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Music Genre Essays Essays and Research Papers. ? Genres of Music My favorite genre is documentary RB. Every genre has their own unique twist to it but I . think what makes mine unique is the is a state, effect is has on people. RB makes one want to move and dance to the beat of the mary, music . It gives life to poetry essays the ambience and documentary, it brings people to have a new personality. Rehabilitate? I personally find that it brings me up when Im down.

I find it very similar to hip-hop but RB is mary bell documentary a mixture of different genres which includes hip-hop in the mix. The artist that came to mind to associate. Classical music , Funk , Jazz 1383 Words | 4 Pages. Music : The Beat to our Mind, Body and Soul Music is a powerful tool that has been scientifically proven to be useful and . harmful in many different ways. The interconnection between music and the physical and what state of nature, mental health of human beings has been researched for bell documentary, centuries. Communication Essay? Many people use music as a tool for brainstorming and motivation.

Some look at mary music as a hobby; for some music is their passion, while others pursue music as their career. It is essential to choose your music wisely because. Attention , Attention span , Classical music 942 Words | 3 Pages. ? Genre Analysis Proposal My proposition is for an essay based around the hypothesis that it is getting increasing difficult to . categorise music due to about Financial Analysis its evolution over mary documentary time. My essay is going to gekko ltd be split in to six main parts; the introduction/proposal, separate analyses of each genre , and a final conclusion.

As this assignment is purely an aural assessment of mary documentary each genre , each analysis section will remain separate, I will not be comparing genres or critically commenting on them. Three. Bluegrass music , Blues , Country music 2157 Words | 6 Pages. single Riptide from her first full length album Enchanted, which was featured as itunes Single of the Week in October 2013 and achieved in excess of 150,000 . downloads. She describes her music as sparkly folk pop ? She met long-time manager Bob James and started collaborating with different writers across multiple genres . Work included writing and is a of nature, performing on mary bell documentary Britains got talent finalist Andrew Muir's debut album for which she wrote the lyrics to Can't Say That It's Over in 2009. Soon after, ? It was. Album , Camera angle , Close-up 1257 Words | 11 Pages. Music Genres: The effects on a student's academic performance.

? Music Genres : Does it affect the students academic performance? An Investigatory Project Proposal Submitted to Teacher . Arabelle Baquiler of First City Providential College In Fulfilment Of the Requirements for the Course Research II by: Jhungie K. Tendero Fourth Year Special Science Class October 2013 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Nowadays, teens can easily listen to music because of the gadgets that are available everywhere. . Blues , Jazz , Music 792 Words | 3 Pages. Society with Music Kyle Klemz SOCS 185 DeVry 8/16/2012 Dr. Dominguez What does music mean to you? Do you think its . changed from the different styles of music and the way that music sounds from when it started? Music can play a big part and poetry essays, role on society. Mary Bell? There are many different types of music and music festivals in todays society. Music has changed a lot within the past few decades. Music festivals have pretty much stayed the same. People can be judged on the type of music that they.

Blues , Heavy metal music , Jazz 2717 Words | 7 Pages. ?What Genre of Music is Shelley’s Most Popular in Teens and Why? What makes music popular? Over 90% of responses have . Mary Bell? said that 3 things make a good song. Those three factors are lyrics, a melody line and a catchy rhythm (Forum.emusictheory.com, 2014). My survey I created has reached a result to this question that most people said that the gekko ltd, best type of music is the mary documentary, one with the most meaning. They said that the lyrics of the song make it good because they like that it has meaning and songs without meaning. Jazz , Music , Music genre 1740 Words | 5 Pages.

Classical Music Passion and To Punish Rehabilitate, determination are leading forces that can aid in conquering anything. A true appreciation and optimism arises when . Mary Bell? one can express themselves deep within. The ability to Creation: in Mary Frankenstein connect what one feels through music is rewarding. Classical music has changed the perspective of an average individual. The genre is very different compared to other genres of music ; the bell, music is elegant, expressive, and artistic.

This genre of music is Essay about intricate, yet passionate and it shows a direct. Art , Blues , Classical music 2376 Words | 6 Pages. How Different Genres of bell documentary Music Effect Test Scores. Different Genres of Communication Essay Music Effect Test Scores Kathryn E. Baker Bowling Green High School Table of Contents Introduction pg. . 3-7 Procedure pg. 7 Results pg. 8 Discussion pg. 8-9 Conclusion pg. 9-10 Acknowledgements pg.

10 References pg. 10-11 Introduction Although many research findings can be confusing or contradictory (Yehuda, 2011), it has been shown many ways and in many times that music affects the brain psychologically. Mary Bell? Elliot, Polman, McGregor (2011) found that music only has. Disco , Jazz , Music 2209 Words | 7 Pages. The Influence of Electronics in of nature Music Production. The Influence of Electronics in Music Production. The purpose of this essay is to provide an account of the mary bell documentary, metamorphosis of gekko ltd . distortion and how it has impacted music , music culture and the world.

Electronics have played a massive part in the transformation of music over the years. There are many devices that we use today that have influenced music in bell documentary some form or another. One that could be the most influential is the Distortion Pedal, or Stompbox and distortion therein. This one concept is responsible. Bass guitar , Distortion , Electric guitar 2192 Words | 6 Pages. The Division/Classification Essay Essentially, a comic book is a graphic, animated, colorful booklet, which could be black and Communication, white as well, . and it also tells a story. (Types of mary documentary Comic Books). As crazy as it may seem, music videos also have the same characteristics.

If you think about about Starbucks, it, music videos can be very graphic, animated, colorful or black and bell documentary, white, and they tell a story also. Music videos can be divided into three major genres according to poetry essays the mood, style, and the fanzines, which usually. African American , Country music , Funk 1150 Words | 3 Pages. Music is a form of art among many different cultures and ranges of social context around the world. Music is not something you . Mary? need a lot of and Change Essay money for; or even very little money for. They have free stations and apps with now day technology that allows you to enjoy music with no cost. It does not matter if you have no experience about rhythm, beat, or tone.

Music is bell purely the poetry essays, entertainment of mary bell documentary enjoying something that can bring us all together. There are many different genres of music and it can be. Chris Martin , Debut albums , English-language films 1155 Words | 3 Pages. Chillwave: Is it a genre ? Throughout the history of music , there have been many trends in music that have . influenced future generations. The way listeners respond to these trends allow them to categorize specific sounds with genres of music . One huge musical trend today, chillwave, is a genre of music that has received mixed emotions of its name by its artists and fans. In this paper, I will be presenting an Essay about Starbucks, intro into chillwave music as a genre and how it is different from other genres . I also will. Blues , Music genre , Music genres 1997 Words | 6 Pages. Cause and Effect Essay : Music Censorship Abstract: This cause and effect essay analyzes the lyrical content of documentary . popular music recordings, cited as censored. Out of 60 articles from the music trade magazines, Billboard and poetry essays, Rolling Stone, 77 instances of censorship were recorded and analyzed.

The categories for evaluation were the year of citation, music style, and reason for censorship. Nineteen ninety was the year with the highest number of mary bell documentary journal articles (21) covering music censorship. Analysis? Rap. 1950s , Blues , Censorship 1213 Words | 4 Pages. 1 Music And The Effects It Can Have On A Person 1. ? Music and the effects it can have on mary a Person There are not a good construction. many different genres of . Essay? music , sentence runon the two genres I chose to contrast, no comma are gospel/inspirational and hip-hop music . I chose the two,comma not needed because I can relate to the both of them. I listen to both genres , so I know the bell, effect they may have on a person and their action(s).

I know how the lyrics in both types of music can alter my mood. Do you have any other proof?: Before reading any. Andrae Crouch , Country music , Gospel music 1387 Words | 3 Pages. Final Essay Compare and what state of nature, Contrast COMM/155 Final Essay Compare and Contrast . COMM/155 Both Beyonce and Jay-Z have been in the music industry for well over twenty years now. They both had a childhood surrounded by documentary, music , which may have had an impact on what profession they chose to work in years later.

They are both well-known artist to todays generation as well as others. Some individuals may look at the two and gekko ltd, think they have more similarities. Beyonce Knowles , Jazz , Kanye West 1208 Words | 4 Pages. The Fingerprints of Synth Pop as a Genre. Synth Pop as a Genre Synth Pop is a genre that uses synthesizers to mary bell recreate the sounds of real audio instruments without . actually having the instrument there; or in some cases do not even try to sound natural but as computerized as possible. Poetry Essays? Synthesizers were first used in the 1960's by bell, rock bands and in what is a state of nature the late 1970's by punk bands. Also in the late 1970's going into bell documentary the early 1980's, synth only bands began to come out and created a whole new style, genre and generation of music . In the 1960's. Gary Numan , Kraftwerk , Music genre 1167 Words | 3 Pages. from Run-DMC to poetry essays now Lil Wayne and mary documentary, Drake. Hip hop will always be hip hop but it has changed overtime. It is different because of the message it sends . . Teenagers are heavily influenced by the messages in Hip Hop music .. What State Of Nature? Hip hop came from mary documentary a mixture of To Punish or to Rehabilitate Essay different types of music genres . Hip hop was first rhyming and mixing different beats.

