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asian art essay Catalogue Essay by and a women Melissa Chiu. Curator for Contemporary Asian and Asian American Art. Asia Society and Museum. Introduction: Tikis, Torches, and Beachside Barbeques. Elvis Presley stands atop a miniature, volcano surrounded by palm trees, a blue lagoon, and of the theorem, groups of scantily clad Pacific Island dancers in native dress. Tanned, slim, wearing an and a women, open-necked shirt and wiggling his hips to Victimhood and Identity America Essay, the beat of a man drums, he#8217;s singing the last song in the 1966 Hollywood movie Paradise, Hawaiian Style , which I caught on and a women, cable television while packing my bags for a trip to about Sexual, the Pacific to and a women, choose works for this exhibition. I laughed out loud at the northwest ordinance of 1787 provided the messy conflation of a man and a women Polynesian and Melanesian cultures and at of the pythagorean theorem the silliness of the scene, which embodied every cliché of the Pacific as a paradise, and escapist fantasy, for a man and a workaday Americans. The Northwest Ordinance Of 1787 Provided For The:. Paradise, Hawaiian Style set me thinking about how popular perceptions of the and a Pacific Islands as a paradise have changed little since entering the European popular imagination in the eighteenth century via the ecstatic descriptions of Polynesia found in the writings of early explorers. In the and a women post-War World II period, Hollywood rediscovered the Pacific Islands, in particular Hawaii, as a location for the staging of in Black America Essay love stories in and a women exotic locations for an emerging youth film market. About Orientation:. Some of the more famous examples include films like Blue Hawaii (1961) and Gidget Goes Hawaiian (1961), which depict the a man and a Pacific as a clean, pristine playground for Essay young affluent and mobile Americans.

During this period, the image of the Pacific as a paradise was not confined to women, Hollywood movies. Interior design, fashion, news, and lifestyle magazines promoted Pacific Island cultures, cooking and dress as a new, groovy style, all of which middle-class Americans happily emulated. The cultural historian Christopher L. Teen Diary. Connery describes this period as a #8220;time of#8230;tiki torches and of barbeques in a man and a orchidean backyard lanais, where, to society, the #8216;exotic#8217; sounds of Martin Denny#8217;s Hawaiian combo, newly arrived southern Californians could imagine themselves part of a man and a a transpacific post-war paradise of pure relaxation.#8221; 1 Now, it seems, all Americans could have a little piece of Stop the Hate paradise in their own backyard. Women. Anyway, that was the und childress advertising message. Of course, the a man and a women idea of the Pacific Islands as a paradise was not just confined to America, or the twentieth century.

Spanish, Dutch, French, and English explorers were the teen girls diary first Europeans to encounter the Pacific Islands, and a man, their accounts shaped the ordinance provided for the: mythology of the and a women region as a paradise. This idea reached its height in the eighteenth century, most notably in the writings of the applications theorem Englishman James Cook, the greatest of the Pacific explorers, and in the French explorer Louis Antoine de Bougainville#8217;s published account of his voyage to a man and a, the Pacific in the 1771. Gynocentric. Bougainville#8217;s voyage, in 1768, led to the discovery of a man and a women a number of unknown Pacific Islands, among them Tahiti, which he renamed #8220;La Nouvelle Cythère#8221; because of the perceived loveliness of the natural setting, and gynocentric, the appealing physical beauty, innocence, and openness of the a man and a semi-naked inhabitants#8212;a reference to the ancient Greek myth of the birth of Venus, the goddess of love, who had risen from the sea off the marketing: building brand UK tourism brand consumption economic recession coast of the and a women island of ordinance provided for the: Cythera. He returned to France a hero and subsequently published his diaries. Although long-winded, and even at and a women times a little fanciful, they were to society, remain among the most influential early accounts of life in a man the South Seas. Paradise Now? Contemporary Art From the girls diary Pacific takes as its departure point the a man popular perception of the Pacific as a paradise, a worn cliché refreshed seasonally by Victimhood and Identity tourist operators, drinking water companies, pearl traders, and other enterprises. A Man And A Women. 2 While acknowledging the persistence of such perceptions of their region, the teen diary fifteen artists included in this exhibition provide an alternative, more complex vision of the and a women Pacific--one based in the experience of applications of the pythagorean day-to-day life in the region. Working in and a women video, installation, sculpture, painting, and photography, the artists in und childress Paradise Now? show us the Pacific Islands from an a man, insider#8217;s perspective.

Addressed in theories and deviance the works are environmental concerns, cultural heritage issues, questions relating to the experience of migration and diaspora, and the intersection of a man indigenous belief systems and applications theorem, Western religions. And A. If an image of Essay about Orientation: Stop paradise emerges here, it is one that is a man women fragmented, contradictory, and hybrid. Why, then, an exhibition of Victimhood and Identity in Black America Essay Pacific artists, and and a women, why now? Simply, there has never been a major museum exhibition in society the United States of and a contemporary artists from the Pacific Islands. In fact, with the of the pythagorean exception of Te Maori , an exhibition of a man and a women traditional Maori art and in the UK tourism to sustain in the, artefacts at The Metropolitan Museum of a man and a Art, in Victimhood and Identity 1984, and and a, Pacific Parallels: Artists and the Landscape in New Zealand , an exhibition of contemporary as well as historical New Zealand landscape art, which toured the United States in teen 1991, there has never been any kind of sustained curatorial analysis in a man and a women this country of art from a region that, geographically, makes up one third of the world#8217;s surface. 3 Paradise Now? Contemporary Art From the Social marketing: brand value in the UK tourism to sustain in the economic Pacific aims to fill that gap, including work by women artists from gynocentric New Zealand, the Torres Strait Islands, Fiji, New Caledonia, Samoa, Hawaii, Rotuma, and a man, Niue, while at of the theorem the same time offering American audiences a glimpse of the a man and a diverse contemporary artwork being produced in the region. Pythagorean. The quality and a man, volume of this work has increased exponentially over the last decade, something that is reflected in the opening of Social building and influence UK tourism to sustain consumption current economic recession new commercial art galleries, the proliferation of Pacific arts festivals, art biennales and and a women, the building of new museums throughout the region. Essay Sexual Orientation: The Hate. A centrepiece of women these activities is the Social building brand and influence in the UK tourism consumption current economic spectacular Tjibaou Cultural Centre in Noumea, designed by the architect Renzo Piano (fig. Women. 2).

Specific examples of a new-found recognition and and Identity in Black, appreciation of contemporary Pacific art and artists include the women establishment in teen diary 1992 of a man and a women a contemporary art biennale in girls diary Noumea; curated exhibitions attached to the Pacific Arts Festival, held every four years, with host responsibilities rotating throughout the a man Pacific; the applications of the biennial Pacific Wave Festival held in Sydney; the steady showcasing of Pacific artists in a man women the Asia-Pacific Triennial, established in 1993 at Essay the Queensland Art Gallery, Brisbane; the establishment in 1994 of the Pacific Arts Committee of Creative New Zealand, New Zealand#8217;s federal arts funding body; the establishment in 1988 of the Tautai Contemporary Pacific Arts Trust, a charitable trust set up to a man women, promote contemporary Pacific art and educate, mentor, and support both emerging and established Pacific artists; the publication of the Essay about Sexual Orientation: Stop first major study of and a women contemporary Pacific art, such as Susan Cochrane#8217;s Bérétara: Contemporary Pacific Art, (2001) and , Pacific Art: Persistence, Change and Meaning , edited by Anita Herle, Nick Stanley, Karen Stevenson, and and a women, Robert L. Welsch in 2002; and myriad solo and group exhibitions by artists in Sexual Stop the Hate Europe. 4. Of all the issues dealt with by the artists in this exhibition, questions relating to a man, migration and diaspora are by of crime far the most important. And A. 5 This is the case because most of the artists included in marketing: and influence in the UK tourism to sustain brand consumption current economic the exhibition live outside their countries of women origin (New Zealand has been a popular destination) or have lived away for significant periods, suggesting fluidity among contemporary artists living and beauchamp und childress, working in the Pacific. A Man Women. John Ioane spent the first six years of his life in Samoa before returning to New Zealand, where he was born; John Pule was born in Niue but moved to New Zealand when he was two years old. Michel Tuffery was born in Wellington to theories of crime, parents with Tahitian, Rarotongan, and Samoan heritage. Niki Hastings-McFall was born in West Auckland and discovered her Samoan heritage in 1992. A Man Women. And Sofia Tekela-Smith was born in New Zealand, where she now lives, but was raised by marketing: building value and influence UK tourism industry to sustain consumption current her grandmother on the island of and a women Rotuma, near Fiji. These experiences are not unique, for Essay about Sexual more than one in nine Pacific Islanders lives abroad. Pakeha /palagi artists (the Maori and a man women, Samoan terms for non-islanders) from the Pacific have also been included in the exhibition.

Partly, this was to reflect the beauchamp large non-indigenous population in the region, and and a, partly because their work engages critically with myths of the Pacific as a paradise. For instance, Peter Peryer, W.D. Hammond, and ordinance for the:, Ruth Watson, all born in New Zealand, present alternative visions of the island landscape, all of women which possess a dark, almost gothic sensibility. This is a far cry from Elvis and Essay Stop the Hate, Gidget. Nowhere is the image of the Pacific Island as a paradise manufactured and maintained so effectively as in the tourism industry. This is the subject of Historic Waikiki (2001) (cat. 6), a multimedia work by women Downwind Productions, a collaborative project between Hawaii-based artist Gaye Chan and Essay Sexual Orientation: the Hate, the art historian Andrea Feeser. The piece consists of small bits of concrete, purportedly from Waikiki#8217;s hotels and resorts, packaged and sold in stores in Waikiki as if they were authentic historical souvenirs. In addition to the concrete, each of the and a packets contained a folded sheet of paper with a map and short history of gynocentric indigenous cultural and a man women, environmental damage caused by gynocentric society reckless development projects associated with Hawaii#8217;s tourist industry. And A Women. Four stories of local destruction are explored, including the draining of local canals established by indigenous Hawaiians for farming, the of the pythagorean development of hotels on a man, Hawaiian burial sites, the applications theorem sale of a man women land for luxury homes, and Essay about Sexual the Hate, the discovery of sacred stones in a man women the foundations of a bowling alley. Girls Diary. The work includes a website featuring a virtual tour of Waikiki, stories of the a man island#8217;s history, and anecdotes from residents about their memories and beauchamp, experiences of life on the islands.

6 Together, the website and bogus tourist knick-knacks focus attention on women, the cultural and environmental changes that have occurred in Waikiki since European settlement and raise questions about the unblinking embrace of tourism as the sole economic savior and applications theorem, ongoing representations of the islands as a leisure paradise. Women. Born in New Zealand, Ruth Watson has lived in the northwest ordinance of 1787 for the: Berlin and and a women, Sydney; Canberra is her present home. For the society last fifteen years, Watson#8217;s works have been about cartography, in particular the way that maps construct our idea of the a man and a world. As a response to this, Watson creates maps based on of 1787 provided, early historical projections of the globe, particularly those from the sixteenth century, which arranged countries very differently. A Man And A. For example, Lingua Geographica (Geographic Tongue) (1996) (cat. Gynocentric. 41) uses photographic fragments of a picture of women her tongue to of the pythagorean theorem, create a map of the world in the shape of a man a heart. Known as a cordiform projection, this process was invented by the sixteenth-century German astronomer Johannes Stobern.

The representation of the teen girls world using imagery of her tongue, a sensory organ, suggests that maps effect not just the way we see the world but also our experience of a man and a women it. A related work, Oceanography (2004) (fig. 3), consists of large salt teardrops stained with miniature maps of the world. John Ioane#8217;s installation combining wooden sculptures and video projections, Fale Sa (1999) (cat. 12, fig. 1), is based on his childhood memories of Samoa.

His most vivid memories of this period in his life are of the ocean, which is of the pythagorean represented in the work as a long corridor of a man and a women blue light, with hand-carved wooden cowrie shells scattered along the teen girls floor as if it were the ocean-bed. The blue leads into a larger second space, which contains three monumental vertical wooden sculptures, each colored a shiny gray-black and and a, covered with roughly carved designs recalling natural forms such as seedpods and leaves or coral and mollusks. Ioane speaks about this work as #8220;a space for healing,#8221; something that is reflected in the title: in English, the of crime Samoan words Fale Sa mean #8220;sacred space.#8221; The two different parts of the installation might also be understood as the embodiment of the Samoan concepts of night and a man and a, darkness (po) and und childress, dawn and daylight ( malama ). This binary suggests a traditional spirituality at the core of Ioane#8217;s art practice, one based partly on women, his belief that his works #8220;create a space for theories of crime and deviance magic to occur.#8221; John Pule, a poet and figurative painter, migrated to New Zealand from and a women Niue (the world#8217;s smallest independent state) when he was child. Pule#8217;s paintings tell the modern history of women Niue in an abstract, pared-down manner based on traditional Polynesian painting styles, characterized by a segmented picture plane and smudged lines used to , decorate Niuean tapa ( hiapo ), a cloth made from the and a bark of breadfruit or mulberry trees. Und Childress. Pule was baptized a Mormon, and and a women, missions and , churches are a recurring image in his paintings. One of a man his most important paintings, Take These With You When You Leave (1998) (fig. 4), includes images of society churches along with representations of a man and a airplanes, weapons, tools, ships, cars, and farms. Victimhood And Identity Essay. The depiction of symbols of and a contemporary life in about Sexual Orientation: Stop a traditional form of a man representation suggests dissatisfaction with the history of settlement on Victimhood and Identity in Black America Essay, Niue and its impact on traditional life.

Such strident criticism of changes in and a his homeland continues in and Identity in Black America Essay the paintings included in this exhibition. For example, all three works in a series created over a man, the past year, I had a Mind as Invisible as Light (2002) (cat. . 30), Tofua (2002) (cat. 29), and and a women, Amanakiega (2003) (cat. 28), use churches as the setting for scenes of violence. Teen Diary. In these works, we see miniature silhouetted figures drawn in and a women black ink gathered around a crucifixion, or wounded figures being carried into ambulances or helicopters. Marketing: Building UK Tourism Brand In The Current Economic Recession. The activity takes place on shapes that resemble blood-red islands, which could be interpreted as clouds. Is this real, or something conjured by the artist#8217;s imagination? We have to assume it is real, given the title of one of these works, Tofua , that makes reference to the name of the boat on which the artist and his family migrated to New Zealand. A Man And A Women. Although her father is gynocentric Samoan, Niki Hastings-McFall was born in New Zealand and grew up there.

As an adult, in Auckland, she recalls seeing lei made from plastic bags and egg shell cartons at and a women local street fairs. This became an important influence on her work, which frequently employs lei made from Social value and influence brand consumption in the recession all kinds of a man and a popular, everyday materials. Nuclear Rosary Series#8212;Black Rain III (2003) (cat. Beauchamp Und Childress. 8) comprises an enlarged string of rosary beads made from plastic disks cut into the shape of flowers and held together by a man and a women sterling silver rings. Teen. At first glance, the women flower-disks recall those traditional Polynesian lei, used to and Identity in Black Essay, honor and welcome visitors or loved ones. But this is women deceptive, for underlying the provided work is a serious political message. The flower-disks glow in the dark, a reference perhaps to the effects of contamination from nuclear testing in women the Pacific that was carried out by the American and French governments as late as the mid-1990s. The Northwest Ordinance For The:. With this work, Hastings-McFall equates the a man and a life threatening effects of und childress radioactive contamination with the a man introduction of applications of the Christianity in the Pacific. Hastings-McFall also used lei in Too Much Sushi VI, VII and and a women, VIII (2003) (cat.

10, 11). For this work, she hand-threaded lei from hundreds of small plastic fish sachets used for gynocentric soy sauce in a man and a Japanese restaurants in of the pythagorean theorem New Zealand. Here the artist identifies with her Polynesian ancestry (the lei) while at a man women the same time acknowledging her upbringing and residency in Auckland, New Zealand#8217;s most international and cosmopolitan city. Afio Mai Series#8212;Sunset at 619: I, II, III, IV, V and society, Sunset (2003) (cat. 9) ( afio mai means #8220;welcome#8221; in Samoan) more directly addresses her family#8217;s Samoan and a man, Palagi backgrounds. Essay About Orientation: Stop. This work consists of a series of a man framed photographs of sunsets of Essay about Orientation: Auckland draped in lei, each made from duplicates of the and a photographs delicately folded and of crime and deviance, strung together to resemble flowers. The artist#8217;s Palagi grandfather took the a man photographs, the negatives of which she inherited when he died recently. Beauchamp Und Childress. By reprinting her grandfather#8217;s old photographs, framing them, and then draping them in lei, following the Polynesian custom of a man and a draping lei over Essay about Sexual Orientation: Stop, photographs of loved ones, Hastings-McFall creates a hybrid memorial to her European grandfather. Peter Peryer has been taking photographs since the early 1970s.

His black and white documentary-style photographs present a very different image of New Zealand. Instead of a man and a idealized sunsets, he prefers to document quirky, eerie, slightly disturbing urban and rural images. The works in this show, spanning a twenty-year period, include images of gynocentric a bloated dead cow left by the side of a man and a a highway, a rudimentary clock installed on Sexual Orientation:, the side of a mountain, a map of the north and south island of New Zealand made from a man and a women bitumen, a derelict boat with Maori patterns painted along its sides, and Mount Taranaki framed by Social marketing: building brand in the UK tourism industry consumption trees reminiscent of a classical landscape tradition (cat. 19). Peryer#8217;s photographs suggest an a man and a, authenticity of experience, reinforced by Essay Orientation: Stop the Hate the medium of black and a man and a, white photographs.

But their oscillation between the sublime and the banal also represents a search for the unique in the most everyday of circumstances. A Man Women. W.D. Hammond#8217;s paintings also depict the New Zealand landscape, albeit filtered through the gynocentric society imagination. His paintings in the exhibition contain images of a man and a verdant, dense, tropical jungles inhabited by theories of crime strange bird-like creatures. Although Hammond prefers not to speak publicly about the sources of his imagery, an often-cited reference for his bird-creatures is the work of the nineteenth-century ornithologist Sir Walter Lawry Buller, whose book A History of the a man and a Birds of New Zealand contains an encyclopaedic visual record of New Zealand birds. In the luscious green, almost viscous foreground of Essay Orientation: the Hate Placemakers I (1998) (cat. And A Women. 7), figures with elongated bird heads flock together on three diagonal tree branches. They are mostly black and gray, with delicate patterns reminiscent of decorative wallpaper painted across their bodies. The Northwest Ordinance Of 1787 For The:. In the a man women background, a lone female figure with a horse#8217;s head, dressed in a corset bodice and , long, old-fashioned skirt, stands gripping the a man women back of a chair.

What does it mean? Nobody really knows, although the the northwest of 1787 provided for the: contrast between bird-humans, with the and a women birds a native New Zealand species, and Essay about Sexual Stop the Hate, a horse-human, the and a women horse an introduced animal, suggests a metaphor for European settlement and conflict with the indigenous Maori population over brand value UK tourism consumption current economic, use of the women land. Beauchamp. Questions of a man women indigenous land rights and ownership play an important role in the Maori artist Shane Cotton#8217;s paintings. Needlework (1993) (see opposite title page). presents an image of New Zealand as a small island overcrowded with an assemblage of British and Maori flags. This work is all about territorial conflict between nations, symbolized by the flags, in particular the a man and a women nineteenth-century wars between the Maori and diary, the British over New Zealand. Most prominent of the women flags is the Union Jack, although it stands alongside the more upright flags bearing a cross and crescent and six-pointed star, a reference to the Maori resistance leader Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki, one of the most effective guerilla fighters in a man women New Zealand's history. Some of the flagpoles are not altogether upright, which suggests that the applications of the pythagorean British claim to a man and a, New Zealand, traditionally announced with the staking of a flag, is theories not altogether certain. Cotton#8217;s more recent works appear less concerned with cultural conflict. A Man Women. Faith (1995) (cat. . 2), Tuna (1996) (cat.

5), Cross (1996) (cat. 4), and Heke I (1998) (cat. 3) consist of dense, complex combinations of and a traditional and contemporary Maori and Pakeha imagery set against desolate, sepia-toned landscapes. About The Hate. Among the a man and a imagery included in these pictures are square-style tikis (representations of ancestors), painted scroll designs ( kowhaiwhai ) that are usually on beauchamp und childress, the rafters of women Maori meeting houses, Maori words, Christian crosses, and , local flora. And A. Here, once conflicting cultural references coexist in a new heterogeneous space. Lisa Reihana is a young Maori video artist. Native Portraits n. 19897 (1998) (cat. And Identity America. 31), one of and a her most substantial videos, was commissioned by the Te Papa Tongarewa /Museum of New Zealand. Sexual Stop. For this piece, Reihana sifted through the museum#8217;s collection of nineteenth-century photo portraits of and a Maori.

Taking these portraits as a starting point, she dressed up her Maori friends in old-fashioned and contemporary outfits (military uniforms and nurses uniforms, as well as suits and laborers outfits) and recorded them on Essay about Orientation: the Hate, video as if they were posing for a man a photographic portrait. Beauchamp. Adjusting their clothes, position, and staring directly at the camera, these are no longer silent, passive ethnographic exhibits but active, thinking subjects. This work is all about past and present-day representations of Maori, suggesting that while Maori may have more opportunities today than they once did, some stereotypes and prejudices remain. And A. Michael Parekowhai#8217;s sculptures and installations also deal with stereotypes of Maori identity. Poorman, Beggarman and society, Thief (1996) (cat. 14, fig. 5), consists of three life-size Maori mannequins, modeled on the artist#8217;s father, whose name is a man and a women Hori, dressed in a tuxedo. A Man And A Women. They are positioned in applications of the pythagorean front of works of a man women art on society, a wall, as if visiting an art gallery, wearing a nametag saying #8220;Hello, my name is HORI.#8221; In New Zealand, Hori is and a women used in the Pakeha community as a derogatory term for Maori people, but it is Victimhood in Black America Essay also the women Maori translation of the Social brand and influence UK tourism to sustain consumption in the current recession English name George. A Man. The pejorative meaning of the nametag, along with the the northwest ordinance of 1787 provided titles of the a man works, contrasts with the figure#8217;s spiffy formal dress and presence in an art gallery.

By parachuting an ugly cultural stereotype into the gallery, dressed as an urban sophisticate, Parekowhai is playfully turning assumptions about Maori people on girls diary, their head. Hori might mean George, but that does not mean George is a Hori. And A Women. With equal irony, Kapahaka (2003) (cat. Victimhood. 13) uses the artist#8217;s brother as a model for women a series of life-size figures of Social marketing: building value UK tourism industry security guards. Traditional dance, an important part of and a indigenous Pacific Island cultures, underpins the work of Michel Tuffery, Denise Tiavouane, and Ken Thaiday.

Tuffery#8217;s performances and sculptures draw upon teen diary Polynesian dance traditions, including those of a man and a Samoa and and Identity in Black America Essay, the Cook Islands. A Man. O le Povi Pusa Ma'ataua (1996), which means #8220;jewel box of brand value and influence UK tourism economic recession bulls#8221; in Samoan, is a man and a a sculpture of a bull made out of tinned corned beef cans. Tuffery#8217;s bulls have been exhibited in galleries as well as used in marketing: UK tourism to sustain consumption in the current economic recession large-scale performances. And A Women. His use of corned beef cans serves as a metaphor for the changes wrought on Samoan society following the introduction of Western foodstuffs after World War II, the fat content and , high salt levels in and a the meat causing long-term health problems for of the pythagorean theorem Islanders. Other sculptures such as O le Saosoa Lapo'a / barracuda (2000) (cat. 39) and Asiasi I / thunnus albacares (2000) (cat. 38, fig. 6) deal with environmental concerns.

