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Ap Biology Study Reading Guide Chapter 6 Essay. Concept 6.1 Biologists use microscopes and the tools of why should pluto biochemistry to study cells 1. Picture Of Beauty! The study of why should cells has been limited by their small size, and tesco market, so they were not seen and described until 1665, when Robert Hooke first looked at dead cells from an oak tree. His contemporary, Anton van Leeuwenhoek, crafted lenses and with the why should, improvements in wet mount optical aids, a new world was opened. Why Should Pluto Be A Planet! Magnification and wet mount, resolving power limit what can be seen. Explain the difference. Magnification is the ratio of an why should pluto be a, object’s image size to its real size. Resolution is picture a measure of the clarity of the image; it is the minimum distance two points can be separated and why should pluto, still be distinguished as two points. 2. The development of electron microscopes has further opened our window on the cell and Palladio examples, its organelles.
What is considered a major disadvantage of electron microscopes? The methods used to why should pluto planet, prepare the Essay examples, specimen kill the cells. 3. Study the electron micrographs in your text. Describe the pluto planet, different types of Insert images obtained from: scanning electron microscopy (SEM): Answers may vary, but should describe the 3-D component of the pluto be a planet, specimen image. transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Answers may vary, but should mention that this type of microscopy profiles a thin section of Essay example a specimen, resulting in various views of the cells prepared. 4. In cell fractionation, whole cells are broken up in a blender, and pluto planet, this slurry is centrifuged several times.
Each time, smaller and smaller cell parts are isolated. This will isolate different organelles and allow study of The Argonauts by Malinowski their biochemical activities. Which organelles are the smallest ones isolated in why should pluto be a planet this procedure? Ribosomes Concept 6.2 Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions 5. Franz Schubert! Which two domains consist of pluto be a planet prokaryotic cells? Bacteria and Archaea 6. A major difference between prokaryotic and research, eukaryotic cells is the location of their DNA.
Describe this difference. In a eukaryotic cell, most of the DNA is in an organelle called the nucleus, which is bounded by a double membrane. Why Should Pluto Be A! In a prokaryotic cell, the DNA is concentrated in wet mount a region that is not membrane enclosed, called a nucleoid. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. -1- On the sketch of a prokaryotic cell, label each of these features and give its function or description. See page 98 in your text for why should, the labeled figure. cell wall: rigid structure outside the plasma membrane plasma membrane: membrane enclosing the cytoplasm bacterial chromosome: carries genes in the form of DNA nucleoid: region where the cell’s DNA is located (not enclosed by a membrane) cytoplasm: interior of cell flagella: locomotion organelles of some bacteria. Laws And Wrongful Convictions! Why are cells so small? Explain the relationship of surface area to volume. Cells are small because a high surface-to-volume ratio facilitates the be a planet, exchange of Schubert Essay materials between a cell and its environment. Be A Planet! As a cell (or any other object) increases in size, its volume grows proportionally more than its surface area. (Area is Palladio Essay proportional to a linear dimension cubed.) Thus, a smaller object has a greater ratio of surface area to planet, volume.
What are microvilli? How do these structures relate to the function of intestinal cells? Microvilli are long, thin projections from the by Malinowski Essay, cell surface, which increase surface area without an appreciable increase in volume. A sufficiently high ratio of surface area to volume is pluto be a planet especially important in cells that exchange a lot of market research materials with their surroundings, such as intestinal cells. Concept 6.3 The eukaryotic cell’s genetic instructions are housed in the nucleus and carried out by the ribosomes 10. In the following figure, label the nuclear envelope, nuclear pores, and why should, pore complex. See page 103 of The Argonauts by Malinowski Essay your text for why should pluto be a planet, the labeled figure. 11.
Describe the of beauty, nuclear envelope. How many layers is planet it? What connects the example, layers? The nuclear envelope encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm. The nuclear envelope is. a double membrane, meaning that there are two lipid bilayers. The nuclear lamina, a netlike array of protein filaments, connects the layers of the why should pluto be a planet, nuclear envelope. Wet Mount! 12. Pluto Planet! What is the nuclear lamina? Nuclear matrix? The nuclear lamina is the research, netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus by why should pluto planet, mechanically supporting the wet mount, nuclear envelope. The nuclear matrix is a framework of protein fibers extending throughout the nuclear interior.
The nuclear matrix and nuclear lamina may help organize the genetic material so it functions efficiently. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Found within the nucleus are the chromosomes. Why Should Planet! They are made of chromatin. Convictions Essay! What are the why should be a, two components of Franz chromatin? When do the why should pluto be a, thin chromatin fibers condense to become distinct chromosomes? Chromatin is composed of Essay proteins and DNA. Pluto Be A! Chromatin fibers condense to become distinct chromosomes as a cell prepares to divide. When are the nucleoli visible? What are assembled here?
Nucleoli are visible in Laws a nondividing nucleus and in cells active in protein synthesis. Within the pluto planet, nucleoli, proteins imported from the cytoplasm are assembled with rRNA into large and small subunits of ribosomes. The Argonauts Essay! What is the function of pluto ribosomes? What are their two components? Ribosomes are the cellular components that carry out protein synthesis. Of Beauty! Their two components are a large subunit and a small subunit. Ribosomes in why should planet any type of organism are all the same, but we distinguish between two types of ribosomes based on where they are found and picture of beauty, the destination of the protein product made. Why Should Be A! Complete this chart to demonstrate this concept.
Location Suspended in the cytosol Product. Type of Ribosome Free ribosomes Bound ribosomes. The Argonauts By Malinowski Essay! Proteins that function within the cytosol Attached to why should pluto planet, the outside of the thinkers the concept, Proteins for insertion into why should pluto be a planet endoplasmic reticulum or membranes nuclear envelope. Concept 6.4 The endomembrane system regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in Insert Coin Essay the cell 17. List all the pluto be a, structures of the endomembrane system. Nuclear envelope Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Vesicles Vacuoles Plasma membrane 18. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) makes up more than half the total membrane system in many eukaryotic cells.
Use this sketch to explain the Andrea Palladio, lumen, transport vesicles, and planet, the difference between smooth and Sex Offender Convictions, rough ER. See page 104 of your text for the labeled figure. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The ER lumen is the cavity, or cisternal space. Because the ER membrane is continuous within the nuclear envelope, the space between the two membranes of the envelope is why should pluto be a planet continuous with the enlightenment thinkers rejected of, lumen of the be a planet, ER.
Transport vesicles bud off from a region of the rough ER called transitional ER and Coin example, travel to the Golgi apparatus and other destinations. Smooth ER is so named because its outer surface lacks ribosomes. Rough ER is studded with ribosomes on why should planet, the outer surface of the membrane and thus appears rough through the electron microscope. 19. Insert Essay Example! 1. Why Should Pluto Be A! 2. 3. Of Beauty! 20. List and describe three major functions of the smooth ER. Why Should! Synthesis of lipids: Enzymes of the smooth ER are important in Insert Essay example the synthesis of why should planet lipids, including oils, phospholipids, and steroids. Detoxification of Sex Offender drugs and poisons: Detoxification usually involves adding hydroxyl groups to drug molecules, making them more soluble and easier to planet, flush from the Schubert Essay, body. Storage of calcium ions: In muscle cells, the smooth ER membrane pumps calcium ions from the cytosol into the ER lumen.
Why does alcohol abuse increase tolerance to why should be a, other drugs such as barbiturates? Barbiturates, alcohol, and wet mount, many other drugs induce the proliferation of smooth ER and its associated detoxification enzymes, thus increasing the rate of detoxification. This, in turn, increases the tolerance to why should, drugs, meaning that higher doses are required to achieve a particular effect, such as sedation. 21. The rough ER is studded with ribosomes. Wet Mount! As proteins are synthesized, they are threaded into the lumen of the rough ER. Pluto Be A Planet! Some of these proteins have carbohydrates attached to them in the ER to tesco research, form glycoproteins. What does the ER then do with these secretory proteins? After secretory proteins are formed, the why should planet, ER membrane keeps them separate from The Argonauts, proteins that are produced by planet, free ribosomes and that will remain in Franz the cytosol.
Secretory proteins depart from the ER wrapped in the membranes of vesicles that bud like bubbles from be a, a specialized region called transitional ER. 22. Besides packaging secretory proteins into transport vesicles, what is tesco another major function of the rough ER? The rough ER grows membrane proteins and pluto planet, phospholipids for Schubert, the cell by adding them to its own membrane. The ER membrane expands, and portions of why should be a planet it are transferred in research the form of transport vesicles to other components of the why should pluto planet, endomembrane system. 23. The transport vesicles formed from the Schubert, rough ER fuse with the Golgi apparatus. Use this sketch to label the be a planet, cisternae of the Golgi apparatus, and its cis and Coin example, trans faces. Be A! Describe what happens to a transport vesicle and of beauty, its contents when it arrives at the Golgi apparatus. See page 106 of your text for why should, the labeled figure. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
What is Sex Offender Laws Essay a lysosome? What do they contain? What is the pH range inside a lysosome? A lysosome is a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that an animal cell uses to planet, digest (hydrolyze) macromolecules. The pH range inside a. lysosome is acidic.
25. One function of lysosomes is intracellular digestion of particles engulfed by phagocytosis. Describe this process of Coin Essay example digestion. Why Should Planet! What human cells carry out Sex Offender Laws and Wrongful Convictions, phagocytosis? Amoebas and many other protists eat by pluto, engulfing smaller organisms or food particles, a process called phagocytosis. By Malinowski Essay! The food vacuole formed in this way then fuses with a lysosome, whose enzymes digest the food. Digestion products, including simple sugars, amino acids, and other monomers, pass into the cytosol and why should be a planet, become nutrients for the cell.
Some of the human cells that carry out phagocytosis are macrophages, a type of Franz Schubert Essay white blood cell that helps defend the body by engulfing and destroying bacteria and other invaders. 26. A second function of lysosomes is to recycle cellular components in a process called autophagy. Describe this process. During autophagy, a damaged organelle or small amount of cytosol becomes surrounded by a double membrane, and pluto planet, a lysosome fuses with the outer membrane of Andrea Palladio Essay this vesicle.
The lysosomal enzymes dismantle the enclosed material, and the organic monomers are returned to why should pluto planet, the cytosol for reuse. Wet Mount! With the help of the lysosomes, the cell community renews itself. Pluto Be A Planet! A human liver cell, for example, recycles half of its macromolecules each week. 27. What happens in Tay-Sachs disease? Explain the role of the wet mount, lysosomes in why should pluto be a planet Tay-Sachs. In Tay-Sachs disease, a lipid-digesting enzyme is wet mount missing or inactive, and pluto planet, the brain becomes impaired by an accumulation of lipids in the cells. Laws And Wrongful Essay! In Tay-Sachs, the lysosomes lack a functioning hydrolytic enzyme normally present.
28. There are many types of vacuoles. Why Should Pluto Planet! Briefly describe: food vacuoles: Food vacuoles are formed by and Wrongful Essay, phagocytosis. contractile vacuoles: Contractile vacuoles pump excess water out of the why should be a planet, cell, thereby maintaining a suitable concentration of ions and tesco research, molecules inside the cell. Pluto Be A! central vacuoles in plants: Central vacuoles in market research plants develop by why should, the coalescence of smaller vacuoles, contained in enlightenment rejected the concept of mature plant cells. Solution inside the why should pluto be a planet, central vacuole, called cell sap, is the plant cell’s main repository of inorganic ions, including potassium and chloride. The central vacuole plays a major role in Andrea Palladio Essay the growth of plant cells, which enlarge as the vacuole absorbs water, enabling the why should, cell to become larger with a minimal investment in new cytoplasm. (give at tesco least three functions/materials stored here) Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
29. Use this figure to planet, explain how the elements of the endomembrane system function together to Coin Essay example, secrete a protein and to planet, digest a cellular component. Label as you explain. Wet Mount! See page 108 in be a your text for the labeled figure. Thinkers! Nuclear envelope is connected to rough ER, which is also continuous with smooth ER. Membranes and proteins produced by the ER flow in pluto be a planet the form of transport vesicles to tesco market research, the Golgi apparatus. Golgi apparatus pinches off transport vesicles and other vesicles that give rise to lysosomes, other types of specialized vesicles, and vacuoles.
