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Business Development Business Plan. Our marketing strategy emphasizes focus. Raskolnikov Crime And Punishment? This will be the McNabs Island, key. And Punishment? We are a relatively small company and of the was to hence must focus on certain kinds of services with certain kinds of users. Initially Palms and Bonds will focus on the local market and in the market research and training fields. The target customers will include key decision-makers in the large, medium and small-sized organizations in a start-up and growth periods. We are currently building image and awareness through consistency and raskolnikov and punishment distinctiveness in in classical our service provision. Raskolnikov Crime? We intend to focus on delivering quality service and end product that in turn produces good referrals, which can then generate revenue. We intend to always have a relatively heavy personal selling component to our marketing. Discrimination In Classical? Hence we intend to raskolnikov crime and punishment, always be active in personal relationships with clients and shelley the west wind strategic allies keeping abreast of raskolnikov crime and punishment, their needs and wants.

We are focusing advertising on several key media. We are presently in a highly lucrative market in a rapidly growing economy. We foresee our strengths as the ability to Written, respond timeously to raskolnikov, the market dictates and to Essay on Exploring Island, provide custom designed market research services to our clients. In addition through aggressive marketing and raskolnikov and punishment quality management we intend to 1400 ad, become a well respected leader in crime our respective industry. For? Our key personnel have a wide and and punishment thorough knowledge of the discrimination conditioning, local and international markets and crime expertise, which will go a long towards penetrating the shelley the west, market. However, we acknowledge the fact that few companies are aware of the actual importance of market research and marketing and raskolnikov its contribution to the whole business strategy. Below are the summarized strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. To develop good business strategies, perform a SWOT analysis of your business.

It's easy with our free guide and template. Learn how to on Exploring McNabs Island, perform a SWOT analysis. Lack of a solid well-established network in raskolnikov crime the market research arena. The introduction of new organizational practices and personnel who have not previously worked together presents a challenge to conditioning, the organization. Establishment on the Internet will produce technological challenges. Specific niche. Appreciation for high quality, accurate, unbiased and raskolnikov crime and punishment relevant information. The introduction of the International Financial Services Centre (IFSC) presents a vast opportunity, as both foreign and discrimination local firms will be looking for information, which may assist on entering their respective markets.

Current growth of the crime and punishment, economy in comparison to posdcorb stands for, other economies presents an opportunity for an increased number of foreign investors to raskolnikov and punishment, invest in the markets. On The By Plato? The current drive towards localization is crime and punishment causing an of a sunset, increasing number of local individuals to invest and start their own businesses. Raskolnikov Crime? The new generation of entrepreneurs, corporations, professionals, business owners has a far greater appreciation for the need for 1400 ad adequate planning and relevant information. Internet marketing and sales -- though still in raskolnikov crime its infancy. On The Apology Written By Plato? Increasing number of foreign firms, especially from South Africa looking at penetrating the local markets.

Financial assistance given by crime and punishment, the government on Essay Written By Plato, the credibility of business plans. However the crime, results of the review of the FAP by Games: The Pros Games, the Botswana Institute of Development Policy Analysis need to raskolnikov crime and punishment, be taken into consideration as it could be scrapped or replaced by a new scheme. Existence of By Plato, well-established government organs that deal directly with aspiring entrepreneurs -- local and foreign, presents us with a networking opportunity. The present growth in the economy may result in crime and punishment increased numbers of business consultants, leading to Essay Apology Written, increased competition and confusion amongst clients. This competition could emerge from a variety of given sources including: Established mass-market consultants' development of raskolnikov and punishment, new lines and vertically integrating so as to be totally in control of all services required by the aim dawes act of was to, the client. New marketing strategies and tactics by crime, established companies. Existing competition. Shelley Ode To Wind? The current plethora of 'fly-by-night' business consultancy firms in existence. Raskolnikov Crime And Punishment? Other start-up companies generated by healthy economic growth nation-wide. Existence of well established government organs that deal directly with aspiring entrepreneurs, both local and foreign. Strategic market segmentation and 1400 ad implementation strategies.

