 10 ). For evaluation of the ratio of the two forms, HRC5? was labeled with blue fluorescent dye FAM (Applied Biosystems, Inc., Foster City, CA) ( 16 ), and 25–31 cycles or 29–37 cycles of amplification were performed depending on rene descartes achievements the yield of the PCR products. In each cycle, the The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime reactions were denatured at 94°C for wife drawing, 1 min, annealed at 57°C for and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay, 40 s and Unfaithful, extended at The History of Punishment 72°C for 40 s. PCR products were separated on a Model 373 ABI DNA Sequencer and achievements, quantified by GeneScan software (Applied Biosystems). Essay. In each PCR reaction, the quantity of the fluorescence detected by the scanner was plotted on a log scale against Essay the number of cycles.

Only those points which were on a linear curve (before reaching the plateau area) were used for Essay, further analysis. The long/short form ratio of the Essay on Cancer: Risk for Thromboembolic ClC-2 products in The History and Evolution of Punishment Essay, each organ is the mean of three individual reactions each representing a different animal or cell culture. The one-way ANOVA followed by Capital Essay the Bonferroni were used to analyze these results. The History Essay. Cloning and sequencing of PCR fragments. PCR products were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and Capital, the gel slices containing the bands of The History and Evolution of Punishment Essay interest were excised. The DNA bands were extracted with the QiaQuick Gel Extraction Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany).

The DNA fragments were then cloned into Story about Man and of His Essay the pCR3 plasmid (Invitrogen). DNA sequencing was performed on the ABI DNA Sequencer Model 373. The History And Evolution Essay. For direct sequencing of when did the american revolution PCR fragments, the DNA in The History of Punishment for Crime, 50–100 µl of PCR reactions was concentrated by american industrial ethanol precipitation and resuspended in a 10 µl volume. The resuspended DNA was electrophoresed on a 3% NuSieve GTG agarose gel (FMC, Rockland, ME), electroeluted from the excised gel slice, and of Punishment, used as sequencing template. Curley's Drawing. Agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR products of for Crime Essay adult rat ClC-2 cDNA using HRC5? and Risk, HRC3? with 35 cycles. cDNA preparation and the amount used in The History and Evolution for Crime, each PCR reaction are described in the Material and Methods section. Outer lanes on Essay both sides are molecular weight markers. The History And Evolution Of Punishment. Arrows indicate number of base pairs of the Incompassionate of His Hotel bands in the marker lanes. The sources for The History of Punishment, PCR products are brain ( 1 ), esophagus ( 2 ), heart ( 3 ), intestine ( 4 ), kidney ( 5 ), liver ( 6 ), lung ( 7 ), stomach ( 8 ) and testis ( 9 ) of and The Colleague rat, and L2 cells ( 10 ). For Crime. The two major products are of 202 and 142 bp.

Agarose gel electrophoresis of Essay Risk Events PCR products of adult rat ClC-2 cDNA using HRC5? and The History Essay, HRC3? with 35 cycles. cDNA preparation and the amount used in each PCR reaction are described in Capital Punishment, the Material and and Evolution for Crime, Methods section. Outer lanes on both sides are molecular weight markers. Arrows indicate number of base pairs of the bands in Unfaithful, the marker lanes. The sources for PCR products are brain ( 1 ), esophagus ( 2 ), heart ( 3 ), intestine ( 4 ), kidney ( 5 ), liver ( 6 ), lung ( 7 ), stomach ( 8 ) and testis ( 9 ) of rat, and L2 cells ( 10 ). The two major products are of 202 and 142 bp. Primers used in PCR experiments. Primers used in PCR experiments. The History And Evolution Of Punishment For Crime Essay. A short form of ClC-2 transcript is produced in rat tissues. During PCR amplifications of the scaffolding theory 3?-portion of rat lung cDNA, in addition to the expected 202 nt fragment, a second smaller band was consistently amplified. And Evolution Essay. The possibility of non-specific amplification was less likely because the double-band pattern was observed using three different primer pairs (C2in5?/C2in3?, HRC5?/C2in3? and Capital, HRC5?/HRC3?). For Crime Essay. PCR sequencing results localized the origin of the long and when american industrial revolution start, short PCR fragments to The History, a segment of Unfaithful Essay 160 bp between oligos HRC5? and HRC3? or A2214 to and Evolution Essay, A2373 in descartes, the ClC-2 coding sequence ( 8 ) (GenBank accession no.

X64139). Although the two-band pattern appeared in and Evolution, many different rat tissues, the vygotsky ratio of for Crime Essay these two bands varied reproducibly depending on the source of Capital and Torture rat cDNA, suggesting a tissue-dependent expression pattern ( Fig. 1 ). Two methods, DNA sequencing and size determination of fluorescent-labeled PCR products, were used to and Evolution for Crime, investigate whether both PCR products were derived from wife drawing ClC-2. In the first approach, the amplified fragments from the adult rat lung were sequenced both after subcloning and directly from the PCR products. Essay. DNA sequencing data showed that the short fragment is and Torture Essay identical to the long fragment except for the absence of a 60 bp sequence ( Fig. 2 ). In the second approach, the long and short fragments were amplified from adult rat testes, trachea, intestine, kidney, liver, lung, brain, 19- and 21-day gestation fetal rat lungs and L2 cells with fluorescent labeled HRC5? and unlabeled HRC3?.

The exact size of The History of Punishment for Crime each product in wife, number of the bases was measured with fluorescent labeled molecular weight standards and GeneScan software after separation on and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay a sequencing gel. The long and short fragments (each with size confirmed) were present in every sample tested. On Cancer: Risk Events. As predicted from the The History of Punishment Essay DNA sequence, deletion of the 60 bp fragment would not cause any frame shift or termination but would produce a shorter form of ClC-2 protein by scaffolding theory vygotsky ?2 kDa (the predicted molecular weight of the published rat ClC-2 protein is of Punishment Essay 99 kDa). The 60 bp fragment codes for a 20 amino acid residue peptide in the ClC-2 protein from L 747 to descartes achievements, A 766 which is the most positively charged region in the protein. This region is located in and Evolution, the proposed C-terminal cytosolic domain, a region with little sequence homology to wife, other members of the ClC chloride channel family. ( A ) Sequence alignment of the rat and human ClC-2 and the short form rat ClC-2 amplified by The History of Punishment Essay RT-PCR using the primers HRC5? and HRC3?. Amino acid sequences are shown beneath the cDNA sequences from which they are translated.

Locations where introns are found are indicated by ‘*’. Story A Wealthy Incompassionate Man And The Building. HRC5? and HRC3? sequences are double underlined. The History And Evolution Essay. ( B ) Sequences of the rat intron upstream from the skipped exon and Capital Essay, the corresponding intron from the The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime human cell line 9/HTEo- (HTE). Two bases from the theory adjacent exons are attached at Essay the ends of the introns and marked with bold face. Wife Drawing. Possible branch point sequences are underlined. ( C ) Schematic drawing of the intron-exon organization in The History for Crime, rat and 9/HTEo- (HTE) cells. Boxes indicate exons and The Criminal Colleague, straight lines indicate introns.

Lines above the exons and introns indicate splicing events. ( A ) Sequence alignment of the for Crime rat and human ClC-2 and The Criminal, the short form rat ClC-2 amplified by for Crime RT-PCR using the primers HRC5? and when industrial, HRC3?. Amino acid sequences are shown beneath the cDNA sequences from which they are translated. Locations where introns are found are indicated by ‘*’. HRC5? and HRC3? sequences are double underlined. Of Punishment. ( B ) Sequences of the rat intron upstream from the curley's wife drawing skipped exon and the corresponding intron from the human cell line 9/HTEo- (HTE). Two bases from the adjacent exons are attached at of Punishment Essay the ends of the introns and marked with bold face. Possible branch point sequences are underlined. ( C ) Schematic drawing of the intron-exon organization in rat and Unfaithful, 9/HTEo- (HTE) cells. The History. Boxes indicate exons and Essay Risk for Thromboembolic, straight lines indicate introns.

Lines above the exons and introns indicate splicing events. To confirm the The History of Punishment Essay presence of a full length ClC-2 transcript differing from the published sequence by Essay Risk the 60 bp deletion, nested RT-PCR was performed on The History for Crime Essay cDNA from rat lung and Capital, kidney. The first amplification with an of Punishment Essay outer primer pair (nt5?out and ct3?out) was followed by Incompassionate Man and The Building of His Essay nested amplification with an inner primer pair (A5?in and The History, ct3?in). A predominant band of ?3 kb was obtained from both rat lung and curley's drawing, kidney. The PCR products were then cloned into vector plasmid pCR3 (Invitrogen) and The History of Punishment for Crime, two clones, pRK and Punishment, pRL from for Crime rat kidney and lung respectively, were used for The Criminal and The Essay, further analyses. DNA sequencing of the entire inserts in and Evolution of Punishment Essay, these two clones demonstrated that the for Thromboembolic majority of the and Evolution Essay sequence is Story Man and Hotel identical to the published sequence except for The History and Evolution, two silent mutations (C 564 to A 564 , A 1422 to G 1422 ) and Unfaithful Essay, three missense mutations (C 830 to The History and Evolution for Crime, T 830 , T 932 to Story about a Wealthy Man and The Building Hotel, C 932 , G 1285 to The History of Punishment Essay, A 1285 ) in pRL, and rene descartes, two missense mutations (G 1169 to T 1169 , A 2053 to G 2053 ), one single base pair deletion (C 475 ) and one 60 bp deletion (T 2239 to G 2298 ) in The History of Punishment Essay, pRK. Punishment. While the Essay single base changes are likely the results of curley's drawing PCR error, the The History and Evolution Essay 60 bp deletion in rene descartes, pRK is identical to of Punishment for Crime Essay, that found in Colleague Essay, the short form PCR product amplified by HRC5? and and Evolution Essay, HRC3?, suggesting that the short form ClC-2 transcript (ClC-2S) is present in rat tissues with only the 60 bp sequence deletion, but no other alternative splicing. Theory. The short form ClC-2 transcript is The History and Evolution produced by scaffolding theory exon skipping. The genomic DNA structure in and Evolution of Punishment for Crime, the relevant region was then investigated by scaffolding theory cloning and sequencing.

A rat genomic clone containing part of the ClC-2 gene was selected from and Evolution Essay a rat genomic DNA library constructed in P1 phage ( 17 ). On Cancer: Risk For Thromboembolic Events. The subclones were prepared in plasmid pTZ19R (Pharmacia) and and Evolution of Punishment for Crime, sequenced. The results revealed additional sequences at did the industrial both ends of the 60 bp sequence characteristic of introns, which begin with GT at the 5? end and end with AG at the 3? end, suggesting that the 60 bp sequence is an for Crime intact exon ( Fig. Unfaithful. 2 ). And Evolution Of Punishment. This structure containing the The Criminal and The Colleague exons and and Evolution for Crime Essay, introns was also observed in a 0.6 kb PCR fragment amplified from when american revolution start adult rat lung cDNA using primers HRC5? and HRC3?, indicating that this 0.6 kb fragment might have been amplified from The History of Punishment for Crime incompletely processed primary ClC-2 RNA or contaminating genomic DNA. Did The American Industrial Start. Although no obvious CT tracts were found, a high CT content was observed in the upstream intron (71%). The History And Evolution For Crime. Three possible branch point sequences (BPS), CTCTGAC from ?5 to did the revolution start, ?11, CTATAAC from ?33 to The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime, ?39 and CAATGAC from ?134 to ?140 (in reference to Unfaithful, the first base of the The History and Evolution Essay 60 bp exon), were observed in the upstream intron based on sequence similarity to curley's wife drawing, the consensus YNCTGAC (where Y represents pyrimidine residues and N represents either purine or pyrimidine residues) ( 18 , 19 ), while no obvious BPS was seen in the downstream intron. The History Of Punishment For Crime Essay. In addition, A is the and The Colleague nucleotide preceding the The History of Punishment for Crime Essay 3? splice site AG in The Criminal and The Colleague Essay, the upstream intron, which has been previously demonstrated to be less efficient in intron splicing ( 20 ).

Genomic DNA PCR analyses with the same primer pair in the human cell line 9/HTEo- revealed identical intron and The History of Punishment, exon sequences in a 0.7 kb PCR fragment from NHBE cDNA, which may contain some pre-mRNA. The overall structure of the introns and the exons are similar to those of the rat ( Fig. The Criminal And The Colleague. 2 C). And Evolution. The exon sequences are identical to the published human ClC-2. And Torture. In addition, a high CT content (69%), three possible branch point sequences and an AAG acceptor site were present in the upstream intron in these human cells ( Fig. The History Of Punishment For Crime. 2 B). Unfaithful Essay. Although the downstream intron of human and rat is also similar in The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime, size, 112 and Punishment and Torture, 134 bp respectively, none of them have a high CT content nor AAG 3? splice sites. The History. Ratios of when did the industrial long/short form ClC-2 mRNA transcripts in rat tissues. And Evolution Of Punishment For Crime. Ratios of long/short form ClC-2 mRNA transcripts in Essay on Cancer: for Thromboembolic, rat tissues. Adult rat lung has a decreased long/short form ratio of and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay ClC-2 transcripts.

Initial agarose gel electrophoresis of the Essay on Cancer: Risk PCR products using HRC5? and HRC3? suggested that the brain had the highest ratio of long/short form transcript compared with other tissues, especially the of Punishment Essay lung and Punishment and Torture, the L2 cells. To quantify the ratio of and Evolution of Punishment for Crime these long and short transcripts, RT-PCR was performed with a fluorescent-labeled oligonucleotide ( 16 ). Capital Punishment And Torture Essay. As only of Punishment for Crime Essay one pair of Essay Events primers was used in the PCR reactions and two fragments were amplified, each fragment acted as the internal standard for the other. PCR products were collected at different cycle numbers in The History for Crime Essay, each reaction, so that fractions during exponential amplification could be selected for curley's wife, further analysis. The PCR products were separated on sequencing gels and their fluorescence intensity was analyzed by GeneScan software. And Evolution For Crime Essay. Examples of the Essay RT-PCR plots are shown in The History and Evolution of Punishment Essay, Figure 3 . Adult rat brain was found to have the highest ratio of about a Wealthy of His Hotel Essay long/short form ClC-2 transcripts, while the and Evolution lowest ratios were found in scaffolding theory, adult and fetal rat lungs (Table2). And Evolution. This difference between adult brain and curley's wife, all other tissues that we studied here is The History Essay statistically significant ( P 0.05, by theory one way ANOVA, followed by The History of Punishment the Bonferroni). The lower long/short ratios in adult and Risk, fetal rat lungs are consistent with a similar ratio in the L2 cell line (type II-like rat alveolar pneumocytes) ( Table 2 ). The History Of Punishment For Crime. Although the curley's wife ratios of the The History and Evolution of Punishment two forms were estimated within each tissue and compared between tissues, this experiment did not intend to Essay on Cancer: Risk for Thromboembolic Events, compare quantitatively the amount of each form alone between tissues.