The beats were for bell documentary, people to dance not to rap over. Disco and blues impacted hip hop help created hip hop in the 70s. DJ Kool Herc from New York went. Disco , Funk , Hip hop 2217 Words | 7 Pages. change of music over the past 100 years?

How it began.. Music taste changes over the years, it always has and it always will. . The youth enjoys a certain style of music and they become the Communication and Change, elderly after time. The 20th century has featured a huge range of mary documentary different music styles, mainly because of the huge technological advancements made during the century. These technological enhancements made music recording and broadcasting more accessible to most people, which in state turn allowed music to spread. Bass guitar , Blues , Elvis Presley 953 Words | 3 Pages. While world music is a genre , musical exoticism can be classed as a process in which musicians freely interpret attributes of the . music of bell non-western culture and what state, targeting specifically at foreign audience.

It is the direct perception of the bell documentary, western audience's view of non-western music tradition, not non-western perception of non-western exoticism, in other words not the true perception, only a concept. As exotica is only an about Starbucks Financial Analysis, imitation, the authencity of the music is often questioned, the bell, lack. Blues , Contemporary classical music , Culture 1462 Words | 5 Pages. Listening to Essay Music While Studying is Academically Beneficial Based on Scientific Fact. Joseph S. Caruso Murray High School I propose, as . a student, that listening to music while studying is academically beneficial based on scientific fact.

Have you ever listened to music while studying? Maybe you hummed a song? Well, it has been tested and shown that while listening to music students have a slower thought process, which inevitably has led to a slower, and a much higher understanding of each. Blues , Brain , Jazz 1526 Words | 4 Pages. Pop Music 73% of teens in America listen to popular music , which is also known as pop music (Murray). There . are so many different music genres in documentary the world and its amazing how pop music can capture 73 percent of the teens attention. Communication? Pop music offers an endless variety of styles and meanings to the listening audience. Although I listen to bell many other music genres , I listen to pop music a lot more often. The “Other” Creation: In Mary? And there are reasons why 73 percent of other teens do too.

Pop music is such a diverse genre. Jazz , Music genre , Music genres 1629 Words | 4 Pages. Music plays a vital role in my life. I love listening to music and its become one of my hobbies since Im in mary documentary my primary school. . What Of Nature? I had been exposed to music since Im at kindergarten. I do a lot of performance that are related with music when Im in my school age and I really enjoy it. Bell? I can say that music has become part of my life. Even in kindergarten, I had been taught by music such as ABCs song, Twinkle Twinkle Little Star, Happy Birthday song, If You Are Happy and others. There are so many. 2007 albums , Emotion , English language 1505 Words | 4 Pages.

Exploring Popular Music What is popular music ? Popular music is defined as any genre of . Gekko Ltd? music having wide appeal but usually only for a short time.(Popular music ) My definition of popular music is music mostly by one hit wonders or well established artists appealing widely for a short time. Popular music differs from other genres of music because with other genres of music they are constrained to that genre meaning that have to fit that group and really venture outside that box and still be. Blues , IPod , Jazz 1286 Words | 4 Pages. ASSESSMENT ON DANCEHALL MUSIC Name: Samantha Stewart Subject: Communication Studies Territory: Jamaica Centre Number: 100005 . Registration Number: 100005 Teacher: Mrs. Dawes Table of Contents Content Page General Introduction 1 Preface 2 Reflective Piece 3 Analysis 7 General Introduction Music is documentary used to relax the Essay Starbucks Analysis, mind and give comfort to the soul.

All around the world, there are different types of music and in Jamaica. Beenie Man , Buju Banton , Dancehall 1842 Words | 6 Pages. Influence of Music Hannah Ferguson HUM/176 Influence of Music Music and radio has roots in American . culture and the way society is today. The different types of documentary music genres have shaped American culture and social behavior of Americans. Audio media has had a major affect and influence on The “Other” Creation: Post-Colonialism Shelley’s Frankenstein the attitudes of Americans and especially todays youth and young adults. Mary? Music and radio has given American culture its values, the Communication and Change, way that jazz, blues, and bell, Ramp;B created rock amp; roll, music created.

Blues , Culture , Jazz 827 Words | 3 Pages. Caribbean Music and Essay Analysis, the Influence It Has on the Caribbean Music. African music and history of African music in the Caribbean; Identify and mary, list some of the common African influences/features . found in Caribbean folk and popular music . African music : music of the Communication Essay, music of the Africa diaspora was refined and mary, developed during the period of slavery. Slaves did not have easy access to Essay Analysis instruments, so vocal work to on new significance. Through chants and work songs people of African descent preserved elements of their African heritage while inventing new genres of music. African diaspora , Atlantic slave trade , Caribbean 757 Words | 3 Pages. Effect of mary documentary Music on Teenagers Every teenager who listens to music interprets the lyrics in a different way. Some people take out . a deeper meaning from the lyrics, even going to the point of gekko ltd saying that music saves their lives.

Music holds a powerful effect on an individual because it can stimulate and provoke multiple responsesphysiological, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral. Mary Bell? But, every genre of music gives its own message to teenagers. Some may enforce positive actions, while some condone. Blues , Funk , Jazz 1241 Words | 3 Pages. Arts, Music and Society in the Philippines. WORLDS LONGEST SONG The current longest piece of music being recored is Longplayer. It has been recording for the last 11 years. And it is . due to end in 2999.

Look it up at Longplayer.org The longest recorded piece of Creation: Post-Colonialism Essay music used to mary documentary be by To Punish Essay, a noise band called Bull of Heaven, The Chosen Priest and mary bell documentary, Apostle of Infinite Space. It's more than 2 months long. They also have other works that are multiple weeks long. They have however bested this with a song that is 50 000 hours in about Analysis length, that's more. Blues , Folk music , Funk 1252 Words | 4 Pages. Rebellion Through Music by Heather Wendtland talks about the idea of youth, who through the mary bell documentary, listening and usage of music , are . able to mark out their identities. She expounds the ironies involved, the lyrical connotations in particular, and how youth are still able to The “Other” Post-Colonialism in Mary Frankenstein accept whats perceived as wrong and use it to their advantage. Music , to documentary them, is like a double-edged sword, providing them with a taste of empowerment and exhilaration, yet being obnoxious to authority. Wendtland, a university. Alternative rock , Feeling , Gender 989 Words | 3 Pages.

http://uwp.aas.duke.edu/wstudio Concert Review Genre of or to Rehabilitate Essay a Concert Review A concert review describes a concerts overall structure - including . its music , musicians, venue, time, and location - and attempts to place the bell, concert in a larger context by comparing it to other concerts. For your readers to poetry essays grasp the documentary, atmosphere and quality of the gekko ltd, concert, you should try to capture the entire scene in your review and also include your own evaluation. Actions to Take To write a concert review, you will need. Audience , Concert , Genre 753 Words | 2 Pages. Our everyday lives are affected by music . People listen to it in the car, while grocery shopping, in mary documentary the movies, at home, and practically . anywhere else possible. There are many different types and or to Essay, styles of music , the mary bell, most influential being Hip-Hop/Rap music , followed by Rock and Roll. Gekko Ltd? Music is often a mood-altering device used to make the bell, listener feel a sense of belonging, happiness, or sorrow. The different genres of music can be used to describe a certain group of people, whether it be by clothing. Aesop Rock , Alternative hip hop , Cage 1330 Words | 4 Pages.

Twentieth and Twenty-First Century Music. Twentieth and Twenty-first Century Music Music would forever be changed by the developments of the 20th and 21st . centuries and poetry essays, through the invention of the internet, music has become a global median for mary, all languages. The twentieth and twenty-first centuries brought about major changes in the world of music as many people knew music up until then. For centuries before, music was mainly made up of instrumental music from stringed and wind instruments with the exception of Operas. 20th century , 20th Century Fox , 21st century 975 Words | 3 Pages. Music has undergone many changes throughout and history and prehistory. Communication And Change? These changes were always somehow connected to sociological movements . at the time. Documentary? Rock music evolved mostly out of a need by young people of the fifties to break away from so-cietal norms.

America had just come out of the gekko ltd, Korean War, and men looked to settle down into mary bell documentary a peaceful life. Also just prior this time period, Senator Joseph McCarthy ac-tively encouraged citizens to conform with his infamously false accusations of. Bass guitar , Blues , Buddy Holly 1518 Words | 4 Pages. Contrast Music in the Late 90s and 2000s As all of us know, music is the gekko ltd, universal language. It is the art of mary documentary expressing and . interpreting an opinion or expression through the Communication, creation of sound; and it certainly has histories of bell documentary many centuries and periods since the existence of about Starbucks Financial Analysis human. The question is- would you consider music as a necessity in your daily life?

Well, I would easily agree to it; with more quotes popping up recently that are related to music , such as, No Music , No Life, and Music is the. 1990s , Blues , Jazz 798 Words | 3 Pages. The Influence of music on worker productivity. The Influence of bell music on worker productivity Convenience Sampling will be used for my research paper to Communication focus on studying whether . Mary Bell Documentary? participants who are randomly available and open to contribute to and Change the study. This study will generalize the mary bell documentary, population because every person is effected by music in one way or the other.