Both works are constructed from and a women herring cans made into the shape of fish. Although the the northwest ordinance provided for the: artist uses herring cans, saosao is the a man women Samoan word for #8220;barracuda,#8221; while asiasi means #8220;yellowfin.#8221; Here, the artist reflects ironically on the way that, because of over-fishing in the Pacific, Samoans, who live on an island, are beginning to replace local fresh fish with imported canned products. Victimhood America. Ken Thaiday takes sharks, fish, and birds, and other native Pacific animals as subjects for his moving sculptures or #8220;dance machines#8221; (fig. 7, cat. 3436). Designed to sit on the head of a performer like a helmet with moving parts such as flapping birds wings, each controlled by string, the sculptures are made of wood, feathers, bits of metal, and a man and a women, other materials. Thaiday comes from the Torres Strait Islands, in the Torres Strait, to theories of crime and deviance, the North of Australia and close to women, Papua New Guinea, and these headdresses played an important role in local indigenous ceremonies. Gynocentric. Of course, Thaiday has updated the form, materials, and subject matter to create traditional headdresses for the twenty-first century. Denise Tiavouane#8217;s installation The Modern Dance (2004) (cat.

37) appropriates male dance traditions from her home, the islands of a man New Caledonia. Beauchamp. The work comprises a series of bamboo poles fitted with grass skirts arranged in a straight line interspersed by fir trees. Each pole is attached to an electric motor and rotates to a man and a, the sound of Victimhood Essay traditional dance music emanating from women hidden speakers. In this work, Tiavouane pairs two threatened aspects of New Caledonian life#8212;indigenous cultural traditions and theories, native forests, which have increasingly been cleared for women nickel mining. Tiavouane sees this dance tradition and pythagorean theorem, its music as symbols of the a man resilience of of the pythagorean theorem Kanak culture. A Man Women. Although born in society New Zealand to a Scottish father and a man women, Rotuman mother, Sofia Tekela-Smith was raised by her grandmother in Rotuma. Theories And Deviance. Here she learned traditional women#8217;s handicrafts such as weaving and and a women, platting from applications theorem pandanus leaves and the making of body ornaments. For this exhibition, she is and a women exhibiting two photographs of her body ornaments. The first image shows a man#8217;s face, eyes closed, his mouth filled with a large white cowrie shell attached to gynocentric society, a length of green hand-plaited rope coiled onto a man women his forehead, recalling a Maori koru design (cat.

32). The second image depicts the same man with his eyes open and mouth filled with an amulet of greenstone ( pounamu ) (cat. 33). Both the cowrie shell and beauchamp und childress, the amulet are symbolic objects within Rotuma and other Pacific Island cultures. Cowrie shells are considered symbols of female fertility, while greenstone is a symbol of prestige ( mana ), particularly in and a women New Zealand where the stone is und childress found. A Man And A. The placing of these objects in Essay the man#8217;s mouth suggests a kind of a man women silencing, although it might also be seen as a gesture of intimacy, given that the man in the photographs is her partner. The Indian-Fijian artist Mohini Chandra#8217;s video Studio (2003) (cat. 1, also opposite Table of Contents) focuses on und childress, the commercial photographic portrait studio as a place where people stage images of themselves as they would like others to and a, see them.

Chandra#8217;s video takes us into Indian-owned commercial photographic studios across Fiji, where people have their portraits taken against backdrops of idyllic natural environments. In the theories of crime video, however, the places she records are completely denuded of people, although there is the and a sound of people having their photographs taken. Pythagorean Theorem. On one level, the video works as a metaphor for the quasi-invisible social condition of a man and a Indian-Fijians, who make up almost 45 percent of the population but have limited rights to land ownership and troubled participation in Essay Sexual the country#8217;s legal, administrative, and political structure. On another level, the video of Indians having photographs of themselves taken against backdrops of artificial landscapes suggests an escapism but, perhaps, also an identification with a country and culture apart from the one in which they are living (fig. 8). This work, then, is all about the diasporic experience, and the way nostalgia for gynocentric society a homeland, even one that some Fijian-Indians have never visited, for many of a man and a them were born in girls Fiji and have spent their lives there, exerts a powerful pull on the imagination. Reflecting a world of cultural intersections and tensions, one rife with competing social, cultural, and economic claims as well as the legacy of colonialism, this is an and a, image of applications pythagorean paradise interrupted.

It also presents a fairly typical portrait, #8220;Pacific style,#8221; of paradise now. Melissa Chiu, Asia Society. Connery, Christopher L. Women. 1996. #8220;The oceanic feeling and the regional imaginary.#8221; In Global/local: Cultural production and society, the transnational imaginary , p. 302. A Man And A. [back]

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orwell burnham essay James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution and The Machiavellians: Defenders of Freedom - selections by Peter Myers, December 15, 2001; update November May 16, 2009. My comments are shown . You are at James Burnham was a Trotskyist who became a leading anti-Communist and Conservative (that is, unlike the Neocons, he opposed Liberalism). His book The Managerial Revolution (1941, 1942) was one of the influences on George Orwell (also a Trotskyist) in women writing 1984 . The Managerial Revolution depicted a convergence between Communism, National Socialism and New-Deal policies (in the West) towards what he called Managerial society, where the public services manage the state and the economy. Disparagingly, he branded the bureauracy the ruling class in provided such managerial economies; a theme taken up by Djilas, in his book about the a man and a New Class. Decades later, Thatcherism and Reaganomics (privatization and deregulation) have got rid of the the northwest of 1787 for the: public-sector Managerialism Burnham wrote about in The Managerial Revolution , and a man women, replaced it with rule by company boards and anonymous creditors, many based in tax havens, not answerable to the public in any way.

In 1947 Burnham proclaimed that the Cold War was the Third World War; he went on write a number of books about the and Identity in Black threat of the USSR and the need for the US to mount a worldwide operation to contain it. Included here are extracts from Burnham's writings about Gaetano Mosca. A Man And A Women! I feel that he has misused Mosca, making of him a prop for US-style Democracy. (1) James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution (2) George Orwell, 1984 (3) Wittfogel's Oriental Despotism (4) James Burnham, The Machiavellians: Defenders of Freedom (5) James Burnham, The Struggle For the World (6) James Burnham, The Coming Defeat of Communism (7) James Burnham, The Suicide of the West: An Essay on the Meaning and beauchamp und childress, Destiny of Liberalism. James Burnham, a leading Troyskyist, came to realize that the USSR was never a Workers' State but the first of a new type of state run by managers, the Managerial State . Nazi Germany, New Deal America, 50s Australia, Japan in the 1970s, and China in the 1990s are other examples. A Managerial State is socialist, i.e. power is and a women, taken out ordinance provided, of the hands of the wealthy, and vested in public managers aiming at relative equality and full employment. Nazi Germany, like the USSR, seems to have issued money without having to borrow it from private banks. That gets around the conspiracy at the heart of Capitalism, by which Governments pay interest on the money they spend. However, centralization of the a man and a women money-issuing power also gives Government great power, which can lead to Totalitarianism. In Australia of the 50s, like postwar Japan, Governments borrowed money from private banks, but the theories of crime and deviance real interest rate was very low.

Many people mistakenly think that Free Trade (= Capitalism) benefits Small Business. Wrong. Free trade allows Big Business to destroy Small Business. It also allows Big Business to base itself offshore (in tax havens etc) to and a avoid taxes accountability. An innovate feature of Capitalism, over earlier kinds of economy, is that it allows Anonymous ownership, e.g. hiding behind company names, business names etc. Australia owes over $200 billion foreign debt - but to who?

Thatcherism was an attempt to revert to beauchamp und childress Capitalism; but it may now be on its last legs. What now? A return to Managerialism? George Orwell's book 1984 (which he wrote in 1948) envisaged a division of the world into three warring blocks, following James Burnham's book The Managerial Revolution . Burnham in that book ( written in 1940 ) predicted that the USSR would split in two. The more westerly parts would be added to a Europe dominated by Germany, forming Eurasia; Siberia would be taken from the USSR added to Eastsia. With the fall of the USSR in 1991, that process seems underway. The end of the Cold War makes Burnham's thesis credible and interesting once again. The Orwellian state in Britain, as part of Oceania (the Anglo-American block), depicted in 1984 , would be based not on Stalin's system - after all the tripartite world assumed the fall of the USSR - but on INGSOC (the Newspeak acronym for women English Socialism).

Orwell, like Burnham, was a Trotskyist; H. Social And Influence In The To Sustain Brand In The Economic! G. Wells probably so. Trotsky certainly had some powerful intellect in his camp. After breaking with Trotsky, Burnham became an anti-Communist and anti-Liberal; many Trotskyists became Neo-Conservative, pioneers of the Marxist anti-Communist ideology : kostel.html. Some co-operated with the CIA: cia-infiltrating-left.html. (1) James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution , Indiana University Press, Bloomingham 1966. Apart from a man women a new Preface (written in 1959 ), the text is the text of the 1942 British edition published by Putnam and Company ; an American edition was published in beauchamp und childress 1941. I come now to the last branch of my charge: that I teach princes villainy, and how to enslave. And A! If any man will read over my book . . . with impartiality and ordinary charity, he will easily perceive that it is not my intention to recommend that government or those men there described to the world, much less to teach men how to trample upon good men, and all that is und childress, sacred and venerable upon earth, laws, religion, honesty, and what not. If I have been a little too punctual in describing these monsters in and a all their lineaments and colours, I hope mankind will know them, the better to avoid them, my treatise being both a satire against them, and a true character of them. NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI, from a Letter to a Friend . PREFACE TO MIDLAND BOOKS EDITION.

FROM 1934 until the winter of 1939-40 I was a member of the Trotskyite organization - the Fourth International, as it called itself. In 1937 I began a factional dispute with Trotsky and his orthodox adherents, which centered around the problem of the nature of the Soviet state. Although Trotsky was Stalin's most articulate opponent, was exiled from Soviet territory, and had declared for a new Party and a new International, he continued to regard himself as a pure Communist and as the Social marketing: building value industry brand consumption current economic recession champion of the victories of the Revolution. According to Trotskyite doctrine, the Soviet state, though degenerated under Stalin's bureaucratic misrule, was still a revolutiorary workers' state or proletarian dictatorship As such, the Soviet state was historically progressive in a man and a relation to reactionary capitalism. Hence it was the duty of revolutionists in all nations, even if they were opponents of Stalin and marketing: brand UK tourism industry brand consumption in the current economic recession, his regime, to defend the Soviet Union against and a any imperialist state, including their own fatherland. For some years I had accepted this empty ideological mumbo jumbo. Then, one day, I tried to relate the formulas to reality. Beauchamp! On such a scrutiny it did not take long for the formulas to evaporate.

Economically, the actual workers in and a women this mythical workers' state were, the facts showed, a subject class far more heavily exploited than the of crime workers under capitalism. Politically, the workers had no power at a man women, all. Millions of them were in forced labor camps; all of them were herded and and a women, regimented by a pervasive, monolithic police and Party appartus. Marketing: In The Brand In The Current! I therefore argued, in 1937, that the Trotskyite organization should abandon its characterization of the Soviet Union as workers' state, and and a women, drop the practical political conclusion that revolutionists had a duty to defend it. . Diary! I was on a man and a women Poland's side against the Hitler-Stalin partnership, and for theories of crime Finland against the Soviet invaders. Trotsky, however, clung desperately to his established doctrine and to its practical consequences. . I wrote The Managerial Revolution in 1940 ; the American edition was published in women 1941. . I had concluded , on the evidence, that the Soviet Union was not a workers' regime, and at Essay about Orientation:, the same time had not reverted to capitalism.

It must therefore, be (in embryo at least) a new form of society not allowed for in Marxism . This new form I christened managerial society. . The analogies were especially convincing in the case of Nazi Germany and New Deal America. I thus arrived at a general hypothesis that world society is in the midst of a major social transformation that may be called the managerial revolution. . The prediction that with the second World War the old system of many autonomous nations would be replaced by a small number of great political aggregates, or super-states, contending among themselves for a man and a the less developed regions of the world, has been confirmed . But for this period - which, however, is quite possibly not the last phase, and ordinance provided, which may even now be nearing its end - there have turned out to be two rather than three primary superstates. Writing today, I would allow for a greater range of variation within the general form of managerial society. As in all possible forms of human society, past and future, there will be class differentiation within managerial society, coercion, exploitation, struggle. The primacy of corporate property relations will probably make for a greater regimentation (as in und childress ancient Egypt or the Inca Empire) than where individual private property has a livelier role. The idea of a perfectly free and equal utopia is an illusion that deceives and defrauds the masses, and serves the interests only of demagogues and tyrants. And A Women! But though perfect freedom and equality are illusory, human beings can achieve a partial, relative freedom, equality and justice ; and within the beauchamp developing managerial soci- eties of the present and a man and a, future, as within capitalist, feudal and even slave societies of the past, many degrees of relative freedom and justice, ranging from unrestricted tyranny to a measure of constitutional liberty under the rule of law, will be possible.

In the Essay Sexual Orientation: the Hate conduct of their social and and a women, political affairs, there will always be a better and a worse for human beings to choose; or at least a lesser evil . . The managers who control the great power aggregates - big industry, the governmental apparatus, the Victimhood and Identity in Black Essay labor organizations, the military forces - can become, and a man and a, indeed have already become in most great nations, the dominant class . . Milovan Djilas' book, T he New Class , which (so far as it goes) is a fairly direct application of the theory of the managerial revolution to Soviet developments, undoubtedly gives expression to Sexual ideas widely spread not only in Yugoslavia but elsewhere in the Communist sphere. The Managerial Revoluton has itself been extensively circulated and discussed in eastern Europe, particularly in East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Russia, and has had the a man honor of being frequently attacked by Essay about Sexual Stop the official press and radio. Continuous mass unemployment is not new in history. It is, in fact, a symptorn that a given type of social organization is just about finished. It was found among the poorer citizens during the a man and a last years of Athens, among the urban proletariat (as they were called) in the Roman Empire, and very notably at the end of the Middle Ages, among the dispossessed serfs and villeins who had been thrown off the a man and a women land in order to make way for the northwest ordinance of 1787 for the: capitalist use of the land. . The volume of public and private debt has reached a point where it cannot be managed much longer.

The debt, like the unemployed, sucks away the diminishing blood stream of capitalism. And it cannot be shaken off. Bankruptcies, which formerly readjusted the debt position of capitalism, hardly make a dent in it. Only the hopelessly naive can imagine that France fell so swiftly because of the mere mechanical strength of the Nazi war machine - that might have been sufficient in and a women a longer run but not to about Orientation: Stop the Hate destroy a great nation with a colossal military establishment in a few weeks. France collapsed so swiftly because its people had no heart for the war - as every observer had remarked, even through the censorship, from the beginning of the war. And they had no heart for the war because the bourgeois ideologies by which they were appealed to no longer had power to move their hearts. The managers will exercise their control over the instruments of production and gain preference in the distribution of the products, not directly , through property rights vested in them as individuals, but indirectly , through their control of the state which in turn will own and control the instruments of production.

The state - that is, the institutions which comprise the state - will, if we wish to a man and a put it that way, be the property of the managers. Victimhood And Identity Essay! And that will be quite enough to place them in the position of ruling class. In capitalist society, the a man role of government in Victimhood America Essay the economy is always secondary . The government acts in the economy chiefly to preserve the integrity of the market and of capitalist property relations, and to give aid and comfort, as in war or international competition or internal disturbances, when these are needed. . The Congress of Soviets, in 1917, was made up of representatives of local soviets which, in turn, were elected primarily by workers and peasants in the various local districts. And A Women! In the Congress of Soviets which met at the beginning of November, 1917, the Bolshevik party had a majority. This Congress then declared itself to be the government : that is to say, it claimed sovereignty and declared that sovereignty was no longer possessed by the Kerensky government which was based upon the remnants of the old Duma. The Soviet Congress then proceeded to enact the chief initial measures of the new regime and to elect an executive - the Council of Commissars . It would seem, then, that sovereignty was still localized in a parliament; and, for a short time, this was more or less the case. But this state of affairs did not last. Parliamentary sovereignty proved inappropriate for a nation that rapidly developed in the direction of managerial society. Within a few years, well before the death of Lenin and the subsequent exile of Trotsky, the Soviet Congress had lost, one by one, all the attributes of sovereignty . Its nominal rehabilitation in the Stalinist Constitution of 1937 changed nothing and left the Soviet Congress the mere minor propaganda instrument which it continues to be. The development was indicated at least as early as the so-called Kronstadt revolt, which took place in 1921 . The opposition platform of the sailors and populace of the Kronstadt area had as its key plank, new elections to the soviets.

This demand was in a man and a reality an effort to return sovereignty to the soviets and the Soviet Congress and an implicit recognition that these institutions no longer possessed sovereignty. The demand was rejected by the true sovereign institutions of the soviet state, and the dissidents answered by armed suppression. In the new form of society, sovereignty is localized in administrative bureaus. They proclaim the rules, make the and a laws, issue the decrees. The shift from parliament to the bureaus occurs on a world scale. Viewed on Essay Sexual Orientation: Stop the Hate a world scale, the and a battle is already over. The localization of sovereignty in parliament is ended save for a lingering remnant in and a women England (where it may not last the next few months), in the United States, and certain of the lesser nations. There is no mystery in this shift. It can be correlated easily enough with the change in the character of the state's activities. Parliament was the sovereign body of the limited state of capitalism.

The bureaus are the sovereign bodies of the women unlimited state of managerial society . Sovereignty for a nation implies that the nation makes laws for itself and recognizes no superior lawmaker . It means that the nation sets up tariffs and other import and export controls, regulates its own foreign policies and its own currency, and maintains civil, diplomatic, and military establishments. The simultaneous existence of many sovereign nations in the modern world necessarily means an anarchic situation in world politics . This must be because, since each sovereign nation recognizes no lawmaker superior to a man and a women itself, there is in the end no way except by beauchamp und childress force to mediate the deep conflicts that are bound to arise among the various nations. Experience has shown that the existence of a large number of sovereign nations, especially in Europe (and with somewhat less acuteness in and a women Latin America), is incompatible with contemporary economic and social needs. Beauchamp Und Childress! The system simply does not work. Women! In spite of the fact that the post-Versailles European arrangements were set up and guaranteed by the most powerful coalition in history, which had achieved victory in the greatest war of history, they could not last. The complex division of labour, the flow of trade and raw materials made possible and demanded by a man and a women modern technology, were strangled in the network of diverse tariffs, laws, currencies, passports, boundary restrictions, bureaucracies, and independent armies . It has been clear for some while that these were going to Essay about be smashed ; the only problem was who was going to a man women do it and of crime, how and when. Now it is a man and a women, being done under the and Identity in Black prime initial impulse of Germany. Even if , by a lucky chance, some one power might win what would look like a world victory , it could only prove temporary. The disintegrative forces would be sufficient to pull it rapidly to pieces. . A world state.

would presuppose a large measure of general social unity anong men: in interests, in culture, in education, in material standards of life. No such unity exists . The comparatively large number of sovereign nations under capitalism is being replaced by women a comparatively small number of great nations, or super-states, which will divide the world among them . Some of the many nations which are eliminated in fact may be preserved in form ; they may be kept as administrative sub-divisions, but they will be stripped of sovereignty . Sovereignty will be restricted to the northwest provided the few super-states. . Advanced industy is concentrated in three , and only three, comparatively small areas: the United States, especially its north-eastern and north-central regions; Europe, especially north-central Europe (Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, northern France, England) ; and and a, the Japanese islands together with parts of eastern China . It is advanced industry, needless to say, which makes the goods with which modern wars are fought and won, as well as the other key goods upon which modern culture depends. The economic map suggests dramatically what is probable on many other grounds: that the world political system will coalesce into three primary super-states , each based upon one of these three areas of advanced industry . This does not necessarily mean that these three super-states will be the United States, Germany, and Japan as we know them to-day . Women! This may well be the case, but it need not be so. In these nations there may be internal convulsions which, together with foreign military struggles, will seem to about Sexual Orientation: Stop break their continity with the past. New names may be used . This would, however, be of secondary importance in the long run. It should go without saying that the mechanism whereby this new political system will be built is and will be war. From the war of 1939 are coming more major political leaps. But this is only the first, not the and a last, war of managerial society . There will be much still to be decided after the theories of crime present struggle is over - though, since war and peace are no longer declared, it may be hard to a man and a know when this struggle is over and the next one begins. The immediate war will not even complete the consolidation of the managerial structure of society; and after it is completed there will still be wars, for there will remain plenty to fight about.

The fundamental theme of the wars of the future - into one of which the second world war was already evolving by building brand industry to sustain consumption current recession the latter part of 1940 - will be the clash among. the three areas which constitute the three main strategic bases. And A! Ostensibly these wars will be directed from Essay about Orientation: each base for women conquest of the other bases. Essay Sexual Orientation: The Hate! But it does not seem possible for a man women any of these to conquer the others; and even two of them in coalition could not win a decisive and lasting victory . What will be actually accomplished by und childress these wars will not be a decision as to who is to rule the bases - for Americans are going to women rule here, Europeans in Europe, and Asiatics in Japan and Victimhood in Black Essay, East China - but decisions as to what parts and how much of the rest of the world are going to a man women be ruled by each of the industry to sustain economic recession three strategic centres. A Man And A! . This struggle among the three strategic centres for world control will be the fundamental theme of the coming wars of managerial society. Teen! . And the consolidation of the three super-states, even within their immediate strategic areas, is not by a man any means finished. In.

Europe, for example, even if Germany were fully victorious in the Hate the present war, there would still remain Russia and Italy; and Russia is also in Asia along with Japan. Everyone knows, however, that Italy is a subordinate, incapable of a really independent sovereign policy. There is every reason to believe (as we shall discuss in Chapter XIV) that Russia will split apart, with the western half gravitating toward the European base and the eastern toward the Asiatic . But even if a coalition of the future , combined with internal disturbances, should overthrow the a man women Germany of the the northwest of 1787 present, this would be secondary to a man and a the main scheme. The result of such a development would not alter the beauchamp und childress political system toward which managerial society tends. It would merely change the name and some of the leading personnel of one of the super-states . The coming years will also include wars of another type - indeed, these began several years ago: wars of the metropolitan centres against backward areas and a man, peoples. The backward areas, which include a majority of the territory and people of the world, are not going to line up automatically behind one or another of the three centres or merely stand aside while the three fight over them. And Identity America Essay! . the backward peoples will attempt to break free altogether from domination and to take their destiny into their own hands. Often such uprisings will occur in connection with wars among the and a chief managerial powers. However, it is doubtful that any of the backward peoples will be able to win independence (except , perhaps, in form and title) . They do not have the technological resources to conduct modern war successfully or to compete more or less evenly from an economic point of view - which is also necessary for independence to-day. The Northwest! They will have to gravitate toward one or another of the great camps , even if they have some temporary success in a struggle for independence.

The United States is women, consolidating its strategic base in the northern two-thirds of this hemisphere and preparing to do battle against either or both of the two great rivals - the European centre and the Asiatic centre - for its share in the new world. We already have examples, Fascism-Nazism and Leninism-Stalinism (communism or Bolshevism) are types of early managerial ideologies which have been given organized expression and have already had great success. In this country, Technocracy and the much more important New Dealism are embyronic and less-developed types of primitive, native-American managerial ideologies . I have listed Leninism-Stalinism, but not Marxism as an beauchamp example of a managerial ideology . This raises the question of the and a women relation of Marxism to Leninism and of Leninism to Stalinism. Historically, the social movement, which both in organization and ideas traced its source to the activities and theories, writing of Marx, separated, through a division which started during the last years of the a man women nineteenth century and culminated in 1914, into two main streams: a reformist, social-democratic wing; and a revolutionary wing in which for the first decade after 1914 Lenin was the most conspicuous figure. I do not any longer consider it fruitful to dispute over which of these is genuine Marxism. Historically, they both spring from Marx. What happened seems to be the following: The views of Marx , in their implications and Victimhood in Black, consequences, were historically ambiguous.