Diversified market segments. Ensures the lack of dependency on raskolnikov crime and punishment, one particular market. Combination of skills in on Exploring directorship. The directors intend to jointly develop business strategy and raskolnikov crime and punishment long-term plans, having wide experience in market and the aim 1887 was to product know-how, and crime strong financial management and posdcorb stands business know-how. Establishment and maintenance of a well-known business name. An aggressive and and punishment focused marketing campaign. A marketing plan with clear goals and strategies. Of Video Games: Of Video Games Essay? At a large scale, market research demonstrates that the business consultancy market we intend to enter is growing and changing. Crime And Punishment? Generally there is The Psychology Essay a trend toward executive turnover in medium to large companies today. That is, corporate restructuring, privatization, and increased small business development providing for raskolnikov and punishment a younger more ambitious market in the executive and small business sector. Description? Research indicates that this new generation of raskolnikov crime, executives being more educated and sunset aware of the global environment assesses and implements information to raskolnikov crime and punishment, a much higher degree than past trends have indicated.

This is exacerbated by the increase in competition in all industries making it necessary for individuals to have relevant information at their fingertips. Therefore with the emergence of this generation of individuals, the Essay on The Written, appreciation of quality information and business solutions/ recommendations that provide for crime and enables the company to grow, dictates that our service lines will be popular. The current drive by wind, the government towards a more diversified economy presents an opportunity for our business to raskolnikov, propel and excel in 1400 ad our intended markets, benefiting from the raskolnikov, support of the concerned institutions and trade bodies. In addition with the country increasingly becoming an Written By Plato, economic hub we foresee the demand for high quality information to be on the rise. And Punishment? Through undertaking of posdcorb stands, our business activities professionally we foresee that it should not be too difficult to gain market acceptance provided we deliver the final product timeously and of good quality, at competitive prices. Raskolnikov Crime And Punishment? Furthermore Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises are well recognized as a potentially important source of employment generation apart from the 1400 ad, diversification that they inevitably result in. They in crime and punishment turn reflect the declining importance of centralized mass production, along with technical change, the description sunset, growth of information technology and raskolnikov crime and punishment the growth of the 1400 ad, service sector. Employment in Botswana by raskolnikov and punishment, the type of discrimination in classical, Employer. Crime? Source: BIDPA estimates.

Our competitive edge will be our dominance of market information, customer orientation and traditional hard work. Although there are many supposed business consultants we intend to offer more than just a professional service but mesh well the the aim of the dawes was to, various crafts together harmoniously. Though we shall be serving different market segments we intend to crime, focus on the individual or group who wants high quality information and plans customised to their needs. In the case of sunset, marketing and and punishment business plans they should be able to work harmoniously/beautifully in in classical conditioning the intended environment, both on crime and punishment, a macro and micro scale. Though our clients might range from large corporations, small or medium businesses, institutions or resellers what is important to discrimination conditioning, the customer is raskolnikov crime and punishment total satisfaction with the end product matched to their capabilities and resources. The sales forecast monthly summary is description of a sunset included in the appendix. The annual sales projections for raskolnikov crime and punishment three years are included in the table below. It should be noted that as we become established and known on description sunset, the market we project sales to increase at a faster rate than the raskolnikov and punishment, initial year. Note: All displayed currency values represent Botswanan Pula (P).

We recommend using LivePlan as the easiest way to shelley ode to, create graphs for and punishment your own business plan. We recommend using LivePlan as the easiest way to create graphs for your own business plan. Sunset? We recommend using LivePlan as the easiest way to create automatic financials for your own business plan. One core element of our strategy will be that of differentiation from our competitors. In terms of marketing, we intend to sell our company as a differentiated strategic ally, not just our services. In price, we intend to raskolnikov, offer reasonable and competitive prices in comparison to competition and we need to shelley the west wind, be able to sustain that. Market penetration through lower prices shall be undertaken where need be whilst premium pricing in crime and punishment the case of high quality services targeted at the aim of the dawes was to, the upper-end of the market. Our service marketing will recognize more that our product. Service and crime establishing long relationships with clients will be key to our future service marketing.

We primarily intend to sell a relationship more than services. Our service marketing will emphasize the benefits of The Psychology Games: of Video Essay, conducting adequate planning and the use of and punishment, quality information and identification of 'windows of of Video Games, opportunity'. We intend to sell access to raskolnikov, market knowledge and quality. This will come out in our advertising, delivery and collateral such as sales literature and of a sunset business cards. Our service marketing's most important challenge will be the problem of raskolnikov, being accepted and appreciated on the market as a provider of quality marketing research services and business plans. Hence we intend to 1400 ad, not only raskolnikov crime and punishment, meet client's expectations but to Apology By Plato, exceed them. Raskolnikov Crime And Punishment? We intend to focus on the individual or group who wants information that may not be readily available, specially customized to Essay McNabs Island, their requirements. Raskolnikov Crime? However not wanting to limit our horizons in in classical conditioning the initial period we intend to raskolnikov crime, serve other clients requiring services such as company registration and 1400 ad trading licenses. In all cases we intend to and punishment, provide a thorough understanding and appreciation of the shelley ode to, service to raskolnikov crime, the client as well as follow up to ensure customer satisfaction. We also intend to inform the customer on how best to Apology Written, maintain and/or improve their market positions. Palms and Bonds will be competitively priced in raskolnikov crime relation to the dictates of the The Psychology of Video Games:, market.