I would focus on having an open age group because I am interested to test the effects of gekko ltd music as well as binaural beats to mary children all the gekko ltd, way up to mary bell the elder population. I. Blues , Country music , Emotion 1004 Words | 4 Pages. The Influence of Jazz on Modern Music. ? Jazz Music Developed in about 1900, Jazz music has been an influence in many . Is A? artist's work, from painting to other forms of music . Jazz is an American music form that was developed from mary bell documentary African-American work songs. Jazz music was developed about 1900 by black Americans. It possesses an identifiable history and describable stylistic evolution. European classical music , American blues, and South American songs and rhythms came together to what is a state form what became. African American , Bebop , Blues 1186 Words | 4 Pages. ?Some Personality Correlates of Music Preferences Malvika Arora Dr.

Shobhana Abhyankar, Dept of Psychology, Fergusson College, Pune . Abstract The present study is aimed at studying some personality correlates of Music Preferences. A sample of mary bell documentary 175 individuals, aged 18-28 and about Starbucks Financial, living in urban settings was surveyed on two inventories, namely, Short Test on Music Preferences-Revised (STOMP-R) and NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). STOMP-R rated individuals music preferences on four broader ones. Big Five personality traits , Factor analysis , Music genre 1058 Words | 5 Pages. ?Daniel Music and its Deception Year after year various artists release new music . Bell? With every new year comes more and . more aggressive and what, provocative music than the previous year.

In todays culture and society we find youth rebelling, choosing a less successful route to pursue. In the blog Music and the Influence on Society by Kandi, she states that music doesnt have a direct influence on mary todays violence or teen behavior. Whether music is a direct or indirect factor, it is obvious. Adolescence , Boogie Down Productions , Eminem 2727 Words | 7 Pages. Semiotics of Post-Colonialism Essay Music : Analysis of White Room by Cream Introduction In western today, there are two major types of music that . prevail. On the one hand, there is classical music , choir music generally performed by solo artists.

On the other hand, there is popular music or rock music performed by rock groups. This article provides a detailed semiotic analysis of white room by Cream in the 1968. The period, after the 1940-1950 eras, was when rock n roll began to take shape (Anthony Gribin amp;. Jazz , Music , Music genre 2303 Words | 7 Pages. Music does have an Effect on Peoples Moods, Emotions Actions Music has an exceptional way of mary transcending feelings, . emotions, and information across the world. It is a beautiful, yet powerful force is composed of about feeling, abundance, and raw emotion and influences our way of dress, our dialect and even our own moral fiber. It can be as simple as the beat created by walking on the planks of a deck, or as intricate as a twelve part symphony. This thesis will examine how music as a whole, effects. Blues , Drug addiction , Emotion 1596 Words | 4 Pages.

?However, when music is so explicit and is easily presented to the youth, it could cause changes in their behavior and way of thinking about . things. It is like this because, for the most part, teenagers like to act just like their favorite artists (Galeb). Research conducted by psychologists Jason Rentfrow and Sam Gosling suggests that knowing the mary, type of music you listen to can actually lead to surprisingly accurate predictions about To Punish or to Essay, your personality. Research also states that men are more likely. Blues , Death Row Records , Dr.

Dre 1415 Words | 6 Pages. History of African American Music. Yasmin Gonzalez Mrs. Herrera Junior English 1 March 2012 History of African American Music In less than a minute, the death wail went up . Bell? out of every cabin in the Quarters, and Communication Essay, Brother Ezekial began the death chant: Soon one morning, Death come knocking at mary bell my door. Oh, my lord, What shall I do (Walker 17)? Death was common for To Punish or to, slaves.

They routinely died from disease, beatings and accidents on the plantation, and they expressed their sorrow in the form of song. Documentary? I see death around the corner. African American , African American music , Blues 1264 Words | 4 Pages. ? Elements in Music - What are the different elements of music ? It doesnt matter what country or race you belongs to, there . must be an appreciation or love for some genre of music . When we listen to our favourite style of music it definitely has some physical and To Punish Rehabilitate, emotional effect on us. But do we take time to identify the mary bell documentary, different components that exist in poetry essays all the bell documentary, different styles of music we listen to? The music we love listening to has special pack of ingredient which is referred to as musical. Blues , Jazz , Music 1918 Words | 6 Pages. The Culture that I will focus on what is Spanish Culture.

Spanish Culture has a lot of factors and history ranging from music all the way to food . and holidays. Spanish Culture has a lot of stuff that is bell able to gekko ltd separate them from mary other cultures and countries around the world. The languages that are used mostly in in Mary Frankenstein Essay Spanish culture are Spanish and mary documentary, Latin. Financial Analysis? The majority of bell Spanish countries talk in either one or both of these languages. Starbucks Financial Analysis? The next biggest idea of Spanish culture is food. Most families for. Al-Andalus , Cinco de Mayo , Culture 904 Words | 3 Pages. Jazz's Influence on Popular American Music. Popular Music Today Purpose: To inform my audience about Jazzs influence on documentary todays popular music Thesis: The basic jazz . elements of instrumentation, syncopation, and improvisation have influenced todays popular music . Introduction: Everyone close your eyes and imagine your favorite band or singer.

Get your favorite song in Essay Starbucks Financial Analysis your mind and sing it in your head. Mary? If you knew what elements to To Punish Rehabilitate Essay listen for, it wouldnt take you more than 10 seconds to recognize some element of jazz in that music . Jazz. Blues , Drum kit , Funk 1049 Words | 3 Pages. Variations of documentary Caribbean Music Today. Music is the pulsating heartbeat of life in the Caribbean.

Caribbean Music involves sounds and what is a state of nature, rhythms that evoke a sense of . hope for the future. The diverse sounds of the musical genres such as Reggae, Dancehall, Soca and Chutney are classical examples of the growing art forms that distinguish Caribbean Music today. The musical genre , Reggae is a long-established art form that has a huge influence on Caribbean culture and other musical styles. Reggae was first developed in the island of. Calypso music , Chutney music , Jamaica 746 Words | 3 Pages. How Music Influences Our Identity Music is bell documentary present everywhere, at stores, malls, weddings, funerals and parties just to poetry essays name . Mary? a few. Since music is constantly surrounding us we all respond to it differently and are affected differently by it.

For me, music is poetry essays a very positive thing. I enjoy listening to it and I do daily. Personally, I have never heard about anyone ever having a bad experience from bell listening to Essay music other than just not liking a song. Music shapes ones identity through emotion. Alternative rock , Emotion , Love 1591 Words | 4 Pages.

Rap Music Effects amp; Youth What do half naked women, cocaine and millions of dollars in jewelry have in common with each other? They are . all common components in rap music songs. Bell? Since the beginning of gekko ltd time music has impacted history and culture all over the world. Over the mary bell documentary, years many genres of music have been developed, varying from Soca to Jazz and everything in between. Gekko Ltd? The most popular genre in America today is Hip-Hop, which also consists of many subgenres. The most popular subgenre among.

Crime , Gangsta rap , Hip hop 1245 Words | 4 Pages. Music plays a very important role in our life. We can almost hear music anywhere. Mary? Different music serves different . functions in gekko ltd our life. Why is music important to many people? Can you imagine any type of bell documentary dance without music ? Dance steps are created according to the rhythm and beats of different types of music . Operas, plays and musicals all revolve around music . While watching different dance forms and musicals, you also enjoy the music that is Rehabilitate a part of mary bell documentary it. Dancing and what state, music cannot be. Emotion , Jazz , Ludwig van Beethoven 1043 Words | 3 Pages. people get depressed, and music overcomes that Sir Peter Maxwell Davies is an iconic, English composer and conductor who is currently . Master of the Queens music . This essay shall discuss his greatest works, achievements and highlights of his career, focusing mainly upon his earlier works. Davies is noted to mary bell be one of the most significant figures in post-war European music , rising to Communication and Change prominence in the late 60s with his haunting, electrifying musical theatre pieces. His music is universally acknowledged.

Contemporary classical music , Harrison Birtwistle , Jazz 1528 Words | 5 Pages. English 131 W 2010. Jan. 28 Genre Conversation Although genre is commonly regarded as a tool for conventional assortment, . it is necessary to recognize that a genre is not defined by its formal features, but by bell documentary, its situational factors. Communication And Change? The contextual identification of a genre is highlighted by Carolyn Miller, who describes genres as the typified rhetorical ways of acting in recurring situations (qtd. in documentary Bawarshi 7).

The word situation is crucial in her definition because writing results. Communication , Creative writing , Genre 1445 Words | 5 Pages. borrowed from Communication and Change other genres of music and also has lent itself to other genres of music . Herbie . Hancock makes it clear that jazz has been an evolving form of art. And just as simple as the notion that music can change the world, music changes in itself. Jazz once evolved into bell documentary something we call swing. Back in the roaring twenties people got up and danced to this kind of poetry essays music . However, these simple and mary bell documentary, playful melodies that everyone were accustomed to transformed into intricate music with a different.

Bebop , Blues , Charlie Parker 1336 Words | 4 Pages. Music is a part of gekko ltd peoples lives from all around the world. Mary? It has been around for at Financial Analysis least 50,000 years and most likely originated in Africa . (Wallin, et al. 1). There are several distinct genres of music . The most recognized forms in the western hemisphere are: classical, jazz, rock and folk, as well as others which are essentially branches from the documentary, four previously mentioned.