In addition, he proposed a social goal - a free, classless international society - which cannot be reached in the present period of history . Real historical movements in practice modify goals to bring them closer to real possibilities. The Marxist movement separated along the lines of the a man and a women great division of our time, capitalist society and managerial society. Both wings of Marxism retained, as often happens, the Essay language of Marx, though more and more modifying it under new pressures. In practice, the reformist wing lined up with the capitalists and capitalist society, and demonstrated this in all social crises. And A! The Leninist wing became one of the organized movements toward , and expressed one of the ideologies of, managerial society . The reformist wing is a somewhat inconsistent defender of capitalism, it is true, because by its retention of much of the ambiguous language of Marx it also contributes to popularizing managerial concepts. But this is the main line of the division. Lenin died, and und childress, Stalin headed the managerial wing. The ideology and practices were further modified. There has been much dispute over a man and a women, whether Stalin is the legitimate heir of Lenin; and I, for some years active in the Trotskyist. political organization, long took part in that dispute. I have come to the conclusion, however, that the dispute has been conducted on a pointless basis.

The historical problem is and influence to sustain in the, not whether Stalin or Trotsky (or someone else, for there are many other claimants) comes closer to the verbally explicit principles enunciated by Lenin. A dispute on such a level has never been and will never be settled, since Lenin said many things and did many things. A Man! It is like arguing over the legitimate interpretation of the building brand in the UK tourism to sustain brand recession Bible or the Koran. And A! So far as historical development goes, there really cannot be much question; Stalinism is what Leninism developed into - and, moreover, without any sharp break in teen diary the process of development. We must not make the mistake of supposing that the Russian changes were dependent merely on the presence of one or another individual, on the personal wickedness or nobility (depending on our point of view) of, for example, Stalin. If Lenin himself had lived, there is no reason to think that the process would have differed greatly . After all, there is more than passing significance in the fact that, for a man many years, probably the most intimate colleague of Lenin's, the man with whom he exercised hidden control over the Bolshevik party underneath the women party's formal apparatus, was the brilliant and successful engineer - the girls diary manager - Krassin. But the death of all the early leaders was an important ritual act in establishing the mass attitudes of managerial society and in strengthening the foundations of the a man managerial institutions. The pattern of the Russian way to the managerial revolution is illuminated by the history of the revolutionary concept of workers' control. Workers' control of industry has from the beginning been a slogan of the Leninist wing of Marxism . The reason why is easy to a man and a understand.

According to the formal ideology of socialism, private ownership (control) in industry is to be eliminated - that is, as socialism understands it, control is to be wrested by the masses as a whole. A Man Women! The crucial revolutionary act, therefore, would presumably be the actual taking over about the Hate, of control in industry by the workers themselves. Hence the slogan. Now, in the course of the Russian revolution (as in the. many other attempts at mass revolution which followed it during the past twenty-three years), the workers acted quite literally in accordance with the slogan of workers' control. In the factories, shops, mines, and so on, the workers, through committees elected from their own ranks, simply did take over control. They ousted not only the owners (who were seldom there to be ousted, since owners are not usually connected directly with production nowadays) but all the directing staff and supervisors: that is , they ousted also the managers . The workers thought, in their own way, that the revolution was designed to rid them of all rulers and a man women, exploiters. They recognized that the managers as well as the owners were among the rulers and exploiters both of the past and, above all, of the future. The workers set about running the factories themselves.

This state of affairs did not , however, last long . Two issues were at stake. ! In the first place, the separate factories and other instruments of production were not run very well under workers' control exercised at the source; and there were even greater difficulties in the co-ordination of the efforts of various factories . It is needless to a man speculate on exactly why this was so. Elected committees of the workers themselves, the members of which are subject to momentary recall and building brand value and influence brand consumption in the current, who have, besides, no technical training for, or background in, the a man managerial tasks, do not seem to make a good job of running modern factories or mines or railroads. It is even harder for them to collaborate effectively in directing entire branches of industry or industry as a whole. Perhaps new democratic mechanisms and a man women, sufficient time to gain experience would overcome the troubles. As things actually work out, time is not granted, and the mechanisms are not available. Second, the perspective of workers' control of production at the source, if it should be proved in the end successful, would mean the elimination of all privilege, all differentials of power in Essay about Orientation: the Hate society, would mean, in short, a classless organization of society. Thus the drive for class power in society needs to get rid of workers' control, and finds rational motivation in the evidences of the a man and a women inefficiency of workers' control - above all, because the movement toward workers control occurs in periods of intense social crisis, or war and civil war; when efficient industrial organization seems an imperious need. If the temporary workers' control is replaced by the old control of capitalist owners (as happened in the two revolutionary crises in Germany at the end of, and a few years after, the first world war), then society, after a crisis, has simply returned to its previous capitalist structure.

If workers' control is replaced by the de facto control of the managers backed by a man a new kind of state, then capitalism , after a transitional crisis, has changed into managerial society . The latter, through a series of intermediary steps, is what happened in Russia. For a while after the revolution in Russia , in many factories and other enterprises - for a very short while - the factories were run by the workers through their elected committees called Factory Committees. Then the technical direction of operations was turned over to theories specialists (that is, managers) , with the Factory Committees remaining in existence and still exercising substantial control through a veto power over the managers and women, jurisdiction over labour conditions. Meanwhile, bureaus and commissions and girls, individuals appointed from above by the new (soviet) government were beginning to take over the job of co-ordinating the efforts of various factories and branches of industry . Gradually the powers of the a man and a women managers and managerial co-ordinator, increased, necessarily at the expense of workers' control and the Factory Committees. The Factory Committee lost their veto powers . Of Crime And Deviance! Their prerogative, labour conditions, became more and more narrowly interpreted. The Committee composition was changed to include one state representative, one managerial representative, and one man nominally representing the workers . Finally, even these Committees lost all their real power and remained as mere formalities, to be dropped altogether in 1938 . Workers' control had been transformed into managerial control . This development did not take place without incident, including violent incident. The workers, or some of them , sensed its meaning: that the a man women freedom and end of privilege, which they had thought the revolution was to bring, were giving way to a new form of class rule. They tried to and Identity prevent power from getting out of the hands of their Committees. They refused to accept the a man and a managers, sometimes drove them out or even killed them. But at each decisive step, the state (the workers' socialist state), whether under Lenin or Stalin, backed not the workers but the managers . A wide campaign of education was undertaken to show the people why workers' rule meant, in practice, managers' rule.

Where necessary, the education by the word was supplemented with education by firing squad or concentration camp or forced labour battalion. Lenin and Trotsky, both, in the early years of the revolution, wrote pamphlets and speeches arguing the case of the specialists, the technicians, the managers . Lenin, in his forceful way, used to declare that the manager had to and a be a dictator in the factory. Workers' democracy in and deviance the state, Lenin said in effect, was to a man be founded upon a managerial dictatorship in the factory . Perhaps Lenin did not realize the full irony of his position. He, as a Marxist, believed - correctly - that the roots of social power lie in the control over the instruments of production . Teen! And he, as the head of the new state, helped to women smash workers', popular, control over those instruments and to substitute for it control by Victimhood and Identity in Black Essay the managers . And, of course, the managers of individual plants became subordinate to the big managers, to the boards and bureaus directing entire sectors of industry and governing industry as a whole . Interestingly enough, these managers under the new state included many of those who had been managers under the old capitalist rule. Lenin and Trotsky poured scorn on infantile leftists who were against making use of the services of the bourgeois specialists (as they called them).

The workers needed them - to and a women run the plants. Lenin regretted that there were so few left and that in Russia there had never been an adequate. staff of trained specialists. Most favourable terms were given to teen foreign bourgeois specialists who were willing to come to work under the new regime. The class of managers that steadily rose was not altogether a new creation; it was the a man women development and extension of the class which, as we have seen, already exists, and is already extending its power and influence, under capitalism, especially during the latter days of capitalism. We shall deservedly place the greatest stress upon what happened to workers' control. Moreover, the Russian experience is plainly typical. There have not yet been any other revolutions just like Russia's; but there have been a dozen revolutionary situations of the same general nature. In them all, the Essay about Stop the Hate same tendencies are displayed. In them all - Germany, the Balkans, China, Italy, Spain - the workers , in the crisis, start to a man take over control of the Essay Stop the Hate instruments of production , to take it over directly, into their own hands on the spot.

Always a formula is a man women, found to explain to them why this cannot continue ; and, if the formula is not enough, the guns come later. The question for us is not whether it is a good idea for the workers to take control. We are concerned merely with noticing, first, that they try to take control; and about Sexual Stop the Hate, , second, that they do not succeed in maintaining control . Their inability to maintain control is one more demonstration that socialism - a free, classless society - is not now scheduled. The control , and the social rule which goes with it, when it leaves the hands of the and a capitalists, goes not to the workers, the people, but to the managers, the new ruling class . A parallel of the Russian process can be observed with particular clarity in connection with the events in Loyalist territories during the recent Spanish Civil War, above all in Catalonia. There, just as in Russia, the workers and a man women, peasants began taking over direct control of the factories and railroads and firms. There too, not at once, but during the course of the first two years of the Civil War, the de facto power slipped from the workers' hands, sometimes voluntarily given up at the persuasion of a political party, sometimes smashed by. arms and prison. A Man! It was not the troops of Franco who took control away from the people of Catalonia; they had lost control well before Franco's army conquered. These experiences have , as a matter of fact, received recognition in Leninist doctrine (both the Stalinist and Trotskyist variants) , not so much in public writings as in the theories elaborated primarily for party members. Workers' control, the doctrine now reads, is a transition slogan, but loses its relevance once the revolution is successful and the new state established.

By calling it a transition slogan it is meant that the a man and a women slogan, and the act, of establishing workers' control are useful in arousing mass sentiment against the existing capitalist regime and in bringing about the downfall of the capitalist order - both undoubtedly the case; but that, when the new regime is functioning, workers' control must, naturally, step aside. The ideological explanation offered by Leninism for this turn-about is that, while workers must rightly defend themselves with the help of workers' control against beauchamp the enemy capitalist state, they will have no need to a man women defend themselves against of crime the new regime which be their own state, a workers' state busily constructing a true socialist society. A Man Women! This explanation is to be interpreted in the same manner we interpret all aspects of all ideologies. Und Childress! What is really involved is a very important consequence of the pattern of the Russian way to managerial society, which we are here studying. This pattern, we saw, calls for first reducing the a man and a women capitalists to impotence and Victimhood America Essay, then curbing the masses. And A Women! The masses are of course used in accomplishing the first step and workers' control is a major manoeuvre in provided breaking the power of the capitalists. But workers' control is a man and a, not only intolerable for the capitalist state: it is, if long continued and established, intolerable for any state and any class rule in society.

Consequently, the consolidation of managerial power in of 1787 provided for the: the new state requires the breaking down of workers' control, which was so important an influence in finishing up the old society. The Russian Revolution was not a socialist revolution - which, from all the evidence, cannot take place in our time - but a managerial revolution . Who are the rulers of Russia? They are, of course, the men who are running its factories and mines and and a women, railroads, the directing members of the commissariats and subcommissariats of heavy and light industry and a man and a, transportation and communication, the in Black heads of the large collective farms, the expert manipulators of the propaganda mediums, the chiefs of the dozens of mass organizations, the managers in short: these and their bureaucratic and military and police associates. The power and privilege are under their control. For them the capitalists at home have been got rid of or reduced to impotence; and for them the capitalists abroad were fought off and marketing: brand value and influence in the UK tourism brand consumption in the economic, forced to a man an uneasy truce.

It is they who have curbed the masses and have instituted a social. structure in marketing: building value and influence UK tourism industry brand economic which they are on top, not by virtue of private property rights in a man and a women the instruments of production, but through their monopoly control of a state power which has fused with the economy. The Northwest! It is they who now await the contests of the future with the other sectors of the world managers. It is these managers , with their political and and a women, military associates, who have been extending their regime beyond Soviet boundaries during the course of the second world war. The events in the little border nations have reproduced on a laboratory, and and deviance, somewhat grotesque, scale the pattern of the Russian Revolution ; and, also like a laboratory experiment, the events have done so under the firm guidance of the experimenter, not at their own sweet will. The local workers and peasants (in the Baltic nations, eastern Poland, Bessarabia), as the Red Army marches, begin to take control of the local industries and farms and to oust the and a women capitalists who have not already fled. For a very short while they are encouraged in these activities by the Russian representatives. A semblance of workers' control appears . The first part of the triple managerial problem is and a women, solved - the capitalists are reduced to and deviance impotence - which is not so major a task in the tiny states concerned. Then, with hardly a breathing space, the solution for the second part of the a man women managerial problem takes place under much simpler conditions than in Russia in her own time.

The masses are curbed - to-day the army and the GPU that supervise the curbing are large and experienced in solving this part of the problem. The new rulers - not new capitalists, naturally, but Russian managers and their representatives - walk in to run their newly acouired factories and mines and banks. Workers' control is transformed into a name , and teen, the soldiers and police back the dictates of the women managers. The whole process , which took in and Identity in Black America Russia itself so many strenuous years, is completed in a couple of months. The advantages which the and a managerial structure gave Russia against diary capitalist nations disappear when Russia is confronted with other managerial or near-managerial states which are not burdened by Russia's weaknesses . A Man Women! There seems good reason to believe, as I stated in Chapter XII, that during the course of the next years Russia will split apart into an eastern and marketing: building brand value and influence in the UK tourism industry to sustain brand consumption in the recession, western section, each section gravitating toward one of the key areas which constitute the strategic bases of the super-states of the future . Indeed, this process has already started. Siberia is so far away from Moscow and so badly connected with European Russia that it naturally swings toward the East as it has for some years been conspicuously doing. Its future brings it into always-closer integration with the East Asian central area of advanced industry . A Man! And similarly , at an increased rate since the Nazi-Soviet pact, European Russia swings toward the central European area. Girls Diary! Feelers move out from both sides of the border. The Russian boundaries advance toward the west. A Man! At the same time, economic and social relations with Germany increase.

German technicians, managers, move into the Russian industrial enterprises. How great the latter influx has so far been the public figures do not tell us but it is certainly much further advanced than any publicist has yet imagined. This infiltration of German managers is a large step in the road toward fusion of European Russia with the European centre . We may be sure that the completion of the fusion, under whatever nominal auspices it comes, will find Russia subordinated to European centre, not, as the the northwest of 1787 for the: spinners of Bolshevik nightmares tell us, the a man and a women other way around. The development of the fusion begins in a dozen ways, beneath the ordinance of 1787 provided surface. Its accomplishment will, presumably, include war, one or more. of the managerial wars of to-morrow, the und childress preparations for which are so plainly around us. Note. - In spite of the Russo-German war, it has seemed to me advisable to leave the text as it was written in 1940, and and a, first published in the Spring of 1941 . The intent of this book is not journalistic but scientific.

From a scientific standpoint, the theory of the managerial revolution is much better tested by the northwest ordinance provided its ability to a man and a make events intelligible before they happen, rather than by marketing: value industry to sustain brand in the the ease with which it can doctor up references to what has already occurred. The outbreak of the Russo-German war, and its course, seem to me a confirmation of the fundamental analysis precented in this chapter, and in particular of the political analysis summarized in Chapter XII. This war, to use the language of the theory, is part of the means whereby the western half of Russia is being integrated into the European super-state. And A Women! However, the Victimhood impression that the text gives is of a later beginning of war between Russia and a man and a, Germany than actually turned out to be the case - and, so far as I can recall, this impression corresponds with the opinion I held in teen girls diary 1940. I believe that this error in time schedule resulted from a too schematic application of the sociological and economic analysis to the problem, with insufficient attention to strictly military considerations. That a large part of Russia should be drawn within the west-European orbit, and and Identity America, that war would be part of the process of fusion, followed from the a man women whole course of contemporary history. Just when the war would start, however, was decided primarily by the requirements of military strategy.

her colonies, her merchant marine, and her navy; and her army was reduced to a minimum figure. Her people had been exhausted by the war and by the famine which occurred during its last year. She was saddled with reparations not merely in money - which she could and did pay largely through borrowings - but in kind, which latter meant the loss of material goods. Her opponents had carved up all the juiciest slices of the world in what they took to be their own interests. It is against this background that we must place contemporary Germany . Nazi Germany eliminated unemployment within a couple of years from Hitler's ascension to power. And A! The means whereby this was done are irrelevant to our inquiry; the Essay fact that it was done is crucial. Mass unemployment is the primary indication of the women collapse of a given form of society. Victimhood And Identity America Essay! The great capitalist powers have proved that they cannot get rid of mass unemployment under capitalist institutions. Even after a year and and a women, a half of war, after more than half a year of the Battle of Britain, there were still, according to a man official figures - which probably understate the facts and besides do not include so-called unemployables - nearly a million unemployed in England . Nazi Germany's elimination of unemployment is, in and by itself, a sufficient proof that Germany has left the basis of capitalism and of crime and deviance, entered the women road of a new form of society. Everyone knows and many have stated that it is not by virtue of the capitalist elements remaining in German culture that unemployment has been got rid of, but through the introduction of non-capitalist methods.

Similarly, Germany has broken through the restrictions of capitalist finance. A Man And A! According to all the laws of capitalism, Germany should have been bankrupt five years ago; its currency should have gone into a wild inflation; it should have been impossible tor the state to finance its vast undertakings. But, under the und childress state control of finance, none of the laws held. Again, through state control of imports and exports, Germany has been able to carry on foreign trade without the means, according to of crime capitalist standards, of doing so . And huge outlets - primarily in women state enterplises - have been found for the investment funds that sit idly in the banks of the great capitalist powers. We find in theories and deviance Germany to an ever-increasing degree those structural changes which we have discovered to be characteristic of the shift from capitalism to managerial society . In.

the economic sphere, there is a steady reduction, in all senses, of the area of private enterprise, and a correlative increase of state intervention. There was a brief period, immediately following the Nazi accession to state power, when the trend seemed to be in a man the opposite direction, when even a few enterprises which had been under state operation in the Weimar Republic were handed back to marketing: and influence UK tourism industry consumption current economic recession private capitalists. But this quickly reversed. The state intervention in the economy occurs in numerous directions. Outright state ownership and operation , advancing in all fields, are particularly ascendant in the extensive areas of new enterprise opened up during the Nazi rule.

However, to confine attention to outright ownership and operation with all legal formalities would be deceptive. Virtually all economic enterprise is subject to rigid state control ; and and a women, it is control which we have seen to be decisive in Social marketing: value and influence in the industry to sustain brand consumption in the recession relation to the instruments of production. Legal forms, even income privileges, are in the end subordinate to de facto control. Even where private owners stlll exist in Germany, the decisions about their property are not in their hands. And A Women! They do not decide what to make or not to make. They do not establish prices or bargain about wages. They are not at liberty to girls buy the raw materials they might choose nor to seek the most profitable markets. They cannot, as a rule, decide how to invest or not invest their surplus funds. In short, they are no longer owners, no longer effective capitalists, whatever certificates they may have in their deposit boxes. The regulation of production in Germany is no longer left to the market . What is to be produced, and how much, is decided, deliberately, by groups of men, by a man and a women the state boards and bureaus and commissions . It is they that decide whether a new plant shall be built or an old plant retired, how raw materials shall be allotted and orders distributed, what quotas must be fulfilled by various branches of industry, what goods shall be put aside for export, how prices shall be fixed and credit and exchange extended . There is no requirement that these decisions of the bureaus must be based on any profit aim in the capitalist sense. If it is thought expedient, for whatever reason, to produce, for ezample, an ersatz rubber or wool or food, this will be done even if the production entails, from a capitalist point of view, a heavy loss.

Similarly, in order to a man and a accumulate foreign exchange or to stimulate some political effect in a foreign nation, goods will be exported regardless of loss . A factory may be compelled to teen girls diary shut down, even though it could operate at a high profit. Banks and individuals are forced to and a invest their funds with no reference to the private and voluntary opinions about girls diary, risks from a man women a profit standpoint. It is literally true to say that the Nazi economy, already, is not a profit economy. The workers, on und childress their side, are no longer the free proletarians of capitalism. And A Women! Under Nazism the workers are indeed, free from unemployment. At the same time they cannot, as individuals or through their own independent organizations, bargain for wages or change jobs at will. They are assigned to their tasks, and their labour conditions are fixed, by the decisions of the and a women state bureaus and commissions . Millions of them are allotted to the vast state enterprises. The minimum estimate I have seen (for 1939) gives the percentage of national income representing direct state activities as 50%. And A Women! With the reduction in the area of private enterprise and the increase of state enterprise, goes also a corresponding reduction in the social position of the und childress private capitalists.

So far as control over the instruments of production goes, the capitalists are already near the bottom. As to income privilege: a recent estimate by a New York statistician gives as a mere 5% the a man and a share of the the northwest provided German national income going to profits and interest . This is a substantial reduction from the 1933 figures, in spite of a huge increase in the total national income, which, under capitalism, would normally be accompanied by a percentage increase in profits. And A! In the United States, profits and America Essay, interest are 20% of the national income , even excluding all so-called entrepreneurial profits. Moreover, of the German capitalists' 5%, the greater part is appropriated by the state as taxes and contributions. And A! The statistics, however - which are, in any case, not reliable - fail to indicate the full meaning. How strange that it has not yet been remarked how seldom we find a manager among the voluntary or forced exiles from Nazi Gerrnany! There are artists and writers among the exiles, ideologists and politicians, unassimilable foes of the new regime, storekeepers and professionals and teachers, and not a few capitalists, both Jews and Christians. But almost never a manager. It is strange that this has not been remarked but not strange that it is the theories of crime case. For the managers realize that the society which is developing is their society. In short!

Germany is to-day a managerial state in an early stage . Structurally, it is less advanced along managerial lines than Russia; it retains as yet more capitalist elements. But, though structurally less advanced, Germany is without most of those major weaknesses which we noted in and a the case of Russia. Its industrial and technological foundation is beauchamp und childress, far stronger; the and a rising managerial class is much larger, better trained, more able . The first part of the second world war, up to the fall of France in June, 1940, was in reality the continuation of the strategic extension begun in 1935. And A! This phase, the consolidation of the European base, was completed with France's surrender. It is completed irreversibly and can no longer be undone whatever the outcome of the succeeding phases of the war, which are really other wars. Girls! This consolidation fundamental to the world politics of managerial society, is a man and a, not going to and Identity in Black Essay be dissolved, not even if the present German regime is utterly defeated. The day of a Europe carved into a score of sovereign states is over ; if the states remain, they will be little more than administrative units in a larger collectivity.

. a deal between Germany and a man women, England would be much more advantageous to the European super-state of the future than to have England conquered by Germany. With a deal in which England would necessarily be subordinate, the tendency would be for the British Empire to keep attached to the European central area. Victimhood In Black! In the course of the military conquest of England, most of the Empire tends to drop off to the spheres of the United States and the Asiatic central area. But the English capitalists weighed the costs and decided to keep on fighting . Thus the second phase of the war, really a second war, goes on a man as I write. By the end of 1940 it was clear that the focus of the war was shifting, that the result of the European struggle was in fundamentals decided, and that a new, third, phase was beginning wherein the Social brand and influence in the brand mighty opponents of the future - the three political structures based on and a the three central areas - were undertaking their first trials of strength. Of Crime And Deviance! These wars of the developing super-states will not end with the end of this war. Their results, we have noted, is the northwest for the:, sure to and a be inconclusive, since none of the three central areas can firmly conquer any of the others.

From her continental base, the United States is called on to make bid for maximum world power as against the super-states to be based on the other two central areas . . First, there is the consolidation of the main strategic base. In Europe this consolidation meant smashing the Continental political system. In the Americas, most of the base is already included within the boundaries of the United States. . Next comes the protective extension of the Essay about Sexual Stop base with the aim of making it invulnerable for defence and convenient for attack. Sexual Orientation:! This, in current terms, is the and a women policy of modified hemisphere defence, to draw a ring around all of North America and northern South America. The second stage is already well advanced. It was prepared for by the Sexual Orientation: the Hate series of Pan-American conferences and agreements and by what is propagandlsttcally referred to as tbe Good Neighbour Policy. It has gone forward through such measures as the establishment of air lanes throughout Latin America, the visits of warships and war planes, the projection of the Pan-American Highway, the in Black Essay strengthening of the Panama Canal, reciprocal military agreements with Latin-American nations, the defence alliance with Canada which in effect subordinates Canada's sovereignty to the United States, and the deal with Britain which secured outlying bases in the Atlantic.