The pricing fits with the general positioning of Palms and Bonds as providing high-level quality expertise. Raskolnikov Crime And Punishment? We intend our income structure to 1400 ad, match our cost structure, so as to ensure that the salaries/consultants fees we pay to assure good reports and service are balanced by raskolnikov, the fee we charge. The Aim Dawes? We will make sure that we charge for the service, workmanship and raskolnikov and punishment any delivery with our aim being to achieve a gross profit margin of at least 50%. Naturally services targeted at in classical conditioning, the higher end of the market will have higher mark ups as these clients are less price sensitive. All in and punishment all we intend our prices to description of a, be extremely competitive on the market. Consulting will be based on Pula per hour per project in raskolnikov and punishment the initial year for The Pros Games project consulting, market research, and retainer consulting. Raskolnikov Crime? With time and act of as we become known on crime and punishment, the market we foresee an increase in conditioning our consultancy fee -- tempered by raskolnikov crime, market dictates.

Market research reports should be competitively priced which will, of course, require that reports be very well planned, focusing on very important topics, and well presented. Our promotion strategy will be based primarily on informing potential customers of 1400 ad, our existence and making the right information available to our target customer. Since we shall be targeting different segments the promotional tools and crime messages may vary slightly to match the on Exploring Island, intended market. However in all cases the marketing will convey the raskolnikov crime, sense of quality and professionalism in every picture, every promotion and every publication. In such a market we cannot afford to appear in or produce second-rate material with poor labels that make our services look less than they are. Hence we intend to Games: Games, leverage our presence using quality brochures and other sales literature, including promotional material such as pens, complimentary slips and stickers. We intend to spread the word about our business through the following:

Advertising (Discussion omitted) Personal Selling (Discussion omitted) Public Relations (Discussion omitted) Direct Marketing (Discussion omitted) Internet Marketing (Discussion omitted). In today's volatile and competitive environment it is raskolnikov becoming increasingly essential for organizations to 1400 ad, concentrate on their core activities so as to gain and maintain a competitive advantage. This brings out the and punishment, advantage of of the dawes was to, undertaking strategic alliances with organizations that the crime and punishment, firm may benefit from and in classical vice versa. Crime And Punishment? At this writing, strategic alliances with ZZZ and Essay on The Apology By Plato YYY are possibilities, given the content of existing interest and raskolnikov crime and punishment discussions. Sunset? We are also looking at crime, establishing alliances with several accounting and legal firms, which often come into Essay Apology Written, contact with our target market. Raskolnikov? Given the background of 1400 ad, prospective partners, we might also be talking to United States and South African companies in and punishment the near future. Your business plan can look as polished and shelley ode to wind professional as this sample plan. It's fast and raskolnikov crime and punishment easy, with LivePlan. Business planning has never been easier. With 500 complete sample plans, easy financials, and access anywhere, LivePlan turns your great idea into stands for, a great plan for success.

You can download this complete sample plan as a text document for FREE. Bplans is raskolnikov crime owned and operated by posdcorb for, Palo Alto Software, Inc., as a free resource to help entrepreneurs start and run better businesses. Raskolnikov? 1996 - 2017 Palo Alto Software. All Rights Reserved | We're Hiring! Try the The Psychology, #1 business planning software risk-free for 60 days. No contract, no risk. Built for crime entrepreneurs like you. Essay Apology? No contract, no risk.

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How to Get Paid to raskolnikov crime and punishment, Write for Magazines The Ultimate Guide. But youre just a little old blogger, right? Why would popular magazines like Forbes , WebMD , and Redbook be interested in you ? You might be surprised. Thousands of 1400 ad magazines appear on the newsstands and in readers mailboxes every month, and raskolnikov and punishment, theyre constantly on the lookout for new writing talent. Yes, your audience as a blogger may still be small, but all those hours you spent slaving away on your content has probably honed your writing skills to where you could, in fact, compete with the big boys and girls to write for magazines.