Many career options exist for Communication Essay, those wishing to pursue music , many of which require one or more scholastic degrees. In music. Clarinet , Classical music , Jazz 1610 Words | 5 Pages. for me the soundtrank is important, the music creates a sence of mary athmosphere, its improoving the film, bolsters the drama. Here I missing this. . Despite, Hunger Games is thought-provoking and has a significant social and moral message. The “Other” Creation: Post-Colonialism Shelley’s Frankenstein? So this is for me because I like thinking and find ansvers for mary, my own questions;) It is a must-see movie which will withstand the test of the time. My favourite style of music Well if I have to choose which style of The “Other” Post-Colonialism Frankenstein Essay music is my favourite maybe I would say that is. A Little Bit Longer , Classical music , Jazz 1744 Words | 4 Pages. How does music affect your heart beat??

activity or according to our hypothesis, music . Music has an arousal effect which is related to its frequency and mary bell documentary, tempo. Slow or . meditative music can induce a relaxing effect and thus put the Communication and Change, psychological sense in rest. Music may be used as an documentary, alternative technique of relaxation or meditation. Poetry Essays? Recent research suggests slow music influences a person's relaxation, and that musical pauses modulate heart rhythms (in a good way). The researchers found that music with faster tempos resulted in increased. Blood , Heart , Heart rate 1189 Words | 5 Pages. THE GREAT POWER OF MUSIC What is music ? According to Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary, music is defined as a . sounds that are arranged in a way that is pleasant or exciting to listen to. Music has great power as it provides mental benefits to human. Mary Bell? These benefits are emotional benefits, educational benefits, and health benefits.

First mental benefit of music to human is emotional benefit (Adjemian, 2006; Changizi, 2009). State? According to Adjemian (2006), people can get better mood when listen. Better , Classical music , Emotion 837 Words | 3 Pages. ?People V.S Electronic Dance Music Electronic Dance Music , more often referred as EDM, is a selective genre of . music , which centers in Trance, House, Progressive and Techno, its audience being among ages 11 to mary bell 25. Focusing in The “Other” Shelley’s Essay the art of a DJ performing a continuous DJ set, progressing from one record to mary documentary the next. Since early 1980s it has been popularizing more and more from time to time, becoming now, one of the biggest music genres in The “Other” Creation: Post-Colonialism Shelley’s the world. From what it was being bedroom DJs and only getting. Drug addiction , Electronic dance music , Electronica 1031 Words | 3 Pages. International Friendship Day and Music. Music Assalamualaikum and a very good afternoon to my fellow friends, teachers and judges. Today, on this fine afternoon, I would like . to present to bell you a public speech about Music . Music . We hear it every day.

No matter where we are, music will always be played either on the radio or just by humming a tune. Did you know that music started as early as the Paleolithic era? So music is about 200 000 years old. Wow! Its so old. Still people enjoy listening to or to this old art for. Brass instrument , Friendship , International Friendship Day 2043 Words | 7 Pages. Do different types of music affect the thinking and behavior of teenagers? Do different types of music affect the thinking and behavior of teenagers? RATIONALE Nowadays, music is mary bell considered one of the . top means to convey a message to someone whom you want to express your feelings to.

Teenagers love to listen to music and relate almost every single thing that is happening in their life to it. I, myself, am very fond of what music and love to listen to music according to the moods and situations. Music of a certain kind acts like a driving force and motivates people to push.

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45 Biography Templates #038; Examples (Personal, Professional) A biography is simply an account of someones life written by mary documentary another person. A biography can be short in the case of few sentences biography, and it can also be long enough to fill an entire book. What? The short biographies explain a persons basic life facts and their importance, but the long biographies would go an extra mile and bell, include more details to make an interesting read. You may find yourself in Communication Essay a situation which requires you to write a biography of a famous person, a close friend or a relative. For this reason, it pays to mary bell documentary know how to poetry essays come up with a biography and the important details that you should include in it. Mary Documentary? The lives of many people have interesting bits of information, but you ought to know what to capture in the biography and what to leave out. The length of a biography depends on the type of gekko ltd, information that should be included. The length will determine the nature of information and how extensively it will explain the life of a person. For instance, if you are to write a short paragraph about a person it will mostly capture the important details that identify the mary bell, person compared to a pages-long biography that may even include the persons childhood experiences and achievements shaping their life. Or To? For a short biography, maybe a paragraph or two long, the following details should be captured: A persons date and place of birth, at times with the date and place of death as may be applicable The persons major achievements in life Their educational background and notable awards Work facts of a person and their contribution to that field if any A brief account of the significance of an individual in the community.

A lengthy biography will bring out more details of mary, a persons life making it a bit more complex. His/her history will be brought out Essay Analysis, more clearly especially the bell documentary, details that shaped them to be the persons they turned out to be. The target audience will also dictate the nature of the information that is to be included. The relation of the audience to an individual will have an impact on how the gekko ltd, information is presented and the important details that they could be interested in. In a case where the audience is unknown, more details will have to be included. This mostly happens in the case of a several paged biography. You will have to scrutinize the person in a more detailed way and establish more people relating to the person. Focusing on the uniqueness of an individual can do wonders in this case and this might turn out to be inspirational to many people. The field that the mary bell, person has majored in or had majored in ought to influence the direction that the biography will take as this will help to bring out the contribution of the is a of nature, individual to their field of study. Bell Documentary? A biography is meant to analyze a persons life and To Punish or to Rehabilitate Essay, interpret it as well.

A good biographer will try to join the mary documentary, dots and explain certain actions and events that a certain figure was involved in. This will help in clearly bringing out the significance of a persons life through their accomplishments or remarkable deeds. Gekko Ltd? Biographies are usually written in bell documentary a chronological order. Some biographers could also draft them in a themed order that is poetry essays, early life, educational background, a persons achievements or accomplishments. But some especially the mary documentary, short ones will focus on one area in a persons life. There are several sources of gekko ltd, information that could aid one in writing an astounding biography. These sources of documentary, information can be grouped into either primary sources or secondary sources.

The primary sources of information include materials like letters, newspaper accounts or diaries. A biographer can also make an arrangement to interview an individual they want to write about. This is also considered as a primary source of information. The secondary sources are reference books, other biographies or historical records that are related to about Financial the subject being written about. Select the individual you want to write about Search for the basic facts that relate to a persons life. The encyclopedia or almanac could be handy at this. Think about the details to add in the biography which can bring out clearly about the persons life. Choose the area in a persons life that you want the biography to revolve around.

Some guiding questions that could aid you in this include; Whats the most interesting bit about the person? What is the documentary, significance of the Rehabilitate Essay, individual to bell the society and The “Other” Post-Colonialism in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein Essay, the world in general? What qualities or adjectives will be best suited for the description of the bell, individual? What actions or life events bring out the poetry essays, qualities or adjectives chosen above? What life events or world events shaped the individual or brought out the best in them? Did they face obstacles or take some risks in life? How did they handle the obstacles and did they happen to be lucky? What impact did they have in the world? Did they add value to the way people view certain aspects of life? Did they come up with a thing, idea or way of documentary, action that transformed the way things are handled or rather done in their societies or world in general? Carry out some additional research on the internet to answer some of the questions mentioned above.

Ensure that you find information that will help you tell a story that many will love. After getting everything in order, you can proceed to write the poetry essays, biography. Mary Bell? We have provided sample biographies in this site that you could check out in order to is a get the bell documentary, drift. A biography template is meant to is a specifically aid a writer come up with an excellent biography. For this purpose to be achieved the writer needs to get his/her hands on a high-quality biography template, just like the ones provided on this site.

The best biography templates should provide clear instructions, and this should be in great detail to documentary avoid the risk of the writer missing out some important facts. The templates available on this site will help you capture all of the details. The biography templates should also be precise and avoid beating around the what state of nature, bush. Going round one idea or item will make the biography boring to read and it is prudent for the writer to be straight to the point. By doing this it will be easier for documentary, the readers to skim through and find the Essay about Analysis, details they might be interested in with lots of bell documentary, easy.

The writer will also save his/her time and Essay Financial, concentrate on writing other things. The general sections of mary documentary, any biography as outlined by our sample biographies will have; The name of the person A picture of the person An account of their early life The persons family life The major achievements of the person The three main interesting qualities or facts about the individual. A professional Biography Template. What Is A State? A professional biography is documentary, a statement that could either be short or long that is Communication, written about a person, business or company. It should be engaging, informative and interesting for the readers to identify with the person or business entity being talked about. It has a sales pitch that is bell, a little bit different.

A professional biography template is meant to ease the process of generating printed professional biographies especially for an individual who wants to reach a lot of people or institutions. Elements that should be captured in a professional biography are: A summary of gekko ltd, ones early life in a sentence or two, make it interesting Then information touching on your education, mention any academic awards or the mary, clubs and societies that you were part of. Any work experience while in school. Talk about how creative and innovative you are with coming with solutions to the problems that you have faced as an individual, mention any situation that you were self-reliant in coming up with solutions Mention qualities that make you stand out for instance, being independent, principled or discerning to increase your trustworthiness. The following tips will enable you to come up with the best professional biography; Be brief and precise to the point.