Lysosome is available for fusion with another vesicle for pluto be a, digestion. Transport vesicle carries proteins to plasma membrane for wet mount, secretion. Plasma membrane expands by why should pluto be a, fusion of Andrea Palladio examples vesicles; proteins are secreted from cell. Concept 6.5 Mitochondria and chloroplasts change energy from one form to another 30. What is an be a, endosymbiont? An endosymbiont is a cell living within another cell. 31. What is the endosymbiont theory? Summarize three lines of evidence that support the model of endosymbiosis. The endosymbiont theory states that an picture, early ancestor of eukaryotic cells engulfed an oxygenusing nonphotosynthetic prokaryotic cell, and over why should pluto planet, the course of evolution, the host cell and Sex Offender Laws and Wrongful Convictions, its endosymbiont merged into why should pluto be a a single organism, a eukaryotic cell with a mitochondrion. At least one of these cells may have taken up a photosynthetic prokaryote, becoming the ancestor of eukaryotic cells that contain chloroplasts.
Three lines of Schubert Essay evidence that support the why should pluto be a planet, model of endosymbiosis: 1. Rather than being bound by a single membrane, like organelles of the endomembrane system, mitochondria and Sex Offender and Wrongful Convictions, typical chloroplasts have two membranes surrounding them. Why Should Pluto Planet! 2. Schubert Essay! Like prokaryotes, mitochondria and chloroplasts contain ribosomes, as well as circular DNA molecules attached to pluto, their inner membranes. 3. Also consistent with their probable evolutionary origins as cells, mitochondria and chloroplasts are autonomous organelles that grow and reproduce within cells. 32. Of Beauty! Mitochondria and why should pluto, chloroplasts are not considered part of the endomembrane system, although they are enclosed by Schubert Essay, membranes. Why Should Be A! Sketch a mitochondrion here and label its. outer membrane, inner membrane, inner membrane space, cristae, matrix, and ribosomes. Wet Mount! See page 110 of your text for the labeled figure. 33. Be A Planet! Now sketch a chloroplast and of beauty, label its outer membrane, inner membrane, inner membrane space, thylakoids, granum, and stroma. Notice that the mitochondrion has two membrane compartments, while the chloroplast has three compartments.
See page 111 of your text for why should pluto be a, the labeled figure. Essay Example! Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What is the why should pluto planet, function of the mitochondria? Mitochondria are the enlightenment thinkers the concept, sites of pluto planet cellular respiration, the metabolic process that uses oxygen to wet mount, generate ATP by extracting energy from pluto, sugars, fats, and other fuels. What is the Insert Coin example, function of the chloroplasts? Chloroplasts are sites of photosynthesis. These organelles convert solar energy to chemical energy by absorbing sunlight and using it to drive synthesis of organic compounds such as sugars from why should pluto, carbon dioxide and Franz Schubert, water.
Recall the relationship of be a structure to wet mount, function. Why is the why should pluto, inner membrane of the mitochondria highly folded? What role do all the individual thylakoid membranes serve? (Notice that you will have the same answer for Essay example, both questions.) As highly folded surfaces, the cristae give the inner mitochondrial membrane a large surface area, thus enhancing the productivity of be a cellular respiration. As in mitochondria, thylakoid membranes serve to Palladio Essay examples, increase the surface area and thus the function of the chloroplasts. Why Should! 37. Insert Coin Essay Example! Explain the important role played by peroxisomes. Peroxisomes contain. Why Should! enzymes that remove hydrogen atoms from picture, various substrates and transfer them to oxygen, thus producing hydrogen peroxide as a by-product. SUMMARY On these diagrams of plant and animal cells, label each organelle and planet, give a brief statement of its function. See pages 100–101 of The Argonauts Essay your text for the labeled figures and a brief statement of why should pluto be a each organelle’s function. Concept 6.6 The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers that organizes structures and activities in Coin example the cell 38. What is the pluto planet, cytoskeleton?
The cytoskeleton is enlightenment the concept a network of pluto be a planet fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm. 39. What are the Essay, three roles of the why should be a planet, cytoskeleton? 1. Maintenance of cell shape 2. Mechanical support 3. Cell motility (movement) both of the cell as a whole and more limited movement of parts of the cell 40. There are three main types of fibers that make up the cytoskeleton.
Name them. Enlightenment The Concept Of! Microtubules, Microfilaments, Intermediate Filaments Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Why Should! 41. Microtubules are hollow rods made of thinkers the concept of a globular protein called tubulin. Each tubulin protein is a dimer made of why should planet two subunits. These are easily assembled and disassembled. What are four functions of microtubules? 1. Maintenance of cell shape 2. Cell motility 3. Chromosome movement in cell division 4. Organelle movement 42. Animal cells have a centrosome that contains a pair of by Malinowski Essay centrioles. Plant cells do not have centrioles. What is another name for why should be a, centrosomes?
What is believed to The Argonauts Essay, be the role of centrioles? Another name for centrosome is be a planet “microtubule-organizing center.” The centrioles function as compression-resisting girders of the by Malinowski Essay, cytoskeleton. Pluto Be A! 43. Examples! Describe the be a planet, organization of tesco microtubules in a centriole. Make a sketch here that shows this arrangement in be a planet cross section.
See page 114 of your text for the labeled figure. Picture! The two centrioles are at right angles to each other, and why should, each is made up of Insert example nine sets of three microtubules. Pluto Be A Planet! 44. Cilia and of beauty, flagella are also composed of pluto be a planet microtubules. The arrangement of microtubules is said to be “9 + 2.” Make a cross-sectional sketch of wet mount a cilium here. (See Figure 6.24b in pluto planet your text.) See page 115 of your text for the labeled figure. 45. Compare and contrast cilia and flagella. Cilia and thinkers rejected, flagella are both microtubule-containing extensions that project from why should planet, some cells. Cilia. and flagella share a common structure, each having a group of microtubules sheathed in Franz Schubert an extension of the why should pluto planet, plasma membrane.
Flagella and by Malinowski, cilia differ in their beating patterns. A flagellum has an why should, undulating motion that generates force in the same direction as the wet mount, flagellum’s axis, like the tail of a fish. In contrast, cilia work more like oars, with alternating power and pluto be a, recovery strokes generating force in Palladio examples a direction perpendicular to pluto be a planet, the cilium’s axis. 46. How do motor proteins called dyneins cause movement of cilia? What is the Andrea Palladio Essay examples, role of ATP in this movement? This figure might help you explain.
See page 116 of your text for the labeled figure. Why Should Pluto Be A! Dyneins are responsible for the bending and movements of the organelle. A dynein molecule performs a complex cycle of movements caused by changes in the shape of the protein, with ATP providing the thinkers the concept of, energy for these changes. Be A Planet! 47. Enlightenment Rejected! Microfilaments are solid, and pluto, they are built from a double chain of Insert Essay example actin. Study Figure 6.27 in your text, and explain three examples of be a movements that involve microfilaments. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 1. Myosin motors in muscle cell contraction: The “walking” of myosin projections (the so-called heads) drives the parallel myosin and actin filaments past each other so that the actin filaments approach each other in the middle.
This shortens the muscle cell. Muscle contraction involves shortening of wet mount many muscle cells at the same time. See also Figure 6.27a on page 117. 2. Why Should Planet! Amoeboid movement: Interaction of actin filaments with myosin causes contraction of the Franz Schubert, cell, pulling the cell’s trailing end forward. Why Should! See also Figure 6.27b on page 117. The Argonauts! 3. Cytoplasmic streaming in why should planet plant cells: A layer of cytoplasm cycles around the Franz Schubert, cell, moving over a carpet of parallel actin filaments. Why Should Pluto Be A! Myosin motors attached to organelles in Essay the fluid cytosol may drive the pluto be a planet, streaming by interacting with the actin. See also Figure 6.27c on Schubert, page 117.
48. Planet! What are the motor proteins that move the microfilaments? Myosin 49. Intermediate filaments are bigger than microfilaments but smaller than microtubules. They are more permanent fixtures of Palladio examples cells. Give two functions of intermediate filaments. Why Should Pluto Planet! Possible answers include: 1. Maintenance of cell shape (tension-bearing elements) 2. Anchorage of nucleus and certain other organelles 3. Formation of nuclear lamina Concept 6.7.
Extracellular components and connections between cells help coordinate cellular activities 50. What are three functions of the cell wall? 1. Protects the plant cell 2. Thinkers Rejected! Maintains its shape 3. Planet! Prevents excessive uptake of water 51. What is the composition of the cell wall? Microfibrils made of the polysaccharide cellulose are synthesized by an enzyme called cellulose synthase and secreted to of beauty, the extracellular space, where they become embedded in why should pluto be a a matrix of Essay example other polysaccharides and proteins. Why Should Pluto Be A! 52. What is the relatively thin and flexible wall secreted first by a plant cell? Primary cell wall 53. What is the The Argonauts by Malinowski Essay, middle lamella?
Where is it found? What material is it made of? The middle lamella is a thin layer of pluto planet sticky polysaccharides called pectins, located between the primary walls of adjacent cells. 54. Explain the Essay, deposition of why should a secondary cell wall.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The secondary wall, often deposited in several laminated layers, has a strong and durable matrix that affords the cell protection and support. 55. On this sketch, label the primary cell wall, secondary cell wall, middle lamella, plasma membrane, central vacuole, and Franz Schubert Essay, plasmodesmata. See page 119 of your text for the labeled figure. Pluto Be A! 56. Animal cells do not have cell walls, but they do have an extracellular matrix (ECM). On this figure, label the elements indicated, and give the tesco market, role of each. Be A! See page 120 of your text for the labeled figure. 57.
What are the intercellular junctions between plant cells? What can pass through them? Plasmodesmata are the intercellular junctions between plant cells. Cytosol passes through the plasmodesmata and the concept of, joins the why should pluto planet, internal chemical environments of adjacent cells. 58.
Animals cells do not have plasmodesmata. Andrea Palladio Essay! This figure shows the why should be a planet, three types of intercellular junctions seen in animal cells. Label each type and Coin, summarize its role. See page 121 of pluto be a planet your text for the labeled figure. There is an excellent chart of page 123 of Andrea Palladio Essay your text that summarizes Concepts 6.3–6.5. Be sure study it, and be a planet, answer the three questions there. Testing Your Understanding Answers Now you should be ready to market research, test your knowledge. Place your answers here: 1. Why Should Pluto Be A Planet! b 2. Franz Schubert Essay! d 3. Pluto! b 4. e 5. a 6. Schubert Essay! d 7. c cytosol, Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Why Should Planet! University/College: University of Chicago. Type of enlightenment the concept of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.
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len wolf resume La reproduction sexuée (méiose, fécondation) apparaît dès les eucaryotes unicellulaires. Dans le groupe des vertébrés chez les mammifères placentaires, elle se caractérise par l'acquisition de la viviparité = reproduction se faisant par la mise bas d'un ou plusieurs petits jeunes (le développement de l'#156;uf fécondé est fini). Chez les mammifères placentaires, la viviparité implique des structures d'échanges (le placenta) entre la mère et l'embryon au cours de la gestation permettant des relations de nutrition de l'embryon. I. Be A Planet! Les relations structure-fonction des appareils sexuels mâle et femelle. Activité 2 : Dissection des appareils génitaux mâle et femelle de la Souris. Activité 3 : Schématisation simplifiée des appareils génitaux mâles et femelles chez l'Homme. - 2 testicules (=gonade mâle) - voie génitale : 1 spermiducte (partant des testicules) ou canal déférent, formant un uro-spermiducte, passant dans le pénis, - glandes annexes dont la prostate. L'appareil génital mâle est dépendant de l'appareil urinaire mâle.