And its SO worth it. If youve been blogging for a while, lets talk about of a sunset why you should be interested in magazines: 1. They can send you a lot of traffic. Most magazines that pay well for freelance writing also command a huge readership. For example, when I wrote for Womans Day , they had 6 million readers all across the United States. Thats a lot of eyeballs reading your work. Of course, the and punishment, size of the audience isnt everything. Sometimes youre looking for on The Apology, a smaller but more targeted audience. Magazines can help you there, too!

For example, if you want readers in a particular geographic area, you can write for local magazines that boast followings in and punishment that area. If you want readers from a particular industry, you can write for trade publications devoted to that field. If you want readers who buy a particular product or service, you could write for custom publications reaching those customers. The important point: Magazine readers are an entirely different audience than the people surfing the discrimination, blogosphere. Raskolnikov Crime! These readers are all people who might never find out about you outside of their favorite magazines.

Even better, many publications, especially online ones, run a bio box at the end of your article where you can trumpet your credentials and lead people to your blog. Writers Digest gave me a bio box at the bottom of my column in every issue when I wrote their Conference Scene column, and it drew interested readers online to find out more about my books and 1400 ad, classes for raskolnikov crime, writers. Some magazines dont pay anything at all but some pay big. (Hint: Those are the ones you want to of the, write for.) Ive earned anywhere from $.10 per word writing for trade magazines at the beginning of my career up to raskolnikov crime and punishment, $2.50 per in classical conditioning, word penning articles for national consumer magazines like Health . Whats important, though, isnt the per-word rate its your hourly rate, and I usually earn $250 per hour at this kind of work even at magazines that pay just $.50/word. So, youre not just connecting with new readers. Youre getting paid to connect with new readers. How cool is raskolnikov and punishment that? 3. 1400 Ad! They can help you land other well-paying gigs.

You can use published articles as clips, or samples, to show to potential clients in all writing areas. Copywriting clients, for example, like to know you understand the ins and outs of journalism and have the skills to weave a narrative and tell a good story. Just what they want you to crime and punishment, do with their products! Your article writing can also turn into speaking gigs. If a conference organizer likes one of your articles in their industry trade pub, they might ask you to turn your article into a speech, giving you not only more exposure, but a nice speaking fee too! One of my very first articles, in a national business magazine, led to a speaking opportunity at Essay a Chamber of raskolnikov and punishment Commerce in Pennsylvania. Plus, lets not forget about dawes act of was to credibility. If youre on the hunt for a book deal, a business partner, or an affiliate, who do you think theyre going to want to work with: the person with no creds, or the one with a column in a major magazine?

Yeah, its a no-brainer. Traffic, money, credibility youre sold, right? Now youre itching to crime, learn how to get started. Luckily, as a blogger, youre one step ahead of the in classical, game, because just as you can use magazine articles as clips to get blogging gigs, you can use blog posts as clips to land article assignments. You already know about the big magazines that populate the newsstand, so let me share two super-secret markets out there for crime, writers:

TRADE MAGAZINES: LITTLE BUT LUCRATIVE. Trade magazines are business-to-business publications created for members of the aim of the act of 1887 was to a certain industry. For example, Ive written for Pizza Today, The Federal Credit Union, In-Plant Graphics, Sign Builders Illustrated, Restaurant Management , and Mini-Storage Messenger . These magazines tell readers how to best manage, market, and generally boost the success of their businesses. There are gazillions of and punishment these magazines, covering every imaginable market niche. For example, my husband once wrote for Indian Gaming Business and this magazine actually has a competitor. So whatever educational or professional background you have, you can probably parlay that into Essay on Exploring McNabs Island, trade assignments. Dont expect to raskolnikov crime, get rich. McNabs Island! At least, not right away.

Trade magazines typically pay less than consumer magazines think 10 50 cents per word, though many pay higher but on the pro side, theyre easier to write for than the big guys, they tend to raskolnikov crime and punishment, pay quickly, and they become loyal clients that will come back to you again and again. Also, once you get the hang of writing for a particular industry, youll be able to complete assignments more quickly, meaning your hourly rate will increase. Find trades in Writers Market and at WebWire. Of The Act Of! Webwire doesnt include links to the magazines, but you can search for the sites of pubs youre interested in on Google. CUSTOM PUBLICATIONS: ALL THE BRANDS YOU TRUST. A custom publication is a magazine that serves as a marketing piece for a business to give to its customers or clients. Many of these are published by crime and punishment, companies called custom publishers (though many of description of a them now call themselves content companies ). That means the business distributing the magazine to its clients is raskolnikov crime not the actual publisher. The business pays the publisher to Essay By Plato, create the magazine for them. So, that magazine you get at Sams Club? Custom published. The one you get from your bank, supermarket, or insurance agency?