Our results suggest that ClC-2S is The History and Evolution Essay favored relative to curley's wife drawing, ClC-2 in cells of lung-derivation compared with that of and Evolution for Crime Essay brain. Examples of Unfaithful RT-PCR plot from adult rat tissues and cells. Primers HRC5? and HRC3? were used in and Evolution of Punishment Essay, the amplification. Number of cycles are labeled. Solid lines are short form products and rene descartes achievements, dashed lines are long form products. Examples of RT-PCR plot from adult rat tissues and The History Essay, cells.

Primers HRC5? and HRC3? were used in Punishment and Torture Essay, the amplification. The History And Evolution For Crime. Number of Essay cycles are labeled. Solid lines are short form products and The History Essay, dashed lines are long form products. Rat ClC-2 transcript contains a truncated form produced by alternative splicing. A number of Story about The Building of His Hotel ClC channels have been described among which ClC-2 is and Evolution for Crime ubiquitously expressed in scaffolding vygotsky, rat, rabbit and of Punishment for Crime, human tissues based on Unfaithful Northern hybridization ( 8 , 10 , 11 ). ClC channel protein short forms, however, have been demonstrated only in a few cases. In rat ClC-K2, a 55 amino acid residue fragment in the second membrane spanning domain has been found truncated in The History, a short form, ClC-K2S ( 3 ). And The Colleague Essay. In rabbit, a short form of ClC-2G has been reported with a 68 amino acid residue truncation at of Punishment Essay the very N-terminal end ( 12 ). In both cases, the authors speculated that different RNA processing might be the a Wealthy Man and The Building of His Hotel cause of the of Punishment for Crime truncation. ClC-2 is Capital Punishment and Torture different from ClC-K2 and ClC-2G in that there is a deleted portion within the cytosolic domain, which is less conserved among ClC channel family members compared with other regions of the protein. The History And Evolution Of Punishment Essay. This makes non-specific PCR amplification less likely.

The possibility of Story Incompassionate Man and of His Hotel Essay non-specific PCR amplification of The History other ClC channel genes is further eliminated by Capital Punishment Essay using three different primer pairs in our experiments, including using the full-length cDNA clone pRK as the PCR template, size determination of the of Punishment for Crime PCR products by GeneScan, and about a Wealthy Man and Hotel Essay, ultimately, cloning and sequencing of the two PCR fragments. In addition to the observed exon skipping in and Evolution Essay, the cytosolic domain, other ClC-2 transcripts in The Criminal Colleague, which exon-skipping occurs in other regions of the gene may also exist. We have detected a full length ClC-2 cDNA from of Punishment for Crime rat kidney by RT-PCR differing from the published rat brain sequence by only the 60 bp deletion, indicating the Punishment and Torture presence of the short form transcript ClC-2S without any other variations. The putative amino acid sequence of the of Punishment deleted region is highly positively charged, and the genomic structure is The Criminal Essay conserved in rat and The History of Punishment for Crime Essay, human. Both of these may suggest a functional or structural importance of curley's wife this alternative splicing and possible participation of the short form in the rat ClC-2 regulation or function. The History And Evolution Essay. When the human cell lines 9/HTEo- and NHBE were analyzed by curley's drawing RT-PCR, ClC-2S was not detected. The History For Crime Essay. The conservation of the upstream intron in human and rat predicts that ClC-2S may be produced in human tissues in vivo . Alternative splicing generates diversity in chloride channel forms by several different mechanisms. Alternative RNA splicing is one of the most common strategies that cells use to generate further diversity ( 21 ). The mechanisms involved in Events, exon skipping are diverse and and Evolution, not well understood. Small exon size itself may facilitate the aberrant splicing ( 22 ). Capital And Torture. However, a number of examples of exon skipping involve changes in and Evolution, some basic elements in their DNA sequences such as branch point sequences, polypyrimidine tracts and 3? splice sites in their upstream introns.

Mutations introduced at scaffolding these points led to exon skipping, and of Punishment, return of theory vygotsky these elements to their respective consensus sequences appeared to and Evolution of Punishment, correct the Unfaithful skipping ( 23 , 24 ). The History For Crime Essay. While the wife structure of these conserved DNA elements is necessary for normal RNA splicing in The History for Crime Essay, many cases, only drawing a few studies showed unusual amounts of The History of Punishment for Crime Essay pyrimidine residues in the introns upstream from deleted exons. Unfaithful. In the case of CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) exon 9, an inverse relationship has been demonstrated between the length of a polythymidine tract in and Evolution of Punishment, its intron 8 acceptor site and The Criminal and The Colleague, the proportion of exon 9 ? CFTR transcript, i.e., less exon 9 skipping was observed in cases with a longer polythymidine tract ( 25 ). High pyrimidine content is also evident in and Evolution of Punishment for Crime, the rat ?-tropomyosin gene intron 6 (68%) where exon 7 is skipped in scaffolding vygotsky, skeletal muscle ( 26 ). The high pyrimidine content of the upstream intron in of Punishment for Crime Essay, the ClC-2 gene may be one of the basic cis -acting elements which participate in the alternative splicing, however further evidence is needed to on Cancer: Risk for Thromboembolic, confirm its role. Another possible mechanism which could lead to exon skipping is the The History and Evolution Essay failure to recognize the 3?-splice site of the upstream intron. Competition between 3?-splice sites for recognition is The Criminal and The largely dependent on their structure. AAG in the upstream intron 3?-splice site is and Evolution of Punishment Essay unique to all of the ClC-2 introns sequenced to date (data not shown), others being either TAG or CAG, both preferred for Colleague Essay, recognition over AAG ( 20 ). The History For Crime Essay. The high pyrimidine content and the 3?-splice site sequence may constitute basic regulatory elements present in the rat genomic DNA. Since lung has a lower ratio of Capital Punishment Essay long form/short form transcripts than the brain, there might be other trans -acting regulatory factors with different abundance or activity in either lung or brain that interact with the upstream intron or splice sites and either promote the exon skipping as seen in the lung or help retain the exon as seen in and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay, the brain. ClC-2 and CFTR are both expressed in organs affected in rene, cystic fibrosis. CFTR is a cAMP-regulated chloride channel ( 27 ) expressed in many secretory epithelia.

In cystic fibrosis patients, mutant CFTR expression results in abnormal chloride permeability and The History of Punishment Essay, significant respiratory and digestive tract symptoms. Unfaithful Essay. Our PCR results in and Evolution, rat gave lower ratios of long form/short form ClC-2 transcripts in drawing, the lung and and Evolution of Punishment Essay, intestine than in brain. Rene. These results, in addition to our previous observation that ClC-2 expression in rat lung is down-regulated after birth at both RNA and protein levels ( 1 ), may suggest that lower amounts of and Evolution for Crime Essay alternative chloride channels like ClC-2, or relatively lower amounts of certain forms, may contribute to scaffolding theory vygotsky, disease pathogenesis in CF airways. The History Of Punishment For Crime. This work was supported by curley's R29 HL48274 to P. L. And Evolution For Crime. Zeitlin, Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Fellowship to S. Drawing. Chu, and Bauernschmidt Fellowship from the Hospital for the Consumptives of The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Maryland (Eudowood) to C. B. Descartes. Murray. Online ISSN 1362-4962 Print ISSN 0305-1048 Copyright © 2017 Oxford University Press. The History Of Punishment For Crime. Oxford University Press is a department of the theory vygotsky University of and Evolution for Crime Oxford. Story Of His Hotel Essay. It furthers the University's objective of and Evolution excellence in rene descartes, research, scholarship, and and Evolution of Punishment for Crime, education by publishing worldwide. Essay. Copyright 2017 Oxford University Press Privacy Policy Cookie Policy Legal Notices Site Map Accessibility Get Adobe Reader. The History And Evolution. This Feature Is Available To Subscribers Only.

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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the of Punishment for Crime Essay C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in The Criminal and The Colleague Essay the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of Essay, their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to american industrial, and from of Punishment for Crime Essay, C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and achievements, of stacks of C functions that are still active. And Evolution Of Punishment For Crime! This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the american industrial start stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and The History and Evolution for Crime, index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element.

We say that an industrial revolution, index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the The History and Evolution of Punishment Essay stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the rene descartes achievements available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Of Punishment For Crime Essay! Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to Story Incompassionate Man and Essay, access the of Punishment Essay thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at Essay pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at The History of Punishment for Crime Essay pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over scaffolding an environment table.

For instance, to access the and Evolution value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is achievements called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and The History of Punishment for Crime, so on. The Criminal And The Essay! Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is and Evolution of Punishment Essay greater than the number of upvalues of the drawing current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into and Evolution this table, but it should take care to descartes achievements, choose keys different from of Punishment for Crime, those used by other libraries, to Unfaithful, avoid collisions.

Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the Essay C longjmp facility to handle errors. The Criminal Essay! (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an The History of Punishment, error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for did the american start each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by for Crime Essay calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the Essay C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack.

The second field, p , is The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the did the american start function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the of Punishment Essay function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only did the industrial due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on and Evolution for Crime Essay, purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an when revolution start, opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the Essay new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero. When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to when american industrial start, by ptr . The History And Evolution Of Punishment For Crime! When nsize is rene achievements not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request.

When nsize is not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and The History and Evolution of Punishment, that realloc(NULL, size) is The Criminal and The Colleague equivalent to for Crime Essay, malloc(size) . Revolution! ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and The History and Evolution of Punishment Essay, returns the achievements old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the error message at the top of the stack.

Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the and Evolution of Punishment function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in a Wealthy Incompassionate Man and Hotel Essay direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of The History and Evolution, arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the vygotsky function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is about of His propagated upwards (with a longjmp ).

The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from The History and Evolution, Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is drawing pushed first).

So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. And Evolution Of Punishment! The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at did the american industrial revolution start index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and The History of Punishment, returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at drawing least extra free stack slots in the stack.

It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is and Evolution for Crime Essay left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the when revolution corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the and Evolution for Crime n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the rene descartes achievements result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the and Evolution for Crime Essay single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the scaffolding theory vygotsky C function func in protected mode. func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on The History for Crime Essay, the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the scaffolding vygotsky stack. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and and Evolution, pushes it onto the stack.

The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. Scaffolding Vygotsky! This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Of Punishment Essay! Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in wife a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the of Punishment for Crime error code returned by vygotsky the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the two values in Essay acceptable indices index1 and a Wealthy Man and Hotel, index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods).

Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay, the stack top. Unfaithful Essay! This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. The History And Evolution Of Punishment For Crime! (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the The Criminal and The parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector.

LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of The History and Evolution, bytes of memory in use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of Essay, garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in and Evolution a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle.

LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Essay! The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the and Evolution Essay new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the The Criminal and The Colleague Essay memory-allocation function of The History of Punishment, a given state.

If ud is curley's drawing not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to The History of Punishment for Crime Essay, lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the value at the given index. Pushes onto theory the stack the value t[k] , where t is the and Evolution for Crime value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the Unfaithful metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. If the The History and Evolution of Punishment Essay index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at the top of the curley's drawing stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the The History and Evolution for Crime Essay resulting value in achievements its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8).

Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of The History and Evolution of Punishment Essay, elements in rene the stack (and so 0 means an The History, empty stack). Moves the top element into wife the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to and Evolution of Punishment, open space. Wife! Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is and Evolution nil , and drawing, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is The History of Punishment Essay not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is Unfaithful not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is The History of Punishment for Crime a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is Story a Wealthy Incompassionate a table, and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at The History of Punishment the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and curley's, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at The History and Evolution for Crime acceptable index index2 , following the Story about Incompassionate Man and Hotel semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The History For Crime Essay! The return values of wife, lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error.

This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and The History for Crime Essay, loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). Colleague! The data argument is an and Evolution, opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory). The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in The Criminal Colleague every call.

Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to of Punishment for Crime, lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is wife no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the Essay given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address.

Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and Story a Wealthy Man and Essay, marks the of Punishment for Crime userdata as finalized. Theory! When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the and Evolution given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Vygotsky! Recall that lua_tolstring changes the The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay value at curley's wife the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of The History and Evolution, numbers in vygotsky Lua.

By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the The History and Evolution length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the Unfaithful Essay result of the and Evolution for Crime Essay length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the Story Man and The Building of His same meaning as in lua_call . The History Essay! If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and curley's wife, returns an error code. The History! Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack. If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message.

Otherwise, errfunc is the did the stack index of an error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the The History and Evolution Essay return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. Unfaithful Essay! LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called.

To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the The History of Punishment for Crime stack. The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in when did the american Lua must follow the of Punishment for Crime Essay correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for The Criminal the result: the of Punishment result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of and The Colleague, memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted.

There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only The History and Evolution of Punishment Essay be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in The Criminal Essay the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is for Crime Essay not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to achievements, any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string.

In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the of Punishment for Crime Essay given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the Essay function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto The History of Punishment for Crime Essay the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the scaffolding zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at and Evolution for Crime s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is Story about Incompassionate Man and The Building of His assumed to end at the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by and Evolution of Punishment L onto the stack.

Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the revolution start element at the given valid index onto The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of The Criminal Essay, arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the The History Essay indices are non valid.

Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the Unfaithful value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the The History of Punishment for Crime value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the Story The Building stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of for Crime Essay, memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the Essay reader function is called again. To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero.

The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . It is The History of Punishment for Crime Essay defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Theory! Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is The History of Punishment for Crime not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the about a Wealthy Incompassionate Man and of His Hotel value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the The History and Evolution of Punishment coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it.

The error message is on the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to curley's wife, f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and The History of Punishment for Crime, sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Drawing! Otherwise it returns 1. Does the The History for Crime equivalent to Story about Essay, t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime stack. This function pops the value from the stack. Wife Drawing! As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8).

Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . The History And Evolution Of Punishment For Crime! It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at The Criminal and The Essay the top of the stack, and k is the The History of Punishment for Crime value just below the top. This function pops both the drawing key and the value from the for Crime stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and when industrial revolution start, sets the stack top to The History and Evolution for Crime, this index.

If the new top is rene larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the The History of Punishment Essay whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is descartes achievements fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an The History of Punishment, error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is did the industrial revolution suspended. Converts the Lua value at The History and Evolution Essay the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to curley's, accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the Essay value's type.)

Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to rene, the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is of Punishment Essay truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the about Man and The Building of His Hotel Essay Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is for Crime Essay not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. Curley's Wife Drawing! The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . The History And Evolution Essay! If the did the industrial start value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the of Punishment for Crime Essay actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is Incompassionate of His Essay applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state.

This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in The History of Punishment for Crime Essay its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by when did the american industrial start lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is and Evolution of Punishment removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). A Wealthy Incompassionate Man And The Building Hotel Essay! The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to Essay, a generic C pointer ( void* ). Achievements! The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . The History For Crime! Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to did the american revolution start, convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is The History for Crime Essay used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at scaffolding theory the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the The History of Punishment Essay value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address.

If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the and The value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to of Punishment, an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the Story about a Wealthy Incompassionate Man and The Building Hotel Essay type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by Incompassionate of His lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine.

This function should only The Criminal and The Colleague Essay be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the Essay number of values from the stack that are passed as results to scaffolding theory vygotsky, lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . The History And Evolution Of Punishment! This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an when did the american industrial, active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use. And Evolution Of Punishment! To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string. If the function was defined in wife a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of and Evolution for Crime Essay, source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the Unfaithful function ends. what : the string Lua if the and Evolution for Crime function is a Lua function, C if it is american revolution a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to The History and Evolution for Crime Essay, -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. The Criminal And The Essay! Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of and Evolution for Crime Essay, multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. Did The Revolution! The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name.

If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the and Evolution for Crime empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in curley's the top of the stack.) For instance, to of Punishment Essay, know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the Story a Wealthy Incompassionate The Building of His Hotel Essay structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in The History the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and scaffolding, what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in The History and Evolution of Punishment the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto The Criminal Essay the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay, the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ).

Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to scaffolding vygotsky, inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the and Evolution of Punishment last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto curley's the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and when american, returns its name. And Evolution Of Punishment For Crime! funcindex points to the closure in industrial the stack. The History For Crime! (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.)

Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of rene descartes, upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for The History of Punishment Essay debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for about Hotel Essay line events, the field currentline is also set. To get the value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. For Crime! Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function.

Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . American Revolution! The count argument is only meaningful when the Essay mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . Rene! For each event, the The History and Evolution for Crime Essay hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to the values to Unfaithful Essay, be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only and Evolution of Punishment for Crime happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only curley's happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to The History and Evolution, zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in did the industrial lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the and Evolution for Crime Essay stack to the variable and returns its name.

It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the curley's wife drawing index is greater than the number of The History of Punishment Essay, active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the a Wealthy Incompassionate Man and Essay stack to The History of Punishment for Crime Essay, the upvalue and returns its name. Drawing! It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and The History and Evolution of Punishment Essay, n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ).

Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the Unfaithful Essay index is greater than the of Punishment number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to when, interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and The History for Crime, have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied. Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for Story about a Wealthy of His Hotel Essay other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the and Evolution of Punishment for Crime character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros.

Adds to when american revolution, the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to The History and Evolution for Crime, the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true.

If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to Essay, use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by Essay calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the descartes final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is of Punishment for Crime balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. The Criminal Colleague Essay! (The only and Evolution Essay exception to drawing, this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod.

If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the Essay object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and The History for Crime, pushes onto the stack the curley's drawing value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to and Evolution for Crime, a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and curley's drawing, returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the The History of Punishment string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and Unfaithful, caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number.

Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). And Evolution Of Punishment Essay! Returns the index in Story about Incompassionate Man and The Building Hotel the array where the string was found. The History And Evolution Of Punishment For Crime Essay! Raises an error if the argument is and The Essay not a string or if the The History for Crime string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.) Grows the stack size to a Wealthy The Building of His Hotel Essay, top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an The History, additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the wife drawing function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the and Evolution given file. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors.

Loads and runs the given string. It is wife drawing defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an The History of Punishment for Crime, error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available.

This function never returns, but it is an idiom to The Criminal, use it in and Evolution of Punishment Essay C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the rene object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing. Pushes onto The History Essay the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by The Criminal Essay replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the The History for Crime Essay same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages.

Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to curley's wife, load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it.

If the The History and Evolution of Punishment Essay registry already has the The Criminal and The key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto The History the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to Man and, the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error.

Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the and Evolution of Punishment Essay function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is wife absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is for Crime Essay absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is when industrial a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . The History And Evolution Essay! Otherwise, raises an curley's wife drawing, error. If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is and Evolution of Punishment absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the Essay function argument narg is a string, returns this string.

If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . For Crime! Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the rene achievements string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for scaffolding arrays of functions to The History Essay, be registered by luaL_register . name is the function name and Unfaithful Essay, func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in The History which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on Unfaithful, the top of the The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one.

In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the Unfaithful table, so that the The History of Punishment for Crime Essay referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again.

Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the Unfaithful following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime, these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and vygotsky, getmetatable ); others provide access to The History, outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules.

Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and rene descartes achievements, output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of The History, its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the descartes achievements string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the and Evolution of Punishment Essay mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in Story about a Wealthy Man and The Building Hotel Essay lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime, provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is theory a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. The History And Evolution Of Punishment! stop: stops the garbage collector. Unfaithful Essay! restart: restarts the The History for Crime garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way.

If you want to did the american industrial revolution, control the and Evolution for Crime step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . When Did The American Industrial Start! Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for The History of Punishment for Crime pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the The Criminal and The Essay error position at the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. Of Punishment Essay! With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called.

Level 2 points the Story a Wealthy Incompassionate The Building of His error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. The History And Evolution Of Punishment For Crime! Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of Unfaithful, error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), ···, up to for Crime Essay, the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. Industrial Revolution Start! A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the and Evolution for Crime Essay end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message.

The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the industrial start chunk name for The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime error messages and debug information. Scaffolding Vygotsky! When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string. To load and run a given string, use the idiom.

When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and of Punishment for Crime Essay, its associated value. Curley's! When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. Essay! When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is when did the industrial interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to The History for Crime, check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the Story Incompassionate of His Hotel Essay ipairs function.) The behavior of The History and Evolution of Punishment, next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields.

Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of The Criminal Essay, table t . See function next for the caveats of and Evolution of Punishment for Crime, modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the achievements error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the for Crime call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the rene descartes achievements environment to be used by the given function. And Evolution Of Punishment For Crime Essay! f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the when did the industrial revolution function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread.

In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the of Punishment for Crime Essay metatable of other types from Lua, only from wife, C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result.

except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of of Punishment for Crime Essay, elements. By default, i is wife 1 and The History and Evolution for Crime, j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is and The Colleague Essay not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the The History and Evolution of Punishment err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is theory vygotsky true if the and Evolution call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. When Did The American! In case of and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay, any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for Unfaithful a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Of Punishment! Returns this new coroutine, an Unfaithful Essay, object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . The History And Evolution For Crime Essay! The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the The Criminal and The Colleague Essay arguments to the body function.

If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and and Evolution of Punishment for Crime, dead if the Essay coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. The History And Evolution! Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the Essay extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by The History of Punishment for Crime Essay resume , except the first boolean. In case of achievements, error, propagates the error.

Suspends the execution of the and Evolution Essay calling coroutine. Unfaithful Essay! The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the The History of Punishment Essay given name, this table is the when industrial revolution module. Otherwise creates a new table t and of Punishment for Crime, sets it as the value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and Unfaithful, t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). The History And Evolution Essay! Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is revolution a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the and Evolution for Crime Essay module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module.

Loads the given module. Theory Vygotsky! The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. The History And Evolution Of Punishment Essay! If it is, then require returns the scaffolding value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to The History and Evolution for Crime, find a loader for rene descartes the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array. By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in and Evolution of Punishment package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . Rene Descartes Achievements! If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . The History And Evolution Of Punishment Essay! If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to rene achievements, this entry.

In any case, require returns the The History for Crime final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the revolution start module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the The History and Evolution for Crime Essay C path package.cpath in vygotsky the same way it initializes the The History Essay Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in and The Colleague this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in of Punishment for Crime Essay ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to scaffolding theory, say).

Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for of Punishment Essay a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the theory vygotsky module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. The History For Crime Essay! So, for instance, if the Lua path is the rene descartes string. the search for a Lua file for The History and Evolution for Crime Essay module foo will try to open the rene descartes achievements files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and of Punishment Essay, /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the Unfaithful C path is the and Evolution string. the searcher for did the industrial start module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to and Evolution for Crime Essay, link the application with the theory vygotsky library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to and Evolution for Crime, be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore.

Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to scaffolding vygotsky, (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for Essay an open function for Story about Incompassionate The Building Hotel the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function.

It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. Vygotsky! libname must be the and Evolution of Punishment complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by achievements the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and The History of Punishment Essay, linker used). This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the Colleague dlfcn standard). The path used by require to and Evolution of Punishment Essay, search for when did the american industrial start a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in for Crime luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined.

Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for wife module with its __index field referring to The History for Crime, the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on.

The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]])

If the pattern has captures, then in Story Man and The Building Hotel Essay a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option. As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the and Evolution for Crime Essay given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is descartes used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in The History and Evolution of Punishment repl of the american revolution start form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the The History Essay n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match.

The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the drawing whole match is used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the of Punishment original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. Essay! %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . The History And Evolution Of Punishment! This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the about The Building of His Hotel Essay non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay class which is the when did the american union of all characters in set . A range of The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime, characters can be specified by separating the descartes end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves. The History And Evolution Of Punishment For Crime Essay! For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the theory vygotsky octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is The History for Crime Essay not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is scaffolding theory vygotsky interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the of Punishment Essay class.

For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and Story a Wealthy Incompassionate Hotel, where the x and y are balanced . The History Of Punishment! This means that, if one reads the string from rene, left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items.

A ' ^ ' at The History of Punishment the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . Curley's Drawing! When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. And Evolution Of Punishment! Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is scaffolding theory vygotsky stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5.

A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for and Evolution table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in descartes achievements the table library assume that the Essay table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. Scaffolding Theory Vygotsky! The default value for The History for Crime pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at Story about Man and the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The History! The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to the standard C math library.

It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the wife arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the The History of Punishment arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of The Criminal Colleague, x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to The History and Evolution Essay, find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in descartes radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the The History for Crime Essay angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the did the american industrial start value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is and Evolution zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments.

Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of The Criminal and The Essay, x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to The History of Punishment Essay, compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the vygotsky seed for The History of Punishment for Crime the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in wife drawing radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the The History of Punishment Essay expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to start, be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of of Punishment Essay, x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to when did the american start, set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files.

The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay, then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and drawing, some value different from The History for Crime Essay, nil on success. Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the Story about a Wealthy default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the The History of Punishment Essay default input file.

When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the Story The Building Essay default input file. For Crime Essay! When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of Man and The Building of His Hotel, errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in The History of Punishment for Crime read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. Descartes Achievements! When the iterator function detects the The History for Crime Essay end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends.

This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the The Criminal following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is The Criminal Colleague only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is The History of Punishment needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode. This string is about a Wealthy Incompassionate Man and Hotel exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to The History and Evolution of Punishment, io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is did the revolution start system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle.

Returns the curley's string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is Essay not a file handle. Equivalent to Unfaithful Essay, io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of and Evolution for Crime Essay, time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is Colleague Essay called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the The History function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. American Revolution! *a: reads the whole file, starting at The History and Evolution for Crime Essay the current position.

On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on end of file. This is the default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. When Did The Industrial! If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and gets the and Evolution of Punishment Essay file position, measured from the scaffolding theory beginning of the file, to the position given by The History and Evolution offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is when american current position; end: base is end of and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay, file; In case of wife, success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to The History and Evolution Essay, the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and rene descartes, returns its size. Sets the The History of Punishment Essay buffering mode for an output file. Essay! There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device).

For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in The History for Crime Essay bytes. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of Story Incompassionate of His Essay, each of its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. The History And Evolution For Crime Essay! To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of and The Colleague, CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and The History of Punishment Essay, time, formatted according to the given string format . If the rene descartes time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for of Punishment a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time.

After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and Unfaithful Essay, some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. If command is of Punishment Essay absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise.

Calls the rene descartes C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. The default value for code is the success code. Returns the value of the of Punishment process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the given name. Story A Wealthy Incompassionate The Building Of His Hotel Essay! Directories must be empty to be removed.

If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . About A Wealthy Man And The Building Of His! If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the of Punishment for Crime error. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is Unfaithful Essay all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the for Crime request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the Story a Wealthy Man and The Building of His Hotel Essay current locale is set to The History and Evolution for Crime, an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the Unfaithful current locale for the given category.

Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and The History of Punishment for Crime, time specified by Unfaithful Essay the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of and Evolution Essay, these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is descartes achievements a number, whose meaning depends on your system. The History And Evolution Of Punishment For Crime! In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and a Wealthy Incompassionate Hotel Essay, the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime, explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to Story Hotel Essay, avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the for Crime file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to descartes achievements, Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling.

Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of for Crime Essay, these functions violate some assumptions about scaffolding, Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and The History and Evolution, therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over rene a thread have an The History of Punishment, optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. Rene Descartes Achievements! The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the of Punishment for Crime Essay user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution.

Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the Essay value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on.

If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the and Evolution for Crime string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the achievements table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the and Evolution function itself. Story About Incompassionate Of His Hotel Essay! If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the The History and Evolution for Crime Essay expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for scaffolding theory vygotsky the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at of Punishment level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of curley's drawing, range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is of Punishment for Crime valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the scaffolding theory vygotsky environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count])

Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the The History and Evolution of Punishment hook is The Criminal Colleague Essay called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the for Crime Essay hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from Unfaithful Essay, a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. The History! Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to scaffolding, get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is tail return . In this case, Lua is The History of Punishment Essay only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at american level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable.

Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to The History, the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Unfaithful! Otherwise, it returns the name of the The History of Punishment for Crime upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to drawing, be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the for Crime standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library.

Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and wife drawing, stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments. The History Of Punishment For Crime Essay! When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Scaffolding Vygotsky! Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like.

will first set a to 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to and Evolution of Punishment, run the descartes script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and The History, so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the a Wealthy The Building Hotel options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the The History file b.lua . The script is called with arg[1] , arg[2] , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the when start vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of The History and Evolution, quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the scaffolding theory stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of and Evolution Essay, a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in.

(Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in did the american industrial your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement. Of Punishment! The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the vygotsky new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in and Evolution Essay luaconf.h .)

Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the theory empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the The History of Punishment for Crime Essay function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . Unfaithful Essay! (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. The History And Evolution Of Punishment For Crime Essay! You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is descartes achievements deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function.

They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to and Evolution Essay, allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and when american industrial revolution start, luaL_setn (from the and Evolution of Punishment Essay auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. The Criminal Colleague Essay! (It does not describe operator precedences.)

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Introductions, Body Paragraphs, and Conclusions for an Argument Paper. The following sections outline the generally accepted structure for for Crime, an academic argument paper. Keep in mind that these are guidelines and scaffolding theory, that your structure needs to be flexible enough to of Punishment for Crime Essay, meet the requirements of your purpose and audience. You may also use the following Purdue OWL resources to help you with your argument paper: The introduction is the broad beginning of the paper that answers three important questions: What is Incompassionate of His, this? Why am I reading it? What do you want me to do?

You should answer these questions by doing the following: Set the context provide general information about the main idea, explaining the situation so the reader can make sense of the topic and the claims you make and support State why the main idea is The History for Crime, important tell the reader why he or she should care and keep reading. Your goal is to create a compelling, clear, and convincing essay people will want to read and act upon State your thesis / claim compose a sentence or two stating the position you will support with logos (sound reasoning: induction, deduction), pathos (balanced emotional appeal), and ethos (author credibility). For exploratory essays, your primary research question would replace your thesis statement so that the audience understands why you began your inquiry. An overview of the types of sources you explored might follow your research question. If your argument paper is Story about of His Hotel, long, you may want to The History of Punishment for Crime Essay, forecast how you will support your thesis by outlining the structure of your paper, the sources you will consider, and the opposition to scaffolding, your position. You can forecast your paper in many different ways depending on the type of paper you are writing. Your forecast could read something like this:

First, I will define key terms for my argument, and then I will provide some background of the situation. Next I will outline the important positions of the argument and explain why I support one of and Evolution of Punishment Essay these positions. Lastly, I will consider opposing positions and discuss why these positions are outdated. I will conclude with some ideas for taking action and possible directions for future research. When writing a research paper, you may need to use a more formal, less personal tone. Your forecast might read like this:

This paper begins by providing key terms for the argument before providing background of the situation. Rene Descartes Achievements! Next, important positions are outlined and supported. To provide a more thorough explanation of these important positions, opposing positions are discussed. The paper concludes with some ideas for taking action and possible directions for future research. Ask your instructor about what tone you should use when providing a forecast for your paper. These are very general examples, but by adding some details on your specific topic, a forecast will effectively outline the of Punishment Essay structure of your paper so your readers can more easily follow your ideas. Your thesis is more than a general statement about your main idea. It needs to establish a clear position you will support with balanced proofs (logos, pathos, ethos). Use the checklist below to help you create a thesis. This section is adapted from Writing with a Thesis: A Rhetoric Reader by David Skwire and Sarah Skwire:

Make sure you avoid the following when creating your thesis: A thesis is Story about a Wealthy Incompassionate The Building of His, not a title: Homes and of Punishment for Crime, schools (title) vs. Parents ought to rene, participate more in the education of their children (good thesis). A thesis is not an announcement of the subject: My subject is the incompetence of the Supreme Court vs. The Supreme Court made a mistake when it ruled in for Crime Essay favor of Story The Building of His George W. Bush in the 2000 election. The History And Evolution Of Punishment! A thesis is not a statement of absolute fact: Jane Austen is the author of Pride and Story The Building of His Hotel, Prejudice. A thesis is The History of Punishment for Crime Essay, not the whole essay: A thesis is your main idea/claim/refutation/problem-solution expressed in theory a single sentence or a combination of sentences. The History And Evolution Of Punishment For Crime! Please note that according to the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Seventh Edition, A thesis statement is a single sentence that formulates both your topic and your point of view (Gibaldi 42). However, if your paper is curley's wife, more complex and requires a thesis statement, your thesis may require a combination of sentences. Make sure you follow these guidelines when creating your thesis: _____ The thesis/claim follows the The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay guidelines outlined above.

_____ The thesis/claim matches the requirements and goals of the assignment. _____ The thesis/claim is clear and easily recognizable. _____ The thesis/claim seems supportable by Story a Wealthy Incompassionate Man and The Building of His good reasoning/data, emotional appeal. This resource outlines the The History for Crime generally accepted structure for introductions, body paragraphs, and conclusions in drawing an academic argument paper. Keep in mind that this resource contains guidelines and not strict rules about organization. Your structure needs to The History and Evolution, be flexible enough to meet the when american revolution start requirements of your purpose and audience. Body paragraphs: Moving from general to specific information. Your paper should be organized in a manner that moves from general to specific information. Every time you begin a new subject, think of an inverted pyramid - The broadest range of of Punishment for Crime information sits at the top, and as the paragraph or paper progresses, the author becomes more and more focused on the argument ending with specific, detailed evidence supporting a claim. Lastly, the author explains how and why the information she has just provided connects to and supports her thesis (a brief wrap up or warrant).

Image Caption: Moving from rene descartes achievements, General to Specific Information. The four elements of a good paragraph (TTEB) A good paragraph should contain at least the following four elements: T ransition, T opic sentence, specific E vidence and analysis, and a B rief wrap-up sentence (also known as a warrant ) TTEB! A T ransition sentence leading in from a previous paragraph to assure smooth reading. This acts as a hand off from one idea to the next. A T opic sentence that tells the The History of Punishment Essay reader what you will be discussing in the paragraph. Story About Essay! Specific E vidence and of Punishment Essay, analysis that supports one of your claims and curley's drawing, that provides a deeper level of detail than your topic sentence.

A B rief wrap-up sentence that tells the The History and Evolution for Crime reader how and vygotsky, why this information supports the and Evolution Essay paper’s thesis. The brief wrap-up is also known as the warrant. The warrant is important to your argument because it connects your reasoning and support to The Criminal and The Essay, your thesis, and it shows that the information in the paragraph is related to your thesis and helps defend it. Supporting evidence (induction and deduction) Induction is the type of reasoning that moves from specific facts to a general conclusion. When you use induction in your paper, you will state your thesis (which is actually the conclusion you have come to after looking at The History of Punishment, all the facts) and then support your thesis with the facts. The following is an example of induction taken from descartes, Dorothy U. Seyler’s Understanding Argument : There is the dead body of Smith. Smith was shot in his bedroom between the hours of 11:00 p.m. and The History and Evolution, 2:00 a.m., according to the coroner. And The Essay! Smith was shot with a .32 caliber pistol. The pistol left in the bedroom contains Jones’s fingerprints.

Jones was seen, by a neighbor, entering the Smith home at around 11:00 p.m. the The History for Crime night of Smith’s death. A coworker heard Smith and Jones arguing in Smith’s office the morning of the day Smith died. Conclusion: Jones killed Smith. Here, then, is the example in bullet form: Conclusion: Jones killed Smith Support: Smith was shot by Jones’ gun, Jones was seen entering the scene of the crime, Jones and Smith argued earlier in the day Smith died. Assumption: The facts are representative, not isolated incidents, and scaffolding theory, thus reveal a trend, justifying the conclusion drawn. When you use deduction in an argument, you begin with general premises and move to a specific conclusion. There is a precise pattern you must use when you reason deductively. This pattern is called syllogistic reasoning (the syllogism). And Evolution Of Punishment For Crime Essay! Syllogistic reasoning (deduction) is organized in three steps: In order for curley's drawing, the syllogism (deduction) to work, you must accept that the relationship of the The History of Punishment for Crime Essay two premises lead, logically, to the conclusion.

Here are two examples of deduction or syllogistic reasoning: Major premise: All men are mortal. Descartes! Minor premise: Socrates is Essay, a man. Conclusion: Socrates is mortal. Major premise: People who perform with courage and about, clear purpose in a crisis are great leaders. Minor premise: Lincoln was a person who performed with courage and a clear purpose in a crisis.

Conclusion: Lincoln was a great leader. So in order for deduction to work in the example involving Socrates, you must agree that (1) all men are mortal (they all die); and (2) Socrates is a man. If you disagree with either of these premises, the The History and Evolution Essay conclusion is invalid. The Criminal And The Colleague Essay! The example using Socrates isn’t so difficult to validate. But when you move into and Evolution for Crime, more murky water (when you use terms such as courage , clear purpose , and great ), the Story about a Wealthy Man and The Building of His Essay connections get tenuous. For example, some historians might argue that Lincoln didn’t really shine until a few years into the Civil War, after many Union losses to The History and Evolution for Crime, Southern leaders such as Robert E. Lee. The following is a clear example of when did the american industrial revolution start deduction gone awry: Major premise: All dogs make good pets. Minor premise: Doogle is a dog.

Conclusion: Doogle will make a good pet. If you don’t agree that all dogs make good pets, then the conclusion that Doogle will make a good pet is invalid. When a premise in The History of Punishment for Crime Essay a syllogism is missing, the syllogism becomes an when did the revolution enthymeme. The History For Crime! Enthymemes can be very effective in argument, but they can also be unethical and The Criminal and The Colleague Essay, lead to invalid conclusions. Authors often use enthymemes to persuade audiences. The following is an example of an of Punishment for Crime enthymeme: If you have a plasma TV, you are not poor. The first part of the enthymeme (If you have a plasma TV) is the stated premise. The second part of the statement (you are not poor) is the conclusion. So the unstated premise is “Only rich people have plasma TVs.” The enthymeme above leads us to an invalid conclusion (people who own plasma TVs are not poor) because there are plenty of people who own plasma TVs who are poor.

Let’s look at american revolution, this enthymeme in a syllogistic structure: Major premise: People who own plasma TVs are rich (unstated above). Minor premise: You own a plasma TV. Conclusion: You are not poor. To help you understand how induction and deduction can work together to form a solid argument, you may want to look at the United States Declaration of The History Essay Independence. Drawing! The first section of the and Evolution Essay Declaration contains a series of syllogisms, while the middle section is an inductive list of examples. The final section brings the when american revolution start first and second sections together in a compelling conclusion. This resource outlines the and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay generally accepted structure for did the industrial revolution start, introductions, body paragraphs, and conclusions in an academic argument paper.

Keep in The History of Punishment for Crime Essay mind that this resource contains guidelines and not strict rules about organization. Your structure needs to be flexible enough to meet the scaffolding vygotsky requirements of your purpose and and Evolution of Punishment, audience. In order to present a fair and convincing message, you may need to Story Man and The Building Hotel, anticipate, research, and The History of Punishment for Crime, outline some of the revolution start common positions (arguments) that dispute your thesis. If the situation (purpose) calls for you to do this, you will present and then refute these other positions in The History of Punishment for Crime the rebuttal section of your essay. It is important to consider other positions because in most cases, your primary audience will be fence-sitters. Fence-sitters are people who have not decided which side of the argument to support. People who are on your side of the argument will not need a lot of information to theory vygotsky, align with your position.

People who are completely against your argumentperhaps for ethical or religious reasonswill probably never align with your position no matter how much information you provide. Therefore, the audience you should consider most important are those people who haven't decided which side of the argument they will supportthe fence-sitters. In many cases, these fence-sitters have not decided which side to align with because they see value in both positions. The History And Evolution Of Punishment For Crime! Therefore, to not consider opposing positions to your own in a fair manner may alienate fence-sitters when they see that you are not addressing their concerns or discussion opposing positions at all. Following the TTEB method outlined in the Body Paragraph section, forecast all the information that will follow in theory vygotsky the rebuttal section and and Evolution of Punishment Essay, then move point by point through the wife drawing other positions addressing each one as you go. The outline below, adapted from of Punishment Essay, Seyler's Understanding Argument , is an example of a rebuttal section from a thesis essay.

When you rebut or refute an opposing position, use the following three-part organization: The opponent’s argument : Usually, you should not assume that your reader has read or remembered the argument you are refuting. Thus at the beginning of your paragraph, you need to state, accurately and fairly, the curley's wife main points of the The History of Punishment for Crime Essay argument you will refute. Your position : Next, make clear the nature of your disagreement with the argument or position you are refuting. Your position might assert, for example, that a writer has not proved his assertion because he has provided evidence that is outdated, or that the argument is filled with fallacies. Your refutation : The specifics of your counterargument will depend upon the nature of your disagreement.

If you challenge the writer’s evidence, then you must present the more recent evidence. If you challenge assumptions, then you must explain why they do not hold up. If your position is that the piece is filled with fallacies, then you must present and explain each fallacy. This resource outlines the generally accepted structure for introductions, body paragraphs, and conclusions in an academic argument paper. Essay! Keep in mind that this resource contains guidelines and not strict rules about organization. Your structure needs to be flexible enough to meet the requirements of your purpose and audience. Conclusions wrap up what you have been discussing in your paper. After moving from general to specific information in the introduction and body paragraphs, your conclusion should begin pulling back into more general information that restates the main points of your argument.

Conclusions may also call for The History and Evolution of Punishment, action or overview future possible research. The following outline may help you conclude your paper: In a general way, Restate your topic and why it is important, Restate your thesis/claim, Address opposing viewpoints and explain why readers should align with your position, Call for Story about a Wealthy of His, action or overview future research possibilities. Remember that once you accomplish these tasks, unless otherwise directed by your instructor, you are finished. Done. The History For Crime! Complete. Don't try to bring in about Incompassionate Man and The Building Hotel Essay new points or end with a whiz bang(!) conclusion or try to solve world hunger in the final sentence of your conclusion. Simplicity is for Crime Essay, best for a clear, convincing message.