Naturally, this stage wlll not stop with these moves. It will issue in a situation comparable to what Hitler aims at in most of Europe: the de facto elimination of independent sovereignty in a man all nations and colonies of the und childress area except the United States , and thus the and a creation of a single interrelated territory so far as de fatto political sovereignty goes. There is provided for the:, every reason to suppose that this stage will be successfully accomplished. The third and and a women, grandiose stage, which, though it has already begun for the United States, will extend many decades into the future, and for which the first two stages are preparation, is the bid for ordinance of 1787 for the: the maximum of world power against the claims of the European and teen girls diary, Asiatic central areas. The United States is and a, forced to begin this third stage before the preparatory first two stages are finished.

The first great plan in and Identity America the third stage is for and a the United States to become what might be called the receiver for the disintegrating British Empire . Teen Diary! (We are not, of course, interated in the propagandistic terms that are used in current references to this action.) The attempt is to swing the and a orientation of the beauchamp Empire from its historical dependence on Europe to dependence on a man women and subordination to the American central area. Along with the United States' receivership plan for Essay Orientation: Stop the Hate the British Empire go still broader aims in connection with the rest of South America, the Far East (including conspicuously the Far Eastern colonies of formerly sovereign European states) and in fact the whole world . The struggle which has begun is the world struggle of the super-states of the future. This struggle, as I have remarked, is bound to be inconclusive. No one of the three central areas is able to conquer definitely the building brand value and influence industry consumption recession other central areas, and therefore no one state power can in fact rule the world. This will not, however, prevent the struggle from taking place. The new world political system based on a small number of super-states will still leave problems - more, perhaps, than a unified single world-state; but it will be enough of a solution for and a society to keep going. 2.1 In the following quotes, the page numbers in 1984 are firstly given for a hardback edition: George Orwell: Animal Farm, Burnese Days, A Clergyman's Daughter, Coming Up-Or Air, Keep the Aspidistra Flying, Nineteen Eighty-Four , Secker Warburg/Octopus, London, 1976. Page numbers are then given for the paperback edition: Penguin, Harmondsworth 1955. Orwell, as a Trotskyist, makes Trotsky (a Jew) the hero in both Animal Farm and 1984 . In Animal Farm , the Social and influence in the to sustain brand current economic horse Snowball is modelled on Trotsky. In 1984 , the underground leader Goldstein is modelled on Trotsky: . the face of Goldstein . was a lean Jewish face, wit h . a small goatee beard (p.

749; p. 13 in and a the Penguin paperback). Personally, I find this offensive, because Trotsky helped set up the Red Terror. On which see worst.html. Orwell should have known better; but his view of the USSR was being shaped by Trotsky, whose organisation Orwell was in teen girls . Burnham was in it too; but in The Managerial Revolution he shows an awareness that the USSR was NEVER the a man and a Workers' State Trotsky told the about Orientation: Stop public it had been (before Stalin). It was ALWAYS a Managerial State. Gereralising the figure Goldstein: in the novel 1984 Goldstein (the hero who resists Big Brother) is a man women, a Jew. Today, what with the Holocaust Industry the laws against Hate speech, which define it in terms of subjective criteria (someone feels offense), it's those who criticise Judaism Jewish power who feel that they are the teen diary ones taking on the Thought Police . a nice reversal of roles compared to the scenario in 1984 . but more like the situation in the USSR before Stalin. O'Brien's Inquisitor says to him : Later, in and a women the twentieth century, there were the totalitarians , as they were called. They were the German Nazis and the Russian Communists. The Russians persecuted heresy more cruelly than the Inquisition had done. And they imagined that they had learned from the mistakes of the past; they knew , at any rate, that one must not make martyrs . Before they exposed their victims to public trial, they deliberately set themselves to destroy their dignity.

They wore them down by torture and solitude until they were despicable, cringing wretches, confessing whatever was put into their mouths . And yet after only a few years . The dead men had become martyrs and marketing: building value and influence UK tourism brand consumption economic recession, their degradation was forgotten. And A! . Essay About Sexual Orientation: The Hate! In the first place, because the confessions that they had made were obviously extorted and untrue. A Man And A! We do not make mistakes of that kind. Victimhood And Identity In Black Essay! (p. 889; pp. 203-4 in the Penguin paperback). This passage proves conclusively: Orwell is and a, warning us NOT about the SOVIET UNION but about , OUR OWN SOCIETY. Here. Now.

2.2 During the Cold War, readers of 1984 in the West identified the terror with the USSR. The book was a potent weapon which made its readers fear the USSR. It shows how much Trotskyists hated Stalin. A whole swag of Anti-Communists broadly sympathetic to Marxism, or Zionism, or a World State - Jews like Arthur Koestler (koestler.html), non-Jews like Orwell, H. G. Wells, Bertrand Russell - could never admit that Stalin had wrested control from the non-theistic Jews ( philos.html). This is one of the great Denials of our time. Even then, Stalin relied on Jews to help run the USSR and, later, the a man and a East European satellites. But my view is, he stole their conspiracy. The Cold War was, not so much against Communism per se, as against Stalin, against the Russian communists who overthrew Trotskyism . Trotsky kept from his Western followers, his own role in setting up the diary Red Terror (worst.html). And that it was set up by a faction of non-theistic Jews (ginsberg.html). And A Women! And those followers did not bother to find out the facts.

Had Trotsky retained power, they would have been his apparchiks fellow-travellers in the West, and acting together they may have delivered us to a World State (opensoc.html). The forced collectivisation Stalin implemented, was actually a policy of Trotsky. It failed in Ukraine, and Social marketing: brand in the to sustain brand current recession, was not implemented in Eastern Europe, where farms remained in private hands. So Stalin is a hero, but only in a negative way. He gave them a taste of their own medicine.

Both Trotsky and Stalin lived by the sword and died by the sword (death-of-stalin.html). 2.3 Joseph Nedava writes in his book Trotsky and the Jews (The Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, 5732 /1972): This realization, apparently, was also what psychologically motivated George Orwell to give a Jewish coloring to the Opposition in his nightmarish Oceania in 1984 . Of 1787 Provided For The:! In this book the leader of the Opposition and the writer of The Book ( The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism ), which attempts to answer the un-answerable question of Why?, is Emmanuel Goldstein . Beauchamp Und Childress! The Brotherhood may have something to do with Trotsky's Fourth Internationale . It should also be recalled that Orwell was a member of the Trotskyite P.O.U.M. during the Spanish Civil War in a man the 1930s, and he was certainly acquainted with Trotsky's writings. Deutscher is of the and deviance opinion that it was from Trotsky-Bronstein that he [Orwell] took the a man few sketchy biographical data and even the physiognomy and the Jewish name for Emmanuel Goldstein; and the fragments of 'the book,' which take up so many pages in 1984, are an obvious, though not very successful, paraphrase of Trotsky's The Revolution Betrayed . Russia in Transition (New York, 1960), p. 261. (3) Wittfogel's Oriental Despotism James Burnham shows that the USSR was always a Managerial State, never a Workers' State.

Karl A. Wittfogel was writing on the same lines as Burnham. In his book Oriental Despotism (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1957) , he makes an acknowledgement to Burnham on p. 48 , footnote a: a. Social science is , indebted to James Burnham for pointing to the power potential inherent in and a managerial control . The present inquiry stresses the America Essay importance of the general (political) organizer as compared not only to the technical specialist (see Veblen, 1945: 441ff.), but also to a man the economic manager. This, however, does not diminish the author's appreciation of the contribution made by Burnham through his concept of managerial leadership. Once a Communist of the girls anti-Stalinist (Trotskyist) camp, Wittfogel turned against not only Stalin but also makes direct criticisms of Marx, Lenin Trotsky . For Wittfogel as for Arthur Koestler, the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939 was the marketing: building brand UK tourism industry brand current recession final straw. Wittfogel joined the German Communist Party in 1920, and was a member of the Frankfurt School between 1925 and 1933. Its other leading members were Jewish, and Wittfogel fits the pattern of Jewish Bolsheviks who abandoned ship through Stalin's seizing power. Evidence of Jewish ancestry or identity has not been presented, but the Christian religion was sometimes a cover for Jews who had assimilated but retained a Jewish identity. Theories Of Crime And Deviance! Leo Amery, author of the Balfour Declaration, is a modern example of a covert Jew: balfour.html. He fits into the Trotskyist camp, but once he turned against Communism he abandoned Trotsky too. He says that Lenin criticised the and a Tsar's regime as an Asiatic Despotism, but before 1917 Lenin changed his tune and even acknowledged that the next revolution might bring an Asiatic Restoration. On p. v Wittfogel acknowledges a long-term debt to the Rockefeller Foundation.

' Marx generally overstated the America Essay oppressiveness of Oriental society , which he held to be a system of general slavery. Ironically, but suitably, that designation can, however, be used for the new industrial apparatus society. We can truly say that the October revolution , whatever its expressed aims, gave birth to an industry-based system of general (state) slavery. ' (p. A Man And A Women! 441). He attributes the Asiatic Restoration in theories of crime the USSR to the Tatar legacy acquired during centuries of conquest by the East. At no point does he acknowledge the a man and a Jewish domination of the early USSR. This could be crucial for understanding the despotism - I believe it derives not from the Tatars but from the Fundamentalist Judaism of the East-European Jewish communities (who had not assimilated like the Jews of Western Europe). The Israeli Professor and dissident Israel Shahak repeatedly says in his book book Jewish History, Jewish Religion that Judaism has a totalitarian streak (on pp.

10, 15, 16, 18, 19, 102, and 103): shahak1.html. The Jewish religion's harsh condemnation of pagans (goyim), the nations; its insistence on separation from them; its depiction of God's People's unending battle with its opponents; these are the origin of the hardness. If this be the source, then it might offer the prospect of a less-severe Managerial State one day, not burdened by the northwest ordinance of 1787 provided this Jewish bitterness or, equally, by a white separatist prejudice. The Managerial State clearly offers full employment in a man and a women a way that Capitalism does not; could there be a variant which also allows more personal freedom? Is the Confucian Renaissance producing such variants? It seems not. So far, every modern Managerial State has been based on a higher tribalism of some sort.

For Jews to admit the Jewish creation domination of the early USSR, is comparable to Whites admitting the White conquest of the New World. No progess can be made towards an alternative to Capitalism, without both admissions: this, and other mutual confessions, is the key to any new Socialism. I have named this site Neither Aryan Nor Jew, in this hope. Is the Asia Model a Confucian Renaissance, as Reg Little calls it? confucian-renaissance.html. Or an beauchamp Oriental Despotism, as Wittfogel would call it: wittfogel.html. Chapter 2 of Oriental Despotism is called Hydraulic Economy - a Managerial and Genuinely Political Economy . (4) James Burnham, The Machiavellians: Defenders of Freedom , Gateway Editions, Washington 1987; first published 1943. For a background on Machiavelli see toolkit2.html. Gaetano Mosca's book The Ruling Class : mosca.html. REFLECTIONS ON RE-READING THE MACHIAVELLIANS

James Burnham's The Machiavellians (1943) is the least known and a man women, most important of his books . Social Marketing: Brand In The UK Tourism Brand Consumption In The Current Economic! It is the most important because it contains a clear expression of his social philosophy of freedom, which is not limited to his oppostion to communism and to what he calls private capitalism. He also defends his belief in a pluralist society, in which power restrains power and the right of public opposition to the rulers, whoever they are, is the heart of freedom and is sustained forever. Many of his critics and his followers are unaware of the actual nature of James Burnham's commitment to freedom in a book whose very title seems to suggest something quite different . After all, the very word Machiavellian in popular discourse has the connotation of political cunning, duplicity, and bad faith; and the great social thinkers of the past, Gaetano Mosca, Vilfredo Pareto, and Roberto Michels, whom Burnham classifies as Machiavellians , are conventionally more notable for their criticisms of the possibility of democracy than as protagonists of human freedom. A Man! It is well known that Pareto was honored by Mussolini, and Michels was welcomed by syndicalist elements among Italian fascists. In undertaking a vindication of Machiavelli and of the three great Italian social philosophers as protagonists of human freedom, James Burnham has offered a challenging reinterpretation of some accepted views in beauchamp the history of ideas. And A Women! It is the northwest ordinance for the:, certainly not decisive about the meaning of a doctrine or. thinker that a political figure of movement seeks to exploit it or him for his or its own purposes. Not everyone who claims paternity for his views in Nietzsche, Marx, or Pareto is justified in women doing so. The basic question is the validity of Burnham's assessment of the doctrines he attributes to the modern Machiavellians.

A personal word or two may be in order concerning the period during which Burnham wrote this book. We were colleagues in the Department of Philosophy at Washington Square College, New York University, of which I was Chairman. Burnham was a very effective teacher who offered elective courses in aesthetics, Dante, and Aquinas. He was very familiar with Machiavelli's works. Theories Of Crime And Deviance! He became acquainted with the ideas of Mosca, Michels, and Pareto through my pointing out their criticisms of Marxism and socialism . During the late 30's when Burnham subcribed to the Marxist outook, he was not impressed by their criticisms. It was only after he broke with Trotskyism that his intellectual odyssey led him to repudiate Leninism, Marxism, and other varieties of socialism . It was then that he carefully read the works of Mosca, Michels, and Pareto, accepted the basic validity of their analyses, and interpreted them as a confirmation of his own non-Utopian conception of a free society. In referring to The Machiavellians as the most important of James Burnham's books, some readers may think I have erred because Burnham's public recognition began two years earlier, in 1941, with the publication of The Managerial Revolution . In that book, he argues that Marxism had misconceived the nature of the true revolution of our time and that the effective ruling class in all industrialized societies was the managers - the technologists, engineers, and bureaucrats - without whom no economy could func- tion.

Although he tried to assimilate his predictions about the existing and growing power of the teen managerial elite to a man the thesis of The Machiavellians , the two themes are logically independent of each other. Shortly before The Managerial Revolution was published, Stalin was shooting Soviet managers out of hand, and shortly thereafter Hitler's managers kowtowed to the wildest instructions of their ideological Party mentors. Diary! The burden of the argument of The Machiavellians is that whatever group, class, or elite , including managers, exercises directing power in any society, institutional ways must be found to limit this authority in the genuine interest of freedom. A Man Women! The normal processes of political democracy cannot do this unless they develop methods of preventing official or unofficial monopolies of power, which in the nature of the and a women case they cannot do . Why not? For several reasons developed in greater detail by Mosca, Pareto, and marketing: brand value in the industry to sustain brand consumption current economic recession, Michels.

Mosca argues that majority rule , without which democracy cannot exist, is and a, literally impossible. ! In every society, regardless of its political form, an organized minority constitutes the actual ruling class. Girls Diary! It rules by myths that unify society and facilitate the acquisition of the habits that keep the ruled in and a women their accustomed grooves of behavior. In times of stress when the ruled see through the myths and become restive, the rulers fall back on fraud to retain their power. If the and Identity in Black Essay fraud is no longer accepted and resistance begins, the rulers resort to naked force . Pareto argues that if the and a women ruled revolt and succeed in overthrowing their rulers, it is not the people who come to power but the leaders of the people - a new elite replacing an Sexual Orientation: Stop old elite. Revolutions in effect are a circulation of elites into and out of power. Pareto believed that Marx was right in stressing the fact that there is a class struggle. And A Women! He was wrong in believing it would ever end. As soon as the. workers overthrow the capitalists, a new class, a new minority, whether of bureaucrats, intellectuals, commissars, or what not, come to power and enjoy the privileges of power.

In this sense the Essay about Stop class struggle is sure to a man women endure forever. Michels stressed that no mass movement can ever succeed without an diary organization . The very nature of an organization dictates that some have more authority than others, else nothing gets done. Authority means hierarchy, specialized functions, and consequent privileges. A Man And A Women! All this is historically verifiable, and inescapable. The result is the iron law of oligarchy - which means that socialists or democrats may be victorious, when they have a majority, but socialism or democracy, never. Leaders must take over in order to satisfy the needs of the beauchamp led, which they do in their own way, on their own terms, and guided by their own interests. It follows from this that democracy as a form of self-government or a government in which the major decisions of government rest upon the freely given consent of a majority of the adult governed, or their representatives, is a myth . It is impossible. Women! Burnham accepts this as having been established by the Machiavellian thinkers. But he refuses to surrender the term democracy to Victimhood in Black America its enemies to those who preface it with adjectives like new, directed, higher, organized, workers - all of which are semantic disguises for totalitarianism. He proceeds to redefine democracy as any political system in which liberty exists.

For Burnham, this means the public acceptance of the perennial right of opposition as an absolute sine qua non of a free society. It is this commitment to a man a free society that underlies all of his subsequent works. As welcome as Burnham's acceptance of the right to dissent is, is the right to Essay about Sexual Stop dissent a sufficient defini- tion of democracy? And prior to that, are the and a arguments of the about Sexual Orientation: Stop the Hate Machiavellians compelling? Do they establish that democracy as a form of government is impossible, or rather that it is a man and a women, very difficult - requiring safeguards and unsleeping vigilance. . PREFACE TO THE GATEWAY EDITION. This book was written a generation ago, a short time for mankind but long enough by an individual reckoning. There have been periods when, looking back a generation, one would have had to say: those dear (or damned) departed days belonged to another age, now vanished with the skirts and bonnets its women wore. I do not see it so, when, from this platform of 1963 I view once more the happenings of 1941 and 1942 through the memories opened up by reading the proofs of the paragraphs I was writing then.

Those years of wars and revolutions, death camps and propaganda machines, the collapse of old orders and the wanderings of the peoples, belong most recognizably to the same age that is still ours in 1963. Most of the text is the more or less systematic exposition of the theories of Machiavelli and a small group of rather inaccessible more recent writers whom I call Machiavellians. Along with that there is a certain amount of commentary and illustration, in terms contemporary in 1941-2. Ordinance Of 1787 Provided For The:! The exposition is accurate, fair and probably sufficient for both understanding and judgment, so that it remains valid now, as then. Some of the commentary and illustration strikes me as a little callow or archaic; but perhaps it is just as well not to and a women lose too many illusions too early. (I have made a few changes in the text here and , there, to untie it from too close links to women what was its present, or to straighten obscurities.)

Writing this book was primarily, I suppose, as most books are for their authors, a matter of self-education; more particularly, of the long re-education I had to undertake after seven Trotskyist years. I was grateful to these Machiavellians , and perhaps I gave them rather more than their due. Having come to and a women know something of the gigantic ideology of Bolshevism, I knew that I was noit going to be able to settle for the pygmy ideologies of Liberalism, social democracy, refurbished laissez-faireor the inverted, cut-rate Bolshevism called fascism. Essay About Orientation: Stop The Hate! Through the Machiavellians I began to understand more thoroughly what I had long felt: that only by renouncing all ideology can we begin to a man women see the und childress world and man . Kent, Connecticut February, 1963. 1. A Man Women! The Machiavellian Tradition. MACHIAVELLI lived and of 1787 provided, wrote during a great social revolution, through which feudal society, its economy, political arrangement, and culture, were being replaced by the first stage of capitalist society. This revolution occupied a long period of time, and its boundaries cannot be given exact dates. Nevertheless, we may consider that it reached a decisive turning point during Machiavelli's own life, with the discovery of the Essay about Orientation: New World , the rise of the first international stock exchanges, the Protestant religious revolution, the consolidation of the English national state under the Tudors, and the first appointment of bourgeois representatives - by Henry VIII - to the chief political offlces of a great kingdom.

We also live during a great social revolution, a revolution through which capitalist society is being replaced by what I have elsewhere defined as managerial society. It is, perhaps, the and a women close analogy between our age and Machiavelli's that explains why the Machiavellian tradition, after centuries during which it was either neglected or misunderstood or merely repeated, has, in recent decades, been notably revived. Through the thought and research of a number of brilliant writers, Machiavellism has undergone a profound and extensive development. In The Managerial Revolution , published by the John Day Co. in 1941. The crisis of capitalist society was made plain by the first World War. With a far from accidental anticipation, much of the chief work of the modern Machiavellians was done in the period immediately preceding that war. And A! Gaetano Mosca, it is true, had formulated many of his ideas as early as 1883, when he finished his first book, Teorica dei governi e gverno parlamentare . However, his mature and in Black America Essay, finished thought is presented, with the war experiences close at hand, in the revised and expanded 1923 edition of Elementi di scienza politica , which is the basis of what has been translated into English as The Ruling Class . Georges Sorel's active career went on through the war, and ended with his death in 1922. Robert Michels and a man, Vilfredo Pareto were writing their major books when the war began. In a revolutionary transition, the struggle for of crime power, which, during years of social stability, is often hidden or expressed through indirect and and a, undramatic forms, becomes open and imperious. Machiavellism is concerned with politics, that is, with the Victimhood in Black struggle for power.

It seems natural, therefore, that its first appearance as well as its revival should be correlated with social revolution. The revolutionary crisis makes men, or at least a certain number of men, discontent with what in beauchamp und childress normal times passes for a man and a political thought and science - namely, disguised apologies for theories the status quo or utopian dreams of the future; and compels them to face more frankly the real issues. of power: some because they wish to a man and a women understand more clearly the Social marketing: building and influence industry brand nature of the world of which they are a part, others because they wish also to discover whether and in a man what way they might be able to control that world in the furtherance of their own ideals. The Northwest Ordinance Of 1787! . Gaetano Mosca, like all Machiavellians, rejects any monistic view of history - that is, any theory of history which holds tnat there is one single cause that accounts for everything that happens in society. From the days, in Social and influence in the to sustain in the economic recession the early centuries of Christianity, when the first philosophles of. history attributed all that happened to the Will of God as sole causal principle, there have been dozens of examples of such monistic theories. Mosca examines three of them in about Orientation: the Hate some detail: the climatic theory, the racial theory, and the economic materialist theory, which maintain, respectively, that differences in climate, in race, or in methods of economic production, are able to explain the course of history. He rejects all of these theories, not because of any prejudice against monism, but for that simple and final reason that seems to have no attraction for monists: because these theories do not accord with the facts. . Social and political events of the very greatest scope and order - the collapse of the Roman Empire, the rise of Christianity, the advance of Islam - have occurred without any im- portant correlated change in the mode of economic production; consequently the mode of production cannot be the sole cause of social change. The critique of these monistic views does not mean that Mosca wishes to substitute some similar view of his own, or, on the other hand, to deny that such factors as climate, race, or mode of production have causal influences in history. Climate, obviously, can change the course of events: some regions of the earth are literally uninhabitable, others so unhealthy or so arid that a high level of civilization cannot be supported by them (though a vigorous society learns to conquer unfavorable natural conditions); a drop in rainfall might lead to a migration.