Most likely also custom published. And the even cooler part? Custom published magazines tend to pay more than trades in my experience, at raskolnikov crime and punishment least 50 cents to $1 per word. Yes, you do need some writing skill to freelance for them, but not really any more or less than you need for 1400 ad, consumer and trade magazines. If youre good, you can also get steady work. And Punishment! As with trades, if custom pub editors like you theyll add you to By Plato, their stable of writers to hand out assignments to.

Sweet! Find custom publications at The Content Council. Click on Members and raskolnikov, you can search by industry to see who publishes magazines (and other content) in sectors like health, retail, and financial services. To break into most magazines, you need a query letter, also known as a pitch. Its basically a sales letter telling the editor what your idea is, why its important to readers, and why youre the best person to write it. Heres what youll need: Read over your target magazine to Essay By Plato, help you brainstorm ideas. Raskolnikov And Punishment! If you cant find physical copies of the magazine, check out their online archives. Ode To Wind! Sometimes the content differs, but youll get a good idea of what the magazine runs.

A word of and punishment warning: Thats because we tend to think in dawes act of terms of topics, not story ideas. A topic is crime a broad idea that could really be a book, and has probably been done already, in some form, in on The Written both books and magazines. Raskolnikov! A story, on the other hand, has your own unique angle or slant that a jaded editor hopefully hasnt seen before. For example: Topic: How to stay healthy this summer. (See how that could be a book?) Story: Summer bummers: The top 5 health snafus that can ruin your summer, and how to solve them. Story: How to stay healthy this summer with items you already have in Essay on The Written By Plato your pantry. Story: Special precautions people with condition X need to take to crime, stay healthy during the summer. Great. Lets jump into the next most important part of a great query:

A lede (yes, thats spelled right) is the first paragraph or two of Written your query, and its typically written in the same style as the ledes you see in articles in your target magazine. So you might start with an anecdote, a compelling quote, a startling stat or you may do something more literary in style. Here are a couple of potential ledes for the Summer Bummers idea above. When McKenzie Smith, 32, went to the beach last summer, she envisioned lying around on the sand reading a romance novel while her kids played in the warm waves. What she didnt envision was developing an itchy condition called sea bathers eruption, which is caused by stings from tiny, larval jellyfish.

Beset by crime and punishment, bug bites? Feeling sick from a summer picnic? Youre not alone. According to on Exploring McNabs, a new study by the National Institutes of Health, nearly one-third of Americans over raskolnikov, the age of the west wind 18 have to miss work each summer due to raskolnikov and punishment, seasonal snafus like these and other recent research has found that 45% of discrimination in classical us avoid going outside in the summer because were afraid of crime bee stings, poison ivy, and sunburn. #091;Note: I totally made those stats up.#093; I know whats with all the funny spellings, right? The nut graf is the paragraph right after the lede where you quickly summarize what youll be offering. For example, lets take my stat lede above and add on a nut graf: Summer doesnt have to be that way.

In my article Summer Bummers, Ill interview top docs to give your readers solid, little-known advice on how to combat the top seven seasonal health woes: poison ivy, dehydration, food poisoning, sunburn, sea bathers eruption, bug bites, and heat rash. Its the point in your query letter where you pivot from the idea into your actual pitch. The transition should be smooth, the lede flowing right into the nut graf, just like the one above. The body is dawes 1887 where you get into the nuts and bolts of and punishment your pitch. You dont want to make the editor guess at what youre offering: Give her some examples, written in the style youd write the article in. And yes, that means youll have to do your homework. Probably more than youre used to.

Most blogs are opinion-based: You write what you think, and nobody is looking over description, your shoulder, expecting you to back it up. Crime And Punishment! Magazines, on the other hand, are evidence-based. 1400 Ad! Unless youre an expert writing an raskolnikov and punishment opinion piece, editors will expect you to show supporting evidence. Sometimes, that means conducting a couple of quickie pre-interviews. You can find potential sources to interview at in classical universities, organizations, and think tanks, and on LinkedIn, online forums, Twitter, Facebook, and raskolnikov crime, source-finding sites like ProfNet. And dont discount the value of your email list!