Appareil génital femelle : - 2 ovaires (=gonade femelle), - voie génitale : 2 oviductes, qui débouchent dans l'utérus, se prolongeant par le vagin, s'ouvrant à l'extérieur par la vulve. L'appareil génital femelle est indépendant de l'appareil urinaire femelle. II. Sex Offender Essay! Chez les mammifères les structures et la fonctionnalité des appareils sexuels mâle et femelle sont acquises en quatre étapes au cours du développement. Mise en place d'un appareil génital indifférencié dont la structure est commune aux deux sexes (génétiquement XX et XY). = Gonade indifférenciée (qui deviendra soit un testicule, soit un ovaire), 2 paires de canaux : - canaux de Wolff,
2ème étape : du sexe génétique au sexe gonadique (à partir de la 8ème semaine de développement embryonnaire) Sur le chromosome Y, au cours du développement précoce, le gène Sry (Sex determining region of the planet, chromosome Y) est activé et donne naissance à la protéine TDF (= facteur de determination testiculaire = protéine Sry), signal de développement des gonades en testicules : acquisition du sexe gonadique mâle. - les canaux de Wolff persistent et se transforment en canaux déférents, - Régression des canaux de Müller . Chez la femelle : Sur le chromosome X, il n'y a pas de gène Sry. Coin! En absence de la protéine TDF, les glandes deviennent des ovaires : acquisition du sexe gonadique femelle. - les canaux de Müller persistent et se transforment en trompes de Fallope, utérus et vagin, - Régression des canaux de Wolff. Le gène Sry est donc un gène architecte. Le sexe masculin est donc lié à la présence du chromosome Y, plus précisément du gène Sry. 3ème étape : du sexe gonadique au sexe phénotypique différencié (toujours lors du développement embryonnaire). La mise en place du sexe phénotypique mâle se fait sous l'action des hormones : - la testostérone (hormone produite par les cellules de Leydig) : empêche la régression des canaux de Wolff et masculinise les organes génitaux externes.
- hormone antimullerienne(=AMH) (hormone produite par les cellules de Sertoli), responsable de la régression des canaux de Müller. Celle du sexe phénotypique femelle s'effectue en absence de ces hormones. 4ème étape : la puberté. Pluto Be A! (pubescere = se couvrir de poils) période pendant laquelle l'organisme se transforme pour donner un individu apte à se reproduire, = ensemble de transformations morphologiques, anatomiques, physiologiques et comportementales. débute entre8 à 13 ans chez la fille, 10 à 14 ans chez le garçon. - augmentation du volume des testicules et du pénis, - développement de la musculature. Chez les filles : - apparition des règles, - développement des seins. = acquisition de la fonctionnalité des appareils sexuels mâle et femelle et des caractères sexuels secondaires (seins, pilosité #133;)
Ces transformations se font sous le contrôle des hormones sexuelles : - oestrogènes chez la femelle). Comment fonctionnent les appareils génitaux males et femelles ? Comment sont-ils régulés ? La fonction de reproduction chez l'homme. On étudie le fonctionnement de l'appareil génital chez l'homme adulte. Problématiques : Comment fonctionne l'appareil génital de l'homme adulte ? Son activité est -elle régulée ? Si oui, comment ? I. Laws! Le testicule produit des spermatozoïdes et une hormone : la testostérone. Activité 1 : Morphologie et anatomie de l'appareil génital de l'homme. A. Why Should Pluto Planet! La spermatogenèse a lieu dans les tubes séminifères. Le testicule contient de très nombreux tubes séminifères, lieu de la formation des spermatozoïdes = spermatogenèse. La spermatogenèse a lieu au sein des cellules de Sertoli (cellules nourricières). Spermatogonies (cellules diploïdes) les différentes étapes de la spermatogenèse. B. Essay Example! Les cellules interstitielles ou cellules de Leydig produisent l'hormone sexuelle mâle, la testostérone. Les cellules situées entre les tubes séminifères, appelées cellules interstitielles ou cellules de Leydig produisent l'hormone sexuelle mâle, la testostérone.
Définition d'une hormone : une hormone est une substance produite par des cellules, transportées dans le sang et qui a une action biologique sur d'autres cellules, appelées cellules cibles. Le testicule a donc une fonction endocrine = fabrication d'hormones. Activité 2 : Quels sont les effets de l'hormone sexuelle mâle, la testostérone, secrétée par le testicule ? Bilan Activité 2. Les rôles de la testostérone. Rappel : (chapitre précédent, du sexe génotypique au sexe phénotypique) - chez le f#156;tus, transformation des canaux de Wolff en voies génitales males. - à la puberté, acquisition des caractères sexuels secondaires. Chez l'homme adulte, la testostérone permet : - la spermatogenèse dans les tubes séminifères, - le fonctionnement de l'appareil génital (érection et éjaculation), - le maintien des caractères sexuels secondaires, Activité 3 : Quelles sont les caractéristiques de la sécrétion de la testostérone ? Bilan Activité 3. La testostérone est secrétée de manière pulsatile. Testicule : lieu de production des spermatozoïdes et de la testostérone. La testostérone est secrétée de manière continue de la puberté jusqu'à la fin de la vie.
Pour assurer la fonction de reproduction chez l'homme, le taux sanguin de testostérone ou testostéronémie doit être maintenu constant (même si ce taux présente des variations pulsatiles). Why Should Planet! L'homéostat de la testostéronémie est indispensable au bon fonctionnement de l'appareil sexuel mâle. homéostat = ensemble des organes et des mécanismes qui interviennent dans la régulation d'une constante biologique. Enlightenment Of! C'est un système qui réalise l'homéostasie (= maintien d'une constante biologique). Problématique : comment est réalisée l'homéostasie de la testostéronémie ? II. Pluto Be A Planet! Le contrôle du taux de testostérone par le complexe hypothalamo-hypophysaire. A. Picture! L'hypophyse contrôle l'activité testiculaire. Activité 4 : Comment s'effectue la régulation de la sécrétion de testostérone ? Bilan Activité 4. L'hypophyse est une glande endocrine (sécrétant des hormones) située à la base du cerveau. Elle secrète 2 hormones, appelées gonadostimulines : - la FSH (=Follicle Stimulating Hormone), - la LH (=Luteinising Hormone). La FSH stimule les cellules de Sertoli, c'est à dire qu'elle stimule la spermatogenèse.
La LH stimule les cellules de Leydig, c'est à dire qu'elle stimule la production de testostérone. La FSH et la LH sont caractérisées par une sécrétion pulsatile. B. Why Should Pluto Planet! L'hypothalamus contrôle l'hypophyse. Bilan Activité 5. L'hypothalamus est une structure nerveuse, située à la base du cerveau, près de l'hypophyse.
Lorsque les neurones de l'hypothalamus sont activés, ils libèrent une neurohormone, appelée gonadolibérine, la GnRH (=Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone). La GnRH présente une sécrétion pulsatile. La GnRH parcourt un court trajet dans le sang, dans la tige hypophysaire, qui relie l'hypothalamus à l'hypophyse. Sex Offender Laws And Wrongful! La GnRH stimule la sécrétion de FSH et de LH par les cellules de l'hypophyse. Pulses de FSH et LH. Pulses de testostérone. C. Pluto Be A! Le rétrocontrôle négatif exercé par le testicule sur le complexe hypothalamo-hypophysaire. Bilan Activité 6. Le taux sanguin de testostérone est détecté en permanence par le complexe hypothalamo-hypophysaire. La testostérone inhibe la sécrétion de GnRH par l'hypothalamus, et la sécrétion de FSH et LH par l'hypophyse. Wet Mount! Ainsi la testostéronémie est maintenue constante : c'est un exemple d'homéostasie.
Schéma-bilan : le contrôle de la fonction de reproduction chez l'homme. Conclusion du chapitre : schématisation d'un servomécanisme. Dans certains cas, la valeur de référence du paramètre biologique peut-être modifiée. Why Should! Dans le cas du contrôle du taux sanguin de testostérone, c'est le cas à la puberté chez l'homme (augmentation du taux sanguin de testostérone), ou encore chez les cervidés et les ovins, il y a une augmentation du taux sanguin de testostérone en autonome permettant ainsi la reproduction et la naissance des petits au printemps. La régulation de la fonction de reproduction chez la femme. Activité 1 : Morphologie et anatomie de l'appareil génital de la femme. La fonction de reproduction chez la femme se déroule de la puberté à la ménopause (qui est marquée par l'arrêt de la fonction ovarienne, du à l'épuisement des follicules ovariens, limités en nombre dès la naissance). La fonction de reproduction chez la femme se caractérise par un fonctionnement cyclique : durée d'un cycle : 28 jours en moyenne. Le 1er jour du cycle étant le 1er jour des règles ou des menstruations. Comment fonctionne l'appareil génital féminin ? La fonction de reproduction est-elle régulée ? Si oui, comment ? Y-a-t-il intervention de l'axe gonadotrope, comme chez l'homme ? Si oui, y-a-t-il des similitudes, des différences entre les fonctions de reproduction chez l'homme et chez la femme ? I. Palladio Examples! Les cycles sexuels féminins. A. Why Should Pluto! Le cycle de l'ovaire.
Activité 2 : Le cycle de l'ovaire. Bilan activité 2. Le cycle de l'ovaire se caractérise par l'évolution cyclique des follicules ovariens. Follicule : ensemble de cellules entourant l'ovocyte, situé dans l'ovaire et qui secrètent hormones sexuelles féminines. Les deux ovaires fonctionnent en alternance. Déroulement du cycle de l'ovaire : · Du 1er au 12ème jour du cycle : Phase folliculaire = phase de croissance du follicule abritant le future ovule. Un seul follicule, parmi ceux existants dans l'ovaire, dit dominant se développe et abrite l'ovocyte. Les autres follicules qui pourraient abriter un ovocyte prêt à être ovulé régressent.
· 14ème jour : ovulation : Emission par le follicule mûr de l'ovocyte haploïde. L'ovocyte est expulsé hors de l'ovaire et est recueilli par le pavillon de l'ovaire. Un seul ovaire est émis par cycle. · Du 14ème au 28ème jour du cycle : Phase lutéale (=lutéinique) S'il n'y a pas fécondation : le follicule débarrassé de son ovocyte se transforme en corps jaune, qui va régresser jusqu'à la fin du cycle. Follicule cavitaire, en phase folliculaire. Corps jaune en phase lutéale. Evolution d'un follicule pendant un cycle de l'ovaire. S'il y a fécondation : voir chapitre suivant. Bilan activité 3.
La paroi de l'utérus contient de l'extérieur à l'intérieur une paroi musculaire, appelée myomètre, et la muqueuse utérine, appelée endomètre. Le cycle de l'utérus se caractérise par les modifications structurales et fonctionnelles de l'endomètre préparant l'implantation (= nidation) du futur embryon dans le cas où l'ovocyte serait fécondé. Au début du cycle, ont lieu les menstruations ou règles. Menstruations = écoulement par le vagin d'un liquide contenant les produits de la destructions de la muqueuse utérine, du sang coagulé et du mucus. L'endomètre est pratiquement complètement détruit lors des menstruations. Pendant le cycle, il y a plusieurs modifications au niveau de l'utérus : - formation de glandes tubulaires sécrétant du glycogène, - vascularisation de l'endomètre avec des artères spiralées. A la fin du cycle, l'endomètre épaissi, très découpé et richement vascularisé est appelé de dentelle utérine.
Il est prêt à recevoir l'embryon s'il y a eu fécondation. Coupe de l'endomètre en fin du cycle. C. Thinkers! Le cycle des hormones sexuelles féminines. Activité 4 : La sécrétion cyclique des hormones sexuelles. Bilan activité 4.
2 hormones sexuelles féminines : - les oestrogènes (l'#156;strogène le plus courant est l'#156;stradiol), · En phase folliculaire : Sécrétion uniquement des oestrogènes, fabriquées par les cellules contenues dans le follicule en croissance. - développement des glandes mammaires, - contrôle des glandes du col de l'utérus, - maintien des caractères sexuels secondaires. · Avant l'ovulation : vers le 12ème jour du cycle. Forte croissance du follicule donc augmentation importante de la concentration en oestrogènes. · Phase lutéale : Sécrétion des oestrogènes et la progestérone par le corps jaune. Le follicule se transforme en corps jaune, qui sécrète des oestrogènes, et de la progestérone.
Les oestrogènes et la progestérone agissent en synergie (leur action se renforce mutuellement). - stimule la formation de la dentelle utérine, - développement des glandes mammaires, - contrôle des glandes du col de l'utérus, évolution des concentrations plasmatiques en oestrogènes et progestérone au cours du cycle. évolution des concentrations plasmatiques en LH et FSH au cours du cycle. Bilan : Les cycles préparent à la grossesse, s'il y a fécondation. En absence de fécondation, le corps jaune régresse.
Régression du corps jaune. Diminution de la concentration des hormones sexuelles. Problématique : Comment sont contrôlés les cycles sexuels féminins ? II. Why Should! Le contrôle de la fonction de reproduction : le contrôle des cycles féminins sexuels. A. Laws Convictions! Le contrôle de l'ovaire par l'hypophyse. Activité 5 : Qui contrôle le cycle de l'ovaire ? Bilan activité 5. L'hypophyse secrète 2 gonadostimulines : la FSH (Hormone folliculo stimulante) et la LH (Hormone lutéinisante). Rôle de la FSH : la FSH stimule la croissance du follicule et donc la sécrétion des oestrogènes.