This is to enable the reader to easily and quickly get to know about you. Poetry Essays? Be spontaneous in your writing Be as expressive as possible and avoid too much of self-editing while drafting the professional biography in the initial stages to capture as much information as possible Be friendly but not too informal Be as interesting as you could in order to get the attention of many people out there Write it in third person. Talk about your life as if someone else were describing it. This site offers you a professional biography template that could aid in making the bell, generation of professional biographies an easy and gekko ltd, less time consuming task. Mary Bell Documentary? You can also check out poetry essays, sample bios to figure out mary bell, how to To Punish go about the documentary, whole process of coming up with a professional biography.

A personal biography is a short account of who you are, your credentials and your notable accomplishments in life. Personal bios ought to be short, precise and relevant to your target audience. The use of personal statistics such as hobbies or family should be avoided. A personal biography template will help one to easily and conveniently come up with personal bios. The key elements in a personal biography are; Give an Starbucks Financial introduction of yourself. Remember to write it in third person and include the mary documentary, year that your professional career started to be relevant.

You could give a list of any relevant specializations in Communication and Change your field. Documentary? State your educational facts and credentials. Mention the degrees that you have pursued and the respective institutions. Add any relevant experiences you have that are required for your career and mention the name of the society that you are legally a member of. Proceed to outline any notable achievements or awards you have earned in your practice.

Remember that the information ought to be relevant to the audience being addressed. If you happen to be an author you could mention the magazines or any publishing house that has recognized your works. Your conclusion should mention any upcoming projects or works in progress that people should lookout for in the near future. Dont forget to mention your current place of residence. As you age, it is good to keep on updating your biography to reflect who you are at present time.

You can make use of the personal biography template offered by this site to easily and in poetry essays a more convenient way generate your own biography without missing out on the important details. We also provide sample biographies to give you a feel of what your end draft should look like. If you have kids and you want to let them in on famous historical figures, this site offers biographies for kids. These will help them know the notable people who help shape the world to what it has become to be.

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essay dated tazuma An Essay on documentary Radiometric Dating. By Jonathon Woolf. Radiometric dating methods are the strongest direct evidence that geologists have for the age of the Earth. All these methods point to what state of nature, Earth being very, very old -- several billions of years old. Documentary? Young-Earth creationists -- that is, creationists who believe that Earth is no more than 10,000 years old -- are fond of attacking radiometric dating methods as being full of inaccuracies and Communication, riddled with sources of bell error.

When I first became interested in the creation-evolution debate, in late 1994, I looked around for sources that clearly and poetry essays, simply explained what radiometric dating is and why young-Earth creationists are driven to discredit it. I found several good sources, but none that seemed both complete enough to mary documentary, stand alone and simple enough for a non-geologist to understand them. Essay Financial Analysis? Thus this essay, which is my attempt at producing such a source. What is radiometric dating? Simply stated, radiometric dating is a way of determining the age of a sample of material using the decay rates of radio-active nuclides to bell, provide a 'clock.' It relies on three basic rules, plus a couple of what is a state of nature critical assumptions. The rules are the same in all cases; the assumptions are different for each method. To explain those rules, I'll need to mary, talk about some basic atomic physics. There are 90 naturally occurring chemical elements. Poetry Essays? Elements are identified by their atomic number , the documentary, number of protons in and Change Essay the atom's nucleus. All atoms except the simplest, hydrogen- 1, have nuclei made up of protons and neutrons. Hydrogen-1's nucleus consists of only a single proton.

Protons and neutrons together are called nucleons , meaning particles that can appear in the atomic nucleus. A nuclide of an element, also called an isotope of an element, is an atom of that element that has a specific number of mary nucleons. Since all atoms of the same element have the same number of protons, different nuclides of an element differ in To Punish Essay the number of neutrons they contain. For example, hydrogen-1 and hydrogen-2 are both nuclides of the element hydrogen, but hydrogen-1's nucleus contains only a proton, while hydrogen-2's nucleus contains a proton and a neutron. Mary Documentary? Uranium-238 contains 92 protons and in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein Essay, 146 neutrons, while uranium-235 contains 92 protons and 143 neutrons. To keep it short, a nuclide is usually written using the bell, elements abbreviation. Essay? Uraniums abbreviation is U, so uranium-238 can be more briefly written as U238.

Many nuclides are stable -- they will always remain as they are unless some external force changes them. Some, however, are unstable -- given time, they will spontaneously undergo one of the several kinds of radioactive decay, changing in the process into another element. There are two common kinds of radioactive decay, alpha decay and bell documentary, beta decay . Essay Starbucks Financial? In alpha decay, the radioactive atom emits an alpha particle . An alpha particle contains two protons and two neutrons. After emission, it quickly picks up two electrons to mary bell, balance the Communication and Change Essay, two protons, and documentary, becomes an what is a electrically neutral helium-4 (He4) atom. When a nuclide emits an alpha particle, its atomic number drops by 2, and its mass number (number of nucleons) drops by 4. Thus, an bell atom of U238 (uranium, atomic number 92) emits an alpha particle and becomes an Creation: Frankenstein atom of Th234 (thorium, atomic number 90). A beta particle is an electron. Mary Bell Documentary? When an Essay Starbucks Financial atom emits a beta particle, a neutron inside the nucleus is transformed to a proton. Documentary? The mass number doesn't change, but the atomic number goes up by To Punish 1. Thus, an atom of mary documentary carbon-14 (C14), atomic number 6, emits a beta particle and becomes an poetry essays atom of nitrogen-14 (N14), atomic number 7. A third, very rare type of mary documentary radioactive decay is called electron absorption . In electron absorption, a proton absorbs an electron to become a neutron. In other words, electron absorption is the exact reverse of To Punish or to Rehabilitate Essay beta decay.

The mass number doesnt change, while the atomic number goes down by 1. So an atom of potassium-40 (K40), atomic number 19 can absorb an mary bell documentary electron to become an atom of Essay argon-40 (Ar40), atomic number 18. The half-life of a radioactive nuclide is defined as the time it takes half of a sample of the element to decay. A mathematical formula can be used to mary documentary, calculate the gekko ltd, half-life from the documentary, number of breakdowns per second in a sample of the nuclide. Some nuclides have very long half-lives, measured in billions or even trillions of Financial years. Others have extremely short half-lives, measured in tenths or hundredths of a second. The decay rate and therefore the half-life are fixed characteristics of a nuclide. Mary Bell? They dont change at all. Thats the first axiom of radiometric dating techniques: the half-life of what state a given nuclide is a constant. (Note that this doesnt mean the half-life of an element is a constant. Different nuclides of the same element can have substantially different half-lives.)

The half-life is a purely statistical measurement. It doesnt depend on the age of bell documentary individual atoms. Poetry Essays? A sample of U238 ten thousand years old will have precisely the same half-life as one ten billion years old. So, if we know how much of the nuclide was originally present, and how much there is now, we can easily calculate how long it would take for the missing amount to bell documentary, decay, and therefore how long its been since that particular sample was formed. Creation: Post-Colonialism Essay? Thats the essence of radiometric dating: measure the amount thats present, calculate how much is missing, and figure out mary, how long it would take for that quantity of the nuclide to break down.

Because its a statistical measure- ment , theres always a margin of error in poetry essays the age figure, but if the procedure is done properly, the margin is very small. Obviously, the major question here is how much of the mary documentary, nuclide was originally present in our sample? In some cases, we dont know. Such cases are useless for radiometric dating. We must know the original quantity of the parent nuclide in order to date our sample radiometrically . Fortunately, there are cases where we can do that. In order to do so, we need a nuclide thats part of a mineral compound.

Why? Because theres a basic law of chemistry that says Chemical processes like those that form minerals cannot distinguish between different nuclides of the same element. They simply cant do it. If an element has more than one nuclide present, and a mineral forms in a magma melt that includes that element, the elements different nuclides will appear in the mineral in precisely the Communication and Change, same ratio that they occurred in mary documentary the environment where and when the is a state, mineral was formed. This is the documentary, second axiom of radiometric dating. The third and final axiom is that when an atom undergoes radioactive decay, its internal structure and also its chemical behavior change. Poetry Essays? Losing or gaining atomic number puts the atom in a different row of the periodic table, and elements in different rows behave in mary documentary different ways. The new atom doesnt form the same kinds of chemical bonds that the old one did. It may not form the same kinds of compounds. It may not even be able to hold the parent atoms place in the compound it finds itself in, which results in an immediate breaking of the chemical bonds that hold the atom to the others in the mineral. Why not? you might ask.

Well, an atoms chemical activity pattern is what is a, a result of its electron shell structure. (The exact details of this are rather complicated, so I wont go into them here.) When the number of electrons change, the shell structure changes too. So when an atom decays and mary bell, changes into an atom of a different element, its shell structure changes and it behaves in a different way chemically. Thats it. Thats the sum total of the chemical and physical basis of radiometric dating. Thats all you really need to know to understand radiometric dating techniques. How do these axioms translate into useful science?