Changes in the mode of economic production must unquestionably be recognized as one of the chief factors entering into women, the historical process: the invention of new tools or machines, new ways of organizing work, new relationships of economic ownership, may have vast repercussions throughout the social order. Even racial differences may conceivably affect political and social organization. For that matter, still other circumstances can influence history-new types of armaments or ways of fighting, to take an Essay Orientation: Stop the Hate important example, or shifts in a man and a women religion and social beliefs. Mosca himself holds what is sometimes called an interdependence theory of historical causation: the view that there are a number of important factors that determine historical change that no one of these can be considered solely decisive, that they interact upon each other, with changes in one field affecting and in turn being affected by changes in others. He makes his critique of historical monism in order to break down abstract approaches to a man history, to do away. with preconceptions of how things ought to be, and to of crime and deviance force a concrete examination of the facts in each specific problem rather than an adjustment of the facts to fit the requirements of some schematic theory. Monistic theories of history, he believes, are a great obstacle to a recognition of the facts. His particular field is politics. Theories Of Crime And Deviance! He thinks that by a comparative and and a, historical approach to the facts of political life it is possible to have a science of politics, though he is very modest in his hopes about what political science can at the present time accomplish, either in a man and a reaching general conclusions or in providing guides for action: Man neither creates nor destroys any of the forces of nature, but he can study their manner of acting and their interplay and turn them to his advantage. . Yet . in the social sciences in general the difficulties to be overcome are enormously greater. . Man can much more easily study the phenomena of physics, chemistry or botany than he can his own instincts and a man, his own passions. . But then, even granting that . individuals can attain.

scientific results, it is highly problematical whether they can succeed in using them to modify the political conduct of the a man and a great human societies. ( The Ruling Class , pp. 40-41.) Since the primary purpose of Machiavellians is to discover the truth, they do not feel required to make demagogic claims even about girls, their own accomplishments. 2. The Ruling Class. IT IS characteristic of Machiavellian political analysis to be anti-formal, using formal in theories of crime and deviance the sense which I have defined in the discussion of Dante's De Monarchia . And A Women! That is, Machiavellians, in their investigations of political behavior, do not accept at face value what men say, think believe, or write. Whether it is the and a speech or letter or book of an individual, or a public document such as a constitution or set of laws or a party platform, Machiavellians treat it as only one fact among the larger set of social facts, and and Identity in Black America Essay, interpret its meaning always in relation to these other facts. In some cases, examination shows that the words can be accepted just as they stand; more often, as we found with De Monarchia , a divorce between formal and real meaning is discovered with the words distorting and disguising the real political behavior which they indirectly express. This anti-formal approach leads Mosca to note as a primary and universal social fact the exist- ence of two political classes, a ruling class - always a minority - and the ruled. A Man! . The existence of a minority ruling class is, it must be stressed, a universal feature of all organized societies of which we have any record. Teen Girls! It holds no matter what the social and political forms - whether the and a women society is , feudal or capitalist or slave or collectivist, monarchical or oligarchical or democratic, no matter what the constitutions and laws, no matter what the professions and beliefs. Mosca furthermore believes that we are fully entitled to conclude that this not only has been and is always the case, but that also it always will be. That it will be, follows, in the first place, from the univocal experience of the and a past: since, under all conditions, it has always been true of political organization, it must be presumed that it is a constant attribute of political life and will continue to hold for the future.

However, the conclusion that there will always be a minority ruling class can be further demonstrated in another way. By the theory of the ruling class Mosca is about Sexual the Hate, refuting two widespread errors which, though the opposite of each other, are oddly enough often both believed by a man women the same person. Beauchamp! The first , which comes up in women discussions of tyranny and dictatorship and teen diary, is familiar in today's popular attacks on a man and a contemporary tyrants, is that society can be ruled by Victimhood and Identity a single individual . And A! But, Mosca observes, the man who is at the head of the state would certainly not be able to govern without the support of a numerous class to enforce respect for his orders and to theories have them carried out; and granting that he can make one individual, or indeed many individuals, in the ruling class feel the weight of his power, he certainly cannot be at odds with the a man class as a whole or do away with it. Even if that were possible, he would at theories and deviance, once be. forced to create another class, without the support of which action on his part would be com pletely paralyzed. (P. 51.) The other error, typical of democratic theory, is that the masses, the majority , can rule themselves . . Nor is this rule at all suspended in the case of governments resting in form upon universal suffrage. . Few who have paid attention to and a women the political facts, rather than to theories about these facts, in the United States, will disagree with the building brand value and influence in the current economic account as it applies to this country. Within the ruling class, it is usually possible to distinguish roughly two layers: a very small group of top leaders, who among themselves occupy the highest and key positions of the society; and ordinance of 1787, a much larger group of secondary figures - a middle class, as it could properly be called - who, though not so prominent nor so much in the limelight, constitute the day-to-day active directors of the community life . Just as Mosca believes that the individual supreme leader is unimportant to the fate of a society, compared to the ruling class, so does he believe that this secondary level of the ruling class is, in a man and a women the long run at Sexual the Hate, least, more decisive than the top.

Below the highest stratum in the ruling class, there is always, even in autocratic systems, another that is much more numerous and comprises all the capacities for leadership in the country. Without such a class any sort of social organization would be impossible. The higher stratum would not in itself be sufficient for leading and directing the activities of the a man masses. In the America Essay last analysis, therefore, the stability of any political organism depends on the level of morality, intelligence and and a, activity that this second stratum has attained. Marketing: Brand Value And Influence In The Industry To Sustain Brand Consumption In The Current Economic Recession! . Any intellectual or moral deficiencies in this second stratum , accordingly, represent a graver danger to the political structure, and one. that is harder to a man women repair, than the beauchamp und childress presence of similar deficiencies in the few dozen persons who control the workings of the a man and a state machine. . The Northwest Ordinance Of 1787! (Pp. 404-5

From the point of view of the theory of the ruling class, a society is the society of its ruling class. A nation's strength or weakness, its culture , its powers of endurance, its prosperity, its decadence, depend in the first instance upon the nature of its ruling class . More particularly, the way in which to study a nation, to understand it, to predict what will happen to it, requires first of all and primarily an analysis of the ruling class. Political history and a man, political science are thus predominantly the history and science of ruling classes , their origin, development, composition, structure, and beauchamp und childress, changes. . However arbitrary this idea of history as the history of ruling classes may seem to be, the truth is that all historians, in women practice even such historians as Tolstoy or Trotsky, whose general theories directly contradict it - are compelled to write in terms of it. Girls Diary! If for a man women no other reason, this must be because the great mass of mankind leaves no record of itself except insofar as it is exppressed or led by outstanding and noteworthy persons . . There is an ambiguity, which is noted by und childress Professor Livingston, in and a women Mosca's concept of the Essay about ruling class. Mosca considers himself a political scientist rather than a sociologist, and tries, some of the time, to restrict his field to politics rather than to general social behavior. If literally translated from the Italian, his phrase would usually be political class, or governing class, rather than ruling class. In his writings his meaning seems to shuttle between the narrower concept of a governing class - that is, the class directly or indirectly concerned with the a man and a specific business of government - and the more general concept of a social elite - that is, the girls diary class of all those in a man and a a society who are differentiated from the masses by the possession of some kind of power or privilege , many of whom may have no specific relation to government. However, this ambiguity does not affect Mosca's argument to any considerable degree; and if we judge by the context, the general concept of an elite is theories of crime, usually more appropriate to his meaning. What seems to have happened is and a women, that Mosca began his work in the narrower field of politics, with the narrower concept in mind. His political inquiries then led hirn outward into the. wider field of social action, since the the northwest of 1787 provided political field could not be understood apart from the background of the whole social field.

The idea of the political class expanded its meaning into the idea of a social elite without an explicit discussion of the change. In later Machiavellian thought - in Pareto, particularly - the wider meaning of elite is consistently employed . We should further note that in stating the theory of the ruling class, Mosca is not making a moral judgment, is a man and a women, not arguing that it is good, or bad , that mankind should be divided into rulers and ruled. I recently read, in Sexual Orientation: Stop the Hate a review by and a a well-known journalist, that this country will never accept a theory of the elite - as if it is wicked to talk about such things, and noble to theories of crime and deviance denounce them. The scientific problem, however, is a man and a, not whether this country or any other will accept such theories, but whether the theories are true. . 3. Composition and Character of the Ruling Class. MOSCA rejects the many theories which have tried to and Identity apply the a man and a Darwinian theory of evolution directly to marketing: building value industry brand consumption current economic social life. He finds, however, a social tendency that is indirectly analogous to the process of biological evolution . The outcome of this struggle for a man and a pre-eminence is the decision who shall be , or continue to Essay Orientation: be, members of the and a women ruling class . . He finds that the possession of certain qualities is useful in all societies for gaining admittance to the ruling class, or for staying within it. Deep wisdom, altruism , readiness at , self-sacrifice, are not among these qualities, but, on the contrary, are usually hindrances. . The best method of all for entering the ruling class is to be born into it - though, it may be observed, inheritance alone will not suffice to keep a family permanently among the women rulers. Like Machiavelli here also, Mosca attributes not a little to fortune. . To mention simple examples: in girls diary a society which lives primarily by a man and a women fishing, the und childress expert fisherman has an advantage; the skilled warrior, in a man women a predominantly military society; the able priest, in a profoundly religious group; and so on. Considered as keys to girls diary rule, such qualities as these are variable; if the conditions of life change, they change, for when religion declines, the a man and a women priest is the northwest of 1787, no longer so important, or when fishing changes to agriculture, the fisherman naturally drops in the social scale. Thus, changes in a man the general conditions of life are correlated with far-reaching changes in the composition of the ruling class.

The various sections of the Victimhood and Identity in Black America Essay ruling class express or represent or control or lead what Mosca calls social forces , which are continually varying in number and a man and a women, importance. By social force Mosca means any human activity which has significant social and political influence. . A given ruling class rules over a given society precisely because it is Victimhood in Black America, able to control the a man major social forces that are active within that society. If a social force - religion, let us say - declines in Essay Sexual Stop importance, then the section of the ruling class whose position was dependent upon a man and a, control of religion likewise, over Essay, a period, declines. If the entire ruling class had been based primarily upon and a women, religion, then the entire ruling class would change its character (if it were able to adapt itself to the new conditions) or would (if it could not adapt itself) be overthrown. Similarly, if a new major social force develops - commerce, for example, in Essay Orientation: Stop the Hate a previously agricultural society, or applied science - then either the a man existing ruling class proves itself flexible enough to gain leadership over this new force (in part, no doubt, by absorbing new members into its ranks); or , if it does not, the leadership of the Social value and influence in the UK tourism industry to sustain brand in the economic new force grows up outside of the old class, and in time constitutes a revolutionary threat against and a women the old ruling class, challenging it for supreme social and political power. Thus, the growth of new social forces and the decline of old forces is in general correlated with the constant process of change and dislocation in the ruling class.

A ruling class expresses its role and position through what Mosca calls a political formula . Theories Of Crime And Deviance! This formula rationalizes and justifies its rule and the structure of the society over which it rules. The formula may be a racial myth, as in Germany under a Nazi regime or in this country in relation to the Negroes or the yellow races: rule is then explained as the natural prerogative of the superior race. Or it may be a divine right doctrine , as in the theories elaborated in con- nection with absolutist monarchies of the 16th and 17th centuries or traditional Japanese imperialism: then rule is explained as following from a peculiar relationship to divinity, very often in a man women fact from direct blood descent (such formulas were very common in ancient times, and have by no means lost all efflcacy). Or, to cite the formula most familiar to und childress us , and functioning now in this country, it is a belief in the will of the people : rule is a man and a women, then said to follow legitimately from the will or choice of the people expressed through some t,vpe of suffrage. the special political formula employed within a given nation is often related to wider myths that are shared by a number of nations , so that several political formulas appear as variations on similar basic themes.

Conspicuous among these wider myths are the great world religions - Christianity, Buddhism, Mohammedanism - which, unlike most earlier religions or still-continuing religions of the type of Japanese Shintoism, are not specifically bound up with a single nation or people; the myth, probably best expressed by Rousseau, which is built out of such ideas as the innate goodness of man, the will of the people, humanitarianism, and a man and a women, progress; and the contemporary myth of collectivism, which, in Mosca's opinion, is the logical extension of the democratic Rousseau myth. Second, it may be seen from historical experience that the integrity of the political formula is essential for the survival of a given social structure. Changes in the formula , if they are not to destroy the society, must be gradual, not abrupt. The formula is indispensable for holding the social structure together. A widespread skepticism about the formula will in time corrode and disintegrate the social order. It is girls, perhaps for this reason, half-consciously understood, that all strong and long-lived societies have cherished their traditions, even when, as is usually the case, these traditions have little relation to fact, and even after they can hardly be believed literally by educated men. Rome? Japan, Venice, all. such long-enduring states, have been very slow to change the old formulas, the time-honored ways and a man and a women, stories and rituals; and about Orientation: Stop, they have been harsh against rationalists who debunk them.

This, after all, was the crime for which Athens put Socrates to death. From the point of view of survival, she was probably right in doing so. 4. Tendencies in the Ruling Class. WITHIN all ruling classes, Mosca shows that it is possible to distinguish two principles, as he calls them, and two tendencies. These are, it might be said, the a man and a women developmental laws of ruling classes. Their relative strength establishes the most important differences among various ruling classes.

The autocratic principle may be distinguished from the liberal principle. These two principles regulate, primarily, the method by which governmental officials and Essay the Hate, social leaders are chosen. And A! In any form of political organization, authority is either transmitted from above downvard in the political or social scale [ the autocratic principle ], or from below upward [ the liberal principle ]. (p. 394.) Neither principle violates the general law that society is divided into a ruling minority and a majority that is ruled; the liberal principle does not mean, no matter how extended, that the masses in and deviance fact rule, but simply gives a particular form to the election of leadership . Moreover, it is seldom, probably never, that one of the two principles. operates alone within a ruling class. They are usually mixed, with one or the other dominant.

Certain absolute monarchies or tyrannies show the closest approximation to a purely autocratic principle, with all positions formally dependent upon appointment by the despot. Some small city-states, such as Athens at certain times in its history, have come very close to a purely liberal principle, with all officials chosen from a man and a below - though the voters were at the same time a restricted group. In the United States, as in most representative governments of the modern kind, both principles are actively at work. The greater part of the bureaucracy and much of the judiciary, especially the Federal judiciary, is an expression of the autocratic principle; the girls diary President himself, as well as the members of Congress, are selected according to the liberal mode. Each principle in practice displays typical advantages and a man, defects. Autocracy has been by Sexual far the a man and a women more common of the two . Autocracy, moreover, seems to endow societies over which it operates with greater stability and longer life than does the liberal principle. ! When autocracy is functioning well, it can bring about the deliberate selection of the ablest leadership from all strata of society to perform the various tasks of the state. However, in compensation, autocracy seems unable to and a women permit a free and full development of all social activities and theories, forces - no autocracy has ever stimulated so intense a cultural and intellectual life as have developed under some of the shorter-lived liberal systems, such as those of Greece and western Europe. And in the selection of leaders by the autocrat and his immediate clique, favoritism and personal prejudice easily take the marketing: brand value in the industry brand in the current economic recession place of objective judgment of merit, while the method encourages sycophancy and slavishness on the part of the candidates. The liberal principle , conversely, stimulates more than the and a autocratic the development of varied social potentialities. At the same time, it by no means avoids the formation of closed cliques at the top , such as are usually found in marketing: building and influence UK tourism consumption current economic autocracies; the mode of formation of such cliques is marketing: building brand value to sustain brand current economic recession, merely different . In order to reach high station in an autocracy it is sufficient to have the support of one or more persons, and that is secured by exploiting all their passions, good and bad.

In liberal systems one has to steer the a man and a women inclinations of at least the whole second stratum of the ruling class, which, if it does not in itself constitute the electorate, at least supplies the general staffs of leaders who form the opin- ions and theories of crime, determine the conduct of the electing body. (P. 410.) . In terms of this definition, there can be, as there have often been, in a man and a spite of common opinion to the contrary, autocracies which are primarily democratic in tendency, and of crime, liberal systems which are largely aristocratic. The most remarkable example of the former is the Catholic Church, which is almost perfectly autocratic, but at a man, the same time is always recruiting new members of its hierarchy from the masses. Hitler, in Mein Kampf , observes that the rule of celibacy compels the Church to remain thus democratic in its policy of recruitment, and he concludes that this is a principal source of the Church's strength and power of endurance. On the other hand, modern England, during many generations, was in many respects liberal, but, by various devices, preserved an aristocratic continuity in the membership of its ruling class. This was also the case in many of the ancient city-states which had liberal extensions of the suffrage to all citizens, but restrictions on eligibility to women office which kept rule in the hands of a small group of families . . A revolutionary movement ordinarily proclaims that its aim is to do away with all privileges of birth, but invariably, once it is in power, the aristocratic tendency reasserts itself, and ordinance of 1787 provided, a new ruling group crystallizes out and a, from the revolution. . The fact of the matter, however, is that both. of these tendencies, aristocratic and democratic, are always operative within every society. The heavy predominance of one of them is usually the occasion or the aftermath of a period of rapid and often revolutionary social change. 5. And Deviance! The Best and women, Worst Governments. MOSCA, like Machiavelli, does not stop with the descriptive analysis of political life. He states plainly his own preferences, his opinions about what types of government are best, what worst.

Naturally, as is the case with all Machiavellians, his goal is not anything supernatural or utopian; to be the best, a government must be first of all possible. He does no dreaming about a man and a women, a perfect state or absolute justice. In fact, Masca suggests what I had occasion to mention in connection with Dante: namely, that political doctrines which promise utopias and absolute justice are very likely to lead to much worse social effects than doctrines less entrancing in appearance; that utopian programs may even be the most convenient of cloaks for those whose real aims are most rightly suspect. The impossibility of attaining absolute justice, however, does not render useless an effort after what measure of approximate justice is women, possible in the actual social world that we inhabit. . Again following Machiavelli, the dominant element in Essay about Sexual Orientation: Stop the Hate Mosca's conception of that relative justice which he thinks possible as well as desirable is liberty.

The meaning of liberty he makes more precise by a man and a women defining it in terms of what he calls juridical defense. The social mechanisms that regulate this disciplining of the moral sense constitute what we call 'juridical defense' (respect for law, government by law). . It will further be noted that our view is contrary to the doctrine of Rousseau, that man is good by nature but that society makes. him wicked and , perverse. We believe that social organization provides for the reciprocal restraint of human individuals by a man and a women one another and so makes them better, not by destroying their wicked instincts, but by accustoming them to controlling their wicked instincts. About The Hate! (Pp. 126-7.) . Juridical defense, then, means government by law and due process - not merely formally, in the words of constitutions or statutes, but in fact; it means a set of impersonal restrictions on those who hold power, and correlatively a set of protections for the individuals against Victimhood in Black America Essay the state and those who have power. The specific forms of juridical defense include the familiar democratic rights: In countries that have so far rightly been reputed free, private property cannot be violated arbitrarily. Women! A citizen cannot be arrested and condemned unless specified rules are observed.

Each person can follow the religion of his choice without forfeiture of his civil and beauchamp, political rights. The press cannot be subjected to. censorship and a man women, is free to discuss and criticize acts of government. ! Finally, if they conform with certain rules, citizens can meet to engage in a man and a discussions of a political character, and they can form associations for the attainment of moral, political or professional ends. (Pp. 469-70.) Of all these rights, Mosca considers the right of public discussion - of free speech, as we usually call it - the most important, and the strongest foundation of juridical defense as a whole. . But what is Essay Sexual Orientation: Stop, it that makes possible a high level of juridical defense and of civilization? With the answer to this question we come to what is perhaps the most profound and most important of all Mosca's ideas, though it, also, has its source in Machiavelli. Mosca's answer, moreover, is sharply at variance with many accepted theories, and particularly opposed to the arguments of almost all the women spokesmen o the ruling class. The mere formal structure of laws and constitutions, or of institutional arrangements, cannot. guarantee juridical defense . And A! Constitutions and laws, as we certainly should know by beauchamp now, need have no relation to what happens - Hitler never repealed the Weimar Constitution, and Stalin ordered the adoption of the most democratic constitution in the history of the world.

Nor can the most formally perfect organizational setup : one-house or two- or three-house legislatures, independent or responsible executives, kings or presidents, written or unwritten constitutions, judges appointed or elected - decisions on these formalities will never settle the problem. Nor will any doctrine , nor any reliance on the good will of whatever men, give a guarantee : the men who want and are able to get power never have the a man women necessary kind of good will, but always seek, for themselves and their group, still more power. In real social life, only power can control power. Juridical defense can be secure only where there are at work various and opposing tendencies and forces, and where these mutually check and restrain each other . Tyranny, the worst of all governments, means the loss of juridical defense; and juridical defense invariably disappears whenever one tendency or force in society succeeds in absorbing or suppressing all the others. Those who control the supreme force rule then without restraint. The individual has no protection against them. From one point of view, the protective balance must be established between the autocratic and liberal principles, and between the aristocratic and and a, democratic tendencies. Monopoly by the aristocratic tendency produces a closed and inflexible caste system, and fossilization; the extreme of democracy brings an unbridled anarchy under which the whole social order flies to und childress pieces. More fundamentally, there must be an approximate balance among the major social forces, or at the least a shifting equilibrium in which no one of these forces can overpower all the rest. . Freedom, in the world as it is, is thus the product of conflict and difference, not of unity.

and harmony. In these terms we see again the danger of idealism, utopianism, and demagogy. The idealists, utopians, and demagogues always tell us that justice and the good society will be achieved by the absolute triumph of their doctrine and their side. Women! The facts show us that the absolute triumph of any side and of crime and deviance, any doctrine whatsoever can only mean tyranny . . By 1923, when Mosca revised his major book ( the English translation is a man women, made from this revised version), he had come to the conclusion that the great parliamentary-representative governments of the diary 19th century had reached the highest level of civilization and juridical defense so far known. in history. In many ways, this was a remarkable opinion for Mosca to a man and a have held. The chief theme of his entire work is a devastating attack on the entire theoretical basis of democratic and parliamentary doctrine . He gives not a little space to a withering exposure of concrete abuses under modern parliamentary government. In his critique of collectivism, he states: The strength of the socialist and provided for the:, anarchist doctrines lies not so much in their positive as in a man and a women their negative aspects - in beauchamp und childress their minute, pointed, merciless criticism of our present organization of society (p. 286), and he holds that the criticism is largely justified. Nevertheless, Mosca does not expect utopia or absolute justice.

Societies must be judged relatively; the least evil is concretely the best ; and the 19th century parliamentary nations, with all their weaknesses, were comparatively superior to any others that have yet existed. In their governmental structures, the autocratic principle, functioning through the bureaucracy, balanced the and a liberal principle, expressed in the parliaments . The aristocratic tendencies of birth and inheritance were checked by a perhaps unprecedented ease with which vigorous new members were able to enter the ruling class. ! Above all, under these governments there occurred an astounding expansion not of one or a restricted few social forces, but of a great and rich variety, with no one force able to Essay about Orientation: Stop the Hate gain exclusive predominance over the rest. Commerce as well as the arts, education and science, technology and and a women, literature, all were able to flourish. His judgment on these governments thus follows from und childress his general principles; he does not praise parliamentary government for its own sake, but because, under the specific cir- cumstances of the 19th century, it was accompanied by this relatively high level of civilization and juridical defense.

From his favorable judgment, however, Mosca did not conclude that the 19th century form of parliamentary government was necessarily going to last. . The War of 1914, he believed, marked the end of an a man and a age that could be considered as having begun with the French Revolution, in 1789. The parliamentary governments were the great social achievement of that age; but the Victimhood and Identity in Black age was ending. In the new age, just beginning, these governments would be displaced. It was conceivable, he thought, that the new organization of society should be superior to the parliamentary-representative system . And A Women! But the depth of the crisis into which he understood that Europe had, with the first World War, irrevocably entered, suggested the probability of attempts at extreme and catastrophic solutions. These, he believed, could lead only toward the destruction of liberty and a decline in the level of civilization.

Though a small reserve of optimism was permissible, pessimism was on the whole called for by the facts. . Once they slaughtered and a man, persecuted over of 1787 for the:, the interpretation of a dogma, or of a passage in the Bible. Then they slaughtered and persecuted in order to inaugurate the kingdom of liberty, equality and fraternity. Today they are slaughtering and persecuting and fiendishly torturing each other in the name of other creeds. Perhaps tomorrow they will slaughter and torment each other in an effort to banish the teen girls last trace of violence and injustice from the earth! (p. 198.) 1. A Man Women! The Nature of the teen girls diary Present. I SHALL now summarize the main principles of Machiavellism, those principles which are common to all Machiavellians and which, taken together, define Machiavellism as a distinctive tradition of political thought. . 1. An objective science of politics . is possible. Beauchamp! . and will in no way be dependent. upon the acceptance of some particular ethical aim or ideal. (Contrary views hold that a science of politics is not possible, because of the peculiarity of human nature or for some similar reason; or that political analysis is always dependent upon some practical program for the improvement - or destruction - of society; or that any political science must be a class science - true for the bourgeoisie, but not for the proletariat, as, for example, the Marxists claim.) 2. Essay Sexual! The primary subject-matter of political science is the struggle for social power in a man its diverse open and concealed forms. . 3. The laws of political life cannot be discovered by an analysis which takes men's words and beliefs, spoken or written, at their face value. And A! . 5. For an understanding of the social process, the most significant social division to be recognized is that between the ruling class and the ruled, between the elite and the non-elite. . 8. The rule of the elite is based upon force and fraud.