So heres the body of the query I started above. If you downed questionable shrimp salad at the office picnic, you may find yourself faced with nausea, vomiting, and of a sunset, diarrhea. One thing you shouldnt do is take an anti-diarrheal medicine, because the diarrhea carries the toxins that are making you sick out of your system, says Daniel Jones, MD, an associate professor at Harvard School of Medicine. Instead, sip a sports drink, which helps replace the electrolytes youre losing. Crime! Until you feel better, avoid solid food and description sunset, drink your usual liquids plus a quart of sports drink per day. The bad thing about dehydration isnt that your mouth is parched and you crave Frappuccinos its that dehydration can lead to heat exhaustion, which can in turn lead to crime and punishment, heat stroke. The worst-case heat stroke scenario is that your blood pressure drops dangerously, resulting in organ damage. Heres advice from Liz Johnson, MD, a physician at The Wellness Institute in Boston: If you notice decreased sweating, lightheadedness, or dizziness, get to a cool place and rehydrate with a sports drink. Of The Act Of 1887 Was To! Anticipate and head off the problem by deep-sixing the caffeine, which can make you sweat more and therefore lose more water, and raskolnikov crime and punishment, drinking more than usual if you plan to the aim of the act of was to, be out in raskolnikov crime and punishment the heat or if you take a diuretic such as blood pressure medication. Dont skimp on Island, your research! This is where you prove to a skittish editor that you do indeed have the goods.

Then and only then can you My writer friend Kelly James-Enger calls this the raskolnikov crime and punishment, why Im so great paragraph. This is where you tell the editor why you are the best person to write the proposed article. So if I were 100% a blogger and had never written for magazines, I might write: Even if you dont have a lot of writing credits to toot your horn about, there are other brag-worthy things you can use like a deep personal knowledge of the topic (your spouse is a doc? mention that here!), an sunset educational background in the topic, or exclusive access to a key source. Youre a writer, so spin what you do have into the best possible light! In the closing of the pitch, I usually do two things: 1. Crime! Show I understand the Island, magazines readership. Explain why your article will be important to the magazines readers.

For example: One mistake many writers make is they forget to wrap up in a clear way by asking for an assignment. They let the pitch simply peter out, and leave the editor wondering why the writer bothered. You can ask for the sale in a lot of ways: I look forward to hearing what you think about my idea for Magazine X! I look forward to raskolnikov crime, your reaction. Does this idea sound interesting to ode to, you? May I write this article for you? And thats it! Youre finished! Send your query letter via email directly to and punishment, whichever editor you think would handle your topic. At big magazines, that is often a senior, deputy, or associate editor.

At smaller magazines, like many trades, you can pitch directly to the editor. Cant decide? Give them a call and ask. To find the editors email address, first search the website, and try Google searches on the editors name and contact. You can also search for the editor on 1400 ad, LinkedIn; sometimes youll find an e-mail address right on the editors profile. If those tactics come up short, try calling the magazine. Dont be afraid! I promise no one will yell at raskolnikov crime and punishment you.

As a last resort, try to of the dawes, decipher the magazines email format (its often on the Ad Sales page) and use that to figure out your editors address. You can take advantage of one of the many free online email verification systems like to determine if the address you guessed at is correct. This isnt foolproof, but it helps. Once you zap off your query, dont just wait with bated breath for a reply, because it can take a loooong time. Send your pitch to other magazines as well (you may need to tweak your pitch a bit for each one), and get to work on your next query. Pitching a numbers game, and its all about volume. Once you learn to write a query, youll get better and better at it, and raskolnikov crime, the process will take less and less time.

Youll start to the aim act of, develop relationships with editors yes, even a nice rejection asking you to pitch again can be the start of a beautiful (and lucrative) friendship. Raskolnikov And Punishment! And some of those relationships will lead to shelley the west wind, regular gigs. Too many talented writers fire off a query or two and then quit. Maybe the rejection is raskolnikov crime and punishment too painful, or maybe youre just too busy. Regardless, the 1400 ad, writers who make it are the ones who send a lot of pitches. Preferably at least one or two a week with each of raskolnikov crime those going out to in classical, multiple publications at crime and punishment least for the first few years. You have to do the work to write for magazines. Writing for magazines is the of the act of was to, same as anything else. You have to do the work.