In the next part of this article, Ill examine several different radiometric dating techniques, and show how the axioms I cited above translate into useful age measurements. This section describes several common methods of poetry essays radiometric dating. To start, let's look at the one which almost everyone has heard of: radiocarbon dating, AKA carbon-14 dating or just carbon dating. Method 1: Carbon-14 Dating. The element carbon occurs naturally in three nuclides: C12, C13, and C14. The vast majority of carbon atoms, about 98.89%, are C12.

About one atom in 800 billion is mary bell documentary, C14. The remainder are C13. Of the three, C12 and C13 are stable. C14 is radioactive, with a half-life of 5730 years. C14 is also formed continuously from N14 (nitrogen-14) in the upper reaches of the atmosphere. And since carbon is an The “Other” Shelley’s Essay essential element in living organisms, C14 appears in all terrestrial ( landbound ) living organisms in the same proportions it appears in the atmosphere. Plants and protists get C14 from the environment. Animals and fungi get C14 from the mary documentary, plant or animal tissue they eat for food. When an and Change organism dies, it stops taking in C14. The C14 already in mary bell the organism doesnt stop decaying, so as time goes on Creation: Frankenstein Essay there is less and less C14 left in the organisms remains.

If we measure how much C14 there currently is, we can tell how much there was when the organism died, and therefore how much has decayed. Bell? When we know how much has decayed, we know how old the sample is. Many archaeological sites have been dated by applying radiocarbon dating to samples of bone, wood, or cloth found there. Radiocarbon dating depends on several assumptions. One is gekko ltd, that the mary bell, thing being dated is organic in origin. Radiocarbon dating does not work on Rehabilitate Essay anything inorganic, like rocks or fossils. Bell Documentary? Only things that once were alive and now are dead: bones, teeth, flesh, leaves, etc. The second assumption is that the organism in question got its carbon from the atmosphere.

A third is that the thing has remained closed to C14 since the organism from in Mary which it was created died. The fourth one is that we know what the concentration of atmospheric C14 was when the organism lived and mary, died. That last one is what state of nature, more important than it sounds. When Professor William Libby developed the C14 dating system in 1949, he assumed that the amount of C14 in the atmosphere was a constant. However, after a few years a number of scientists got suspicious of this assumption, because dates obtained by the C14 method werent tallying with dates obtained by other means. A long series of studies of C14 content produced an equally long series of corrective factors that must be taken into account when using C14 dating. So the dates derived from C14 decay had to be revised. One reference on radiometric dating lists an entire array of corrective factors for mary documentary the change in atmospheric C14 over time. C14 dating serves as both an illustration of how useful radiometric dating can be, and of the pitfalls that can be found in untested assumptions. Method 2: U238/U235/Th232 Series.

U238 and U235 are both nuclides of the element uranium. U235 is Essay, well known as the bell, major fissionable nuclide of uranium. Its the primary active ingredient of nuclear power plant reactor cores. It has a half-life of roughly 700 million years. U238 is more stable, with a half-life of 4.3 billion years. Th232 is the most common nuclide of the element thorium, and Communication and Change Essay, has a half-life of 13.9 billion years.

All three of these nuclides are the starting points for what are called radioactive series . Mary Documentary? A radioactive series is a sequence of nuclides that form one from another by radioactive decay. The series for U238 looks like this: Th234 -- Pa234 + B. Th230 -- Ra226 + A. Ra226 -- Rn222 + A. Rn222 -- Po218 + A. Po218 -- Pb214 + A.

Pb214 -- Bi214 + B. Bi214 -- Po214 + B. Po214 -- Pb210 + A. Pb210 -- Bi210 + B. Bi210 -- Po210 + B. Po210 -- Pb206 + A. (Chemical symbols: U = Uranium; Th = Thorium; Pa = Protactinium; Ra = Radium; Rn = Radon; Po = Polonium; Pb = Lead; Bi = Bismuth. A indicates alpha decay; B indicates beta decay.) We can calculate the half-lives of The “Other” Creation: Post-Colonialism in Mary Shelley’s Essay all of mary bell documentary these elements. To Punish Or To Rehabilitate? All the intermediate nuclides between U238 and Pb206 are highly unstable, with short half-lives. That means they dont stay around very long, so we can take it as given that these nuclides dont appear on Earth today except as the result of uranium decay.

We can find out the normal distribution of lead nuclides by looking at bell, a lead ore that doesnt contain any uranium, but that formed under the same conditions and The “Other” Post-Colonialism, from the mary bell, same source as our uranium-bearing sample. Analysis? Then any excess of Pb206 must be the result of the decay of U238. When we know how much excess Pb206 there is, and we know the current quantity of U238, we can calculate how long the documentary, U238 in our sample has been decaying, and therefore how long ago the rock formed. Th232 and U235 also give rise to radioactive series -- different series from that of U238, containing different nuclides and ending in poetry essays different nuclides of lead. Bell? Chemists can apply similar techniques to all three, resulting in three different dates for the same rock sample. (Uranium and thorium have similar chemical behavior, so all three of these nuclides frequently occur in the same ores.) If all three dates agree within the margin of error, the poetry essays, date can be accepted as confirmed beyond a reasonable doubt. Since all three of these nuclides have substantially different half-lives, for documentary all three to gekko ltd, agree indicates the bell documentary, technique being used is sound.

But even so, radioactive-series dating could be open to question. Its always possible that migration of Essay about Analysis nuclides or chemical changes in the rock could yield incorrect results. The rock being dated must remain a closed system with respect to uranium, thorium, and their daughter nuclides for mary the method to work properly. Both the about, uranium and thorium series include nuclides of mary radon, an inert gas that can migrate through rock fairly easily even in the few days it lasts. To have a radiometric dating method that is unquestionably accurate, we need a radioactive nuclide for which we can get absolutely reliable measurements of the original quantity and the current quantity. Is there any such nuclide to be found in nature? The answer is poetry essays, yes.

Which brings us to the third method of radiometric dating . . . Method 3: Potassium-Argon Dating. The element potassium has three nuclides, K39, K40, and K41. Only K40 is radioactive; the other two are stable. K40 is unusual among radioactive nuclides in that it can break down two different ways. Mary Bell Documentary? It can emit a beta particle to become Ca40 (calcium-40), or it can absorb an electron to gekko ltd, become Ar40 (argon-40). Argon is a very special element. Its one of the group of elements called noble gases or inert gases. Argon is a gas at Earth-normal temperatures, and in any state it exists only as single atoms. Bell Documentary? It doesnt form chemical compounds with any other element, not even the Shelley’s Frankenstein, most active ones. Its a fairly large atom, so it would have trouble slipping into mary bell documentary a dense crystals molecular structure. By contrast, potassium and calcium are two of the most active elements in nature.

They both form compounds readily and hold onto poetry essays, other atoms tenaciously. What does this mean? It means that potassium can get into bell documentary minerals quite easily, but argon cant. It means that before a mineral crystallizes, argon can escape from it easily. It also means that when an atom of argon forms from an atom of potassium inside the mineral, the gekko ltd, argon is trapped in mary documentary the mineral. So any Ar40 we find deep inside a rock sample must be there as a result of K40 decay. We know K40s half-life, and we know the probability of K40 decaying to Ar40 instead of Ca40. That and some simple calculations produce a figure for how long the K40 has been decaying in our rock sample.

However, again its important to remember that were dealing with assumptions , and we always have to keep in mind that our assumptions may be wrong. What happens if our mineral sample has not remained a closed system? What if argon has escaped from the mineral? What if argon has found its way into the mineral from some other source? If some of the Essay, radiogenic argon has escaped, then more K40 must have decayed than we think -- enough to bell documentary, produce what we did find plus what escaped.

If more K40 has decayed than we think, then its been decaying longer than we think, so the mineral must be older than we think. In other words, a mineral that has lost argon will be older than the result we get says it is. In the other direction, if excess argon has gotten into the mineral, it will be younger than the result we get says it is. An isochron dating method ( isochron dating is described in the next section) can also be applied to potassium-argon dating under certain very specific circumstances. Creation: In Mary Frankenstein? When isochron dating can be used, the result is a much more accurate date. Method 4: Rubidium-Strontium Dating. Yet a fourth method, rubidium-strontium dating, is even better than potassium-argon dating for old rocks. The nuclide rubidium-87 (Rb87) decays to strontium-87 (Sr87) with a half-life of 47 billion years. Strontium occurs naturally as a mixture of mary documentary several nuclides. If three minerals form at the same time in different regions of a magma chamber, they will have identical ratios of the To Punish or to Essay, different strontium nuclides. Mary? (Remember, chemical processes cant differentiate between nuclides). The total amount of Shelley’s Essay strontium might be different in mary the different minerals, but the ratios will be the same.

Now, suppose that one mineral has a lot of The “Other” Post-Colonialism in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein Essay Rb87, another has very little, and the third has an in-between amount. That means that when the mary documentary, minerals crystallize there is a fixed ratio of Rb87:Sr87. As time goes on, atoms of Rb87 decay to Sr-87, resulting in a change in the Rb87:Sr87 ratio, and gekko ltd, also in mary documentary a change in the ratio of Creation: Shelley’s Frankenstein Essay Sr87 to other nuclides of strontium. Bell? The decrease in the Rb87:Sr87 ratio is exactly matched by the gain of Communication and Change Sr87 in the strontium-nuclide ratio. It has to documentary, be -- the two sides of the equation must balance.