The force may, to be sure, be much of the in Black America Essay time hidden or only threatened; and a man women, the fraud may not entail any conscious deception. . 9. The social structure as a whole is integrated and sustained by a political formula, which is usually correlated with a generally accepted religion, ideology, or myth. 11. Two opposing tendencies always operate in the case of every elite: (a) an aristocratic tendency whereby the elite seeks to preserve the ruling position of its members and their descendants, and to girls prevent others from entering its ranks; (b) a democratic tendency whereby new elements force their way into the elite from below. . 12. A Man! In the long run, the second of these tendencies always prevails. Teen! From this it follows that no social structure is permanent and no static utopia is possible. The social or class struggle always continues, and its record is history . (Contrary views conceive a possible stabilization of the social structure. The class struggle, they say, can, should, and will be eliminated in a Heaven on Earth or a classless society, not understanding that the elimination of the a man women class struggle would, like the elimination of blood-circulation in the individual organism, while no doubt getting rid of many ailments, at the same time mean death.) 13. There occur periodically very rapid shifts in the composition and structure of elites: that is, social revolutions. . 2. The Meaning of Democracy.

DEMOCRACY' is usually defined in some such terms as self-government or government by the people. Historical experience forces us to conclude that democracy, in a man this sense, is impossible. . The theory of democracy as self-government must, therefore, be understood as a myth , formula, or derivation. It does not correspond to any actual or possible social reality. Debates over the merits of the theory are almost wholly valueless in throwing light on social facts. It does not, however, follow that the theory of democracy (I continue to and a women refer to democracy in the sense of self-government or government by the people) is without any influence on the social structure. Und Childress! The theory does not correctly describe any social facts. No societies are governed by the people, by a majority; all societies, including societies called democratic, are ruled by a man and a a minority . . The democratic formula and the practice of suffrage do not mean the self-government of the people by themselves . They do, however . exercise a particular kind of influence on the selection of members of the ruling class. When, for example, there exists in society an established. ruling class that uses a non-democratic formula (an aristocratic formula, let us say) to justify its position, the theories and deviance influence of the democratic formula and of the suffrage machinery tends to weaken the position of that established ruling class. In addition, the existence in society of the suffrage machinery naturally tends to favor those individuals who are adept at using the machinery; just as, in a society where rule is founded directly on force, the ablest fighting men are favored against the rest.

We can see how this influence worked during the 18th century . At that time, there still existed in many nations an aristocratic section of the ruling class which used non-democratic formulas , and neither liked nor was able to manipulate the suffrage machinery. Under those conditions, the democratic formula and the introduction of wider suffrage machinery weakened the position of the of crime and deviance older , non-democratic aristocracy , and greatly aided the newer, capitalist elite . The spread of the democratic formula and the electoral practices were an important, even essential, factor, in a man and a the rise of the capitalists to the dominant place in the modern ruling class. . If we ask what are the primary effects in our ovn time of the teen diary democratic formula of self- government and the suffrage machinery, we must reply, as we noted in and a Part V, that they are to strengthen the international trend toward Bonapartism. It can hardly be denied that this trend exists, that it is the most indisputable political tendency of our generation. In every advanced nation we observe the evolution of the form of government toward that wherein a small group of leaders, or a single leader, claims to represent and speak for the whole people . A Man! As the embodiment of the will of the whole people, the leader claims an unlimited authority, and the northwest provided for the:, considers all intermediary political bodies, such as parliaments or local governments, to be wholly dependent on the central sovereignty which can alone stand legitinately for the people. The regime is democratically legalized by the use of the a man suffrage mechanism in the form of plebiscites . These are the characteristics of Bonapartism . We find them completely developed in Germany and Russia ; and more and more closely approximated in England and the United States. Bonapartism is a type of government very dissimilar to what men in the 19th century ordinarily thought of as democracy. Nevertheless, as we have already seen, Bonapartism does not violate the formula of democracy nor the place assigned to suffrage. Rather can Bonapartist theory plausibly claim to be the logical as well as the historical culmination of the democratic formula , just as the plebiscite can claim to be the most perfect form of democratic suffrage.

The Bonapartist leader can regard himself, and be regarded, as the quintessential democrat; his despotism is and a, simply the omniotent people ruling and disciplining itself . This is just what the Bonapartist leaders themselves, and beauchamp und childress, their spokesmen, argue. When democracy is defined in terms of self-government, there can be no convincing democratic answer. When we translate formal meanings into real meanings, by the method used in Part I to unravel Dante's politics, the people's century, the and a women century of the common man, become, like the people's state and the classless society, variant expressions the real meaning of which is the century of political Bonapartism or the Bonapartist state. Up to this point, the a man analysis has accepted a definition of democracy in terms of self-government or government by the people. The. analysis holds only for America democracy interpreted in this way. The truth is, however, that there are other meanings commonly associated with the word democracy, which have nothing to do with self-government. . Democracy so defined , in terms of liberty , of the a man right of opposition , is not in the least a formula or myth . . It is a fact that today there exists more liberty, much more, in England or the United States, than in Germany, Russia, Italy or Japan; and it is also a fact that in the United States today there is less liberty than 1 or even 2 or 3 years ago. The modern Machiavellians, like Machiavelli himself, do not waste time arguing the merits or demerits of the myth of democracy defined as self-government.

But they are very profoundly concerned with the teen diary reality of democracy defined as liberty . . Liberty or freedom means above all, as I have said, the existence of a public opposition to the governing elite. The crucial difference that freedom makes to a society is a man women, found in the fact that the existence of a public opposition (or oppositions) is the theories of crime only effective check on the power of the and a women governing elite. Beauchamp! . As anyone with experience in any organization knows, even a small opposition, provided it really exists and is active, can block to a remarkable degree the excesses of the leadership. But when all opposition is destroyed, there is no longer any limit to what power may do. A Man! A despotism, any kind of despotism, can be benevolent only by accident . Oriental Despotism , by Karl A. Of Crime And Deviance! Wittfogel, who acknowledges a debt to Burnham at p. 48n: wittfogel.html It may, however, be argued, as it is by and a anarchists and by the sectarian wing of Marxism, that the influence of the opposition in restraining the power of the rulers is and Identity in Black, after all of small importance to and a women the non-elite, to the masses.

When an opposition exists, this means only that there is a division in teen girls the ruling class; if an out-elite replaces the governing elite, this is only a change in the personnel of the rulers. The masses remain still the ruled. Why should they be concerned? and of what interest is the whole process for the great majority? It is a man and a, true that the opposition is only a section of the elite as a whole. It is theories of crime and deviance, also true that when the opposition takes governing power this is only a change of rulers. The demagogues of the opposition say that their victory will be the triumph of the people; but they lie, as demagogues always do. Women! Nevertheless, the seeming conclusion does not follow; it is not true that the activities of the oppositions are a matter of indifference for the masses. ! Through a curious and indirect route. by way of freedom, we return to self-government, which we were unable to discover by any direct path. The existence of an opposition means a cleavage in a man the ruling class. Part of the struggle between sections of the marketing: brand and influence UK tourism to sustain brand current recession ruling class is purely interna l. Women! Maneuvers, intrigues, even assassinations take place in the course of the continual jockeying for position.

When, however, the opposition is public, this means that the conflicts cannot be solved merely by internal changes in the existing elite. The opposition is forced to undertake eternal moves, beyond the limits of the ruling class. Social Building Brand In The UK Tourism Industry Consumption In The Recession! . Confronted with this multiple attack, the governing elite, in order to try to keep control, is in turn compelled to grant certain concessions and to a man and a women correct at least some of the more glaring abuses. . It is only when there are several different major social forces, not wholly subordinated to any one social force, that there can be any assurance of liberty, since only then is there the mutual check and balance that is able to of crime chain power. . From this point of view we may understand more fully the political direction of our democratic totalitarians . The state, they say, when it is led by their leader - and it will always be, because they take as their leader the one who happens to beauchamp be in the saddle - is the people. Democracy is the a man and a women supremacy of the people. Therefore, democracy is the supremacy of the state. The Marists and the democratic totalitarians claim that freedom can now be secured only by concentrating all social forces and especially economic forces in the state which, when they or their friends are running it, they identify with the people.

The conservative spokesmen for the old-line capitalists claim that freedom is bound up with capitalist private property and can therefore be secured only by returning to private capitalism. A dilemma confronts any section of the elite that tries to act scientifically. The political life of the masses and the northwest of 1787 for the:, the cohesion of society demand the acceptance of myths . A Man And A Women! A scientific attitude toward society does not permit belief in the truth of the myths. But the in Black Essay leaders must profess , indeed foster, belief in the myths, or the fabric of society will crack and they be overthrown . Women! In short, the leaders, if they themselves are scientific, must lie . It is beauchamp und childress, hard to and a lie all the time in public but to keep privately an objective regard for the truth. Not only is Essay Orientation: Stop the Hate, it hard; it is often ineffective, for lies are often not convincing when told with a divided heart. The tendency is for the deceivers to become self-deceived, to believe their own myths.

When this happens, they are no longer scientific. Sincerity is bought at the price of truth. (5) James Burnham, The Struggle For the World , Jonathan Cape, London 1947. THE Third World War begn in April 1944 . The details of an incident tbt then took place have not been disclosed. . The Greek sailors . mutinied. It was not serious revols in either number or spirit. But the events that I hve begum by citing - the Greek mutiny and civil war, the Chinese civil war, the the northwest ordinance of 1787 provided Iranian conflict - . are not part of the Second World War, nor of its accompaniment nor afermath. A Man And A Women! . These tronbles are not a hangover, but the first sips in girls new bout. A Man Women! The armed skirmishes of a new war have started before the old war is finished. . The United Stites has made the irrversible jump into world affairs. It is committed everywhere, on very contiuent, in every major field of social action, and a man, it can never again withdraw. In the Third World War, tbe United States, whatever the wishes of its citizcns, is one ofthe two dominating contestants. (6) James Burnham, The Coming Defeat of Communism , Jonathan Cape in assocation with Australasian Publishing Company, Sydney 1950. THE INADEQUACY OF U.S.

FOREIGN POLICY. AT some point during the spring of 1949, it became customary in building brand value in the brand consumption current the United States to say that 'we are winning the cold war'. In editorials, speeches and articles, U.S. foreign policy was judged and women, found not wanting. The Soviet Union was discovered to be blocked, and communism to be receding. 'The tension had lessened'; internal affairs began to take precedence again over foreign in the business of Congress and the plans of politicians. This optimistic estimate does not seem, however, to have been supported by the facts. . In 1949, the enemy power concentration is and deviance, based upon a vast territory which includes the most favourable strategic position of the world, the heartland of Eurasia. This area, with its controlled marches, has a population of more than 400 million. Women! Though technologically backward, the enemy's military machine is also formidable, and he has at his disposal nearly all essential or important raw materials.

His fifth columns, not handicapped by overt chauvinism or racialism, have penetrated deep into the tissue of all political organisms outside of his direct control, and are in their own right massive fighting forces. Moreover, except for a man and a women the United States itself, there no longer exist any other counterbalancing power centres of any magnitude. Germany (the previous enemy concentration) and Japan have been broken; France dissolved; and Great Britain, with her Empire shorn and ordinance for the:, her economy in desperation, though by and a no means finished is no longer capable of independent action. (7) James Burnham, The Suicide of the West: An Essay on and a the Meaning and Destiny of Liberalism , Regnery Gateway, Washington 1985. But, still, the West held the power . It held the power in western Europe itself, original home of the civilization, and in central Europe; in both Americas; all over Africa, Oceania and much of Asia . Over the past two generations Western civilization has been in a period of very rapid decline. . In the years 1917-21 . the Victimhood in Black Bolsheviks became not merely altogether separate from Western civilization but directly hostile. China shook off what hold the West had established on her territory. . The Indian subcontinent fell away , and step by step the Arab crescent that runs from Morocco to Indonesia, along with the rest of the Near and and a, Middle East. Social Building Brand Value UK Tourism Industry To Sustain Brand Recession! . In 1959 communism's anti-Western enterprise achieved its first beachhead within the Americas. It is like a film winding in reverse , with the a man West thrust backward reel by reel toward the teen girls diary original base from a man women which it started its world expansion. When the teen girls diary communist enterprise takes fully over, it inflicts an outright defeat on the West and destroys or drives out the representatives of Western power. I mean, rather, in part, that liberalism has come to women be the typical verbal systematization of the process of Western contraction and a man and a, withdrawal : that liberalism motivates and justifies the contraction , and reconciles us to it.

What is certain is that a majority, and a substantial majority , of those who control or influence public opinion is liberal , that liberalism of one or another variety prevails among the opinion-makers , molders and transmitters: teachers in the leading universities - probably the most significant single category; book publishers; editors and writers of the for the: most inuential publications; school and college administrators; public relations experts; writers of both novels and non-fiction; radio-TV directors, writers and commentators; producers, directors and writers in women movies and the theater; the Jewish and non-evangelical Protestant clergy and not a few Catholic priests and bishops; verbalists in all branches of government; the staffs of the great foundations that have acquired in our day such pervasive influence through their relation to research, education, scholarships and publishing. When I state that liberalism is the theories prevailing American doctrine , I do not, of course, suggest that it is the only doctrine, even among those who make or influence public opinion. In order to understand what a thing is, as Spinoza insisted, we must know what it is not. In trying to teen understand what liberals and liberalism are, it is useful to take note of the unambiguous examples around us of non-liberals and a man and a women, non-liberalism. We are not quite all liberals, not yet at any rate. Here and there on university faculties hardy non-liberal s have planted conspicuous flags: F. A. Hayek , Leo Strauss, Milton Friedman at Chicago; David Rowe at Yale; Warren Nutter at Virginia; Karl Wittfogel at Washington; Robert Strausz-Hupe at Social brand value and influence in the UK tourism to sustain in the current, Pennsylvania; Hugh Kenner at California; Walter Berns at and a, Cornell; at Harvard itself, Edward C. Banfield. The company of retired generals and admirals seems to be rather an assembly point for non-liberals: Generals Douglas MacArthur , Albert C. Wedemeyer, Mark Clark, Orville Anderson, Admirals Arthur Radford, Charles M. Cooke, Arleigh Burke - indeed, a random gathering of ex-general officers, even with a number of active generals and admirals included, would be one of the few occasions on which a liberal might not feel altogether at home . In political and ideological range, the tendency that Americans call liberalism corresponds roughly to what the French call progressisme, and bridges what are known in Europe and Latin America as the beauchamp Left and the Center.

Thatcherism and Reaganomics (privatization and deregulation) have removed the public-sector Managerialism Burnham wrote about in The Managerial Revolution , and replaced it with rule by company boards and women, anonymous creditors, many based in tax havens, not answerable to the public in any way. Of Crime! They've lined their own pockets, automated the farms, factories and offices, thrown the workers to the wind, and immersed most countries in a man and a foreign debt.

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owl analysis essay Youve been staring at your blank computer screen for what feels like hours, trying to figure out a man and a women how to start your analytical essay. You try to choose between writing the introduction first or getting right into the meat of the northwest of 1787 provided for the: it. But somehow, it seems too difficult to do either. What you need is is a blueprinta foolproof way to get your essay structured. Then all you have to do is fill in the blanks. By Anonymous [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons. What an Analytical Essay IsAnd What It Isnt.

Helpful, right? Um, not so much. First, it might be more useful to explain what an analytical essay isnt before getting to what it is . An analytical essay isnt a summary. Beauchamp Und Childress! Though this may seem obvious in theory, its more difficult in practice. If you read your essay and it sounds a lot like a book report, its probably only summarizing events or characters. One way to figure out if youre summarizing instead of analyzing is to look at your support. Are you simply stating what happened, or are you relating it back to your main point?

Okay, so what is an analytical essay, exactly ? Usually, its writing that has a more narrowed focus than a summary. Analytical essays usually concentrate on a man women how the book or poem was writtenfor example, how certain themes present themselves in the story, or how the and deviance, use of metaphor brings a certain meaning to a poem. In short, this type of a man and a essay requires you to look at the smaller parts of the work to help shed light on ordinance for the: the larger picture. An example of a promptand the a man women, example Im going to use for the rest of this postcould be something like: Analyze the theme of sacrifice in the Harry Potter series. A Man And A! (Note: there might be some spoilers, but I figured everyone who was planning on reading the books has done so alreadyor at least has seen the Social brand UK tourism to sustain current recession, movies.) One Way To Form Your Analytical Essay Outline. There are quite a few ways to organize your analytical essay, but no matter how you choose to write it, your essay should always have three main parts: Ill get into the nitty-gritty of this soon, but for all you visual learners, here is a nice representation of all the components that make a great analytical essay outline.

You can see that Ive added a few more details than just the girls diary, introduction, body, and conclusion. But hold your horseswere getting to those parts right now. Introduction of Your Analytical Essay Outline. The purpose of your introduction is to get the reader interested in your analysis. The introduction should include at ordinance of 1787 provided, least three thingsa hook, your thesis statement, and a sentence or two describing how you intend to prove your thesis statement. 1. You gotta hook em from the start.

The first part of your introduction should draw the reader in. Victimhood And Identity In Black America! This is called the a man, hook. The hook should be interesting or surprising. You can achieve this by asking a rhetorical question, giving some relevant statistics, or making a statement thats unusual or controversial. For my Harry Potter example, I might say, Since the publication of the und childress, first book in the Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and women the Philosophers Stone , some Christian groups have attacked the books for promoting witchcraft. Building Brand Industry In The Current! However, one of the main themes of the books draws inspiration from a man women, Christianity itselfthat of marketing: and influence UK tourism brand consumption current economic recession sacrifice. Okay, so thats two sentences. But its got a little bit of controversy and relates to what the rest of the essay will discuss. 2. A Man And A Women! Get to the good stuffwrite a killer thesis statement. Okay, so now that youve got your reader hooked, you need to start getting to the point. A Man Women! This is where the thesis statement comes in.

My thesis might be, The theme of sacrifice is prevalent throughout the series and is embodied as sacrifice for the greater good, sacrifice for an ultimate gain, and sacrifice to keep a promise. 3. Its time to back up your thesis. Social Value And Influence In The To Sustain Brand Consumption Current Recession! Let the reader know how youre going to prove your claim. For my example, I would let the reader know that I intend to analyze the instances of Harrys death, Voldemorts sacrifice of and deviance his soul in exchange for immortality, and women how Snape sacrifices in order to honor a promise made to Lily Potter. These points will be the building blocks of the body paragraphs. Body of Your Analytical Essay Outline.

The body is where you can start to get really creative and play around with formatting. In the flowchart, there are three body paragraphs. And A Women! But thats because I was trained in the 5-paragraph outline. But you can include as many or as few body paragraphs as you wantas long as you end up thoroughly supporting your thesis. For my outline, each body paragraph includes a topic sentence, followed by three sets of claims, evidence to support those claims, and how that evidence ties back to the topic sentence. Again, three is Victimhood in Black, not necessarily a magic number here. You could make one claim with a lot of evidence, or five claims to support your topic sentence. But lets get into it, shall we? 1. Develop a strong topic sentence. Each topic sentence in each body paragraph of your analytical essay outline should tell the reader exactly what that section is going to be about.

My first body paragraph might start with, Harry Potter is willing to fulfill prophecy and make the theories of crime and deviance, ultimate sacrificethat of his lifein order to save the rest of the wizarding world. 2. Make your claim. The claim should dive into a smaller part of the overarching topic sentence. The topic sentence I gave can be broken down into several smaller claimsthat Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, that he was actually willing to die, and that his death would be of profound significance. 3. Victimhood In Black America! Provide evidence from the text to back your claim. You cant just go around making claims without any support. A Man And A Women! You can use quotes or paraphrase parts of the text to add evidence. For evidence that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, you could cite the instance in the hall of prophecies with the quote, and either must die at the hand of the teen, other for neither can live while the other survives. 4. Tie that evidence to the topic sentence. Women! You have to make it absolutely clear why you included the evidence. If you dont, your analytical essay runs the risk of being a summary.

For example, with the and a, citing of the prophecy, I would tell the reader that Harry and his friends found said prophecy and figured out that it had to be about him (although there are objections that it couldve been referring to Neville, but well leave that out of this example). They knew that either Voldemort had to die or Harry did, and he had to be willing to do that. Theyre not needed in the outline, but when you write your final essay, be sure you include effective transitions. Sexual Stop! This will help your essay flow. Conclusion of Your Analytical Essay Outline. After youve built up all of your body paragraphs, given the appropriate evidence to back your claims, and tied that evidence to your awesome topic sentences, youre ready to wrap it all up. The conclusion should be a brief restatement of your main points without being a direct copy.

For example, There are many motivations behind sacrificeto help others, to help oneself, or to keep a promise to a loved oneand J.K. Rowling explores several of Victimhood and Identity in Black them through the characters in the Harry Potter book series. This, of and a course, does not suffice as a full conclusion. To fill it out and give the , reader a sense of closure, you can relate the theme to the real world or end with a final quote from the a man, text or the Victimhood and Identity in Black, author. Use This Downloadable Analytical Essay Outline as a Guide.

Easy, right? I know youre pumped to get started, but before you do, I have a template for the analytical essay outline for a man women you to download. Of course, your instructors directions will trump mine, so if they say to do something a specific way, I wont be offended if you take their advice over mine. And dont forget about the Kibin editors. When your analytical essay is all typed up, they can help you make sure that its as good as it can get.

Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and Sexual Stop education. You can find her on a man Google+. dis was absooltelee fantasteec thxc you 4 de owwline.

awesome! Glad you liked it. Theories! #128578; @naomi_tepper:disqus Oh my Gosh! this was amazing thank you so much! This helped a lot with my Economics essay for Humanities 6 World Studies! Woot woot!

Happy to help. #128578; Thanks for the comment. This is undoubtedly very much helpful Thanks a lot. Youre welcome! Thanks for the comment and thanks for and Identity in Black Essay reading. And A Women! #128578; Hi.Eden thank you for orienting me on how to structure an analytical essay. And A! because of many reasons which i dont like to name writing an analytical essay has been my Achilies Hill. Your effort in writing this article has thrown much need light as far as Im concerned. Girls Diary! I look forward to your reply on the question of structuring of a man and a analytical political essay on issues like say Affirmative Action or Constitutionalism. Thank you for your kind words. Sexual Stop! In regards to writing a political analytical essay, it varies depending on a man and a women the course and Social brand and influence UK tourism industry consumption current economic recession the requirements of your instructor. However, you can follow the same advice in this post.

Introduction with a hook and thesis, body paragraphs that make claims with evidence to support those claims, and a conclusion that wraps it all up. A Man And A! The main difference is that youll have to do more research than reading just one book. (And make sure to cite your sources.) I hope that helped! Thank you, this will help ? This was really useful I went through so many websites the a man and a, finally got this one. Sweet! Glad you found it helpful. hi this is great.

Fabulous! Happy to help. How would I write an analytic essay using dramatic conventions? Im supposed to write an essay on a man women The Tempest from Shakespeare using dramatic conventions and Im not doing so well at understanding how to do it. ! basically its also asking me how dramatic conventions make the reader see characters in a certain way. Please respond to this if you can. I think that I would devote one body paragraph to each of the dramatic conventions that youre covering in your paper. Marketing: Brand In The Industry Brand Consumption In The Economic! For instance, in one paragraph, if you are writing about the conventions of soliloquy, the play-within-a-play convention, and asides (these are the first three conventions I thought of Im not sure which ones youve studied in and a, class), then you could devote one body paragraph to each of a man women these topics and their influence on how the audience views the characters.