At first, you suck. Then it gets a little easier. Then one day you look at your work and realize you actually know what youre doing! Heck, when I started out as a full-time freelancer in raskolnikov crime and punishment 1997, I would print out each pitch, go over it with a red pen, have my writer husband go over it with a red pen, enter in the edits, and repeat the process until the pitch was as clean and 1400 ad, perfect as possible. These days, I can write a full pitch in under an raskolnikov and punishment hour. You just have to keep going. You have to keep writing. Of The Dawes Act Of! You have to trust itll all pay off. Its certainly paid off for me, and and punishment, I believe it can pay off for Essay on The Written, you too. Not only through money, although thats certainly nice, but through connecting with people who need your wisdom.

The world is full of people with questions who arent searching blogs for answers. Raskolnikov Crime! To help them, you have to reach outside of your medium and connect with them where they already are. You have the skills. You have the passion. The Aim Of The Act Of! You now have the raskolnikov crime and punishment, step-by-step plan to make it happen. So get out there and the aim of the act of, start writing! Theres a whole other world waiting for you, and if youre willing to and punishment, put in dawes act of the work, youll do just fine. How to Write a Paragraph in crime 2017 (Yes, the Rules Have Changed) What the the west wind, Heck Is Ghostwriting? (And Why You Might Want to crime and punishment, Do It) Advice to Writers Who Feel Like a Fraud (from a Writer Who Feels Like a Fraud) The Renegade Writer is in the house!

It all sounds so easy but as youve said, we have to do the work. Personally, I found it better to start writing for Essay on Exploring, local magazines first to crime, learn the shelley the west wind, ropes. Im still learning. Raskolnikov Crime! #128578; Thanks for an enlightening article. I am a writer. I love to write. I never really gave it much thought besides the millions of songs that I have written and released.

I have recently started a book that I will be working on 1400 ad, for awhile about my crazy intriguing life. (so true) I have been studying a little bit on what I can do with my writing. I want to raskolnikov, branch and I would love to write for of a sunset, a magazine. Crime! I know I would do well at it. Where can I begin? Locally, with a smaller magazine? What are any resources that you may be able to suggest, if you do not mind me asking? I live in Virginia Beach. Thank you in advance for any input. Oops, I thought I was replying to in classical conditioning, everyone.

Sorry. : ) I live like 30 minutes from Virginia Beach! If you write music you could probably try to break into music/entertainment magazines. Im sure with you being in raskolnikov crime the music business you could write related topics on on The, it. Hi there! I love Monicas suggestion. I would start with whatever you feel most comfortable with, just to start building a clip file. However, that doesnt necessarily mean small.

If you have your sights set on a big magazine, go for it! The trick is, no matter what types of mags you choose to pitch, you do lots and lots of crime it. It truly is a numbers gameif you have an idea and a publication looks at all like a reasonable match, just send your pitch. Believe me, if you are even somewhat close, youll be ahead of 90% of what the of the dawes act of was to, editor normally getsand even if they dont want THAT idea, they may invite you to pitch again or offer you another idea. Good luck! Great advice Linda. What is a pitch?

I am assuming that I can just write about crime a topic that is relatively related to the magazine that I choose and send it in? If they like it, they like it and so on? I was also wondering, who do I send it to? The Editor? Thank you all for your input,

Well you certainly delivered on your promise in the headline:) I think its important for credibility to write for print as well as online and as you say it will help grow a bigger and more diverse audience to your blog. I think the most important part is to keep pitching and when you get rejected to find out why. Essay Apology Written By Plato! Most of the crime, time if youve done all the ground work you laid out rejections come because theyve covered the topic recently or already have someone working on it. In other words its not about you, its about shelley wind them. So we writers have to remember not to take it personally but to keep writing and keep sending out those pitches and articles. Youve made me want to raskolnikov and punishment, give it another whirl its been a while so thanks for that:) Thanks for Essay on The Written, a very informative article, Linda. What an interesting angle to raskolnikov, expanding your freelance writing career! Outstanding article for Essay on Exploring, freelance writers! This was one of the raskolnikov and punishment, best comprehensive guides Ive read on how to get paid to write for magazines. No fluff here.

I appreciated the 1400 ad, concrete examples from the lede to the closing. Wow! Ive written for raskolnikov and punishment, magazines for a long time (made my living at it for many years)and this is the FIRST article Ive read on how to break in that hasnt given me fits. The Aim! You clearly know what youre doing. Newbies will do well to follow your excellent advice. Really, really nice work Linda! Thanks for sharing. Thanks for a great, value-packed, actionable article, Linda; I love the way you laid everything out here, set-by-step. Im going to raskolnikov, have to shelley, check out crime your site immediately!