If we plot the or to Essay, change in the two ratios for these three minerals, the resulting graph comes out as a straight line with an ascending slope. This line is called an isochron . The lines slope then translates directly into a figure for the age of the bell, rock that contains the what is a state, different minerals. The power of the Rb/Sr dating method is enormous, for mary bell documentary it provides multiple independent ways of gekko ltd verifying the accuracy of the isochron . Mary Documentary? When every one of Essay Financial Analysis four or five different minerals from the same igneous formation matches the bell documentary, isochron perfectly, it can safely be said that the isochron is correct beyond a reasonable doubt. Contaminated or otherwise bad samples stand out like a lighthouse beacon, because they dont show a good isochron line. There are numerous other radiometric dating methods: the samarium-neodymium, lutetium-hafnium, rhenium-osmium, and lead isochron methods just to name a few. However, I simply havent time or room to deal with all of them. For further information on all methods of radiometric dating, please refer to Gunter Faures textbook PRINCIPLES OF ISOTOPE GEOLOGY. A full cite for this book is given in the bibliography. III . Possible Sources of poetry essays Error. Now, why is all this relevant to the creation-vs.-evolution debate? Every method of radiometric dating ever used points to an ancient age for the Earth.

For creationists to destroy the old-Earth theory, they must destroy the credibility of mary bell radiometric dating. They have two ways to do this. They can criticize the science that radiometric dating is based on, or they can claim sloppy technique and experimental error in the laboratory analyses of radioactivity levels and To Punish Essay, nuclide ratios. Option 1: Criticize the mary, Theory. Is there any way to criticize the theory of radiometric dating? Well, look back at the axioms of radiometric dating methods. Are any of about Starbucks those open to question. Answer: yes, two of them are.

Or at bell, least, they seem to be. Do we know, for a fact, that half-lives are constant (axiom 1)? Do we know for a fact that nuclide ratios are constant (axiom 2)? Regarding the first question: There are sound theoretical reasons for about Analysis accept- ing the constancy of nuclide half-lives, but the reasons are based in the remote and mary documentary, esoteric reaches of about quantum mechanics, and I dont intend to get into that in bell documentary this article. To Punish Rehabilitate? However, if all we had were theoretical reasons for believing axiom 1, we would be right to be suspicious of it. Do we have observational evidence? The answer is yes. On several occasions, astronomers have been able to analyze the mary, radiation produced by supernovas. In a supernova, the vast amount of energy released creates every known nuclide via atomic fusion and fission. Some of these nuclides are radioactive. We can detect the The “Other” Post-Colonialism in Mary Frankenstein, presence of the various nuclides by spectrographic analysis of the supernovas radiation.

We can also detect the characteristic radiation signatures of radioactive decay in mary documentary those nuclides. We can use that information to calculate the half-lives of those nuclides. Poetry Essays? In every case where this has been done, the measured radiation intensity and the calculated half-life of the nuclide from the supernova matches extremely well with measurements of that nuclide made here on Earth. Now, because light travels at a fixed rate (a bit under 300,000 kilometers per second), and bell documentary, because stars are so far away, when we look at a distant star were seeing it as it was when that light left it and headed this way. When we look at a star in the Andromeda Galaxy, 2,700,000 light-years away, were seeing that star as it was 2,700,000 years ago. And when we look at a supernova in poetry essays the Andromeda Galaxy, 2,700,000 years old, we see nuclides with the exact same half-lives as we see here on Earth. Not just one or two nuclides, but many. For these measurements to all be consistently wrong in exactly the same way, most scientists feel, is beyond the realm of possibility. What about nuclide ratios? Are they indeed constant? Well, lets think about it: Minerals form by documentary recognized chemical processes that depend on the chemical activity of the elements involved.

The chemical behavior of an element depends on its size and the number of electrons in its outer shell. This is the foundation of the periodic table of the elements, a basic part of chemistry that has stood without challenge for a hundred and fifty years. The shell structure depends only on Creation: in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein Essay the number of electrons the nuclide has, which is the same as the number of protons in its nucleus. Mary Documentary? So the shell structure doesnt change between different nuclides of the same element. Starbucks? K39 is bell, chemically identical to K40; the only way we can distinguish between them is to use a nonchemical technique like mass spectrometry. Rehabilitate Essay? (Note: Its true that some natural processes favor some isotopes over others. Water molecules containing oxygen-16 are lighter and mary, therefore evaporate faster than water molecules with oxygen-18.

However, as far as is or to Rehabilitate, known such fractionation occurs only with light nuclides: oxygen, hydrogen, carbon. The atoms used in radiometric dating techniques are mainly heavy atoms, so we can still use the axiom that mineral-forming processes cant distinguish between different nuclides.) So the processes that are involved in mineral formation cant distinguish between nuclides. Sr86 atoms and Sr87 atoms behave identically when they bond with other atoms to form a mineral molecule. Bell? If there are ten Sr86 atoms for every Sr87 atom in the original magma melt, there will be ten Sr86 atoms for poetry essays every Sr87 atom in the minerals that crystallize from that melt.

Option 2: Criticize the Techniques. So, weve seen that radiometric dating techniques are built on a sound theoretical basis. The only other possible source of error is in laboratory technique. To translate theory into useful measurements, the lab procedures must be accurate. A contaminated rock sample is useless for dating. A sample that is taken from the surface, where atoms could get in and out easily, is also useless.

Samples must be taken by coring, from bell deep within a rock mass. To date a rock, chemists must break it down into is a its component elements using any of several methods, then analyze nuclide ratios using a mass spectrometer. If the lab technique is sloppy, the date produced isnt reliable. Theres no way to eliminate the possibility of error. It cant be done. Mistakes can always happen -- Murphys Law rules in science as much as in mary bell documentary any other field of human endeavor. (For those who have never encountered it, Murphys Law is the simple rule that in is a of nature any field of mary human endeavor, anything that can go wrong will go wrong.) But we can try to minimize error. And when we do, the dates produced can be accepted as accurate. When samples taken from different parts of a given igneous rock formation are dated by different people at different labs over or to, many years, the possibility that all those measurements could be wrong is vanishingly small.

Some may well be wrong. If nine analyses agree, and a tenth produces radically different results, the mary, odd-man-out is usually considered a result of some kind of error and discarded. If the researcher doing the work can find and document a specific problem in analysis that could produce precisely that observed wrong result, then its virtually certain the odd-man-out is an error. A 90% success ratio in a technique that requires such delicate, accurate work is very impressive. And some radiometric techniques have a much better success ratio than that. In any case, while its true that there are numerous possible sources of error, there is and Change, no source of error that could account for the enormous difference between the bell documentary, 6000-year age demanded by young-Earth creationists and the 3.5-billion-year radiometric age for the oldest known rocks on Earth. Its completely illogical to think that these techniques could be wrong by that much. Creationist objections to radiometric dating techniques basically fall into three categories: 1) Creationists often claim that radiometric dates are unreliable because the entire theory is based on invalid assumptions. Weve already seen that this doesnt hold up under examination.

The assumptions that are used in Essay Starbucks radiometric dating techniques are perfectly justified given current physics. 2) Creationist geologists compile long lists of dates obtained by radiometric techniques that deviate widely from the normally accepted values. Creationist geologist John Woodmorappe is the best known of the creationists who attempt this approach. Hes compiled a list of several hundred radiometric dates that are widely divergent from the bell documentary, values accepted by conventional geology. Based on this, he claims that radiometric dating methods don't produce consistent results, that geologists conceal radiometric dates which don't match what's expected, and that therefore the whole methodology of radiometric dating is Essay Starbucks Financial Analysis, worthless.

In general, such claims are revealed as flawed by what they dont say more than by what they do say. Mary Bell? In an To Punish or to Essay article for the creationist journal Creation Science Research Quarterly , Woodmorappe listed 350-odd aberrant dates, and claimed that there are many, many more. What he did not say is that those 350 were winnowed out of bell documentary tens of thousands of radiometric dates which do give more reasonable results. If we run dating tests on 500 samples and 350 (70% of the To Punish or to Rehabilitate, total tests) are scattered all over the place, with only a few anywhere near the expected values, then we clearly have a serious problem. But if we run dating tests on 10,000 samples and get 350 aberrant results (3.5% of the total), that could easily be simple experimental error. If we test fifty samples from the same rock formation and we get 2 ages of 1 million years, 2 ages of 500 million years, and 46 ages all clustered around 175 million years, its not a great leap of logic to conclude that the 4 aberrant results were in error, and the 46 clustered results are probably correct. 3) Some creationists produce radiometric dates of their own that show that radiometric dating produces illogical, contradictory results. A classic example of this tactic is a claim by creationist geologist Steve Austin that rocks taken from bell documentary Recent lava flows on the Uinkaret Plateau at the top of the Grand Canyon produce older dates than rocks taken from the bottom of the canyon, when both samples are dated using the Rb87/Sr87 isochron method. This appears to be a serious blow against the Rb/Sr isochron technique, but in his article A Criticism of ICR's Grand Canyon Dating Project, Chris Stassen points out that Austin made a critical error in his work.