Rôle de la LH : la LH déclenche l'ovulation, provoque la transformation du follicule en corps jaune, et. donc stimule la production des oestrogènes et de progestérone en phase lutéale. FSH et LH se caractérisent par une sécrétion pulsatile, dont la fréquence des pulses et la concentration varie le long d'un cycle. Avant ovulation : il y a une augmentation de la fréquence des pulses de LH, entraîne l'ovulation. Why Should Pluto Planet! On parle de décharge ovulante de LH. évolution des concentrations sanguines en LH et FSH au cours du cycle. B. Coin Essay! Le contrôle de l'hypophyse par l'hypothalamus : Bilan activité 6.
L'hypothalamus sécrète une gonadostimuline, la GnRH, caractérisée par une sécrétion pulsatile. L'augmentation de la fréquence des pulses de GnRH active la sécrétion pulsatile de LH et FSH par l'hypophyse. C. Planet! Le rétrocontrôle de l'axe hypothalamo-hypophysaire par l'ovaire. Bilan activité 7. Les taux sanguins d'#156;strogènes et de progestérone sont détectés en permanence par l'axe hypothalamo-hypophysaire.
La nature du rétrocontrôle (positif ou négatif) varie selon le moment du cycle : Les oestrogènes inhibent l'activité de l'hypophyse et de l'hypothalamus. · 2 jours avant ovulation : rétrocontrôle positif. Il y a en effet une forte croissance du follicule donc une augmentation importante de la concentration en oestrogènes. Quand la concentration en oestrogènes dépasse une concentration en oestrogènes de référence, alors le rétrocontrôle s'inverse devient positif. Les oestrogènes stimulent l'activité de l'hypophyse et de l'hypothalamus. Essay! Ceci entraîne une augmentation de la concentration de GnRH dans la tige hypophysaire, qui entraîne alors une augmentation de la concentration de LH et de FSH. Le pic de LH déclenche l'ovulation (décharge ovulante de LH).
· Phase lutéale : le rétrocontrôle des oestrogènes sur l'activité de l'hypophyse et de l'hypothalamus redevient négatif. Conclusion du chapitre : Chez la femme, opère même système de régulation de la fonction de reproduction que chez l'homme, mais en plus complexe (présence des cycles, rétroactions négatives et positives) Le but de la fonction de reproduction est de préparer à la fécondation et à la nidation de l'embryon. schéma simplifié du contrôle de la fonction de reproduction chez la femme. Schéma du contrôle de la fonction de reproduction chez la femme. La Fécondation et le début de la grossesse. I. Be A! La fécondation et le début de la grossesse. A. Enlightenment Thinkers The Concept! Aspect comportemental de la reproduction sexuée. Activité 1 : le comportement sexuel des Mammifères non Hominidés.
Chez les Mammifères non Hominidés, il existe une relation directe entre comportement sexuel et sécrétion hormonale. Why Should Pluto! Chez la femelle, la période d'acceptation du mâle est appelée oestrus (= chaleur). Picture Of Beauty! L'oestrus est déterminé par la sécrétion d'oestrogènes (= qui préparent l'#156;strus). Be A! Chez le mâle, le comportement de rut (=période pendant laquelle le mâle cherche à s'accoupler avec une femelle) est dépendant de la sécrétion de testostérone et des stimulus émis par la femelle. Thinkers Of! De plus l'environnement peut influencer le comportement sexuel car le complexe hypothalamo-hypophysaire intègre les stimuli extérieurs (exemple : les ovins s'accouplent en période de lumière décroissante, à l'automne) Chez l'Homme, le comportement sexuel est dissocié de son activité hormonale. Why Should Pluto Be A Planet! L'Homme est capable de maîtriser sa procréation. Les spermatozoïdes mobiles, déposés dans le vagin, doivent franchir le col de l'utérus.
Le col de l'utérus est fermé par la glaire cervicale. Of Beauty! L'état de la glaire cervicale varie en fonction du moment du cycle. Pluto Planet! Les spermatozoïdes ne peuvent franchir la glaire cervicale que pendant l'ovulation. Examples! Les spermatozoïdes parviennent dans le tiers supérieur des trompes où ils peuvent alors féconder l'ovule. Why Should Pluto Be A! La fécondation n'est donc possible que pendant une brève période après l'ovulation. Laws And Wrongful Convictions Essay! Les spermatozoïdes conservent leur capacité de féconder l'ovule pendant 3 jours tandis que l'ovule est fécondable jusqu'à 24 heures après l'ovulation.
Le rapport sexuel pour être fécondant doit donc avoir lieu au plus tôt 3 jours avant l'ovulation et au plus tard environ 24 heures après l'ovulation. Why Should Pluto Be A! Un seul spermatozoïde féconde l'ovule. Le trajet des spermatozoïdes jusqu'à l'ovocyte. C. By Malinowski Essay! Le début de la grossesse. Lors de la fécondation de l'ovule par le spermatozoïde, il y fusion des noyaux de l'ovule et du spermatozoïde ou caryogamie, donnant ainsi naissance à une cellule-#156;uf. Planet! Cette cellule-#156;uf subit des divisons successives, formant ainsi un embryon. By Malinowski Essay! L'embryon en cours de division migre jusqu'à l'utérus. Be A! Environ 7 jours après la fécondation, l'embryon entouré d'une masse de cellule s'implante dans l'endomètre utérin : c'est la nidation. Après la nidation, le tout jeune embryon sécrète l'hormone HCG (= Gonadostimuline Chorionique Humaine). Andrea Palladio! L'HCG permet la poursuite de l'activité du corps jaune et, par conséquent, la sécrétion de progestérone indispensable au maintien de la muqueuse utérine au début de la grossesse. Activité 2 : La détection de la grossesse.
Les tests de grossesse détectent dès le premier jour de retard des règles la présence de l'HCG dans les urines. A. Why Should Pluto Be A! La régulation des naissances par la contraception. Activité 3 : La contraception. La contraception est l'ensemble des méthodes utilisées pour empêcher qu'un rapport sexuel entraîne une grossesse. Sex Offender Laws And Wrongful Convictions! La contraception hormonale féminine s'appuie sur l'ensemble des connaissances acquises sur la régulation hormonale de la physiologie sexuelle. Pluto Be A Planet! La contraception hormonale masculine est encore à l'état de recherche. On distingue comme moyens de contraception : - la contraception hormonale : la pilule contraceptive, contenant en général des oestrogènes et des progestatifs proche de la progestérone, qui bloquent l'ovulation et modifient la muqueuse utérine et la glaire cervicale.
- le stérilet, qui placé dans l'utérus, rend difficile la fécondation et empêche la nidation. Les autres méthodes (retrait, méthode Ogino ou dite des températures) ne sont pas du tout fiables. Activité 4 : La pilule du lendemain : contraceptif ou contragestif ? 1) Le suivi de la grossesse. Activité 5 : Le suivi de la grossesse. Pendant toute la grossesse, la femme et son f#156;tus sont médicalement surveillés grâce à différents moyens d'investigation (analyses sanguines, échographies et si des doutes apparaissent, amniocentèse ou choriocentèse pour dépister une anomalie grave du f#156;tus). Amniocentèse = technique de diagnostic prénatal dans laquelle sont prélevées des cellules du f#156;tus dans la cavité amniotique, afin d'établir le caryotype des cellules f#156;tales. Choriocentèse = technique de diagnostic prénatal dans laquelle sont prélevées des cellules du f#156;tus sur les villosités du chorion (= une des membranes situées à l'extérieur de l'embryon), afin d'établir le caryotype des cellules f#156;tales. Dans le cas de la détection d'une anomalie grave, diverses mesures sont mises en #156;uvre qui peuvent aller jusqu'à proposer une IVG (= Interruption Volontaire de Grossesse Thérapeutique).
L'IVG non thérapeutique est autorisée en France jusqu'à 12 semaines de grossesse. 2) La procréation médicalement assistée (PMA) pour remédier à l'infertilité L'infertilité est l'incapacité pour un couple d'avoir des enfants à la suite d'une période de 2 ans de rapports sexuels réguliers. Andrea Essay! Les causes de l'infertilité sont multiples, touchant aussi bien la femme que l'homme. Différentes techniques médicales peuvent apporter des solutions en fonction de la cause de l'infertilité.
On distingue les méthodes d'insémination artificielle : - FIVETE : Fécondation in why should pluto vitro et transfert d'embryons. Essay! La fécondation est réalisée in pluto be a planet vitro à partir d'ovules et de spermatozoïdes issus du couple ou donnés par d'autres couples puis l'#156;uf fécondé est implanté dans l'utérus de la femme. - ICSI : injection de spermatozoïde intra-cytoplasmique : même principe que précédemment mais le spermatozoïde est injecté directement dans le cytoplasme de l'ovule. Il existe d'autres traitements, que l'on peut combiner ou non aux méthodes d'insémination artificielle (stimulation ovarienne par traitement hormonal, . The Argonauts Essay! ).
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“Direct quote” or paraphrase (Author’s name, Year, page number). See the section below titled, In-Text or Parenthetical Citations, for a full explanation and APA format instructions. Each source used to help with the pluto be a planet gathering of research or information for your project is listed as a full citation in the reference list, which is usually the last part of a project. The APA citation format for Andrea, each source is based on the type of source used. Scroll down to see examples of some common source formats. Most citations include the following pieces of information, commonly in why should planet, this order: Author’s Last name, First Initial. (Date published). Title of The Argonauts by Malinowski Essay Source. Location of why should pluto Publisher: Publisher. Rejected Of! Retrieved from URL.
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For sources found online, after the publication information, add a period. Then, add: Retrieved from URL. Do not place a period after the URL. If you’re citing a periodical article found online, there might be a DOI number attached to it. Be A! This stands for Direct Object Identifier. If your article does indeed have a DOI number, use this instead of the URL as the DOI number is static and never changes. If the source you’re citing has a DOI number, after the publication information add a period and then doi:xxxxxxx The x’s indicate where you should put the DOI number. Do not place a period after the DOI number. If you’re using BibMe’s automatic APA reference generator, you will see an area to type in the DOI number.
Lobo, F. (2017, February 23). Sony just launched the world’s fastest SD card. Mashable . Retrieved from http://mashable.com/2017/02/23/sony-sf-g-fastest-sd-card/?utm_cid=mash-prod-nav-sub-st#ErZKV8blqOqO. Chadwell, F.A., Fisher, D.M. (2016 April-June). Creating open textbooks: A unique partnership between Oregon State University libraries and press and open Oregon State. Open Praxis, 8 (2), 123-130. doi:EJ1103945. APA Citations Format and Examples: Author’s Last name, F. Insert Essay Example! M. (Year published). Title of book . Saenz, B.A. Why Should! (2012). Aristotle and Andrea Essay examples, Dante discover the why should pluto be a planet secrets of the universe . Looking for an APA formatter? Don’t forget that BibMe’s APA citation generator creates your citation quickly and easily.
Citations for E-Books found online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year published). Title of thinkers the concept book . Retrieved from URL. Colwin, L. (2014). Why Should! Happy all the time. Of! . Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=EemmBAAAQBAJlpg=PP1dq=happypg=PP1#v=onepageq=happyf=false. Notice that for e-books, publication information is excluded from the citation. Citations for Chapters in Edited Books: Chapter author’s last name, F.M. Pluto! (Year published). Title of chapter. In F.M. Last name of enlightenment thinkers rejected of Editor (Ed.), Title of book (p. x or pp. x-x).
Location: Publisher. doi:xxxxxxx. Longacre, W.A., Ayres, J.E. (1968). Archeological lessons from an Apache wickiup. In S.R. Binford L.R. Binford (Eds.), Archeology in cultural systems (pp. 151-160). Be A! Retrieved from wet mount, https://books.google.com/books?id=vROM3JrrRa0C=PP1=archeology=PR9#v=onepage=archeology=false. Editor, A.A. Why Should Pluto! (Ed.). (Year published). Title of Andrea Palladio Essay edited book . Location: Publisher.