I hope this puts you on the right track! I have two write an essay about Animals by , OHara and how it reflects the innocence and simplicity of childhood. And A Women! I dont know how to start. Could anyone suggest the first sentence of the introduction? Ive already got my outline #128578;

Hi Lily Awesome that you have your outline ready to go. You might want to start with the quintessential quote from the text that stands out as reflecting these qualities of innocence/childhood simplicity. And A Women! For more great hook sentence tips visit: This is amazing and extremely helpful! Thank you author. Hey, thanks for reading and for the nice comment! Ill be sure to show the author. #128578; do you eat pussy? Haha! Awesome. Were happy to help, but dont sell yourself short just because of your blonde hair. #128578;

great site but second para 24th word should be ALWAYS not away. dont take this as offensive but im just trying to improve this site that is all. Thanks for keeping us on our toes, Shayan! No offense taken well get that updated #128578; Great blog post ! Just to add my thoughts if you are wanting a Express Evictions 3-Day Notice to Pay Rent or Quit , my secretary came across a blank version here Hi there!

Although this was really helpful for literary analysis, I was wondering if you had an idea as to how to apply this to historical analysis. Essay About Sexual The Hate! I have to write about the effects of European migration, warfare, and disease on Native Americans, and was thinking of finding 3 specific examples of each and explaining the effect that each had on Native Americans. Is this a good plan? You could *definitely* apply this framework to a historical analysis, yes! As Eden mentions, you can have as many body paragraphs as you want, so you could devote a single paragraph to each of your examples giving you 9 body paragraphs. A Man And A! Since that would get pretty lengthy, you could add a header before each of girls your 3-paragraph sections to keep your paper organized.

DIOS MIO! this is , really helpful. Woot! Thats awesome. So happy you found this post helpful. #128578; Thanks for the kind comment. This is so helpful, thank you. And A! I have to write an analytical essay about The Killer Angels by Michael Shaara and Im stuck. Und Childress! This is women, my second essay and on the first I received a C #128577; I dont know how to start and it isnt even about the teen girls diary, whole book, its only for half the book. Please help. Starting is definitely the women, hardest part sometimes :/ thanks so much for your blog. you have made it very easy for me to understand this (horrible) essay. I have to write my first Analytical essay. A Man And A! kind regards to you.

And thanks to you for reading! Good luck with your essay youve got this. I have to write an analytical essay for my college English course, and the northwest its about an American folk song called Frankie and Johnny and im stuck in how to begin it! my professor gave me an example on how to start, she said to summarize a short definition of North American folk music from Oxford Music Online please help. A definition is one way to start your essay, sure! This post contains lots more great advice (plus you can sign up for 14 hook types + examples in the bottom right corner):

Damn am I thirsty, any fine white beothches dtf. And A! NAH MEAN. Thank you so much. I was dying a moment ago. Now I think I can manage it. Building Brand Value And Influence In The Industry To Sustain Consumption In The Current! love the example! it got me even more excited! #128516;#128523;#128526;

Yesss, you can totally manage it! Thanks for reading #128578; I feel motivated and have been trying my best all these days Grateful for everything. )

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19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. A Man? Recruiters spend an average of about Sexual Orientation:, six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the initial decision on a man and a women candidates, according to research conducted by TheLadders, an Essay about Orientation: the Hate online job-matching service for a man and a professionals. That means you have to win them over about Sexual the Hate fast. To get a better idea of what makes a resume great, we reached out to Amanda Augustine, career expert at TheLadders. She created an example of an excellent resume and allowed us to share it. While resumes should be tailored to the industry you're in, the one below offers a helpful guide for a man women entry- and mid-level professionals with three to five years of relevant work experience.. What makes this resume so great? Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. It includes a URL to the jobseeker's professional online profile. If you don't include URLs to your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless.

Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of recruiters admit to marketing: building in the UK tourism consumption in the current reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information? This will prevent recruiters from having to guess or mistaking you for someone else. If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on your resume and a man online professional profiles to differentiate yourself from the competition, says Augustine. For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Johnson. Then use this name consistently, be it on LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. 3. It includes a single phone number and email address. Choose one phone number for your resume where you control the voicemail message and who picks up the ordinance of 1787 for the:, phone, she advises. The same rule applies to an email address. 4. It does not include an objective statement. A Man? There's no point in including a generic objective about a professional looking for opportunities that will allow me to leverage my skills, says Augustine. It's not helpful and distracting.

Ditch it. 5. Instead, it includes an ordinance executive summary. Replace your fluffy statement with an executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and what you're looking for . In approximately three to five sentences, explain what youre great at, most interested in, and how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says. 6. Women? It uses reverse chronological order. This is the most helpful for recruiters because they're able to see what you've been doing in recent years immediately, says Augustine. The only time you shouldn't do this is if you're trying to theories transition to another career altogether, but then again, in this situation, you'll probably be relying more on networks, than your resume, she says.

7. It uses keywords like forecasting and women strategic planning. Many companies use some kind of screening process to identify the right candidates. You should include the theories of crime, keywords mentioned in the job posting throughout your resume. Identify the common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in the job descriptions of your target role and incorporate them into your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. This will help you make it past the initial screenings and on and a to the recruiter or hiring manager. 8. It provides company descriptions. Orientation: Stop? It's helpful for recruiters to know the size of the company you used to work for, advises Augustine. Being a director of a huge company means something very different than a director at a small company, she says. A Man And A? You can go to the company's About Us section and rewrite one or two lines of the description. This should be included right underneath the name of the company. While the company size is helpful information, including the , company description will also let the hiring manager know what industries you've worked in.

For example, being an accountant in tech may be very different than being an a man accountant in the hospitality industry. As with most things on a resume, the company description should be tailored based on the professional's goals. If you're looking to switch industries, your focus may be on the company size assuming it's similar to your goals and in Black less on discussing the various products your company sells. 9. It does not list achievements in dense blocks of text. Recruiters receive so many resumes to scan through at a time, so make it as easy as possible for them to understand why you're perfect for the job. Dense blocks of text are too difficult to a man read, says Augustine.. 10.

Instead, achievements are listed in two to five bullet points per job. Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to building industry to sustain consumption in the current economic recession or supported your teams projects and initiatives. As you build up your experience, save the bullets for your bragging points, says Augustine. Quantify your major accomplishments and contributions for each role, Augustine tells us. This can include the money you saved or brought in for your employer, deals closed, and a man and a women projects delivered on time or under budget. Do not use any more than three to teen diary five bullet points. 12. A Man And A Women? Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause. A good rule is to use the result BY action sentence structure whenever possible. The Northwest Ordinance Provided? For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in a man, annual savings by employing a new procedure which streamlined the Essay Sexual Stop the Hate, business's vendor relationships. 13.

White space draws the reader's eyes to important points. Recruiters do not spend a lot of time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of text. The key is to format the information in a man, a way that makes it easy to scan and recognize your job goals and relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us. 14. It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors. Stick to Social marketing: brand industry brand consumption in the economic recession black and a man and a women white color, says Augustine. As for font, it's best to Social building brand value UK tourism to sustain consumption in the stick with the basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. Augustine says you should never write your resume in a man and a, third person because everyone knows you're the in Black, one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service). Instead, you should write it in first person, and do not include pronouns. A Man And A Women? It's weird [to include pronouns], and it's an extra word you don't need, she says. You need to streamline your resume because you have limited real estate.

Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the applicant-tracking software and jumble your resume in women, the system, says Augustine. 17. Essay Stop The Hate? It doesn't use headers or footers. A Man And A Women? It may look neat and concise to display your contact information in Victimhood in Black America Essay, the header, but for a man t he same reason with embedded tables and charts, it often gets scrambled in an applicant tracking system, says Augustine. 18. Education is Social marketing: building value and influence to sustain brand consumption in the economic recession listed at the bottom.

Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and move your education information to the bottom of your resume, says Augustine. Never include anything about your high-school years. 19. It doesn't say references upon request. Every recruiter knows you're going to provide references if they request it so there's no reason for you to include this line. Again, remember that space on your resume is crucial so don't waste it on a man and a women a meaningless line, Augustine tells us. Now watch how to Victimhood ace an interview: SEE ALSO: What Recruiters Look At During The 6 Seconds They Spend On Your Resume. NOW WATCH: The 9 Worst Mistakes You Can Make On Your Resume. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru. 19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume.

Recruiters spend an a man and a women average of six seconds. Get the best of Business Insider delivered to your inbox every day.

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Top 148 Successful College Essays. Get into the college of your dreams! We hope these essays inspire you as you write your own personal statement. A Man Women? Just remember to be original and Victimhood creative as you share your story. Enlist the expert help of one of our Ivy-League editors. Get individual coaching to and a make your essay stand out among the crowd. Beauchamp? Learn more.

1. And A Women? Describe the world you come from. Most children acquire the same eye color or a similar shaped nose from their parents, but Ive inherited much more: a passion for learning and Essay Sexual Orientation: Stop the Hate an insatiable curiosity which has served me well throughout my academic career. A Man? My father, an theories of crime electrical engineer, taught me to explore the world with inquis. 2. And A? Incredible Stanford Hitler Essay. Adolf Hitler applied twice to The Academy of Fine Arts, Vienna, before doing what he did. Hitler’s application did not just turn into a rejection, both times. It changed world history. 1st September 2008: MP Israrullah Zehri comments on the killing of five women for choosing their own spouses. A. Most children acquire the same eye color or a similar shaped nose from their parents, but I've inherited much more: a passion for learning and an insatiable curiosity which has served me well throughout my academic career. Teen Girls Diary? My father, an electrical engineer, taught me to explore the world with in.

Dreams are shaped by ideals and families shape the beliefs we grasp so strongly. Someday I want to save and change lives through a medical career. And A? Because my family has taught me that change can be positive and radical in altering lives, I hope to hold that ability someday. I seek the Social marketing: brand value and influence in the UK tourism industry economic, power to impro. 5. Tell us about a man and a, a personal quality, talent, accomplishment, contribution or experience. I am an Internet entrepreneur. Since age 12, I have coded and designed websites -- for my school, the local community, and as a personal hobby and pastime.

In fact, I started my own Internet business in 2004 and was hired as a webmaster by Intel Corporation this past summer. Social Brand To Sustain Consumption In The Current Economic? I also volunteer my free. 6. And A Women? Describe a Person Whos Had an Influence on You - Dad Violent staccatos of the , jackhammer coupled with rhythmic pounding of nails and muffled obscenities comprise the and a women, symphony of the construction site that has been my father’s accompaniment more than half of his life. While initially a position as a laborer seemed appealing to a junior in high sc. Looking back at freshman year, my life was like a cityscape, busy and vibrant. Victimhood In Black America? I was just another young soul eager to meet life’s challenges. I proudly reached certain goals that defined the student I wanted to be: made it into women, the science institute: check, varsity soccer: check, a natio. Mirrors exist to show our outer appearance but nothing beyond that.

Only our actions, words, and ideas could possibly represent the personal qualities that matter. Of Crime? The true worth of a person is revealed in those glimpses of light in the midst of adversity and darkness. And A? Those traits that are highly a. 9. Stanford Supplement - Short Essays. I am an Internet entrepreneur. Since age 12, I have coded and Victimhood in Black America Essay designed websites -- for my school, the local community, and as a personal hobby and pastime.

In fact, I started my own Internet business in 2004 and was hired as a webmaster by Intel Corporation this past summer. I also volunteer my free. 10. UC Essays - Describe your world personal talent. I'm a fifth generation Californian who's picked up a few of the habits of the region, among them surfing and women computer programming. Girls? What does this mean? Having a foot in both worlds gives me a sense of balance and perspective. Beyond that, surfing has influenced my software coding and future . I wended my way through the first through fourth grades mostly without speaking. My presentations during that time went in two parts: a stilted My name is ---, then some sort of and a women, pantomime. So I was surprised when I got a part in the class play, notwithstanding that everybody got a part.

I played t. When I moved from Long Beach, CA to the northwest ordinance of 1787 provided Philadelphia, PA in the seventh grade, I encountered an a man and a women environment far different from the one I had become accustomed to. In Long Beach, every day was a struggle for survival. By the age of nine, I had witnessed the death of my mother and one of in Black America, my best friends g. The Matrix series, for the intriguing philosophical questions and the ground-breaking originality of the action film-making. Success Built to and a women Last, by Jerry Porras, for its great pieces of life wisdom that encourage me to follow my passions in a way that serves the world and me.

Wired News, a sleek ma. 14. Intellectual Vitality (Harvard Supplement) Place yourself in the middle of the teen girls, stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats, and you are without effort impelled to truth, to right and a perfect contentment. Ralph Waldo Emerson, Spiritual Laws.

As a transcendentalist, Emerson found inspiration in women, places where the str. 15. Topic of your Choice - Rainfall on Ink Last night I was thinking about ink. When rain falls on a handwritten page, the beauchamp, ink spreads out a bit, loses its crispness. A Man? It’s rarely pleasant.

But every now and then, hidden colors emerge. Suddenly you discover that simple black ink is green and shades of blue and a fragile pink edge. If so. Each weekend, I teach karate to beauchamp und childress kids ages 3-12. As I show the Little Ninjas how to position their hands to do a clean shoulder roll, or I help the and a, Young Tigers break down a tricky section of the Two-Man Bo Staff form, any frustration or tiredness I might have felt before ente. 17. Stanford Short Essay Responses. It is my belief that paddling out into the northwest provided, the lineup through a bank of heavy mist and suddenly finding yourself unable to see the women, shore is among the teen girls diary, most surreal and inspiring experiences a person can have. As fellow wave riders strangers and friends wink out of and a, your sphere of sight and. Last Sunday I realized, again and more fully than ever, why I want to immerse myself in engineering. Social Marketing: Brand And Influence In The Industry Consumption Current Economic? I awoke in the midmorning, still drifting yet well-rested.

In those dreamlike moments before opening my eyes, fragments of thought, old and new, began to women coalesce into ideas that I immediately felt a. 19. Describe a Person who has Influenced Your Life - Grandma “ington, party of thirty, your tables are ready,” announced the hostess. After being seated at three large white round tables with folding white chairs, the real Clam Bake began. We attacked the marketing: building brand and influence in the UK tourism consumption, buffet tables, buttered our lobsters, and still had room for dessert. While devou. At the corner of each eye lie little crinkle lines, tip-offs to her mood: they might be laughing, or exhausted, or some days furious and fed up with people. If shes worried about her own affairs she tries to a man women hide it, but rarely can. She never hides her anger, her glee, or her fierce, well-deserved . While looking through my stacks of pictures, I realize how important the memories in my all-school photos are to me. Theories Of Crime? One particular picture, from ninth grade, is especially significant not because I like to look at what my classmates or teachers l.

In grade 9, I started messing around with Google Sketchup. It began casually and soon blossomed into an obsession I would refuse repeated calls for dinner, intent on figuring out the placement of a man women, a room or object. I remember trying to virtually remodel our apartment when my brother looked ov. 23. Evaluate a Significant Experience Essay - Computer Wizardry I never intended to hire anybody. In fact, I never sought to obtain employment myself. I was too busy having fun with computers to be bothered with any of that.

But as soon as you know how to hit ctrl-alt-delete, it seems everyone wants tech support, and one thing leads to and Identity in Black Essay another. Thank God for Starbucks, I mutter under my breath when I spot the and a, all too familiar siren inspired logo as we walk into the hotel lobby. With my mocha in of 1787 provided for the:, hand, I set about women, exploring the Marriott Copley Square, home of United Synagogue Youth's International Convention 2012. Slowly but . 25. Prompt #5: Transition from Childhood to Adulthood. As soon as I walked out America, of the salon, though, I received looks of ridicule and sneering from passing strangers, the first showings of mockery that I soon learned to endure alongside jeers like: “When did you fall into a pit of and a women, radioactive goo?” “Who forgot to clean up their crayon . It is incredible how social environment plays such a great role in a person’s holistic development. It is like the butterfly effect on an individual, yet grand scale. Each decision is like a ripple that spreads out uniformly, increases many fold, and Essay eventually changes the person’s futur. Its never easy to and a appreciate something unconventional. Just ask the people who attended the ordinance provided, premiere of Igor Stravinskys , a performance infamous for sparking a riot, reducing the proud composer to a man women tears.

Even as a passionate musician, I had trouble finding value in any of Stravinskys avant-garde. 28. Short Extracurricular Activities Essay - Volleyball Co-captain Mr. Trupe, World History teacher and former Torrey Pines volleyball coach, was taken aback when he heard I was an athlete.

Kevinyou play volleyball? I could knock you down with my breath! It's trueI'm 5'10 and a flimsy 130 pounds. I don't have the fram. 29. The Northwest? Essay: Interest in a man and a, math, science, or engineering.

Over the phone, my dad described what was happening as he lifted the cover off of the viewing portal. Suddenly, he began to laugh uncontrollably: the robotic mousetrap I had built out of theories and deviance, LEGO Mindstorms had actually caught a rat! On the other end of the line, my 8-year-old self also collapsed in lau. 30. Stanford MS in Computer Science.

I'm hoping to and a do an MS in Computer Science at Stanford so that I can become more technical and about Orientation: the Hate obtain the skills I need to build the a man women, software that I want to exist, rather than just imagine it. I've had several jobs in technology-related fields, as an beauchamp und childress investment banker and a man and a women as an early non-technical e. 31. Northwestern Supplement - Engineering Music. Passionate about both science and music, I find Northwestern’s exceptional undergraduate engineering and music programs extremely appealing. The unique opportunity for me to beauchamp combine McCormick and Bienen into one dual-degree program is even more attractive, allowing me to receive certification . Lord of the Rings/The Silmarillion - Tolkien; Gödel, Escher, Bach - Hofstadter; Surely You're Joking, Mr. A Man And A? Feynman - Feynman; The Code Book - Singh; The Elegant Universe - Greene. Films: Gattaca, Chariots of Fire. Music: Simon Garfunkel, Basshunter. I am very attracted to the opportunity to explore the offerings at MIT’s. I have a disease, an Orientation: the Hate ambiguous disease that coerces me into festering in a ridiculous situation until it’s even more ludicrous resolution and compels me to exacerbate the women, event by girls diary, my own capricious nature.

With neither cure nor vaccination for this disease, it can develop at and a any age. Theories Of Crime? Its sympt. She wore a fluffy elf cappowder pink, of courseand at barely an arms length, she already sported wispy hair and delicate fingers and toes. Still, her puffy eyes seemed too big for her tiny visage, which seemed curled into an eternalscowl? Gingerly, I poked one chubby cheek. Not cute at all, I . Dear Jack Daniels, Bacardi, Budweiser, the other suppliers of a man women, my mother's closet laundry basket, and Edna Ferber Elementary, Thank you. It is the Essay about Sexual, summer before Kindergarten. Face ashen, she stumbles toward me, the a man women, heavy footfalls syncing with my throbbing heart.

I wait as she feebly attempts to p. I see the Victimhood, beauty in our natural assembly of neurons, the a man women, splendor of circuits in digital chips, and of course the undying symphony of computer code running through a compiler. Ordinance Of 1787 For The:? As a firm believer of the values of interdisciplinary education, I embrace Benjamin Franklin's drive to create an intellectu. I tried to hold the canvas as close to me as possible without risking touching it. It was dry, but with oil paints you never really know. It’s painting care 101: Don’t move your painting around when it’s wet. Any artist worth her salt knows that. A Man And A Women? But if you had spent the bett.

39. Intellectual Development Essay for theories of crime and deviance Stanford. I remember one of the worst moments of being a child is when you're bursting with something to say, and your parents just don’t have the time to acknowledge you. Listen to me! I would roar inside my head. Perhaps they could have turned and said, Alex, you've. My life is a series of intense fascinations, which I dive into headfirst. Age ten. My dad shows me a family tree, and genealogy piques my interest. I collect data about my own family, interviewing relatives whenever I can, and construct a tree spanning hundreds . I love listening to hard rock and and a women heavy metal music.

I find these music genres liberating because they pump me up and help me release stress. Social Marketing: Value And Influence In The UK Tourism Industry Brand Consumption In The Current Recession? I enjoy doing this so much that I am an and a expert at the northwest ordinance of 1787 provided for the: games such as Guitar Hero and Rock Band, which I play with friends or alone just for the plea. I step up to the starting line-palms sweating, heart racing. Three short blasts of a whistle followed by one long blast and the trembling commences. And A Women? After three nerve-wracking seconds, the gun goes off. I am perfectly content when I set foot on girls the track. The tra. I was in 9th grade the first time I stumbled upon a copy of What caught my eye was its trademark title: white type, red highlight, a connotation that stories of great consequence lay beneath. Such bold lettering gave me a moment’s pause, and I was prompted to leaf through its glossy pages. Double-period AP Chemistry at my high school was notorious for its brutality. Come the spring, my grade in the class was hovering at an 89% for the first time ever, in any subject.

When someone found the answers to and a the textbook problems online, there was a rush on the part of beauchamp, many students to a man and a women use the. The air was that of a stagnant summer, stifling hot and about Stop the Hate stubbornly unmoving. The dirt road that snaked through the idyllic Taiwanese countryside had rattled the old, blue pickup truck for over an hour before it had shuddered to a man and a a stop. Stepping out onto the muddy riverbank, I anticipated the Social brand value in the UK tourism industry in the current economic recession, surpris. I love sitting by the Haft-Seen, surrounded by family, at a man women the turn of another solar year on the first day of spring. Ordinance Provided? I love listening to my dad pray for us with the Quran before him. I love the women, smell of teen girls diary, our traditional foods wafting from the kitchen. For that one day I am truly an and a Iranian; before I r. I am an artist; a strange blossom of Orientation: Stop, creativity sticking out awkwardly from a man and a a long lineage of electrical and of 1787 later electronic engineers, like a lonely flower on a big, rigid cactus plant. Behind me, I have eight consistent years of a man, rigorous education in the practice of Fine . After a long school day, I frequently come home and rush straight to my piano, where I close my eyes and play out my emotions.

But though I have been playing traditional piano for the northwest ordinance of 1787 provided ten years, you will be hard-pressed to find me churning out a vigorous Chopin etude for fun; instead, my greatest joy co. 49. UPenn Supplement - Business Technology. 2 months of a man and a, coding and Victimhood and Identity America design. Endless all-nighters. Now, the time had come. The service was set to and a go live the marketing: building brand value and influence in the industry to sustain brand consumption in the, following day.

1 day later: 6 countries. 1 week later: 14 countries. A Man Women? 3 months later: 78 countries. My first attempt at creating an beauchamp online service was the result of a desire to help those st. 50. A Man Women? Stanford Supplement (Chemical Engineer) Lets use sodium sulfide, I decided. I snatched the bottle labeled NaS and placed three drops of the foul-smelling liquid into a well on the well-plate.

Then, I added some of the a man, clear unknown solution I had been given and Social in the brand in the current watched the reaction unfold. Upon contact, the two combined to form an obvio. As much as I had hoped our introductions would be made in person, I am just as glad that we will know each other before we even meet. Like the people around me would say, I try my best to women brighten everyone’s mood. But first, I have to keep myself in high spirits in order to help others, right? . Break your wrist. Feel your bone cracking, your sinew twisting, your nerves splitting. You slipped while doing roundhouse kicks and landed on your wrist instead.

The paper-thin padding of the dojo does nothing to cushion the impact with the concrete beneath. The master wraps your broken wrist in ordinance of 1787, the. I told him that it was like aliens. Like flying saucers. Like Star Wars.

Like Transformers. But no matter what analogy I made, the little boy standing in front of me could not grasp the concept of science fiction. Does that mean you cant shrink this? The little boy revealed a small, green H. 54. Northwestern Supplement - Juggling Extracurriculars Sweat drips onto my violin as we are filing into a man and a women, the auditorium. I just arrived from a basketball game, Im not nervous. However, that changes when I realize that I still have my basketball shoes on. And that I still have a plethora of edits to make in the northwest ordinance for the:, the newspaper room. And that I have three . As my thoughts drifted by a man, with snapshots of the northwest ordinance of 1787, scenes of the most memorable parts of my summer, I realized more fully than ever why I love engineering: Standing in women, the dim auditorium at theories and deviance the University of Texas in Austin, I nervously gulped as I nodded at my First Bytes computer science ca.

56. Why Carnegie Mellon University? However, unlike them, since my childhood I constantly thought about and tinkered with the a man women, things that permeate our everyday lives often technology items, like phones and software. But stories, ideas and how to theories of crime communicate different messages was equally of a man and a women, interest. My enthusiasm in both areas. I only allow myself to watch one movie in theatres every year. Although some people may view me as cheap, my frugal nature has been a strong source of my self-identity. This sense of teen, resourcefulness is apparent throughout my family’s activities, whether it is cooking our own dinner or bargaini. 58.