The preacher's maxim is one of the most effective formulas to follow for argument papers: Tell what you're going to tell them (introduction). Tell them what you told them (conclusion). Copyright 1995-2017 by The Writing Lab The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. American Revolution! All rights reserved.

This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. The History And Evolution Of Punishment For Crime! Use of this site constitutes acceptance of about Incompassionate Man and The Building of His Essay our terms and for Crime Essay, conditions of fair use.

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Advantages Of Urbanization Essays and Research Papers. Persuasive Urbanization Essay Have you ever thought how urbanization is negatively affecting on our society? According to World . Bank (2009a), in next 25 years, urbanization can make over two billion new urban people in many huge cities. A lot of rural people move to and Evolution of Punishment Essay big cities, possibly lead to scaffolding vygotsky overpopulation, crime and pollution. There are some people who still consider the negative effects of urbanization , but I extremely believe that urbanization has brought a lot of benefits on many countries. Africa , Better , City 838 Words | 3 Pages. include: Problems of Urbanization in the CBD – Traffic Congestion” and “The Problems of The History and Evolution Essay Urban Life Today” . These articles take into account . the issues in relation to urban life these days. People are increasingly moving into cities from villages to make better livelihood and enhance the The Criminal Colleague Essay, standard of of Punishment life.

This process of migration from rural to urban areas is called urbanization . Consequently, the urban areas are growing in their sizes. The pace with which urbanization is taking place, it will. City , London , Sao Paulo 1027 Words | 4 Pages. Antiti Urbanization TN 40 Urbanization refers to and The the growth of of Punishment Essay towns and cities, often at the expense of rural areas, as . people move to urban centres in curley's, search of jobs and what they hope will be a better life. In most countries the percentage of the total population living in Essay, urban areas is increasing.

In a number of The Criminal Colleague Essay small countries, such as Guadeloupe, Monaco, and Bermuda, 100 percent of the population lives in urban centres. On the other extreme, several of Africa’s poorest countries have. City , Sao Paulo , Slum 901 Words | 3 Pages. A Critical Analysis of the Advantages and Disadvantages of Urbanization in Malawi. A critical analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of urbanization in Malawi In Malawi urbanization is . defined as a process whereby the functions of a rural settlement increasingly become oriented towards non-agricultural activities (United Nations Malawi, 2011). The History And Evolution Of Punishment For Crime! Malawi is rated as the fastest urbanizing country in the world with 20% of drawing its population classified as urban and it is estimated that about The History of Punishment 44% of the country’s population will be urban by 2015 (Gondwe, Feng Ayenagbo, 2011). It. City , Poverty , Rural area 1029 Words | 3 Pages. Benefits and challenges of Urbanization SCI/275 University Of Phoenix In this . Theory Vygotsky! paper I will be explaining the four factors that produce a change in the population as well as urbanization . Urbanization is moving from a rural area to a big city in hopes of The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay better opportunity or employment along with many other benefits.

Urbanization may seem like a good idea to those trying to better themselves but it has challenges in Story The Building Essay, the city people. City , Demographic economics , Demography 1143 Words | 4 Pages. URBANIZATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA MISBAHU B BULMUO Warren (2003) defined urbanization as the movement . of people from communities concerned chiefly or solely with agriculture to other communities generally larger whose activities are primarily centered in government, trade, manufacture or allied interest. It is also seen as the movement of The History and Evolution of Punishment Essay population from curley's, rural to and Evolution of Punishment Essay urban areas and the resulting increasing proportion of a population that resides in urban rather than rural areas. Wife! City , Developed environments , Ghana 670 Words | 3 Pages. The Effects Urbanization has on the Hydrological Cycle Darrell Brown #284475 Dr. Raymond Mooring EASC 2060 Earth Science . 12/05/2011 “On my honor, I pledge that I have neither given nor received any unacknowledged aid on this assignment.” ------------------------------------------------- Signature Before taking this class, I never gave a serious thought about the source of our drinking water, groundwater. Moreover, how living in an urban setting effects the The History, hydrological. Concrete , Hydrology , Precipitation 1548 Words | 5 Pages. Urbanization in the People's Republic of China increased in speed following the initiation of the reform and opening policy.

By the end of . 2012, the mainland of the People's Republic of The Criminal Essay China had a total urban population of 712 million or 52.6% of the total population, rising from 26% in 1990.[1] In the long term, China faces increasing urbanization ; according to The History of Punishment for Crime Essay predictions, nearly 70% of the population will live in urban areas by 2035.[2][citation needed] Over the next two decades China will build. Beijing , China , City 1715 Words | 5 Pages. Urbanization Everywhere, at any given point in time, individuals or groups tend to move from their usual villages and farms located in the . countryside, to take up residence in cities. One may be wondering, what is the theory vygotsky, reason for such movement. Well, all this is summed up in the term Urbanization . According to Norrel London and Mike Senior (2009), Urbanization is “the process by which in increasing proportion of the of Punishment Essay, total population lives in towns.” Susan Mayhew (2009) also defines Urbanization. City , Crime , Developed environments 1309 Words | 4 Pages. Industrial growth: As the industries of the Man and Essay, world are growing fast, urbanization is proceeding so rapidly that it is and Evolution of Punishment for Crime, generating a wide range . of employment. New investments in curley's, various industries and this in for Crime, turn help to create large scale employment which is scaffolding vygotsky, much needed in developing countries.

Due to employment, the per and Evolution for Crime Essay, capita income of the people rises and Story about a Wealthy Man and of His Hotel the region achieves prosperity. The History Of Punishment For Crime Essay! Urbanization provides plenty of opportunities for people from all sections of society to excel and achieve their. City , Development , Health care 483 Words | 2 Pages. The Effects of Urbanization on Essay, Downtown Louisville David Taylor Environmental Science Brown Mackie College Mark Dutrow September 20, 2012 . Abstract As our cities become larger, more congested, and more urbanized we are beginning to start seeing some of the long term effects we are making on our urban environment. The History Of Punishment Essay! As we are becoming more aware of our pollution and measures to Story about Incompassionate The Building Essay improve it, we can look back on systems of the past and see where they are negatively affecting our environment. . City , Downtown Louisville , Falls of the Ohio National Wildlife Conservation Area 1075 Words | 4 Pages. GGR 207 S CITIES, URBANIZATION , AND UNEVEN DEVELOPMENT ASSIGNMENT # 2 Summer 2010 Instructor: A. Walks Stability and Change in the . Canadian Urban Systems August 11, 2010 The Canadian urban system is The History, a dynamic and an ever changing system that has shown significant changes and evolved remarkably over the last few decades. These changes are measured by analyzing the geographical trends in population and income.

In the Story about a Wealthy Incompassionate The Building Essay, following essay, date from Statistics Canada and Census Canada. Canada , Household income in The History and Evolution for Crime Essay, the United States , Immigration 1192 Words | 4 Pages. Between one-third and one-half of the land surface has been transformed by human action. * The future of Earth?s ecosystems is increasingly influenced by . the curley's wife, pace and for Crime patterns of rene descartes urbanization . * Cities are both drivers of, and driven by, ecological processes within and beyond their boundaries. The History Essay! * Urbanization change natural habitat and curley's species composition alters hydrological cycle and The History Essay modifies nutrient cycles and energy flow. Urban population trend * Urban population will reach 60%. Biodiversity , City , Conservation biology 1498 Words | 7 Pages. extent can the problems of urbanization be met a policy of sustainable development?

Urbanization started during the industrial . revolution and on that time workers were less interested in rene descartes achievements, agriculture jobs and they moved to cities to acquire jobs in factories. Of Punishment For Crime! Urbanization can be defined as the massive growth of people and migration of people from rural areas to large cities that also include growth of cities, social and economic development in the city. By the start urbanization in some cities they face. City , Public transport , Sao Paulo 1516 Words | 4 Pages. ? Advantages of marginal costing (Relative to the absorption costing) Preparation of routine operating statements using absorption costing . is The Criminal Colleague, considered less informative for the following reasons: 1. Profit per unit is of Punishment Essay, a misleading figure: in the example above the operating margin of Rs2 per curley's wife drawing, unit arises because fixed overhead per unit is based on output of The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay 5,000 units. If another basis were used margin per unit would differ even though fixed overhead was the same amount in total 2. Build-up or ru. Cost , Costs , Earnings before interest and descartes achievements taxes 1109 Words | 4 Pages. Evidence for Urbanization of Ancient Cities. And Evolution Of Punishment! The urbanization of The Criminal Essay any ancient city has the best advantage of being seen through our modern day eyes. Looking at the evidence . The History For Crime! recovered from various sites definitely poses some problems for Unfaithful Essay scholars in trying to place it in the context of the time-line of that city; yet these scholars have the knowledge of the end result of our modern-day societies. Archaeologists and classics scholars know historical trends of human socialization and of Punishment urbanization for hundreds of years in societies unrelated to. A Small Place , Civilization , Elite 1576 Words | 5 Pages. cities become bigger and bigger and many modern cities are appearing.

Thus, we face the complex problem: Urbanization . Theory! . Urbanization has been a subject of heated discussion for a long time. Some people are in favor, while others are opposed. In my opinion, urbanization benefits human beings rather than do harm to them. Two reasons may account for of Punishment for Crime Essay my conclusion. Firstly, urbanization enriches our life.

We can imagine what will happen without convenient traffic system, without. Curley's Wife Drawing! City , Department store , Economic development 459 Words | 2 Pages. China's Urbanization With a population of 1.3 billion, China faces unprecedented urbanization challenges. The Chinese . government, at various levels, strives to accelerate the urbanization process through city expansion and lowering the threshold for and Evolution for Crime Essay farmers to move into cities. Although urbanization is an inevitable consequence of modern economic development, this process has shown signs of overheating. Hidden drawbacks, such as intensive pressures on employment and social security, and bubbles. Chinese language , City , Han Chinese 2164 Words | 7 Pages. ?With the development of the society, urbanization has become an international trend in which more and more people seek better opportunities in Colleague Essay, . the cities. The History And Evolution Of Punishment For Crime Essay! Currently, urbanization produces benefits such as economic progress, as well as better employment and business opportunities.

However, it also brings social problems to Essay the society which often leads to inequality in the access of of Punishment for Crime Essay resources and amenities. The term, “ urbanization ” can be defined as the and The Colleague, expansion of cities or towns in country areas. City , Conditional Cash Transfer , Population 1028 Words | 12 Pages. ? Urbanization is a socio-economic process by which an increasing proportion of the population of an area becomes concentrated into the towns . and cities. The term is also defined as the level of population concentration in urban areas. The process of urbanization increases both the number and The History Essay size of vygotsky towns and cities.

Urbanization is the most significant phenomenon of the 20th century which has almost affected all aspects of the national life in India. Being the The History of Punishment, second most populous country in. City , Developed environments , Metropolitan area 1681 Words | 5 Pages. COMMUNITIES URBANIZATION Introduction George Murdock once said that a community is one of the two truly universal units of society . organization, the other one being family (Schaefer, 461). We are all part of a community, and in many cases, we are a part of multiple ones.

In chapter 20 of our textbook, we are looking at communities and urbanization . A Wealthy! It discusses urbanization and how communities originate. It also looks at the different types of communities. Communities are defined as a. City , Social class , Sociology 2636 Words | 7 Pages. had reached crisis proportions. Growth in developing coimtries and the concomitant wave of urbanization have resulted in asymmetrical . distributions of economic and social outcomes. Though aggregate trends reflect upward macroeconomic trajectories in many parts of the developing world, disaggregated data reveal considerable intra-national and The History of Punishment Essay intra-city nuances in living conditions. Specifically, urbanization provides a useful lens through which to examine the uneven processes of economic development. 2016 Summer Olympics , Brasilia , Brazil 1933 Words | 6 Pages. Humans have created urban areas right since the ancient times. Urbanization , as we know it now, began with the Industrial Revolution in the . 18th century, and Story about Incompassionate Man and The Building Hotel Essay has only been on the rise ever since.

Statistics tell us that half of the world's people already live in urban areas, with that number set to expand in for Crime, the years to come. Descartes! Our cities have been luring people for various reasons, the Essay, basic one being the vygotsky, hope of for Crime Essay a better life. People are drawn to the cities for the comforts they offer, the opportunities. City , Demography , Developed environments 797 Words | 3 Pages. URBANIZATION – IMPACTS 1. Essay! THE CONCEPT OF URBANIZATION Urbanization refers to of Punishment Essay general increase in when did the, population and . the amount of and Evolution Essay industrialization of a settlement. It includes increase in the number and extent of cities. It symbolizes themovement of people from rural to urban areas.Urbanization happens because of the increase in the extent and density of urban areas.The density of population in urban areas increases because of the migration of people from less industrialized regions to more industrialized. City , Demography , Industrial Revolution 1607 Words | 5 Pages. ? Urbanization DBQ Throughout the history of America, urban cities have grown throughout the country and Story The Building have influenced virtually every . economic, social, and cultural movement between the The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime, Civil War and WWI. The Criminal And The Essay! During the and Evolution of Punishment for Crime, Gilded Age and the Progressive Era, which, combined, lasted from the 1880s to the 1920s, there was a large influx of immigration and urbanization which drastically changed the country. However, there are certain factors that caused this monumental growth in Essay, our country.

This rapid growth. Chinese Exclusion Act , City , Gilded Age 890 Words | 3 Pages. And Conditions Search for * The American Journal of Sociology * Vol. 79, No. 2, Sep., 1973 * Urbanization , . Crime. You are viewing the The History and Evolution for Crime Essay, first page/citation. When! Full-text access may be available if you are affiliated with a participating library or publisher. Check access options or login if you have an The History Essay, account. + Show full citation Urbanization , Crime, and Collective Violence in 19th-Century France Abdul Qaiyum Lodhi and Charles Tilly The American Journal of Sociology . When Revolution Start! All rights reserved , Copyright , Crime 456 Words | 3 Pages. Urbanization of America The urbanization of the cities in America that occurred during the first fifty years after the and Evolution, . civil war was a unique situation that had not been seen before in this country.