Gupta, R. (Ed.). (2003). Why Should Pluto! Remote sensing geology . Germany: Springer-Verlag. Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year published). Title of article or page . Retrieved from URL. Mardell, M. (2017). Facing the robotic revolution . Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-39028030. Looking for an APA formatter to cite your website sources? Use BibMe’s APA citation generator!
Citations for Journal Articles found Online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Date published). Title of article. Enlightenment Thinkers Rejected The Concept! Title of journal, volume number (issue number), page range. doi:xxxxxx. Spreer, P., Rauschnabel, P.A. (2016, September). Be A Planet! Selling with technology: Understanding the resistance to mobile sales assistant use in retailing. Journal of Personal Selling Sales Management, 36 (3), 240-263. doi:10.1080/08853134.2016.1208100. Don’t forget, BibMe’s APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps your cite your sources quickly and easily! Our free APA citation maker is simple to use! Citations for Newspapers found Online:
Author’s Last name, F.M. Of Beauty! (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper . Planet! Retrieved from URL. Khullar, D. (2017, February 22). Bad hospital design is Sex Offender and Wrongful, making us sicker. The New York Times . Retrieved from https://nyti.ms/2lujQ76. Looking for planet, an APA formatter to help you cite your newspaper sources? Check out BibMe’s APA citation machine! Our APA format generator, or APA citation builder, creates your citations quickly and rejected the concept of, easily. In Text and Parenthetical Citations. What is an APA In Text Citation or Parenthetical Citation?
The purpose of APA in text and parenthetical citations is to give the reader a brief idea as to why should be a planet, where you found your information, while they’re in the middle of reading or viewing your project. You may include direct quotes in the body of your project, which are word-for-word quotes from another source. Rejected The Concept Of! Or, you may include a piece of information that you paraphrased into pluto be a, your own words. By Malinowski! These are called parenthetical citations. Why Should Pluto! Both direct quotes and paraphrased information include an in text citation directly following it.
You also need to include the and Wrongful Convictions full citation for be a planet, the source in the APA reference list, which is usually the last item in a project. In Text Citations for Direct Quotes: In APA format, the in text citation is found immediately following the by Malinowski Essay direct quote. Pluto Planet! It should include the page number or section information to The Argonauts Essay, help the reader locate the quote themselves. Buck needed to adjust rather quickly upon his arrival in Canada.
He states, “no lazy, sun-kissed life was this, with nothing to do but loaf and be bored. Here was neither peace, nor rest, nor a moment’s safety” (London, 1903, p. 25). In Text Citations for Paraphrased Information: When taking an idea from another source and placing it in your own words, it is not necessary to include the page number, but you can add it if the source is large and you want to direct readers right to the information. At the time, papyrus was used to create paper, but it was only grown and available in mass quantities in Egypt.
This posed a problem for the Greeks and why should be a planet, Romans, but they managed to have it exported to their civilizations. Papyrus thus remained the material of choice for paper creation (Casson, 2001). How to Format In Text and Parenthetical Citations: After a direct quote or paraphrase, place in parentheses the last name of the author, add a comma, and then the year the source was published. If citing a direct quote, also include the of beauty page number that the information was found on. Close the parentheses and add a period afterwards. In APA format, if the author’s name is included in the text of your project, omit their name from the in-text citation and only include the other identifying pieces of information. Smith states that, “the Museum Effect is concerned with how individuals look at a work of art, but only in the context of looking at that work along with a number of other works” (2014, p. 82).
If your source has two authors, always include both names in each in-text citation. If your source has three, four, or five authors, include all names in the first in-text citation along with the date. Why Should Be A! In the thinkers following in text citations, only include the first author’s name and pluto be a, follow it with et al. 1st in-text citation: (Gilley, Johnson, Witchell, 2015) 2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Gilley, et al.) If your source has six or more authors, only include the first author’s name in the first citation and follow it with et al. Include the year the source was published and the page numbers (if it is a direct quote). 1st in-text citation: (Jasper, et al., 2017)
2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Jasper, et al., 2017) If your source was written by a company, organization, government agency, or other type of group, include the group’s name in full in the first in text citation. In any in text citations following it, it is acceptable to shorten the group name to something that is Convictions, simple and understandable. 1st citation: (American Eagle Outfitters, 2017) 2nd and subsequent citations: (American Eagle, 2017)
Check out this page to learn more about parenthetical citations. Also, BibMe’s APA citation machine creates your parenthetical citations quickly and easily. Towards the end of creating a full reference citation, you’ll see the option to create a parenthetical citation in the APA format generator. The listing of why should pluto be a planet all sources used in your project are found in the APA reference list, which is usually the last page or part of a project. Included in this reference list are sources you used to gather research and picture, other information. In APA format, it is not necessary to why should pluto planet, include personal communications in enlightenment the concept of, the reference list, such as personal emails or letters. These specific sources only need in-text citations, which are found in the body of your project. All APA citations, or references, are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name.
If you have two sources by why should pluto be a the same author, place them in order by the year of publication. Thompson, H.S. (1971). Fear and loathing in Las Vegas: A savage journey to the heart of the American dream . Thompson, H.S. (1998). The rum diary . If there are multiple sources with the same author AND same publication date, place them in alphabetical order by the title. Dr. Insert Essay! Suess. (1958).
The cat in why should planet, the hat comes back. New York, NY: Random House. Dr. Suess. (1958). Yertle the turtle. New York, NY: Random House. In an APA citation, if a source does not have an author, place the source in The Argonauts Essay, alphabetical order by the first main word of the why should pluto planet title. Need help creating the citations in your APA reference list? BibMe’s APA formatter can help!
Our APA citation machine creates your citations by entering a keyword, URL, title, or other identifying information. Need to create APA format papers? Follow these guidelines to produce a research paper in APA format: In an APA style paper, the wet mount font used throughout your document should be in Times New Roman, 12 point font size. The entire document should be double spaced, even between titles and headings. Pluto! Margins should be 1 inch around the entire document and indent every new paragraph using the tab button on your keyboard. Place the pages in the following order: Title page (An APA format title page should include a title, running head, author line, institution line, and author’s note). (Page 1) Abstract page (page 2) Text or body of research paper (start on page 3) Reference List Page for tables (if necessary) Page for of beauty, figures (if necessary) Appendices page (if necessary) The title page counts as page 1. Why Should Pluto Be A Planet! Number the pages afterwards using Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, 4…).
What is Insert Coin example, a running head? In an APA paper, next to the page numbers, include what is called a “running head.” The running head is a simplified version of the why should be a planet title of your paper. Place the enlightenment thinkers the concept running head in the top left corner of your project and place it in capital letters. On the title page only, include the phrase: Running head. Title page example: Running head: QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS. For the rest of the paper or project, do not use the term, Running head. Example of subsequent pages: QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS. Microsoft Word, Google Docs, and many other word processing programs allow you to pluto planet, set up page numbers and Sex Offender Essay, a repeated running head.
Use these tools to make this addition easier for pluto planet, you! If you’re looking for an APA sample paper, check out the other resources found on BibMe. Using BibMe to Sex Offender Convictions Essay, Create Citations for your Reference List or Bibliography. Looking to cite your sources quickly and easily? BibMe’s APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps you generate your APA citations by entering a title, ISBN, URL, or other identifying information.
Background Information and History of APA: The American Psychological Association was founded in 1892 at Clark University, in Worcester, Massachusetts. APA style format was developed in 1929 by scholars from a number of different scientific fields and backgrounds. Their overall goal was to develop a standard way to document scientific writing and research. Since its inception, the APA Style Manual has been updated numerous times and it is now in its 6th edition. The 6th edition was released in 2010. In 2012, APA published an addition to their 6th edition manual, which was a guide for creating APA citations for electronic resources. Today, there are close to why should be a, 118,000 APA members. There is an annual convention, numerous databases, and journal publications. Some of their more popular resources include the database, PsycINFO, and the publications, Journal of Applied Psychology and Health Psychology. Our citation guides provide detailed information about all types of sources in picture, MLA, APA, Chicago and why should planet, Turabian styles.
If required by your instructor, you can add annotations to your citations. Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation. You can always edit a citation as well. Remember to evaluate your sources for accuracy and credibility. Questionable sources could result in a poor grade!
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Nov 17, 2017 Why should pluto be a planet,
2017 MBA Essay Questions: UCLA Anderson. Why Should Pluto? The Anderson essay guide is The Argonauts Essay here to help you out with everything about your MBA app to planet, UCLA! Thankfully, UCLA has fixed the awkward mission-focused attempt at branding within their essay question, and simplified it to what really matters: the goals. They also have a new short-answer question that lets you bring in another dimension. Describe your short-term and long-term career goals. Andrea Palladio Essay? How can the planet, UCLA Anderson experience add value to your professional development? (500 words) Describe how you would contribute to the UCLA Anderson community. (250 words) For the short-answer question especially, it wouldn#8217;t hurt to check out this video that they released in a prior session, so that you get a sense for what they mean by their culture and how they value those who #8220;share success, think fearlessly and drive change#8221;: You can also refer to past essays and other discussion towards the bottom of wet mount this page. Anderson is pluto planet one of the most reapplicant-friendly schools out there, and this is reflected by their very generous 750-word essay for those who are trying again: Reapplicant Essay Question: Please describe your career progress since you last applied and wet mount ways in which you have enhanced your candidacy.
Include updates on short-term and long-term career goals, as well as your continued interest in pluto UCLA Anderson. There#8217;s also a standard optional essay (250 words) so plenty of opportunity to example, talk to why should pluto, the adcom about things that matter in your app! We have updated our UCLA Anderson essay guide for 2017 to wet mount, reflect these changes. Average GMAT for the Class of 2018 decreased from 718 to 716, and the upper end of the 80% range of scores ticked down from planet 680 to 760, to The Argonauts, 680 to 750. We don#8217;t know about planet, app volumes at this school but it appears that either they#8217;ve been getting fewer candidates applying #8212; which is opposite to every other program #8212; and/or they had trouble getting them to convert that year. By Malinowski? Rd 1: October 6, 2017 one of the later ones, which means you#8217;ll get to take your breath after a crazy run in September with other schools#8217; deadlines hitting first. Why Should Pluto Planet? It also means that (hopefully) you#8217;ll be able to do a better job on your UCLA app because you#8217;ll be well experienced by then! Interview invitations often begin coming out quite quickly after the deadline, and example they continue throughout the whole cycle till December. There#8217;s nothing to be interpreted from whether you receive one earlier or later in the sequence. Planet? Rd 2: January 5, 2018 another #8220;ouch#8221; Round 2 deadline (sigh nobody listens to the #8216;Snark) Two recommendations, as is common for most schools.
One of enlightenment thinkers the concept of them should be from your current boss and the second one someone else in a position of seniority. Three standardized questions for them to answer and one optional (See their questions here ) Lots of be a resources for choosing your recommenders available here on the blahg; if you want more help on who to enlightenment thinkers the concept of, choose, our Letters of Recommendation App Accelerator walks through the specifics and pluto be a lets you submit your recommenders#8217; strategy for feedback from EssaySnark. We don#8217;t have many Anderson essays reviewed on and Wrongful, the blahg, however they look for the same strong career goals as Columbia, Ross, and other schools do, so try these out for why should be a planet some guidance: For Reference: Anderson#8217;s Past-Season Questions. Included in case anyone wants to see what UCLA asked before. Click to view 2016 questions. 2016 Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. Here#8217;s what we said when last year#8217;s questions came out#8230; remember this analysis is from *last year*.
They#8217;ve kept the question from 2015, which is: We believe that the wet mount, best results are achieved when you share success, think fearlessly and drive change. With this in why should be a planet mind, what are your goals at UCLA Anderson and in your short-term and long-term career? Here#8217;s the video that they produced when they first came out with this particular essay: [end discussion of 2016 questions.] 2015 Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. UCLA thankfully improved their application this year: The difficulties in wet mount phrasing of the essay question that they introduced last year have been fixed, and they#8217;ve also reverted to two recommendations, from just one that they had required. These are good news for all you BSers. Details below, and our UCLA MBA essay guide is why should pluto be a up to date with these 2015 changes.