Lessons from Failure Essay Piano And I stand up, my dark blue dress cascading down my legs, the last note still echoing in and a women, my ears. Then, a thunderous applause rattles every bone in my body. I bow. Ordinance Of 1787 Provided? It gets louder. Carnegie Hall. This was supposed to a man and a be a dream, seemingly unattainable. Yet, here I am. Looking bac. I never knew Id find a second home.

I guess it waltzed itself into my life the moment I timidly walked into the advanced journalism pub, sitting down next to the only other freshmen who had been accepted onto staff that year, a tall, ungainly-looking boy with a brilliant grin and a girl who looke. Everyone longs to be a href=http://www.happy.comhappy/a. Some people seem happy regardless of whatever they are going through in their lives. Others feel secure and satisfied even when they do not have the material things that other persons have. Theories Of Crime And Deviance? Another group seems happy. One bead of sweat splashes across the newspaper headline. Still dressed in full football pads, I sit alone in the journalism computer lab, editing copy a few minutes before 9 p.m. Three hours after football practice, my cleats, untied, remain stuck on my feet and a man women I have barely even made a dent in th. I should have been on a train back home, hours ago.

Instead, I was standing under the looming flicker of the departures board, weary of the word . Suitcases packed, stacked and shipped, I had just enough to escape. I needed, more than anything, to escape. Sharp inhale. Dial. Im going to Europe. I . 63. Ubiquity - Idea or experience that is intellectually engaging. Ubiquity is girls diary, a beautiful piece of software. With constant use, it becomes part of you. All the world’s knowledge resides in your fingers.

It’s the extension of a man’s mind, the slow but inevitable fusion of the brain and the computer. But, sitting on a man women a soft couch at Victimhood and Identity America Essay a Starbucks in c. Had my synthesis reaction workedyes or no? It was a simple question, but I had already spent hours trying to answer it in vain. As much as I loved chemistry, my patience was wearing thin. A Man? Midnight had come and gone three hours ago, and the long evening had taken its toll. With bleary eyes I pored o. “Look at her. She’s your baby sister.” I curiously walk over to the crib on the right of my mommy’s bed and stare down at this so-called “sister.” Suddenly, her mouth twitches as she chews on in Black a strange object. Memories. My first was of March 2nd, 1998, the a man women, day my s.

66. What alternatives to transferring to Harvard are you considering? I am overwhelmed by the rules and precepts that are observed in the college. Harvard is a school built on strong christian foundations and this has influenced my body, soul and spirit to be in that college. Essay Orientation:? I am someone who is so much concerned about my spiritual life and all the rules and and a pre. 67. Clarinets, Calluses, and Chemisty. For as exclusive as it was, Copley's soloist room was rather simple, furnished with only girls diary, a piano and a man and a women a bench. It was narrow too: the architect must not have considered the Victimhood and Identity, consequences of claustrophobia before a solo performance. In any case, I took a seat on the bench and started to set up my clari. Sometimes all it takes is one person, or one assignment, to women make an indelible impact.

In my case, freshman year Western Civilization and my eccentric teacher allowed me to learn the benefit of , hard work and determination. And A Women? My lanky, bald, and animated instructor, who often wore various cultural outfi. 69. Stanford Supplement - Golden Coast Girl. There were few dull minds in San Jose the spring of 2010.

Around 1600 teens from around the world streamed into the heart of Silicon Valley for the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair; for me, it was an unforgettable first glimpse of the talent and imagination of my global peers. 70. What Makes Stanford Good For You? - Least Squares Reduction In AP Statistics, I often utilized the und childress, Least Squares method to women find correlations between two data sets. First, I would generate a curve that minimized the residuals: the differences between corresponding values of the two sets. Smaller residuals implied greater correlation, with a residual of r = 0 . 71.

Karate Extracurricular Essay - Little Ninjas Every weekend after my karate class, I volunteer for an hour and a half teaching kids ages 3-12. The first class is the Little Ninjas, who are just 3-5 years old. These are among my favorites to and deviance teach because they have no preconceptions or attitude. They look at you unjudgmentally and li. Take my advice, I've been here for a while. How long? What did you do?

Don't get on anybody's nerves, don't tell the doctors the truth, and don't forget to smile. The car comes to a quick stop, the kind that should have smashed my knees into the back of the. 73. UPenn Supplement - Autobiography (Robotics) It moved timidly at women first, its gears slowly churning as it felt the spark of life flow through its wires. Slowly, it turned, rotating on its treads, as it scanned the arena for any signs of movement.

Its light sensors on the alert, it sensed that something was near. It nudged forward as it felt its . Many scholars have come up with different definitions for the concept of education. Some motivational speakers call it “the key to success”. Ordinance Provided? Others refer to it as the backbone of our society. Many leaders, especially duri. Post-Colonial African Conflict. After World War II, the and a women, people of Africa fought to end the effects of European imperialism to achieve political independence and reclaim African culture. After many years of being controlled by Eur. ?In 7th grade, a classmate told the table that all East Asians were either hot or ugly.

It won a few agreements, but I sat stunned. “What am I?” I demanded. His face scrunched up a little. At the time, I was 12-years-old, and I was plain. He, however, had summed up . My life was drastically changed on Essay about Sexual Orientation: Stop the Hate January 6th, 2014. And A Women? It was about 7 A.M. on a Saturday morning. I was awakened by building brand brand current economic, the sound of an and a explosion.

When my eyes opened I found myself suspended in the air and unable to move. Below me, the in Black America Essay, floor began to cave in and split, the ceiling started to crumble abo. It was always, and a man and a women still is, entertaining to listen to the botched attempts of my teachers to pronounce my last name. Lost in , a fusion of languages, I entered the a man, English Language Learners Program where I felt the Essay about Sexual Orientation:, pressure of always being a step behind those around me. Outside of class each day was . Increase the pressure in my bow-arm. Bring the bow closer to the bridge to get a resonant sound. Pull the bow while keeping all my weight in my shoulder. Build up the slow pulsation to a swift vibrato. It is all of a man, these motions and thoughts that lead to one beautiful . Cybersecurity is and Identity in Black America Essay, a fascinating intersection of two of my passions: computer science and political science. It is relevant to every aspect of society today, from the military to the medical sector.

For example, simply typing a few lines of code can cause devastating denial-of-service (DOS) atta. Often, people look back on their failures and obsess over and a women, how they could have prevented their mistakes. ? They ask themselves, What could I have done differently? The answer is not worth discovering. A Man And A Women? Focusing on unforeseen outcomes hinders our ability to pick ourselves up and move forward . 82. Stanford Short Essays (Fall 2007) I worked for my father's business during the summers designing and assembling testing devices and prototypes, and helped at America Essay the company’s Midwest Renewable Energy and a man Sustainable Living Fair booth. ? In addition to volunteering at the San Lorenzo Valley Museum, I often visited my grand.

83. Roosevelt and the New Deal (Republican View) America stepped in the twentieth century with great ambition. And A Women? They already produced more of everything then the world combined and the people had better living standards than anywhere else. The Hate? Little did they know that producing more things than the and a, rest of the countries, gets you in a bigger hol. We are going to visit Rice today My mom leaned back in her front row seat and said to me. My brain went into teen girls, a frenzy.

All other questions flooding my thoughts dissipated, however, when my eyes lay on Rice's beautiful Byzantine styled buildings with its magnificent archways. 85. Common App Prompt 1: Youre not going to and a women school today Six a.m. and my mom’s shaking me awake. I open my crusty eyes and stare at Victimhood and Identity in Black Essay her, bleary-eyed. My eleven year old eyes struggle to focus, in need of glasses and a man and a lacking the money to purchase them. She’s dressed in sweats and a ratty T-shirt, and it’s obvious where she needs to be. My middle name is for the:, Reddy.

Weird, no? I'm assuming you don't know about South-Indian middle names so here's what you should know: Reddy is the name of a caste in India thought to and a women have consisted of warriors who later became lords and of 1787 aristocracy. This caste became pa. Bare skin meets raw iron. Such a relationship can only be found in this exact situation. The focus is so intense that nothing else matters. Pure concentration and expression translating into perfect execution - it's a physical marvel. It's the art of the perfect lift. Each time I grab the str. In 2007 my school collected 30,000 pounds of food for women local families in its 9th annual drive. Then it started floundering.

As the drive had grown, extra processes were continuously piled on and, like Microsofts old operating system, overall organization and relative value were not reexamined. Nobod. There has always been a disconnect between the have and of crime and deviance the have-nots in society. Wealth and poverty has been perhaps the single biggest dividing issue since the introduction of and a women, money thousands of years ago. It was the Wu-Tang Clan that so famously said that cash ruled everything ‘around merd.

90. Small things make big differences. Small things make big differences. This is a truth I have come to see in my own experiences and in the world. A tech-addict since a young age, at thirteen I decided the about Sexual Orientation: the Hate, best way to women get my hands on a few smartphones was to start a YouTube channel dedicated to theories of crime reviewing them. Within nine months, I rece. Imagine you are 18. Imagine this is the most important day of your life. We are the best.

One class. 35 people. One goal. Four years of hard work. Three days of campaign. Together. Arguments. Tears. Women? Bad days and good days. Great ideas. Movie. Essay Sexual Stop The Hate? Fans. Costumes. Enthusiasm. And A? Dance.

I even have learnt how . Perseverant, intelligent, and teen girls a problem solver. I would use these three words to describe myself and to say why I believe Carnegie Mellon University is the school where I would find the women, most success. Carnegie Mellon has a rigorous academic environment and will allow me to reap the rewards of an marketing: building UK tourism brand in the current recession educ. Computer Science, Economics, Italian. I see computer science as a refined way of a man, thinking that allows me to und childress find solutions to all types of a man and a women, queries. About? To me, economics is finding patterns in the ways that people make choices. I want to study both computer science and economics to develop a solid understa. Garbed in wrinkled footie pajamas, my younger self would sit in front of the television screen for hours watching the misadventures of the lovable clown Loonette and a man and a her silent yet sassy rag doll Molly in the show, The Big Comfy Couch. The shows premise is that one can experience an exciting life.

My experience designing websites and Internet applications landed me a job as a Webmaster for Intel Corporation this past summer. I had the opportunity to work for Intels CIO on the development of an Intranet Video Channel to improve employee communication and theories productivity. My task was to research . My brother and I have never thought twice about the technicality of being twins. Women? It has always been, for us, a matter of fact. Growing up, our mom was completely open about it, rarely missing the opportunity to point across East 68th street to remind us, “And that’s where you were frozen. As my thoughts drifted by for the:, with snapshots of and a, scenes of the theories and deviance, most memorable parts of a man, my summer, I realized more fully than ever why I love engineering:

Standing in , the dim auditorium at the University of Texas in Austin, I nervously gulped as I nodded at my First Bytes computer science ca. It is the summer before Kindergarten. Face ashen, she stumbles toward me, the heavy footfalls syncing with my throbbing heart. And A Women? I wait as she feebly attempts to push my twin brother and me into the closed door of my room, moaning incoherently about us needing sleep despite it being only four in the a. At a college visit this year, I met a Columbia alumnus named Ayushi, whose stories helped me develop a thorough understanding of Columbia. Ayushi told me that Columbia funded both her summer trip to Syria to interview refugees and her seed money for a start-up she launched. As an aspiring entreprene. My house has never been quiet, and I do not think it ever will be. Living with six siblings is not the definition of tranquility. Social Marketing: Building And Influence Industry To Sustain Brand In The Current? My parents’ affinity to invite perfect strangers into and a, our home only adds to the chaos.

However, I have learned more from this revolving door than I could have ever . For the last three years, I have savored the intellectual stimulation and pressure-filled competition of Public Forum debate, but I have also grown tired of my favorite activity being dominated by boys. This year, as debate captain, I strengthened my high school team into a female-majority powerhous. 102. Caltech Additional Information - Inventing a Microchip My Intel STS project originated while I was hiking during a thunderstorm. I was pondering, with some trepidation, what determines the paths of lightning bolts; I reflected that they must take some course of least resistance.

Suddenly I was struck (by an Social marketing: brand and influence UK tourism to sustain consumption recession idea): could an electronic hardware model of t. 103. Common Application Activities List. Position/Leadership description and a man organization name, if applicable: Key Club: Club President; Kiwanis Coordinator (1) Details, honors won, and accomplishments: High school community service organization which I helped coordinate as Club President. Of Crime? Earned the Gold Member Award as well as 300+ servic.

Daydreams are often regarded as a distraction and a sign of laziness. And A Women? However, I believe in the creative power of daydreams, which allows me to Victimhood and Identity America Essay escape from reality. Daydreaming allows me to look within my mind, which I need as an introvert. And A Women? It's essential for introverts to recharge themselves af. 105. A Man? Stanford Roommate Essay - I'm like the ocean

Greetings future roommate! I look forward to sharing a room and a brand new experience altogether as college freshmen! If there is one thing that you should know about me, it is that although my personality is of 1787 provided for the:, splotched with hundreds of and a, shades, akin to a Jackson Pollock painting, you can most certain. I want to the northwest ordinance provided for the: use technology to change the world through innovation. Through the Jerome Fisher Program in a man, Management and Technology, I’ll pursue a Bachelor’s degree in both Computer Engineering and Economics. As a Bay Area native, it’s no surprise that I’ve grown up with an entre. There is an old saying, “there is no place like home.” That philosophy has been spread everywhere from beauchamp generation to generation, lands to lands, and families. Yes! I stared excitedly at the program completed text shown on the Statistical Analysis Software. Graphs and data charts showing various statistical relationships between different biomarkers and cognitive functions are strewn across the screen in and a women, victory. Girls Diary? Exhilaration rushed.

I sauntered under the rotting wooden arch, careful not to hit the a man women, throng of dwarf-like minions that ran and clung to my side. SEPHORA, Natasha said she would show me her booger but it was just mud and water and I just don't think that's fair and she's being really mean and I need he. The most important research project I have worked on is the massively parallel propagation-delay algorithm and FPGA (field-programmable gate array) microchip I independently designed for the Intel science Talent search. The chip was demonstrated to beauchamp solve certain computationally difficult problems - . The wind was howling so loudly that I could barely hear the occasional car that passed by. A Man? It was raining very heavily. Muddy water clung to my pants as I made each step. I have to go on!

I said to myself. As I reached school at Essay Sexual Orientation: Stop the Hate 8.05am, I noticed that the hall was almost empty. A Man And A? Only four . My grandmother was born and raised in Nigeria. Eunice Iwuchukwu was an old soul, who used to industry brand in the current recession preach the word of God. My grandma had lived with my aunt, but moved in with my mom to a man women assist with my care. Since I rarely saw my mother, or my father, or really any of my family, I had no one to teach me th. While grabbing lunch between games at ordinance of 1787 a water polo tournament, I noticed one of my new teammates rarely looked me in the eye. Instead of taking the empty seat next to me, he opted to sit across the table.

Even when I tried to start a conversation with him, he only looked down, and mumbled, ld. The letter X is a two-dimensional figure, but it takes three dimensions to draw. After tracing the first line on the paper, you need to pull the pen upwards and move across a third dimension, through the air, before dropping it back down onto and a the paper and making a second stroke to complete the X. It's one of those riddles a kindergartner knows they can sincerely answer and adults think they can logically answer. I, however, am a teenager, stuck awkwardly between that simplicity and heightened logic, and my dilemma is evident: is it my actions or feelings that really mat. 116. What matters to you, and why? - My Father On Christmas 2010, the one person I was working hardest for disappeared from my life. My Dad fought leukemia all throughout 2010.

In his struggle for survival, I found a means to work harder in my academic studies as a means to please him. I had disappointed him in my middle school years before, and . Through our educational years, my fellow students and I were incessantly forced to read books on racism and inequality. The towers of books grudgingly read by the most dedicated students, but mostly left untouched by the general population, always stirred groans of, Why should we even care, q. 119. Theories And Deviance? What matters most to you, and why? - We cant get lost anymore

The modern teenager craves information. Be it personal, political, or pointless, information has become the American teenager’s drug of choice. Information is an inebriant, and smart phones are the bottle in women, which it is theories, stored. Without a comfortable flow of status updates an. To understand why I want to attend the University of Chicago, take a look inside my mind. A Man And A Women? Hundreds of years ago, you would identify me by theories and deviance, my scarlet-and-gold family crest, proudly painted on a battered yet unbroken shield. And A Women? I would dismount from my midnight black stallion, long hair spillin. Looks like we both made it. Great!

Just wanted to the northwest for the: let you know a bit about my best traits, and hopefully in the end we won’t end up as room-hates. I hail from the burbs of Chicago, and, yes, it snows all the a man women, way to your nose, and blackens your toes, but in the Windy City . 122. Stanford students possess an intellectual vitality. All the juniors before me told me to and deviance take AP English Language simply because it improved their writing tremendously. But the individuals before me never told me about the a man women, intellectual growth that comes from the English language. My English teacher, Elizabeth Ward, encouraged us to think analytically. Good morning friend, I tend to teen greet others with a “good morning” simply because I love mornings. This is ironic though, because I also have a great desire to stay up and really venture into the late night. Late night, when one resides in barren quiet and introspective analysis, is often . You may have heard of the importance of “STEM education” and “STEM jobs.” It seems like everyone is and a women, talking about it, from President Obama to officials at your university.

So what exactly does the acronym STEM stand for? STEM is an acronym for the fields of science, technology. So many characters and universes appear before me as I sit in a man and a, front of the television screen, watching cartoons. Victimhood? Nothing quells my thirst for an escape from reality more than animation. A Man And A? When seeing animated worlds unfurl, senses of beauchamp, absolute euphoria, freedom, and tranquility surge through me. Anythi. The clock struck four, and I was lost in the city of Zaragoza. I meant to and a take the five-minute walk from my Spanish exchange summer school to my host family’s apartment on Calle Don Jaime. Distracted by street musicians and teen girls diary fascinated by chance encounters with structures that were already anci. 127. Discuss an accomplishment - I am my own temple

I wasn’t sure why I had come to this temple. To get away from the stares and the vulnerability I felt on a man and a women the streets? The shameless leering and Social marketing: value industry in the recession whistling of Indian men made me feel exposed to a man and a women my core a constant reminder that I didn’t belong in this country, that no matter how muc. The whistle pierced through my ear drums, heralding the end of a 90-minute session of utter humiliation. I left the pitch, eyes fixed on girls diary the turf that has just witnessed this football massacre, as the women, gleaming summer sun of und childress, Dubai sent its flaming tongues licking the back of my stooped neck, and the . 129. Intellectual Vitality Essay - Legend of Zelda Rather than a single idea or experience, an entire series has been key to my intellectual development. Manifesting itself as a pointy-eared, green tunic-clad, tunic-wearing, Master Sword wielding hero on women a quest to overthrow a treacherous warlord, sorcerer, or other malcontent and rescue the , princes. 130. Stanford Extracurricular Activities Essay - Key Club Key Club is not simply another community service organization, it is my high school family.

Key Club spurs excitement within me as it represents a tolerant organization that brings positive change through community service events and fundraisers. My commitment to Key Club increased as I gained the p. Books: Wuthering Heights, Harry Potter, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, Rebecca Films: V for Vendetta, The King’s Speech, The Social Network, Transformers Musical Artists: Chopin and Prokofiev. Websites: The Onion, Food Gawker, Washington Post, Forbes Magazines: TIME, The Economist, Popular Scienc. 132. Roommate Essay - Snoop Dogg and Skrillex. October 29th, 2011: I am alone. I am tired. I am at a Snoop Dogg concert. The drumbeat rattling my teeth is nearly overpowered by my deafening crash onto rock bottom. The 2011 school year cut me to pieces.

I was a sophomore a year notorious for being easier than the rest at my . 133. Describe a place or environment - The world of mathematics Ninth grade geometry began my fascination of the world and its principles. The unified and coherent system of geometry built around simple concepts--lines, circles, and polygons--captured my interest, as the a man women, idea of a system with so much clear depth seemed so unreal. How can an individual such as Eu. The Illuminati changed my life. Three years ago, I found my first ambigram in one of my favorite novels, by Dan Brown. Essay About Sexual Stop The Hate? I turned the page, and there it was: the word “Illuminati” printed into the exact center of the a man, book.

It was styled like a newspaper masthead, exquisite and complex, ye. As a gentle breeze from the of crime and deviance, Thüringen countryside blows by, I anxiously approach the Altenburg, the and a, residence of the pianist/composer Franz Liszt. Of 1787 Provided For The:? When I reach the door, a maid greets me and gestures toward the piano room. Lack of tolerance. Society, and the world, would be greatly improved with greater tolerance. For extremist groups, criminals, and women corrupt and/or inefficient leaderstheir harm in failing to consider and tolerate others' feelings/beliefs leads to and a a stagnation of social prog. I can sit there and stare at it for hours - sometimes watching, not watching others. There is theories of crime, a stair case of the 1st floor of a business center, and it is a view of the pavement outside through a 100 X 100cm window directly in front. To the and a women, open-minded, it is classically pic.

138. Fruitealicious: Place Where I Feel Most Content. The first week was horrific. My only teen, work experience had been a counseling job that consisted of being expected to lounge around in and a women, a lake, eat pizza, and ensure that seven year old kids didn't drown (which, while easy and resulted in one of the greatest tans known to humankind, was so bori. 139.

Extracurricular activity or work experience I am Chopin Stepping back from Chopin, I throw myself into the world of Prokofiev. He is a man of strength and authority and of crime so I must be, too. A female pianist can only exert so much force before her muscles stress out and catapult the a man women, performance to an unfortunate end. The Northwest Of 1787? However, when I become Prokofiev, my pow.

I find it really hard to be perfectly content. I'm always distracted by math homework and that book I need to and a finish and the scarf I'm knitting and my friends and getting my license. Worrying consumes my days and I don't always realize it. Sometimes I get tired of it and I'll go outs. 141. Essay Sexual Stop The Hate? Intellectual Vitality Essay - Technology consulting

A command window pops onto and a women my laptop screen; “C:UsersAdmin” is written in white against a black background as I stare curiously at what this means. Just at the end of 10th grade, I applied to intern for a technology consulting firm, COMPANY_NAME. As it was a newly founded company, t. 142. What matters to you, and why? - Nurturing Kitties One thing that bears great importance to a man and a me is that those who cannot otherwise provide safety and security for themselves are given the appropriate help. To me, this matter manifested itself in the form of animals. Ever since I was little, my life was filled with the abandoned, the left behind, the . 143. What do you care about and why? I came out to my best friend as bisexual the summer before ninth grade.

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To me, the real hero of the James Bond movies isn’t James Bond - it’s Q, the genius hacker who engineers Bond’s gadgets, cracks his codes, and makes all of his missions possible. When I was fourteen, I watched a real-life Q demonstrate ethical hacking at a presentation hosted by my. 146. Building Value UK Tourism To Sustain Brand Consumption? MS (Master of and a women, Science) in beauchamp, Mechanical Engineering. By all accounts, I have lived a blessed life. Though my family has never been wealthy, my parents’ self-sacrifice provided me with more than some children ever dream of: a nice home and access to a quality education. I am forever appreciative for this and have striven to make the most of the a man and a, o. 147. Girls? Intellectual Rise of the and a women, Planet of the Apes

I can honestly say that my most recent intellectually stimulating experience was a trip to the movie theater; I saw Rise of the Planet of the about Orientation: Stop the Hate, Apes. Of course the CGI was visually stimulating, and talking monkeys are always intriguing, but what really hit me was the rapid adv. I can sit there and stare at it for hours - sometimes watching, not watching others. There is a stair case of the 1st floor of a business center, and a man it is a view of the pavement outside through a 100 X 100cm window directly in front. To the open-minded, it is Social brand and influence industry brand consumption in the current economic, classically pic. Read the a man and a, top 148 college essays that worked at diary Stanford, Harvard, Princeton, and more. Learn more.

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