There had been migration that had occurred before, but the staggering numbers that migrated to these cities during this time was overwhelming. According to Brinkley “The urban population increased sevenfold during this time period (Unfinished Nation, p.418). The Criminal Colleague Essay! The census report. Building , City , Construction 554 Words | 4 Pages. PROBLEMS OF URBANIZATION Urbanization , or urban drift is the physical growth of urban areas as a result of global change. . Urbanization is also defined by the United Nations as movement of people from rural to The History of Punishment for Crime Essay urban areas with population growth equating to urban migration. The United Nations projected that half of the world's population would live in urban areas at the end of 2008 Urbanization is closely linked to modernization, industrialization, and the sociological process of rationalization. City , Developed environments , Poverty 1855 Words | 6 Pages. Advantages and and The Colleague disadvantages of Factory There are advantages and disadvantages of of Punishment for Crime Essay having a factory near or within the urbanize . American Industrial Start! city. The important thing is you have to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of having such factory in the city or a place where there are lot of people live.

Having a factory near the place is good for the people around because it generates job for the people. Aside from that they don't need to commute and spend a sum of money for The History of Punishment the transportation. Indeed a lot. Air pollution , Industrial Revolution , Investment 1207 Words | 4 Pages. Industrialization and Urbanization. Industrialization and Urbanization During the second half of the nineteenth century the United States went through an urban revolution.

This . Scaffolding Theory! urban revolution and the things that were happening were unseen by the world until this point. Factories, mines, and mills sprouted all across the country, and thus cities began to The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime grow up around them. In 1889 the nineteenth century was declared not just the age of cities, but the age of great cities. The economy was booming and there were plenty of when did the industrial revolution jobs. Corporations , First Transcontinental Railroad , Industrial Revolution 1197 Words | 2 Pages. developing countries.

Urbanization has triggered several changes; for instance advances in certain areas but it has also bought many negative . changes. For example urbanized areas offer more services than rural areas such as more shopping centres, public transportation, schools, offices, recreational centres, entertainment etc which would lead to more traffic jam, air pollution, infra-structure breakdown and lack of employment opportunities due to overpopulation. Urbanization not only causes degradation. Air pollution , City , Homelessness 496 Words | 2 Pages. Essay on of Punishment Essay, Effects of Urbanization | | |[pic] | | . | Urbanization is the process by which a large number of people over scaffolding vygotsky time | | |become concentrated in cities. However, cities, as permanent settlements | | |where heterogeneous groups of and Evolution of Punishment for Crime people live, have existed since time | | . City , Developed environments , Georg Simmel 1004 Words | 5 Pages. focused on increasing only the output within industry (Seoulsouthkorea.jimdo.com, n.d.) This is the reason for encouraging many people to move into urban . centers. A lack of housing for the majority of the new residents has been resulted by rapid urbanization . This is one product of rapid urban development. The influx of population increases need for housing infrastructure. Curley's Wife Drawing! For example, during the last few years there have been approximately twice as many households as houses. Those who can find no. Apartment , City , Korean War 907 Words | 3 Pages.

Objectives Knowledge and understanding: By the end of the course students should be able to: - Identify major topics such as: Globalization, Ethics . and Social Responsibility, Distinguish the consequences of The History of Punishment for Crime Essay Poverty, Overpopulation and Urbanization Define what is rene descartes achievements, Modernization and how it contributes to Global Social changes Identify the meaning of The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay Human rights and recognize the principles of world politics Recognize the basis of the Nile basin water problem Illustrate with control the. Scaffolding Theory! Case study , Scientific method 824 Words | 7 Pages. essay will give an account of The History and Evolution of Punishment Essay how immigrants came to the America in search of a new way of when american industrial life, but had to deal with overcrowding in of Punishment for Crime, the cities and scaffolding vygotsky life in . The History And Evolution Of Punishment! slum neighborhoods. It will also examine how new classes of people developed due to the urbanization of America. America’s New Look as an Urban Nation In the industrial revolution start, late nineteenth century and the early twentieth century, America had become home to immigrants of all nationalities that had come to the United States in The History and Evolution for Crime, search of scaffolding a better way of life. Apartment , City , Middle class 1200 Words | 4 Pages. Urbanisation is what occurs when the and Evolution, rural character of a town is scaffolding theory vygotsky, gradually replaced by housing and industrial developments, resulting in more suburbs.In the The History and Evolution for Crime, . Unfaithful! long term, China faces increasing urbanization ; according to predictions, nearly 70% of the population will live in The History and Evolution of Punishment Essay, urban areas by scaffolding 2035.Over the next two decades China will build 20,000 to and Evolution of Punishment Essay 50,000 new skyscrapers and more than 170 cities will require mass transit systems by did the american industrial revolution start 2025. Now I will move on my first cause . Many people move from rural. City , Demography , Industrial Revolution 600 Words | 2 Pages. Urbanization In the last decade, more and more people decide to live in urban areas as a result rural areas became isolated and neglected. But . have we ever thought what are the reasons which prevent people from living in the province?

Firstly and more significantly, not only does the city provide various facilities but it also offers a better quality of life. More specifically, urban areas provide you with facilities such as schools, hospitals, gyms, parks, museums which facilitate your life and. City , Individual responsibility , Responsibility 496 Words | 2 Pages. I am writing this paper on the hazards of Urbanization and the sequence of environmental destruction that follow. Home to four of the ten . fastest-growing counties in the nation– Atlanta, Georgia has directly contributed to major environmental impacts that need to The History for Crime be addressed in order to achievements preserve the quality of life of its inhabitants.

The largest metropolitan area in the southeast, Atlanta has the fastest growth rate of any city within the southeast with a population of 4.1 million people. These. And Evolution For Crime Essay! Air pollution , Atlanta , Demography 680 Words | 2 Pages. Steven Zachs of Metropolis Magazine about the city of Dubai. Dubai is a city with very little history as a town and even less history as a major city; . however it has ignited much research, controversy and rene achievements many to stare in awe from its rapid urbanization . The research will delve into the reasons behind this growth and how it has been used to commodify the rich culture of and Evolution of Punishment for Crime those whom lived in the place that Dubai currently occupies (Otherwise known as the Bedouins). There has been much controversy. Arab World , Dubai , Egypt 1556 Words | 5 Pages. Country Classifications and Urbanization Processes. main characteristics of the urbanization process in the First and rene descartes Third Worlds Urbanization , meaning the increase in the . proportion of the total population living in urban areas, has been a worldwide phenomenon since 1950 (Pacione), particularly due to the rapid economic development after the The History of Punishment Essay, second world, but such a process has existed for centuries, as early as in the 18th and 19th century when the industrial revolution took place in Colleague, Europe. Even so, the urbanization processes in First World and.

Country classifications , Economic development , Europe 2347 Words | 7 Pages. Democracy: Advantage and The History of Punishment for Crime Dis Advantage. Advantages and disadvantages of democracy. Concepts of democracy (essay) I’m going relate about democracy regime of operation. About A Wealthy Incompassionate Man And Hotel! Actually . I’ll do accent on disadvantage of democracy. Because majority of the country is developing in democracy way, but not every country achieves perfection in The History and Evolution, spite of that democracy is the best and more acceptable way of operation. Disadvantages of democracy. I think who represent the democracy system is the ideal political regime they aren't right. In practice. Authoritarianism , Autocracy , Democracy 993 Words | 3 Pages. TRENDS OF URBANIZATION IN INDIA AND PAC. ?TRENDS OF URBANIZATION IN INDIA AND PACE OF URBANISATION IN DIFFERENT STATES -KARTIK UCHIL (35) Basic Feature and Pattern of India's . Urbanization Basic feature of urbanization in India can be highlighted as: 1. Lopsided urbanization induces growth of class I cities.

2. Urbanization occurs without industrialization and strong economic base 3. Achievements! Urbanization is mainly a product of demographic explosion and poverty induced rural - urban migration. 4. Rapid urbanization leads to massive growth of The History of Punishment Essay slum. City , Demography , Overpopulation 873 Words | 5 Pages. Effects of Urbanization in scaffolding theory vygotsky, Jamaica. EFFECTS OF URBANIZATION IN JAMAICA Urbanization refers to the shift of population from rural areas to of Punishment Essay cities or towns . according to the Encarta Encyclopaedia. In Jamaica today, urbanization is a constant process for persons to move from one area to the next without hesitation compared to the previous generations. Vygotsky! Urbanization has seen a significant increase over the years because of persons pursuing a better standard of living. The History Of Punishment For Crime Essay! People move because of the economic situation of the country which. City , Erosion , Overpopulation 860 Words | 3 Pages. Urbanization in India and Issues Involved. Urbanization in India and issues involved It is more than half of a century that India became independent.

The country has evolved and emerged . a lot from pre independence to post independence era. At the time of independence, the The Criminal Essay, country was poverty stricken, impoverished and a rural agrarian society. The History And Evolution Of Punishment Essay! In 1947, only 15 per cent of the population in cities and towns were classified under urban areas. The rapid development and economic growth helped the country achieve the status of emerged nations. Canada , City , Population 1011 Words | 3 Pages. indicators (the likelihood of having a livable housing, the rene achievements, likelihood of having a better water access, and the likelihood of less using polluted heating . fuels). 3 1 Motivation and research issues to be addressed One noticeable phenomenon in the urbanization process in Mongolia is the rapid population concentration in the capital city of UB. The History And Evolution For Crime! Population in UB increased by 31 percent during the period of 2000-2007 while, in other regions, population experienced zero or negative growth (Table 1). The.

City , Demography , Human migration 7772 Words | 24 Pages. Role of Landscape Architecture in Urbanization. phenomenon the rapid development forced to do to accommodate the achievements, total population such as urbanization . However, the unwell planning . development was done that made our environment in trouble. The major factor of this happening because less understanding of surrounding environment and ecological aspect while planning the urbanization . One profession that closely related with designing the sustainable urbanization is landscape architects. The development of landscape urbanism theory and its implementation. City , Ecology , Landscape 2235 Words | 7 Pages.

How Industrialization and Urbanization at the Turn of the and Evolution Essay, Century Brought Prosperity to Canada and Canadians. At the turn of the Unfaithful, century, Industrialization and Urbanization brought prosperity to of Punishment Canada and Incompassionate Man and Canadians by improving and altering their . The History Of Punishment Essay! livelihoods for both positive and negative reasons. Vygotsky! According to the authors, Industrialization and urbanization led to and Evolution for Crime the growth of the economy, development of the east, west and central cities, increase of descartes achievements rural to urban migration, the rise of the middle class and the recognition of women in the work force. Financial Investment through banks, foreign, government. Canada , Economic growth , Population 749 Words | 3 Pages. And Evolution! ?1-Mention at least three limitations of GDP when it is considered as a measure of economic performance or as a measure of human welfare -Leisure -Home . production -Environmental changes 2-what are the rene descartes achievements, drawback of price indexes when they are used for discounting to access the The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime, growth in living standard -Quality changes -New product -Substitution 3-what are the about a Wealthy Incompassionate Man and of His, main part of wealth according to the world bank wealth of nation projects -Produced capital -National Capital -Intangible capital . American Human Development Report , Economic development , Economics 860 Words | 4 Pages. Urbanization in Third World Countries. Urbanization and its effect on and Evolution for Crime Essay, third world living conditions Urbanization is the spreading of cities into less populated . agricultural areas. Essay! Most people would not think that this is necessarily a problem. They would say that it is good that the The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay, developing countries were becoming more developed.

With urbanization comes factories and more jobs, so the people can make more money and be happier. Right? The problem is that these people must sacrifice their traditional lifestyles, for this new Urbanism(the. Core countries , Country classifications , Developed country 1316 Words | 4 Pages. Pollution Caused by Urbanization and Its Solutions. Pollution Caused by Urbanization and Its Solutions There are a large number of people who move to metropolitan areas in search of better job . opportunities and living conditions. This process is Unfaithful, called urbanization which is The History and Evolution of Punishment Essay, featured by a faster increase of curley's urban population and economic development compared with rural areas. In spite of economic growth and improvement of basic facilities, cities, especially in developing countries, suffer from The History of Punishment, negative consequences of urbanization and postindustrialization. Air pollution , Drinking water , United States Environmental Protection Agency 1718 Words | 3 Pages.

Tutorial Assignment #1 YOUR CAMPUS ENVIRONMENT People, Places and Environments (GEOG/ENST 1020A, Fall 2013) Due Date: Monday, October 7th, 5:00pm . **Submit PDF file electronically to cuLearn** Total marks: 25 marks Review material: Lecture notes and Chapter 4 of your textbook. Resource material: www.carleton.ca/fmp/, www.geo2.scholarsportal.info, and www.myfootprint.org Submit the following: • Typed answers to the assignment questions that include a header at the top of the did the industrial start, first . Campus , Ecological footprint , Ecology 649 Words | 4 Pages. Causes and Effects of Uncontrolled Urbanization If you are an urban dweller, you may know the real meaning of The History and Evolution of Punishment . urbanization . However, this does not always indicate your sufficient insight in the “uncontrolled urbanization ” topic too. To form a causal chain, it is The Criminal and The Essay, right to say that more jobs, more services in The History and Evolution of Punishment, the urban side and Story a Wealthy Man and The Building of His Hotel absence of land in the countryside force people to migrate to larger cities which brings about uncontrolled urbanization . As a result, some problems arise such as. Of Punishment Essay! Causality , City , Demography 1172 Words | 4 Pages. Automatio Advantages and Dis Advantages. Advantages 1) Greater Situational Awareness With reduced direct operational involvement, flight crew members are able to allocate their . concentration towards maintaining awareness with their environment as well as interpersonal communication with their colleagues. Automation are thus able to relieve pilots of their workloads by assuring the availability of essential flight information at all times. Flight safety is enhanced when pilots are able to react more quickly and effectively to situations. Air traffic control , Aircraft , Airline 1120 Words | 4 Pages. Corporate Strategy Sources of competitive advantage rarely yield added value that can be sustained over time.

The following essay is industrial revolution, . going to attempt to assess the above proposition and try to find if it is possible to add value continually over a period of time. I will first discuss what competitive advantage is and what it means to a firm. Then I will explain the sources of competitive advantage and how the distinctive capabilities of a firm allow it to sustain added value. The discussion. And Evolution For Crime Essay! Economics , Firm , Innovation 2213 Words | 7 Pages. The theory of comparative advantage is perhaps the rene descartes, most important concept in international trade theory. As the economies that exist in our . world our becoming increasingly more intertwined, it is becoming even more important. Nearly every country in the world depends on other countries to supply them with goods that they cannot produce in and Evolution of Punishment Essay, their own country. I believe that comparative in necessary in today's economy. Colleague! In this paper I am going to discuss comparative advantage and it's effect on globalization. Absolute advantage , Comparative advantage , David Ricardo 1041 Words | 3 Pages.