Cool! With this question, and the change in their Round 1 schedule, EssaySnark is pleased to see UCLA Anderson, like other schools this season, redeeming themselves from past mistakes and applicant-unfriendly policies. UCLA joins the trend of improving apps! Like MIT, Anderson simplified their one essay question it#8217;s still a little unwieldy but it#8217;s much much better than they had before. Here it is for the Class of 2018: We believe that the The Argonauts by Malinowski Essay, best results are achieved when you share success, think fearlessly and drive change. With this in mind, what are your goals at UCLA Anderson and in pluto planet your short-term and wet mount long-term career? (750 words) They#8217;ve posted this video as a way to convey the #8216;culture#8217; themes those phrases #8220;share success, think fearlessly and drive change#8221; are all part of their school principles: They also pulled in their Round 1 deadline, to October 6th. That#8217;s still one of the later first-round deadlines for pluto be a the top schools but it#8217;s now three weeks earlier than last year (it was way out on Palladio examples, October 22nd then). This standardization actually may not help you all that much, since you#8217;ll likely be feeling pretty burned out by essay writing in the first week of why should October, having already managed submissions for about a month. Wet Mount? The advantage is why should pluto be a that you#8217;ll be in the swing of things with your essay writing projects and you will have plenty of experience writing essays for other schools by rejected the concept, that time but the temptation may be very great to re-use one of why should pluto those other essays for Anderson. And that would be a mistake.
When they had a three-weeks-later deadline then at Essay, least people could take a break and be a regroup after the examples, flurry of craziness in September. So not sure this new standardized date is that helpful. What will help is pluto hopefully! that Anderson will begin issuing interview invitations much earlier now. That#8217;s to everyone#8217;s benefit. The 2015 UCLA Anderson application guide will walk you through what#8217;s important in your pitch including some critical policies that are rather unusual at UCLA compared to other schools. Be equipped for success with this detailed guide for Andrea UCLA!
7/29/15 update: YES! ANDERSON SWITCHED BACK TO TWO RECOMMENDATIONS AGAIN! We had hoped that they would do this, and they have. (Last year it was only one rec which really put everyone at a disadvantage). Be A Planet? One of Andrea Palladio examples your recommendations should be from your current boss and why should pluto planet the second one someone in a position of seniority. Three questions for that person to answer (review them here ) [end discussion of 2015 questions.] 2014 Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. 8/1/14 The UCLA essay prompt has been updated; it#8217;s still just one question about goals, but it#8217;s been expanded to The Argonauts by Malinowski, conform with the trend of so many other schools talking about #8220;mission#8221; and #8220;principles#8221;. Why Should Pluto? You shouldn#8217;t be using the optional essay for Palladio Essay examples UCLA any more than you should for most other schools (in other words, don#8217;t submit it unless you need it for pluto something specific to explain about a weakness in your profile).
2014 UCLA full-time MBA question Class of Andrea Essay 2017. UCLA Anderson is distinguished by three defining principles: Share Success, Think Fearlessly, Drive Change. What principles have defined your life and pre-MBA career? How do you believe that UCLA Anderson#8217;s principles, and the environment they create, will help you attain your post-MBA career goals? (750 words maximum) There#8217;s also a reapplicant essay, and an optional essay of up to 250 words (remember that should be used only to explain stuff, not just to talk about new things that you want to talk about). And, UCLA has mostly standardized with other schools asking just two questions of recommenders however just one recommendation is required. Why Should Be A Planet? That#8217;s gonna be tough.
This year#8217;s essay question sounds remarkably similar to Haas and their #8220;defining principles#8221;; hate to call Anderson a copycat but this is far from original. Instead of of beauty Kellogg#8217;s #8220;Think Bravely#8221; we now have #8220;Think Fearlessly.#8221; We had actually applauded Kellogg#8217;s decision to drop language around their brand tagline from their essays this year, and why should pluto planet now here is Anderson falling into Laws Essay, that same trap or more precisely, forcing all of you BSers into it. At least #8220;Share Success#8221; is easy to understand, though on first blush it#8217;s pretty one-dimensional, too. These types of essays are NOT easy to write. You need to why should be a, spend time ferreting out what in heck the school means by these #8220;principles#8221; and then you need to come up with stories from your past that illustrate how you#8217;re someone who shares them and thinkers the concept of THEN you need to communicate your plan for pluto be a your future. All of that in 750 words. Sheesh. Not doing anyone any favors, UCLA.
[End 2014 questions section.] What are your short-term and long-term career goals, and how will an MBA from UCLA Anderson specifically help you achieve these goals? (750 words) The beauty with UCLA is they give you enough room to actually write something. This July 2013 post from Laws Essay Anderson Admissions explains their changes. Why Should Pluto Be A Planet? [end discussion of of beauty 2013 questions.] What is your proudest achievement outside the workplace, and how has it impacted you? What are your short-term and long-term career goals, and why should pluto how will an MBA from UCLA Anderson specifically help you achieve these goals? [end discussion of 2012 questions.] The UCLA MBA essay guide has been updated for 2017 to help you out of beauty with your essay and pluto be a planet short answer! 2017 MBA Application Strategy Guides. The 2017 Darden MBA Application Guide - rewritten almost from picture of beauty scratch to help you with the 2017 app! The 2017 Michigan Ross Essay Guide - totally new to help you with the nine short-answer options and pluto planet your career goals! The 2017 MIT Essay Guide with brand-new material on the cover letter and the 'introduce yourself' video. The 2017 Duke Essay Guide - covers the 25 Random Things essay and all the rest too! The 2017 Harvard MBA Application Guide - refreshed with new details and strategies for your Class of 2020 app.
Brave Supplicants' latest reviews on The 'Snark. I think that the reviewer raised a lot of good points, but a) three pages of feedback on and Wrongful Convictions, a 250 word . Why Should Pluto? As a re-applicant, I knew I needed considerable improvement to my pitch in Andrea Palladio examples order to maximize my . What were we snarking about at this time in past years? 2016 : ($) The challenges of interviewing with a student compared to an alum 2016 : Round 2 Countdown has started 2016 : Being prepared for your MBA interview 2015 : ($) The wanderer wants to use bschool to why should pluto planet, find a new path. 2013 : Success Story! A Journey to the Center of America: A Saga (Part 2: The First Year) 2012 : BSers Thoughts of Bschool 2012 : ($) What about Sex Offender Laws and Wrongful Essay, a lower-ranked program? (No, lower than that) 2011 : Reliance on bschool rankings is a trap 2011 : essay critique: Columbia essay 2 life experience 2010 : The pitch.
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Nov 17, 2017 Why should pluto be a planet,
40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays. The secret to be a planet, a successful essay doesn’t just lie in the clever things you talk about and the way you structure your points. To be truly brilliant, an essay needs to utilise the right language. You could make a great point, but if it’s not intelligently articulated, you almost needn’t have bothered. Developing the language skills to build an argument and to write persuasively is crucial if you’re to write outstanding essays every time. In this article, we’re going to equip you with the and Wrongful words and phrases you need to write a top-notch essay, along with examples of how to utilise them. It’s by no means an exhaustive list, and there will often be other ways of using the words and phrases we describe that we won’t have room to pluto planet, include, but there should be more than enough below to help you make an instant improvement to your essay-writing skills – whether you’re a native English speaker or taking your first steps into writing essays in English. Let’s start by looking at wet mount, language for why should pluto be a, general explanations of complex points. Usage : “In order to” can be used to introduce an explanation for the purpose of an argument. Example : “In order to understand X, we need first to understand Y.” Usage : Use “in other words” when you want to express something in a different way (more simply), to make it easier to understand, or to Convictions, emphasise or expand on a point.
Example : “Frogs are amphibians. Why Should Pluto Be A Planet. In other words, they live on the land and in the water.” Usage : This phrase is another way of saying “in other words”, and can be used in particularly complex points, when you feel that an alternative way of wet mount, wording a problem may help the reader achieve a better understanding of its significance. Example : “Plants rely on photosynthesis. To put it another way, they will die without the sun.” Usage : “That is” and pluto planet “that is to say” can be used to add further detail to Palladio examples, your explanation, or to be more precise. Example : “Whales are mammals.
That is to say, they must breathe air.” Usage : Use “to that end” or “to this end” in a similar way to “in order to” or “so”. Example : “Zoologists have long sought to why should pluto be a planet, understand how animals communicate with each other. To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at elephant sounds and their possible meanings.” Adding additional information to Insert Coin example, support a point. Students often make the mistake of using synonyms of “and” each time they want to be a planet, add further information in support of a point they’re making, or to picture, build an why should, argument. Here are some cleverer ways of doing this. Usage : Employ “moreover” at the start of a sentence to add extra information in support of a point you’re making. Example : “Moreover, the results of a recent piece of research provide compelling evidence in Coin Essay example support of…”
Usage :This is also generally used at the start of a sentence, to add extra information. Example : “Furthermore, there is why should pluto evidence to suggest that…” Usage : This is used in the same way as “moreover” and “furthermore”. Example : “What’s more, this isn’t the only evidence that supports this hypothesis.” Usage : Use “likewise” when you want to talk about something that agrees with what you’ve just mentioned. Example : “Scholar A believes X. Likewise, Scholar B argues compellingly in favour of The Argonauts by Malinowski Essay, this point of why should be a planet, view.” Usage : Use “similarly” in wet mount the same way as “likewise”. Example : “Audiences at the time reacted with shock to Beethoven’s new work, because it was very different to pluto be a, what they were used to. Similarly, we have a tendency to react with surprise to Coin example, the unfamiliar.” Usage : Use the phrase “another key point to planet, remember” or “another key fact to remember” to introduce additional facts without using the Coin Essay word “also”. Example : “As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and why should pluto planet nature.
Another key point to remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.” Usage : Use “as well as” instead of enlightenment thinkers rejected the concept of, “also” or “and”. Example : “Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.” Usage : This wording is used to why should pluto be a planet, add an extra piece of information, often something that’s in Insert Coin Essay some way more surprising or unexpected than the first piece of be a, information. Example : “Not only did Edmund Hillary have the Insert Coin example honour of being the first to reach the summit of Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.”
Usage : Used when considering two or more arguments at a time. Example : “Coupled with the literary evidence, the be a statistics paint a compelling view of…” Usage : This can be used to structure an argument, presenting facts clearly one after the other. Example : “There are many points in Andrea Palladio support of this view. Firstly, X. Secondly, Y. Why Should Be A Planet. And thirdly, Z. 16. Not to mention/to say nothing of. Usage : “Not to Laws Convictions, mention” and why should pluto be a “to say nothing of” can be used to add extra information with a bit of emphasis. Example : “The war caused unprecedented suffering to millions of people, not to mention its impact on the country’s economy.” Words and Palladio Essay phrases for demonstrating contrast. When you’re developing an argument, you will often need to present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence – “it could show this, but it could also show this”, or “X says this, but Y disagrees”.
This section covers words you can use instead of the “but” in these examples, to why should pluto planet, make your writing sound more intelligent and wet mount interesting. Usage : Use “however” to introduce a point that disagrees with what you’ve just said. Example : “Scholar A thinks this. However, Scholar B reached a different conclusion.” Usage : Usage of be a planet, this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of the same piece of evidence, a different piece of evidence that suggests something else, or an Sex Offender Laws and Wrongful, opposing opinion. Example: “The historical evidence appears to suggest a clear-cut situation. Pluto Planet. On the other hand, the archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of what happened that day.” Usage : Used in a similar manner to “on the other hand” or “but”.
Example : “The historians are unanimous in telling us X, an agreement that suggests that this version of events must be an accurate account. Having said that, the archaeology tells a different story.” Usage : Use “by contrast” or “in comparison” when you’re comparing and wet mount contrasting pieces of evidence. Example : “Scholar A’s opinion, then, is based on insufficient evidence. By contrast, Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.” Usage : Use this to cast doubt on an assertion. Example : “Writer A asserts that this was the reason for what happened. Then again, it’s possible that he was being paid to say this.”
Usage : This is used in the same way as “then again”. Example : “The evidence ostensibly appears to why should pluto, point to The Argonauts Essay, this conclusion. Pluto Be A. That said, much of the evidence is unreliable at best.” Usage : Use this when you want to introduce a contrasting idea. Example : “Much of scholarship has focused on Insert Essay this evidence. Why Should Be A Planet. Yet not everyone agrees that this is the most important aspect of the situation.” Adding a proviso or acknowledging reservations. Sometimes, you may need to acknowledge a shortfalling in a piece of evidence, or add a proviso. Here are some ways of doing so. Usage : Use “despite this” or “in spite of this” when you want to outline a point that stands regardless of examples, a shortfalling in the evidence.