The samples he took from the Plateau are from different rock formations. For any type of radiometric dating to Rehabilitate, work properly, all samples must come from the same formation. So its not surprising that Austin s results make no sense. Were still not done, though. Mary Documentary? If all we had was the radiometric techniques that Ive described, there would remain a possibility (a miniscule one, but a real possibility nonetheless) that the entire idea is grievously wrong, that some as-yet-undetected factor is Communication Essay, throwing off all the mary, hundreds and thousands of radiometric dates that have been produced based on Essay about Financial Analysis rock samples from all around Earth and even beyond it. But we have more than that.

We have several methods completely unrelated to radioactivity which serve as independent checks on the radiometric dating techniques. For example, in 1838, the mary, American geologist James Dwight Dana made a systematic survey of the Hawaiian Islands . Poetry Essays? He noted that the islands become more heavily eroded as you move from Hawaii toward the northwest. He interpreted this to mean that the islands become older as you move northwest along the chain. When rock samples were taken from the Hawaiian Islands and dated radiometrically , they agreed with Danas conclusions of over a century before. The islands do indeed become older as you move northwest. Mary? And the degree of erosion corresponds roughly with the radiometric dates. No island in the chain is or to Rehabilitate, dated as being significantly older than the erosion rate implies, nor is mary bell, any island in the chain dated as being significantly younger than the erosion rate indicates.

Both modern corals and fossil corals deposit daily and annual growth bands. By careful analysis of these bands, we can tell how many days there were in a year when the coral was growing. For modern corals, this technique yields 365 day-bands per Essay year, more or less, just as it should. For corals that grew in formations identified as Early Devonian, the technique shows a little over mary bell documentary, 400 day-bands per year. Astronomers can measure the rate at which Earths rotation is slowing. Communication And Change? Assuming the rate of slowing has remained constant, a day-count of 400 days per year indicates an age of roughly 400 million years. And when Early Devonian rocks are dated radiometrically , we get dates of roughly 400 million years.

Yet another cross-check on radiometric dating is provided by plate tectonics. Mary? The plates that form the Earths surface are moving at a measurable rate. There are several ways of measuring this movement that themselves have nothing to do with radiometric dating. State Of Nature? The plate that forms the Pacific Ocean basin is moving northwest at at a known rate. Geologists generally accept that the Hawaiian Islands have been formed by upwelling of magma from a hot spot in the Earths mantle, below the seafloor. The Pacific Plate is moving; the hot spot remains fixed; and the result is a series of volcanic islands growing upward over the hot spot. Between Hawaii and Midway Island (2400km northwest of Hawaii ) are some thirty volcanoes, active and extinct. Many of these volcanoes have had lava flows dated by the potassium-argon method. In all these cases, the radiometric date agrees substantially with the date derived from bell documentary extrapolation of what state plate motion. Particularly striking is the correlation for Midway Island itself. By drift rate it should be about 27 million years old.

By K- Ar dating, the volcanic rock that forms Midway's core is 27.7 million years old. Two other island chains that are located over Pacific Plate hot spots show substantially similar patterns of motion to mary documentary, the Hawaiian Islands . They both correlate well with other measurements of the Pacific Plates motion. And their radiometric dates match as well. Three independent methods of dating these islands, and state, they all agree within acceptable ranges of error. What are the bell documentary, chances of all three being wrong in and Change Essay such ways as to produce the same wrong answer?

Theres no way to calculate them, but Id say theyre so miniscule that youd have better odds of documentary hitting the state lottery five times in a row. One more example, just to what is a of nature, wrap things up. In the late sixties, two geologists identified a specific reversal of the Earths magnetic field using the rocks in mary bell documentary Olduvai Gorge in Africa . To Punish Rehabilitate? ( Olduvai Gorge is mary documentary, famous as one of the best sites in the world for early hominid fossils.) They called this reversal the Olduvai Event. A few years later, another geologist, Neil Opdyke , was taking samples of sea-floor rock and found that he could identify the Olduvai Event in his cores. Sea-floor sediments often preserve evidence of magnetic field reversals. To Punish Essay? After carefully analyzing the sedimentation rates in his cores, Opdyke concluded that the Olduvai Event had spanned a period from roughly 1.85 million to about 1.5 million years ago.

Obtaining radiometric dates from Olduvai Gorge is difficult for several reasons, but one of the few dates thats considered solid comes from a specific layer of volcanic tuff called Tuff 1B. This tuff occurs near the bottom of the Olduvai Event. It was dated in 1959 using the documentary, potassium-argon method. The date produced was approximately 1.8 million years ago. Far from being rickety constructs full of about Financial sources of bell documentary error and unproven assumptions, radiometric dating techniques are actually on a very sound theoretical and procedural basis.

To destroy that basis, creationists would have to destroy much of chemistry and a lot of atomic physics too. The periodic table is the bedrock on which modern chemistry is built. The constancy of the velocity of light is a basic axiom of Einsteins theories of relativity, theories which have passed every test physicists could devise. The constancy of radioactive decay rates follows from quantum mechanics, which has also passed every test physicists can create. In short, everything we know in chemistry and in physics points to state of nature, radiometric dating as being a viable and valuable method of documentary calculating the ages of igneous and metamorphosed igneous rocks. To question it seems to be beyond the Essay Financial Analysis, bounds of reason. To charge thousands of chemists all over the world with mass incompetence also seems to be beyond the bounds of documentary reason. Radiometric dating has been used ever more widely for To Punish Essay the past forty years. The dates produced have gotten steadily more precise as lab techniques and instrumentation has been improved. There is simply no logical reason to throw this entire field of mary science out the window.

There is no reason to believe the theory is faulty, or to believe that thousands of state different chemists could be so consistently wrong in the face of mary documentary every conceivable test. Further, radiometric dates can be checked by other dating techniques. Essay About Starbucks Financial Analysis? When they are, the dates almost always agree within the range of expected error. In cases where the dates dont agree, its always been found that some natural factor was present which selectively affected one or the other dating method being used. Creationists are forced to challenge radiometric dating because it stands as the most powerful and mary bell documentary, most damning evidence against their idea of a young Earth.

But in the end, they are reduced to saying that radiometric dating must be wrong, because we know it happened this way. And that is Essay Starbucks, not a scientific position. If theory says it happened this way and evidence says it happened that way, theory must be revised to mary documentary, fit the Essay Financial, evidence. Creationists wont do that. That reveals creation science to be a sham, and not any kind of science at all. Information on the nature of documentary atoms, half-lives, and types of radioactive decay was taken from The “Other” Creation: Post-Colonialism Shelley’s Essay ATOM : Journey Across the Subatomic Cosmos, by Isaac Asimov (c. Nightfall, Inc., 1991). Information on radiometric dating techniques comes from mary bell documentary a variety of sources, including the Asimov book cited above, and these: PRINCIPLES OF ISOTOPE GEOLOGY, 2nd Ed. c. John Wiley Sons, 1986.

EARTH THEN AND NOW , 2nd Ed. Carla W. Montgomery and David Dathe. c. Wm C. The “Other” Post-Colonialism In Mary? Brown, Publishers, 1994. Scientific Creationism vs. Evolution: The Mislabeled Debate Kenneth R. Mary Bell? Miller. Essay in The “Other” Post-Colonialism in Mary Shelley’s SCIENCE AND CREATIONISM. Edited by Ashley Montagu.

c. Oxford Press, 1984. (This essay contains an excellent explanation of the rubidium-strontium isochron dating method.) GROLIERS ACADEMIC AMERICAN ENCYCLOPEDIA, 1994 ed. Articles on Carbon-14, Radiometric Dating, and related subjects. Multimedia CD-ROM distributed by Grolier Electronic Publishing.

Information on mary documentary creationist critiques of radiometric dating, and poetry essays, the flaws in those critiques, comes primarily from bell documentary these sources: The Unreliability of Radiometric Dating Uploaded to CompuServes Dinosaur/Paleontology Forum Library 13 as JDATIN. TXT. Evaluation of ICR Grand Canyon Research Project. This paper is available on the World Wide Web at the talk.origins FAQ Archive, File uploaded to CompuServe Religion Forum. (Note: Glenn Morton is an old-Earth creationist, not an evolutionist. Im using him as a source because his criticisms of Woodmorappes claim are quite valid regardless of his personal position.) Information on the independent cross-checks for radiometric dates comes mainly from Essay these sources:

On the Hawaiian Islands chain: The Evolution of the mary documentary, Pacific Heezen , Bruce and MacGregor , Ian. c. SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, Nov. 1973. Reprinted in CONTINENTS ADRIFT AND CONTINENTS AGROUND, Scientific American Press, 1976. On the Olduvai Event: LUCY S CHILD: The Discovery of a Human Ancestor.

Donald Johanson and James Shreeves. c. 1989, Wm Morrow and what, Company, Inc. On the length of the year as shown by coral growth patterns: A TRIP THROUGH TIME: Principles of Historical Geology, 2nd Ed . John Cooper, Richard Miller, and Jacqueline Patterson. c. Bell Documentary? Merrill Publishing, 1990. A Calendar in Essay the Coral, pp. 307-8.

These sources are supplemented by references in bell documentary other books, numerous threads on several CompuServe forums, and other papers and articles downloaded from CompuServe and the World Wide Web.