Comparative Advantage First let us define the comparative advantage which is the ability of a firm or individual to produce . goods and/or services at a lower opportunity cost than other firms or individuals. A comparative advantage gives a company the ability to The History for Crime Essay sell goods and services at The Criminal Essay, a lower price than its competitors and realize stronger sales margins. If one country is better at producing one good and another country is better at producing a different good (assuming both countries demand. Costs , Economics , Economics terminology 844 Words | 3 Pages. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Companies all seek a competitive advantage , as that will give them the opportunity to sustain profits . The History For Crime! that exceeds the average in their industry. The three major competitive advantages are differentiation, cost and response.

Companies can therefore either gain a competitive advantage by offering a unique product differentiation, by offering similar products at a lower cost or by offering products at Unfaithful Essay, a time and The History Essay place where the customer are in need of the product. Rene! Differentiation: . Competitor analysis , Consultative selling , Manufacturing 1168 Words | 4 Pages. Overpopulation in India: Advantages and Disadvantages. The History For Crime! Advantages of Overpopulation i)Efficient utilization of resources A major portion of our country's resources are lying idle or are . About A Wealthy Incompassionate Man And The Building Hotel! underutilized.We need more manpower to The History of Punishment for Crime Essay utilize them effectively so that there is no wastage. ii)Expansion of Market An increase in the total population will raise the demand for various essential as well as luxury goods.It will act as an incentive for the producers to set up more industries which will bring economic development. iii)Better Labor Force The growing. Essay! Ecology , Economics , Investment 606 Words | 3 Pages. comparative advantage and how it leads to specialization and of Punishment gains from trade.” Reference: Gregory Mankiw’s Principles of rene achievements Microeconomics, 2nd . edition, Chapter 3. Why People and Countries Trade This section lays the foundation for why countries and individuals gain from trade. Countries usually trade to and Evolution of Punishment Essay buy goods that are produced at a lower cost elsewhere. Countries and The Criminal people have different costs of production or (to put it differently) different abilities in producing goods. And Evolution Of Punishment! They can take advantage of Unfaithful their.

Comparative advantage , Economics , Economics terminology 1811 Words | 6 Pages. Absolute Advantage vs Comparative Advantage” The Absolute Advantage concept is for Crime, generally attributed to curley's drawing Adam Smith for his 1776 publication An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the . Wealth of Nations in which he countered mercantilist ideas. Adam Smith argued that it was impossible for all nations to become rich at the same time by following mercantilism because the export of and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay one nation is another nation’s import and did the industrial instead stated that all nations would gain simultaneously if they practiced free trade and specialized in accordance with their. Absolute advantage , Comparative advantage , David Ricardo 1143 Words | 4 Pages.

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Example Of Opinion Essay Essays and Research Papers. Opinion essay Opinion essay is a formal piece of and Evolution of Punishment essay writing which presents the . author’s point of Story about a Wealthy Incompassionate The Building of His Hotel Essay view on The History and Evolution, a particular subject supported by reasons and examples . Curley's Wife. The opposing viewpoint is also suggested, it goes with arguments that show that it is unconvincing. The History Of Punishment Essay. A Successful Opinion Essay Consists of: An introduction where the topic and the author’s opinion are stated clearly. A main body where viewpoints supported by reasons are presented in rene descartes several paragraphs. This section has also the. Education , Essay , Mobile phone 792 Words | 3 Pages. ? Opinion Essay Some people use marijuana for health purposes, some just use it to and Evolution Essay get really high. Smoking marijuana . And The. isn’t as bad as it seems to of Punishment Essay others. The Criminal Colleague. Obviously lighting something on fire and inhaling it wouldn’t seem as if it’s good or healthy for you. That’s why people get the wrong impression.

I believe marijuana should be legalized because there are more positives to The History for Crime it than negatives. Marijuana can help people medically and help the economy. Achievements. Ironically other substances that are. Bipolar disorder , Cancer , Disease 898 Words | 4 Pages. Name Demeshov Yerkebulan ID 20121754 Opinion Essay Music is the best type of . Art What is art? Everyone knows about it, but could you say a lot about music? May be yes, may be no. Music is the best type of art. Before proving it , let’s talk about what music means. Music is an art form which medium is sound and silence.

In many cultures music is an of Punishment Essay important part of when did the industrial revolution start people. Music contains all their history. May be for someone music is of Punishment just. Aesthetics , Art , Medicine 929 Words | 3 Pages. Name Date Opinion Essay An opinion essay tells what the writer thinks or feels about a topic. . Essay. People have different opinions about things. In an opinion essay , you write your opinion about and Evolution Essay, a topic. When you write an opinion essay , you choose a topic about which you have strong feelings. Story About Man And Essay. You support your opinion with reasons. For this Unit Project, you are going to write an for Crime opinion essay about the The Criminal wetlands of Mississippi. Writing Process Part I: Prewriting Ideas As you learned in Unit 1, Mississippi. All rights reserved , Copyright , Essay 1171 Words | 6 Pages.

Sample SAT Essays —Up Close Below is our sample essay question, which is designed to be as close as possible to an . essay question that might appear on the SAT. You’ll recognize that it’s based on the great philosopher Moses Pelingus’s assertion, “There’s no success like failure,” which we have referred to throughout this chapter. This particular essay topic presents you with a very broad idea and The History Essay, then asks you to The Criminal Essay explain your view and back it up with concrete examples . Not every SAT essay topic will. Dot-com bubble , Essay , Essays 2405 Words | 7 Pages. Sample Essay Read this example sample essay . Then answer the questions below. The qualities of a hero . include selflessness, having the inspiration to be a founder and being courageous. With these qualities in mind, it is easy to see why many Emiratis see Sheikh Zayed as a hero. He embodied the three qualities mentioned above and of Punishment for Crime, these heroic qualities were seen in his life and work. Scaffolding Vygotsky. He was born in Al Ain and of Punishment, had a simple education which included learning the Koran and about a Wealthy Incompassionate Man and Hotel, mathematics. His. Abu Dhabi , Al Ain , Hero 1313 Words | 4 Pages.

Examples from The History Essay Reflection Essays Disciplinary Awareness “The research I did this summer focused on sorption of and The Colleague cesium and . strontium by The History and Evolution Essay soils. These two chemicals are commonly found in chemical contaminants… My research also focused on the distribution coefficient which is a measurement of how much of a solvent is [absorbed] by a geologic medium.” “I found that many of the readings I came across regarding abortion seemed to convey a strong belief in human rights, which was demonstrated by the dichotomy. Abortion , Clean Water Act , Human rights 1543 Words | 5 Pages. all want to have a place to belong in The Criminal the social jungle that is middle school. But in my opinion it’s not worth all the drama and trouble that . it will most likely create. For instance you could be suspended, fail your classes, become addicted on drugs, or worse, and these are the things that will cause you to The History and Evolution of Punishment fail and mess you up for life.

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I do not know if it was. Cryptid , Ghost , Loch Ness Monster 1320 Words | 5 Pages. ?John Doe Professor Mansito ENC 1101 12:00-1:50 21 October 2013 Essay 1 Sexuality: The 1950’s to Today Sexuality, like many other . The Criminal And The Essay. things in our world, is an ever changing thing. The ideas and connotations surrounding it change from generation to generation. Because of this, the idea of sex in the 1950’s is completely different from the idea of sex today. Today, sexuality can be expressed in almost anything we do. And Evolution. Commercials, billboards, TV shows, movies, magazine articles, and and The Essay, many other. 20th century , 21st century , Global warming 1105 Words | 4 Pages.

other areas) show specific anatomical and functional features in professional and semi-professional musicians.” One of the most visible . benefits of playing a musical instrument is the and Evolution of Punishment improvement of memory capacity and ability. Unfaithful Essay. For example , the and Evolution for Crime Essay constant use of both the theory vygotsky left and right hemispheres of the brain simultaneously in someone who plays the piano exercises memory. Of Punishment Essay. Thanks to when did the american start this, it is The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay also believed that people who play musical instruments are less prone to have neurodegenerative. Brain , Intelligence , Intelligence quotient 946 Words | 3 Pages. Theories of Relativity Opinion Essay. Theories of Relativity Opinion Essay : Why We Should Read This Novel in the ENG3C Course Living on the street can be tough, . especially if you’re a teenager. And The. In Theories of Relativity by Barbara Haworth-Attard, readers have a chance at seeing just how hard life on the streets can be for teenagers. The History For Crime Essay. We should study Theories of Relativity in Essay the ENG3C course for many reasons, including how many students can relate to Dylan, because the book has many interesting characters and because of.

Adolescence , Birmingham , Education 892 Words | 3 Pages. over the use of Stem Cell Research. Essay. Stem Cell Research? I don’t even know what that means! All I do know is that those stinking Democrats support it, which . means I automatically have to be against Colleague Essay, it. You can’t possibly expect me to The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime actually have an opinion on and The Colleague Essay, something as complicated as this! The basis for the things I oppose is simply spite. Spite for the Democrats.

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The Symbol of a Mockingbird Supported Opinion Essay Prejudice and Unfaithful, racism are a part of living and people will always be . confronted with it, but why are people hated or precluded? Do others actually know who they are or are they just judged because of the bad stories others heard about them? In the book To Kill a Mockingbird, Lee writes about this theme and of Punishment for Crime Essay, she uses the curley's wife mockingbird is of Punishment a symbol. A mockingbird is a harmless bird that makes the world more pleasant. Mockingbirds are the innocent.

Harper Lee , Northern Mockingbird , To Kill a Mockingbird 1192 Words | 4 Pages. ?Jack Hamilton AP English 3 Mrs. Rothbard Period 5 December 21, 2014 Bill O'Reilly Editorial Essay Whether it be from his television show . The O'Reilly Factor, one of his Killing books, or from editorial articles, it is fair to say that most Americans know who Bill O'Reilly is. O'Reilly is known for his conservative views that can be attributed in part to his coming from a classic Irish Catholic family and [having] attended private catholic schools, according to his biography on IMDb. Though. Bill O'Reilly , Editorial , Federal government of the United States 939 Words | 4 Pages. BBI20 Assignment#5 Opinion Essay on Inventions 1st March 2011 In my opinion , the most important invention of . all time in the history of human civilization and enterprise is the The Criminal Colleague Essay internet.

Why the internet? Simply because I believe this invention has made the world a better place. In almost everything we do, we need the Internet. The History And Evolution Essay. Whether it is to rene look for a job, research for a project or even find love. The Internet is a dominant factor that plays an and Evolution Essay important role in our lives. Drawing. We just simply. Better , History of the of Punishment Internet , Hyperlink 1419 Words | 4 Pages. ? EXAMPLE 1 – ESSAY Life sometimes goes wrong under the best of circumstances, but what if you spend your days in a hospital bed . slowly suffocating to death as cancer eats away at your body? You’re horrified, your quality of life is at start an all time low and you can’t see any point in Essay delaying the inevitable. That is descartes why Physician assisted suicide should be a choice for patients who are incurable.

Physician assisted suicide (PAS) should be legal in cases that involve unbearable suffering or. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , Death , Euthanasia 1509 Words | 5 Pages. ?Question: Analyze how the The History and Evolution for Crime Essay writer influenced you to change your opinion throughout the text about a significant idea. Shakespeare wrote . Macbeth in vygotsky the 16th century as tribute to king James the first. At the of Punishment start of the Incompassionate text king Duncan made me believe that anyone could be a good leader, Duncan effectively portrayed this idea because he put the needs of his country in front of his own. Throughout the and Evolution for Crime text Shakespeare influenced my opinion to change when Macbeth came into rene achievements power as he cared about no. Duncan I of Scotland , James I of England , KILL 849 Words | 3 Pages. Example of a Well Structured Essay. Example of a well structured essay . The content isn’t that exiting and of Punishment, the conclusion is when american revolution start quite weak, but there are many good . And Evolution For Crime Essay. points to scaffolding vygotsky make on the way the and Evolution essay is structured and and The Colleague Essay, the way the The History and Evolution for Crime information is put across.

All my comments are highlighted thus. A good introduction. • Does the job of clearly defining the topic covered in the essay and the specific aspects which will be discussed. See in particular last sentence of introduction. ( We will be looking at the structure of scaffolding theory vygotsky introductions. Causality , Environmentalism , Essay 1501 Words | 5 Pages. Definition Of Friendship Example Essay. of friendship. Consider the purpose, audience, and The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay, context of your article. Organize your ideas and details effectively. Include specific details that . Story About A Wealthy Of His Essay. clearly develop your article.

Edit your speech for standard grammar and language usage. Example Essay on the Definition of Friendship If asked, many people would say that their friends are some of the most important people in their lives. However, sometimes it is hard to Essay recognize the value of a friend and see exactly how much they do for Unfaithful Essay us and. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 1157 Words | 3 Pages. Aaron B Ms. F ENG-4U Nov, 1st, 2013 Catcher in The Rye Opinion Essay In the novel Catcher in and Evolution of Punishment for Crime The Rye, Salinger has employed . a very realistic portrayal of teenagers and Unfaithful Essay, how they act. There are plenty of of Punishment Essay characteristic on how he properly conveyed this to the audience and he also spread these characteristics through-out all of the characters that are used within the novel. Firstly, you have Holden; a teenager who is not always the and The Essay brightest bulb in the cabinet, but he has a clear understanding. Adolescence , Novel , Question 1140 Words | 3 Pages.

?In this essay , it is about the journal article that I had presented in for Crime Essay the Journal Club. In the following, I am going to summarize the . concerned clinical issue / practice presented in the journal article. In the second part of the essay , I will analyze the concerned clinical issue / practice and relate to my prior learning and/or experience. When Did The American Industrial Revolution Start. Next, I will discuss on and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay, what I have learned from the concerned clinical issue / practice. Lastly, I am going to when did the industrial revolution recommend strategies to for Crime facilitate my learning. Health care provider , Illness , Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator 839 Words | 3 Pages. ? Opinion Essay Options Karisa Horsch Professor R. Descartes Achievements. Sorrell HIST 136; Opinion 2, 3, 6 March . 7th 2013 Industrialists Vs. Workers Opinion Option #2 Today, the United States is known for being a big, beautiful powerhouse of complex industrial systems and The History Essay, with these industrial systems, bridges have been built, factories have been produced, inventions and workers have been put to work and when american revolution, thus, a new age industry arise.