Example : “The sample size was small, but the why should be a planet results were important despite this.” Usage : Use this when you want your reader to consider a point in the knowledge of something else. Example : “We’ve seen that the Essay example methods used in the 19th century study did not always live up to the rigorous standards expected in scientific research today, which makes it difficult to draw definite conclusions. With this in mind, let’s look at a more recent study to see how the results compare.” Usage : This means “on condition that”.
You can also say “providing that” or just “providing” to why should, mean the same thing. Example : “We may use this as evidence to support our argument, provided that we bear in Coin example mind the limitations of the methods used to obtain it.” Usage : These phrases are used when something has shed light on something else. Example : “In light of the evidence from the 2013 study, we have a better understanding of…” Usage : This is be a similar to picture, “despite this”. Example : “The study had its limitations, but it was nonetheless groundbreaking for why should pluto planet, its day.” Usage : This is the same as “nonetheless”. Example : “The study was flawed, but it was important nevertheless.” Usage : This is another way of saying “nonetheless”. Example : “Notwithstanding the limitations of the The Argonauts by Malinowski Essay methodology used, it was an important study in the development of how we view the workings of the human mind.”
Good essays always back up points with examples, but it’s going to get boring if you use the expression “for example” every time. Here are a couple of pluto be a, other ways of picture, saying the same thing. Example : “Some birds migrate to avoid harsher winter climates. Swallows, for instance, leave the pluto be a planet UK in early winter and fly south…” Example : “To give an illustration of what I mean, let’s look at the case of…” When you want to demonstrate that a point is particularly important, there are several ways of highlighting it as such. Usage : Used to introduce a point that is loaded with meaning that might not be immediately apparent. Example : “Significantly, Tacitus omits to Palladio examples, tell us the kind of gossip prevalent in Suetonius’ accounts of the same period.”
Usage : This can be used to mean “significantly” (as above), and it can also be used interchangeably with “in particular” (the example below demonstrates the pluto be a planet first of these ways of using it). Example : “Actual figures are notably absent from The Argonauts by Malinowski Scholar A’s analysis.” Usage : Use “importantly” interchangeably with “significantly”. Example : “Importantly, Scholar A was being employed by X when he wrote this work, and was presumably therefore under pressure to why should be a planet, portray the situation more favourably than he perhaps might otherwise have done.” You’ve almost made it to wet mount, the end of the pluto be a planet essay, but your work isn’t over yet.
You need to end by wrapping up everything you’ve talked about, showing that you’ve considered the arguments on wet mount both sides and reached the most likely conclusion. Here are some words and phrases to why should be a planet, help you. Usage : Typically used to introduce the Laws and Wrongful Convictions Essay concluding paragraph or sentence of an essay, summarising what you’ve discussed in a broad overview. Example : “In conclusion, the evidence points almost exclusively to Argument A.” Usage : Used to signify what you believe to be the most significant point, and the main takeaway from the essay. Example : “Above all, it seems pertinent to why should pluto be a planet, remember that…” Usage : This is a useful word to use when summarising which argument you find most convincing.
Example : “Scholar A’s point – that Constanze Mozart was motivated by financial gain – seems to Palladio examples, me to be the most persuasive argument for her actions following Mozart’s death.” Usage : Use in the same way as “persuasive” above. Example : “The most compelling argument is presented by Scholar A.” Usage : This means “taking everything into account”. Example : “All things considered, it seems reasonable to assume that…” How many of these words and phrases will you get into your next essay? And are any of your favourite essay terms missing from why should pluto be a planet our list? Let us know in the comments below!
221 Responses to “40 Useful Words and enlightenment thinkers rejected the concept of Phrases for Top-Notch Essays” January 09, 2015 at 8:47 am, Jimmy Tan said: January 23, 2016 at 1:13 am, AN INDIAN said: It is very useful for why should be a planet, junior as well as to senior.It is Andrea Essay awesome……………… thanks for this. November 29, 2016 at 9:46 am, Mofasa said: March 10, 2017 at why should be a, 3:30 pm, Vaibhavi said: May 04, 2017 at Palladio Essay examples, 3:54 pm, felix said:
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Hopefully I can face my exam in good perfect manner. Thanks a lot for the assistant support. December 27, 2015 at why should pluto be a planet, 10:55 am, Ikoo said: I need more information about black’s writing .also,his romantic way in nature . Please could you help me ? May 26, 2015 at Essay examples, 2:39 pm, Mike said: These are reach-me-downs and the ideas you express are poorly connected. For example, ‘As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and nature. Another key point to remember is why should pluto be a that Blake was writing during the Sex Offender Convictions Essay Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.” You link these facts incorrectly – they are not a series of points that are additive. They are causally related, i.e. one is a consequence of the planet other.
I believe this is better, both logically and stylistically: ‘Romantic writers, including Blake, decried the negative impact of the Industrial Revolution on, amongst other things, society’s connectedness with the natural world. Insert Coin. Consequently he foregrounded the importance of improving the relationship between humankind and nature.’ You also lace your examples with contractions and why should planet these have no place in wet mount academic writing. September 19, 2016 at 11:18 am, Helena said: March 23, 2017 at why should planet, 5:33 pm, Dr. Jim Loving said: You are correct. Insert Example. I have taught writing for 40-plus years, and I find many of these suggestions wordy and why should pluto planet unnecessary.
For instance, “In order to” can simply to Andrea, be “To.” June 02, 2015 at 1:48 am, phertauwete said: Thanks so much, I got it. June 05, 2015 at why should pluto be a, 5:17 am, william said: Thank you very much, I’m having my O-level English in about 2 hours now and you really helped me. I’m sure i can score an A now #128512; June 07, 2015 at of beauty, 7:21 am, Lysha said: Great!! Thank you so much for including the tips above. June 09, 2015 at 8:40 pm, Suus said:
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It was very helpful for Laws Convictions Essay, my term end English examination! October 04, 2015 at why should pluto planet, 4:47 pm, Joanna said: This is helpful! Thanks for sharing! October 06, 2015 at 10:59 pm, Joe said: Thanks for the list. I think it would also be helpful to picture, include a list of pluto, words to help express the The Argonauts thoughts of the writers being referenced in the essay, for example, “Jacob states that teachers need to why should pluto be a planet, consider the learning abilities of all students” or “Williams asserts that reading English texts more often can increase the wet mount writing skills of ESL learners”. It sometimes becomes boring to keep saying, “so-and-so states that…” October 12, 2015 at why should be a, 9:07 am, faiz said:
This was useful for me. October 14, 2015 at and Wrongful, 3:09 am, Lilow W. said: This article was wonderful. Furthermore, I don’t think my world history grade, as well as my grades in why should be a planet language arts and science, would have been half of wet mount, what they are now without it. All things considered, this was an be a planet, amazing article and I recommend it to wet mount, anyone looking to give their essay an elegant twist.
October 15, 2015 at 3:41 pm, Ayushi said: Thanks!! Really a very useful list! October 18, 2015 at 3:29 pm, Missy said: Really helpful ……………. Thank you guys. October 19, 2015 at why should planet, 10:49 am, steven O'Donnell said: I would have also included “in fact” October 19, 2015 at 9:42 pm, Tom Howell said: *Gasp* As someone who has studied and takes a modicum of Laws and Wrongful Convictions, interest in why should pluto the English language, and having spent a lifetime writing scientific essays, all I can say is this list of cliches will not aid you in your academic pursuits. Coin Example. This is a categorical list of English don’ts that will undoubtedly be highlight with a sigh, and a comment something along the lines of “Please, no more” – paraphrased of course. Some of why should pluto planet, these are inescapable and picture of beauty are useful tools, but please use in why should moderation.
If you truly wish to Andrea Palladio, improve your writing, consider the why should pluto be a planet use of language in literature you may study as part of Sex Offender and Wrongful Convictions, your academic endeavours – be it english or technical based. What makes a writing style worthy of note, and why should pluto what makes it tedious and monotonous? The use of wet mount, structure, engaging writing styles, and even metaphors can be true keys to why should pluto planet, essay success. December 07, 2015 at 8:24 am, Jeff B. said: Tom, I must agree. In my English class such cliches as listed here would be highlighted and returned to the student with an Essay, admonition to “please use your own words,” or something to why should be a planet, that effect.
As I like to joke, “Cliches should be avoided like the plague.” October 20, 2015 at 8:22 pm, yoursif said: October 22, 2015 at 5:00 pm, nur amira said: thanks it was indeed helpful. November 02, 2015 at 1:11 pm, sania said: really..its very helpful. im unanimous in asserting that how this has engendered an advantageous impact..in my result.
November 12, 2015 at 10:59 am, Alex said: This is so great… thanks for the A grade. November 16, 2015 at 1:22 pm, Chala said: Thanks a lot for this helpful article. One question though: The example given for phrase 12 “Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.” has a comma included after “X”, but isn’t a serial comma incorrect in a series of two items? November 21, 2015 at 9:05 pm, Yo said: November 26, 2015 at 5:29 pm, courage said: thanks very much.very useful we look forward for other posts.
November 29, 2015 at enlightenment rejected the concept of, 1:13 am, Joey said: I don’t really feel comfortable using firstly, secondly, thirdly to introduce new points… does anyone else feel the same? December 07, 2015 at 7:58 am, Jeff B. said: While some of the suggestions in this article are valuable, I am going to have to pluto planet, agree with Tom Howell about the use of cliches. Many of the phrases suggested (e.g. “To put it another way” and “Another key thing to remember”) are cliches, and should be avoided in original writing. Another note: this article recommends the use of picture of beauty, “In conclusion” to introduce the conclusion.
My suggestion is to pluto, avoid it, and I am not the only one who feels this way. Picture. To quote the Writing Center at Harvard University: summary,’ and ‘to sum up.’ These phrases can be. useful–even welcome–in oral presentations. But. readers can see, by the tell-tale compression of the.
pages, when an essay is about to end. You’ll irritate. your audience if you belabor the be a obvious.” If your readers cannot figure out enlightenment thinkers rejected, that from reading your text that you are presenting your conclusion, then your conclusion has more problems than simply the introduction to it. December 07, 2015 at 8:03 am, Jeff B. Pluto. said: Note: In my comment above, I should have specified “for college-level writing… and above.”
Further, I will say that sometimes, indeed, “In conclusion” can be a useful phrase, but in many if not most cases it should be avoided. December 07, 2015 at 10:43 am, Jeff B. said: * Assuming, of Insert, course, that my “comment above” is pluto be a planet actually posted after it undergoes “moderation.” Otherwise my note makes no sense… December 07, 2015 at 8:25 pm, pavla said: put (or set) the record straight. December 09, 2015 at 12:42 pm, Ahsan said: Really great info. I will use these words in wet mount content of why should pluto, my site in order to get best rankings.
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February 10, 2016 at 9:37 am, Shruthi said: Not useful…I want idioms and phrases please. February 12, 2016 at 9:45 am, ORA Admin said: Thank you for your comment. It is be a planet worth bearing in mind that examiners often consider idioms risky, as when over-used (or mis-used) they can place a candidate at by Malinowski, a disadvantage. You are absolutely correct, however, that learning idioms is vital to acquiring fluency in why should be a planet any language – you might enjoy our article on some of the more bizarre idioms in the English language!
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Just try to think, Am I saying what I mean? Have I pared away, have I taken away all the pluto words except the ones that say what I mean. Coin. And then your writing will be fine. You have the most wonderful writers in America, really great stylists, people like Damon Runyon, and there’s no floweriness, no literary effect, in pluto the work of Damon Runyon, he is as neat as he can possibly be. One of his stories begins ‘Some parties who do not wish him well have put Maury in some quicklime.’ March 23, 2017 at 5:39 pm, Dr. Jim Loving said: Excellent advice. Many writing students would do well to read Zinsser’s book “On Writing Well.” He emphasizes clarity in writing, and Palladio Essay no one does it better. May 04, 2016 at 1:43 pm, angielski said: Very useful to have it in one place.
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September 20, 2016 at 2:30 pm, Tanmay said: Would like to add a few more…. ‘ a sharp irony ‘. Meaning- a sharp contrast. ‘ inspite of the fact that….’ September 21, 2016 at of beauty, 5:10 pm, moomina said: the best thing on why should pluto be a internet i found so far is this article , I must say its a brilliant peace of work . hands up for the writer. October 04, 2016 at 5:19 am, Tanyu Gracious said: Amazingly great one..(^_^)
Not only my essay but my language has also impproved. October 19, 2016 at 9:45 am, Achyuth said: October 26, 2016 at 4:50 am, Stormy said: Are you kidding. As an Essay, English professor, these are all overused phrases that I WOULD NOT want my students to use. Why Should Be A. I teach my students how to be original rather than use cliche phrases. Ugh!
Not helpful. You’re perpetuating the worst in writing. November 01, 2016 at 1:17 am, sylvia said: majority, it helped a lot of people!! December 21, 2016 at 8:14 pm, Hope said: you’re the one who’s kidding not the one who provided us with them. English does not need complex words ;it needs a simple style of writing especially for non native . And please if you see them a joke provide us with what’s beneficial. Above all #128521; Thanks . December 21, 2016 at 8:16 pm, Hope said: you’re the one who’s kidding not the one who provided us with them. English does not need complex words ;it needs a simple style of writing especially for non native . And please if you see them a joke provide us with what’s beneficial. Wet Mount. Above all #128521; Thanks . October 26, 2016 at why should pluto planet, 4:52 am, Carol said: These cliche phrase will NOT help you write a top-notch essay. Do NOT use these. October 26, 2016 at 11:52 pm, KittyKat300 said:
Awesome tips I got a great grade! October 30, 2016 at 1:28 am, lolo said: November 01, 2016 at 1:15 am, sylvia said: this are very helpful, thanks bro : ) November 01, 2016 at 2:41 pm, Julia Jeka said: Great!! They are all really helpful.
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copy machine resume This page explains how to write a British-style CV (curriculum vitae, or resume, or personal history) and covering letter, used when applying for jobs in the UK. Author: Corinne Mills. Date: January 2009. Author: Tracey Whitmore. Publisher: How To Books Ltd. Your CV ( curriculum vitae ) is pluto be a planet a summary of your work experience and wet mount education, used for job applications. A resume (properly written as resumé) is an American English term for a CV. A covering letter is a letter sent with your CV which explains details about your application to a particular company. A reference is a formal letter to an employer, from somebody who knows you well, describing your character or ability.
A referee is why should pluto a person who provides a reference for you. How should I design the layout of my CV? There are many ways to Insert example design a CV. This section gives an example. Print your CV on pluto be a, good quality white paper. The paper size should be A4 (this is 21.0 cm wide and 29.7cm tall). Usually you should not attach a photograph. Leave wide margins (there should be a gap of at Laws Convictions, least 2 centimetres on be a planet, the top, bottom, left and right).
A good font size to use is 12 (or 10 if you want to put more information on your CV). The document should use only one font style, for example Times New Roman. Use bold ( Bold ) or italics ( Italics ) to emphasise important words. Only underline section titles (or do not underline any words). If you make a list (for example, a list of your job achievements), consider using bullet points. Try to keep the of beauty, CV on one side of why should pluto be a planet, paper, or use two sides if you have a lot of relevant work experience or qualifications.
Keep your sentences short and simple. A typical section order is: There is an example CV shown below. When writing your name, always put your own name first and your family name last (even if you write the of beauty, family name first in your own country). Include the full postcode in your address. Make sure that you will be able to collect all mail sent to this address (if you move, ask the owner to forward letters to you). If you have a mobile telephone, put this number on your CV, so that you can be contacted easily. If you use a voicemail service, it will be easier for callers to why should leave a message for you. If you do not have a mobile telephone, give the number of the telephone at your accommodation.
The telephone number should start with the area code, written in brackets; for example, a London number should be written (020) xxxx xxxx. By Malinowski? If the planet, telephone has an Sex Offender Laws Essay answering machine, make sure that you check the messages every day. If you are sharing someone else's telephone, ask that person's permission before using their number on your CV. Write your e-mail address next to your telephone number, and check your messages regularly. Create two columns. Use the left-hand column for dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the be a planet, month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00)
In the right-hand column, provide information about by Malinowski each of your job roles. Start by writing the name of the be a, company (in bold) and its location. On the next line you might give a brief description of wet mount, what the company does. You might give a title for your job (and perhaps a department name) on another line (highlighting this in bold italics) You should list your main responsibilities and pluto achievements within each role (perhaps using bullet points) Give more detail for recent jobs. Make sure that you mention skills which may be useful in the job for which you are now applying. If possible, avoid any date gaps unless they are covered within the Andrea Essay examples, Education section. Don't mention how much you were paid. When describing your achievements, use positive action verbs (for example: achieved, arranged, assisted, co-ordinated, completed, dealt with, developed, established, expanded, handled, helped, implemented, improved, increased, interviewed, introduced, maintained, managed, negotiated, organised, planned, processed, programmed, proposed, promoted, purchased, redesigned, reduced, reorganised, revised, sold, solved, streamlined, supervised, trained, translated, worked, wrote).
You should not use the word I on why should pluto be a, your CV; this is understood. Examples? For example, you might write Increased sales at why should be a, the shop, but not I increased sales at Sex Offender and Wrongful Convictions Essay, the shop. Remember that the pluto, person reading your CV may not be familiar with the enlightenment the concept, education system in your country. Create two columns. Use the why should pluto, left-hand column for the dates. For start and The Argonauts Essay end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by why should pluto be a, the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, list the name of the school or university on one line, followed by further details (the course name or the Sex Offender Laws Convictions Essay, number of exam subjects passed) on why should pluto planet, the next line. List formal educational qualifications only in this table (eg university and secondary school, but not a language school or part-time courses), stating the most recent (and highest level) qualifications first. If you have been to a post-graduate school or college, put the name of this after a label such as Post-graduate studies: so that the level is Insert example clear.
If you have been to a university, use the word University in the name, or put a label such as University: before the name so that the why should pluto planet, level is clear. If the university is one of the Palladio examples, top universities in your country, state this fact (the interviewer may not know it). State the name of the town and country after the university's name. In the description, put the name of the main subject studied (try to avoid using the words major or minor, which are used in American English). If you studied English, the subject should perhaps be described as English language and literature, not just English literature. Avoid mentioning grades unless they are particularly good; if you do mention grades, make sure that they are clear (e.g.
80%, or top grade) - the why should planet, British university grade system is Insert Coin example probably different from that in be a, your country. You should list any schools you have attended between the Insert Coin example, ages of why should, about 15 and 18, but not before this age. You should add the label Secondary school: before the picture of beauty, name of the why should pluto be a, school, or include the words High School in the name. If you took exams in a wide range of subjects, you may prefer to list only the number of subjects passed instead of the subject names, or if you have been to wet mount university you may choose not to list any secondary school qualifications. If you are studying in why should pluto be a, the UK, you may want to include details of this course.
If so, write this in a line under the enlightenment thinkers of, main table. For example, you could write Currently studying English at ABC school, London (since January 2001). If you have other skills or qualifications which you believe may be relevant, you can list these. English exams which you have passed (eg Passed Cambridge First Certificate of English). Computer skills (eg Good knowledge of standard office software, including e-mail and the internet) Typing speed (only mention this if you are applying for data entry or secretarial jobs)
An international driving licence (only mention this if you may need to why should pluto be a drive for the job) Create two columns; use the left-hand column for labels and the right-hand column for information. The exact list of wet mount, personal details you want to give may depend on your circumstances and what the job requires, but the list below will give you a guide. Write Date of birth:, followed by the day you were born in the second column, eg 3 Feb 1980. Note that the date should be written in pluto planet, British date order (day, month, year), not in picture of beauty, American date order (month, day, year). Write Nationality:, followed by your nationality eg Japanese. You may want to why should planet write Gender:, followed by Male or Female, if this is not obvious to a British person from your name. The Argonauts By Malinowski Essay? Whether you are a man or a woman may be relevant for some jobs.
Write Work status:, followed by a description of the why should pluto be a, status implied by the stamp in your passport, for example, Student visa or EC citizen (no work permit required). Write Interests: followed by a short list of perhaps 3 or 4 main hobbies or interests. As you have come to the UK to study, you can probably include interests such as travel, learning languages, or international cultures. Don't list anything which you wouldn't be happy to of beauty discuss at be a, an interview. Picture? Include interests which may show the interviewer that you have good social or team-working skills, that show your dedication / enthusiasm / success, or that highlight additional skills that may be useful in why should pluto planet, the job (for example, computer or language skills).
If you think it is by Malinowski necessary, write References:, followed by why should be a planet, Available on request. You should only provide references if your employer asks for Sex Offender Laws and Wrongful Convictions them. If you do need to give a reference, make sure that you have asked the person beforehand. Pluto Be A Planet? Possible referees include a teacher or previous employer. It may complicate your application if you give the name of a referee who lives abroad; if you want to Insert Coin Essay do this, make sure that the person will be able to provide comments in English, and give an e-mail address so that delays can be minimised. 52 Orchard Street, London W2 3BT. Telephone: 020-7654 3210; Mobile: 07960 999999; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
· Advised the main shop's customers about organic and health foods. · Developed new business in smaller satellite stores, explaining the benefits of why should be a planet, supplements and enlightenment thinkers rejected of organic food to potential new customers. · Increased sales at both the main and the satellite shops. The extra profits were used to expand the why should be a, business by establishing a new shop. · Examined incoming mail and Sex Offender Laws Convictions Essay redirected this to the appropriate division. · Translated foreign letters (written in English) into Japanese. · Dealt with customs enquiries and why should pluto procedures. Computer literate: good knowledge of Word and Excel, as well as e-mail and Laws the internet. Fluent in why should be a planet, Japanese; practical knowledge of English and Korean.
If you are sending an application directly to a potential employer, you should write a one-page letter to accompany your CV (a covering letter). The covering letter may either be typed (better if you are applying to a large company) or written neatly by hand (better if you believe that a typed letter may appear too formal). There is an example covering letter shown below. State what type of visa you have, so that the potential employer knows that you will be able to work legally. You may want to Essay examples mention the level of your English ability. Explain in your letter how you can be contacted. If you are about to change your accommodation, you should ask to be contacted either on your mobile telephone or by e-mail. Why Should? If you give the Insert, telephone number of your host family, you should ask them for their permission first, and you should check if they have an answering machine. EXAMPLE COVERING LETTER. Re: Job as a part-time sales assistant (reference: JBW5014) I would like to apply for the job of why should pluto be a planet, a part-time sales assistant in the food section of Fortnum Mason's in Piccadilly, as advertised in Loot Recruit on The Argonauts by Malinowski, 2 August.
Please find attached a copy of my CV. My previous jobs include two years as a sales assistant in an organic food shop in Japan. Why Should Pluto? This has given me experience of dealing with customers, as well as cashier skills and a basic knowledge of food retailing. Coin? I have been living in London since last September, and why should pluto planet am currently studying English at a language school. I have good English communication skills (recently I passed the Cambridge First Certificate in enlightenment thinkers of, English exam). My fluency in Japanese may be useful when dealing with your Japanese customers. I am an enthusiastic worker, and enjoy working in a team. My student visa entitles me to why should pluto be a planet work up to 20 hours per week (or longer during my school holidays), and I could start work immediately.
I would welcome the opportunity to discuss the wet mount, job vacancy with you on why should pluto be a, the telephone or at an interview. I can be contacted most easily on my mobile telephone or by thinkers of, e-mail (see details at the top of pluto planet, this letter). SENDING YOUR APPLICATION. Check your CV and picture covering letter carefully before you send them. Use the be a, spell-checker on the computer (set the language to British English rather than American English). Ask a native English speaker to check what you have written, and ask this person for enlightenment thinkers any comments they may have. If sending your application by post, send it by why should be a planet, first class rather than by picture, second class (it shows that you care about getting the job). If you send an why should application by e-mail, telephone to Sex Offender and Wrongful make sure that it has arrived, or send an why should be a application in the post as well. Alternatively, you may wish to hand in your application personally; if so, use this opportunity to find out more about the company and ask when you can expect to hear from them.
If you have not heard from the company two weeks after you sent your application (or before the closing date for applications, if there is one), telephone the company to check that your job application has been received and that there haven't been any problems contacting you. It is often the case that people are invited for an interview for only a small number of the jobs to Coin Essay which they apply. Why Should? Try not to feel depressed if it takes a long time to get a job. If you are rejected by Sex Offender and Wrongful, a company, ask them to why should give you some comments, so that you can improve the picture of beauty, quality of your later applications. Prepare for a job interview: Work/Interview.
Improve your English writing skills: English/Writing.