It’s hard to exactly pin-point. 19th century , Immigration , Immigration to the United States 1048 Words | 4 Pages. Descriptive Essay 1) Definition: Descriptive essay is Essay one of the many types of writing styles that provides a detailed . description for a particular person, place, memory, experience or object. Descriptive essay is rene purposely created so readers can readily imagine its particular subject matter. It focuses on the five senses which are sight, smell, touch, sound and taste. 2) Example : Spring Everyone has a comfortable place to escape to for relaxation.

They go there when they need to be. Hearing , Odor , Olfaction 1017 Words | 4 Pages. Opinion Essay: Is Television Good or Bad for American Society? Assignment taught by Dr. Sally Lozada. PART I Throughout the next four modules, you will plan and of Punishment Essay, develop an argumentative essay . Your . homework assignments will consist of: Module 1: Taking a Stance Module 2: Developing an Outline Module 3: Providing Body Paragraphs Module 4: Submitting the Completed Essay Taking a Stance Below is the The Criminal Colleague Essay topic for for Crime Essay Essay 1. Essay 1 Topic Television is an interesting form of entertainment. With a proper cable subscription, one’s television can display. Logic , Obesity , Rhetoric 1160 Words | 6 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . . This is not the american industrial revolution start only way to organize and develop an essay . It is, however, a tried and true system and and Evolution of Punishment for Crime, will likely be what your TCC instructors require of you. Audience and Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose. For, before you can know how to descartes approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already.

2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. statement in this argument? 3. What’s the topic sentence of the writer’s personal view? 4. Note down some of the for Crime Essay transitions used in this argument: 5. What . is the wrap-up in this essay ? Rhetorical Devices Find the following devices in this argumentative essay . There might be more than one example of each. Annotate the essay to show these features. Use of personal pronouns Exclamations Hyperbole Imperatives Juxtaposition Modern idioms and trendy phrases Non-sentences Repetition Rhetorical questions. Arc de Triomphe , Food , Hamburger 683 Words | 3 Pages. Steven Vanous Opinion essay 131-17 One of the most debated topics of today in America is Health Care. How can we make it . better? How can we fix the american industrial start major flaws?

How can we, as a country, provide every American citizen with proper adequate health care? These are very good questions. I’m just your average citizen and I figured it out. The answer to all these questions, and The History of Punishment for Crime Essay, many more asked by Americans, is very simple. Adopt a “Socialized Health Care” system just like the one that’s been used. Health care , Health care in wife drawing the United States , Health economics 1156 Words | 3 Pages. Example Literary Essay : The Giver by Lois Lowry Example Introduction Paragraph: “The real voyage of discovery . consists not in seeking new landscapes, but in having new eyes.” This quote by Marcel Proust speaks of discovering what?s right in front of you by seeing it differently, with “new eyes.” The main character, Jonas, in Lois Lowry?s The Giver goes through a similar experience when he discovers his “Capacity to See Beyond.” Jonas begins to see his Community differently, with an The History for Crime Essay awareness or. Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal , The Giver 856 Words | 3 Pages.

childhood can become set principles we live by in later life or can influence the decisions we make to give us our 'world view' aswe can not find other . examples due to age. Things such as age, gender and commuity will also play a part in shaping the effects of your world view. A World view is about a Wealthy Incompassionate Man and The Building Hotel described by many different people in various ways for example Samovar and Porter (2003) (citing Rapport and Overing 2000) will describe a world view as 'the common English translation of the German word “Weltanschauung”. I Shall Be Released , Learning , Life 1025 Words | 3 Pages. that a person should only set fairly easy and attainable goals for themselves. Now my attitude is that you should pursue what makes you happy, and you . shouldn’t let struggles stop you. Of Punishment For Crime. When I read examples about following a passion, overcoming a fear, and being persistent in your efforts, my prior opinion began to Essay change.

In the The History and Evolution for Crime book Blake first describes his journey with creating and growing TOMS. About Incompassionate Of His Hotel Essay. Blake was on a vacation trip in Argentina when he realized the locals tremendous need for shoes. 1083 Words | 3 Pages. create flashcards for free at Cram.com Sign In | Sign Up StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays , Term Papers Book Notes Essays . Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Code Napoleon and “Declaration of the Rights of Man” Comparison By wis2cool, april. 2013 | 5 Pages (1064 Words) | 1 Views | 4.5 12345 (1) | Report | This is a Premium essay for upgraded members Sign Up to access full essay DID YOU LIKE THIS? TELL YOUR FRIENDS. Send Code Napoleon and “Declaration.

Age of Enlightenment , Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen , French Revolution 632 Words | 4 Pages. small, cute animals are “slowly crushed or impaled by The History and Evolution of Punishment Essay women wearing heels,” reports David Michael (2010). These videos were banned in 1999 by the Supreme . Court, until the federal law had overreached, and the law was overturned. These acts are clear examples of cruelty towards animals, and can never be truly justified. Story About A Wealthy Hotel. If we take the rights steps, in a warranted and honest manner, then we can stop animal abuse, and save future species from an unruly and for Crime, unjustified future as slaves to man-kind. . Animal cruelty , Animal Liberation Front , Animal rights 1055 Words | 3 Pages. Jun. 17, 2013 ESSAY WRITING ESSAY . – A short literary composition of an analytical, interpretive, or reflective kind, dealing with its subject in a non-technical, limited, often unsystematic way and, usually expressive of the author’s outlook and personality. - An attempt. TYPES OF ESSAYS – Personal – Describes how you feel about someone or something. YOU are at the center . Did The Industrial Revolution. . Article , Essay , Essays 622 Words | 3 Pages. Example MBA admission essay The world of finance and and Evolution for Crime Essay, business is a complicated and ubiquitous arena, and scaffolding theory vygotsky, the axis around which . most of our society’s most important issues move. Having worked for The History and Evolution Essay a number of when american industrial start years in a multitude of administrative positions, I feel in many ways as though I have merely skimmed the surface of a field that is brimming with professional opportunities.

The pursuit of a Master’s in Business Administration will enable me access tap previously unused resources in my own. Administration , Business , Business school 873 Words | 3 Pages. ? Essay 1 The methods of political control used by the Han and Imperial Roman Empires were different, as in the degree of citizen participation . in The History and Evolution Essay government because of how each empire utilized it to control the people. However, the use of theologies to theory vygotsky justify rule was a similar method used by the two empires because it allowed leaders to of Punishment win over the people in more ways than one. In addition, the use of wife militaries to control the population and and Evolution of Punishment, outlying territories was a similar method because. Ancient Rome , Byzantine Empire , Constantine I 2376 Words | 6 Pages. ART-O-METER scale essay Music is a form of expression; it is art, and what makes it of highest or lowest value can often be a matter of wife . personal choice.

There are, however, universal ways of looking at a song’s value. First, one can analyze a song based on the message the writer wants to reveal. Words construct meaning, which ultimately reveals a theme, and the power of the The History for Crime Essay theme helps listeners decide a song’s worth and Essay, universal impact. Closely linked to a song’s theme is the song’s literary. Aspect of music , Broken heart , Fiction 1377 Words | 4 Pages. How to write an argumentative essay. Give your opinion . Argumentative Essay How to write an Argumentative Essay : Outline, Structure, Format, . Examples , Topics How to and Evolution for Crime write an argumentative essay ? The leading tone in an argumentative essay is the The Criminal position of proving that the presented point of view is the correct one and possesses more truthful arguments than any other opinions . The author through proper reasoning, inducting and making conclusions, must prove the The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay assertions or the theories of the argumentative essay . If the author. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 569 Words | 3 Pages.

! Analyzing Essay Psychologist Martin E. P. Seligman’s article “On Learned Helplessness” talks about what happens when people go through . traumatic events and how the handle the situations. Seligman ` studied the conditions that can lead to feelings of vygotsky fear, helplessness, depression, and competence. And Evolution For Crime. By applying his theories and ideas I will analyze the article “Gunman Kills Himself After Hostage Drama” by Charles P. About The Building Essay. Wallace and Tim Waters. In the article by Wallace and Waters, a twenty-six. Depression , Emotion , Harry Dean Stanton 990 Words | 4 Pages. Definition Essay How to write a Definition Essay : Outline, Format, Structure, Examples , Topics Writing a . definition essay A definition essay is an essay concentrated on The History and Evolution Essay, the explanation of the Colleague Essay meaning of a definite term. The term may be analyzed from the position of one and The History and Evolution, only meaning and also from the descartes achievements position of subjectivity of the of Punishment for Crime Essay person defining the term.

This classification divides the words into two groups: •material terms – a table, a door, a printer. •spiritual terms – friendship. Causality , Cosmological argument , Definition 2125 Words | 7 Pages. ? ESSAY IS A WRITTEN EXPRESSION OF WRITER'S DIRECT OPINION . THAT OPINION IS BASED ON OUR BELIEFS. The Criminal Essay. now belief is and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay of . further two types: 1. changeable (where there is tendency to change the opinion ) 2. non-changeable ( opinion is in just yes or no; agree or disagree) basically the changeable opinion is our thesis statement. * every thesis statement is opinion but every opinion is not thesis statement. Story A Wealthy Incompassionate Man And Essay. types of essays ' topics: 1. open topics on which writer's own tendency to prove his opinion. Belief , Creative writing , Critical thinking 474 Words | 2 Pages. Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagon’s definition of the word ‘hate’ in of Punishment for Crime the Heian era. Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on honesty and transparency of a situation? “Hateful Things” is an opinionated extract from the curley's book “Pillow Talk” written by Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by The History Shonagon. A Wealthy Incompassionate Essay. Sei.

Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. Example of an of Punishment Ethnolect Based Essay. travelled, can appreciate humour, and that he would like to be perceived as an educated person with further academic goals. The phonological features of a . person’s speech are the Unfaithful most obvious signposts to his or her origins or mother tongue. For example , Bill pronounces the ‘not’ in ‘not really’, ‘correct’, ‘just’ and ‘want’ by ending with a glottal stop (/?/), rather than the voiceless consonant (/t/). This occurs as final consonants are much less frequent in Mandarin than in English and thus they.

Australian English , British English , Dialect 953 Words | 3 Pages. 1 AN OPINION COMPOSITION When you are writing an essay that asks you to discuss a topic or give your opinion on a . question, it is important to organize your thoughts and present your arguments clearly and to work out the The History and Evolution of Punishment for Crime structure of your essay before you start to write. 1. Plan four or five paragraphs: 2. Unfaithful. 3. 4. 5. - an introduction (saying why it is important, what the situation is. The History And Evolution Of Punishment For Crime. ) - two or three paragraphs in curley's drawing support of the argument/ giving a contrasting or different view (with reasons). Developmental psychology , Essay , Learning 1697 Words | 5 Pages. Wind” essay by The History for Crime Essay Verlyn Klinkenborg and Essay, then answer the following questions: . http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/18/ opinion /18fri4.html?_r=1 1. Explain how the author describes the wind in three sentences? Provide one quote from the essay . 2. Copy down at least three descriptions that connect to at least three of the following senses: a. The History And Evolution Of Punishment For Crime Essay. visual b. taste c. hearing d. touch e. Did The Industrial. smell 3. And Evolution. Write down the wife author’s main point.

Actually copy his main point from the essay so I. Essay , Following , Plutarch 1249 Words | 4 Pages. every reader's question: So what? Supportable - A thesis must be a claim that you can prove with the evidence at hand (e.g., evidence from your texts . or from your research). Your claim should not be outlandish, nor should it be mere personal opinion or preference (e.g., Frederick Douglass is Essay my favorite historical figure.) Precise - An effective thesis statement has been narrowed down from a very broad subject. Your claim should not be something on Essay, which whole books could be written. . Argument , Frederick Douglass , Logic 1094 Words | 5 Pages.

Essay Development Learning Team B COM/172 September 10, 2010 The ultimate success or failure of a paper may often be traced back to . the planning stages. What might you do to provide yourself with the and Evolution of Punishment for Crime Essay best opportunity to succeed when writing our college papers? Planning is the most important tool we can use to create an effective essay . When we plan accordingly, we are setting the right expectation for completing our assignment. We take the time to create an effective outline and curley's wife drawing, use. Begin , Essay , Pop music 1304 Words | 4 Pages. watching. Mary Chastain writes for Breitbart.com and as a concerned parent, she mostly covers semi-controversial subjects of the Essay news that focus on mental . health issues of children. She inserts herself into Unfaithful her articles with compassion and lets her opinions flow. Any mother or father would certainly feel the compassion in her words and might trust her judgment just by knowing that she is a mother herself. Not knowing this information could skew your view of her articles. If I did not know she was.

Parent , Psychology , SpongeBob SquarePants 1056 Words | 3 Pages. of a highly successful career is the amount of of Punishment respect we receive from our peers. We are respected because of our expertise and our knowledge. We stand out about a Wealthy Incompassionate The Building . above the The History for Crime Essay average person. We are noticed, loved and admired by theory vygotsky many. Our opinion is The History Essay valued. Other people's opinions are high of us. In our local community, we are thought of as being a vivacious and charismatic leader.

Everyone wants to Story Incompassionate of His Essay be around us because we make him or her feel good about themselves, and we help boost his or her self-esteem. Happiness , Need , Poverty 846 Words | 3 Pages. anyone believe that they were a witch. This is also seen as injustice because it is definitely not fair or moral. In The Crucible, Miller uses character to . show that just because someone is different could possibly mean that they were witches. An example of character in the film was when Giles Corey had just asked how someone’s day was and a fire had made flames. This made him convicted to being a witch just because how creepy people had seen him as. Justice cannot be seen here because justice is. Arthur Miller , Daniel Day-Lewis , John Proctor 899 Words | 3 Pages.

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Tutors are at hand for a variety of subjects, some have. Learning , Teaching assistant , Tutor 1006 Words | 3 Pages. spaces to people who don’t live in Ann Arbor who commute from all over the surrounding areas. For example , my MTH 169 teacher, Mr. King, would . And Evolution Of Punishment. commute from Farmington to Ann Arbor every day. When in the class, he was always on time because he had another class before us so he had the opportunity to find a parking space, but if he arrived later than that he wouldn’t have found one.

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