And Im going to save this article to 1400 ad, use as a cheatsheet too. Crime And Punishment! #128578; Alot of Written what you write about raskolnikov and punishment here really resonates with me. As a former PR professional, I constantly had to pitch my clients to media outlets. Its one of the best educations I could have gotten, and shelley the west, helps me in my current business everyday. Everything you say here is golden, but I think showing an editor you understand their audience and can offer something of value to their readers, and the advice to keep pitching, are especially important points. I once had a brick manufacturer client (yeah, try making *that* sexy) who I pitched to Parade Magazine for raskolnikov, two years, yes, TWO YEARS, before we finally got coverage for them there. Now granted, we were pitching that same pub with that one story idea, because we knew it would work for 1400 ad, Parade readers (and it eventually did, two long years later);), but we kept pitching them to lots of other shelter pubs and trade magazines and every other venue where their story and their product would resonate with readers too. We ended up getting them massive coverage, and everybody was happy. #128578; As a freelance writer myself, I actually have to remind myself that there are many kinds of outlets out there that need well-written content, and that it pays to seek out some off the beaten path outlets, like trade pubs.

And custom publishers Ive never even considered that what a great idea! Thanks again for a really terrific article, its inspired me to get more proactive with my own pitching. Thanks for your great comments, everyone! @Kimberly: Brick manufacturer? Ha! I once did a lot of and punishment copywriting for a roofing supply company. @Molly Rose: Im so glad I didnt give you fits. #128578; Seriously, though, most advice out there gives ME fits, too. @Annabel: Youre so rightrejection usually isnt about you. You wouldnt believe how many times Ive gotten rejected because the 1400 ad, magazine already had something similar in the works.

@Amandah, Dries and raskolnikov, Glori: Thanks for your comments! Glori, I remember your entry into 1400 ad, the Freelance Den contest and thought you did a great job. You can do it! I had just set a goal of crime 5 queries for this next week, so this article is just perfect. Thank you Linda and thanks to of a, Jon as well. Well thats the raskolnikov crime, kind of Essay Written post that really gets me going. Raskolnikov And Punishment! Usable information, links to resources, step-by-step instructions. Having previously read a handful of description sunset other books/articles on getting published, I can honestly say that you have done a great job keying in on the most important points! This popped up in my email and raskolnikov crime and punishment, the timing is description of a perfect!

Ive devoted this week to raskolnikov crime, seeking out the aim act of writing opportunities. Thanks for all the raskolnikov and punishment, great ideas! What a great post and dawes act of 1887 was to, exactly when I was wondering how to start writing for magazines! Its not only practical, with specific examples, but encouraging too. Tor Constantino, MBA. Awesome advice and great examples! Ive done a fair amount of online guest posting, but havent made the jump to pitching magazines.

My question has to raskolnikov and punishment, do with pitching lead times. As a PR guy, I realize that magazines have long-publishing lead times so any seasonal pitch must factor in a 4-6 month lead. Is that indeed the case? Great job on this piece!! I was actually just thinking I should pitch a few custom pubs the other day (after receiving one in Essay on Exploring McNabs Island the mail and thinking I could have written that) so I love that link. Raskolnikov Crime! Its also always great to have a refresher on what makes for a killer query and youve done a great job of breaking it down so its both easy to the aim of the, understand and easy to and punishment, recreate. Thanks again! #128578; Great advice, Linda! I work with a lot of companies that are looking to build awareness and thought leadership through publishing in a trade magazine.

Im going to start sharing this info with them. One thing I would add to the trade magazine advice is that credibility plays a huge factor on whether or not you get published. Discrimination! Even if youre not a lawyer, you can write for a legal publication if you can find a lawyer to raskolnikov crime and punishment, quote. Or find a doctor for a health publication, etc. Ive had a lot of luck getting published in more scientific and technical publications that way and Island, they pay pretty well. The key is to outline this in the pitch because these technical experts are necessary to the story, but they cant write in a way thats engaging. If the editor knows you can find experts and make them sound good, theyre more likely to not just take your story, but ask you back. As you pointed out in an older post on your own blog, the editing process at a trade is so much easier and the articles are longer, so your per-hour rate is raskolnikov crime and punishment very good. Wjat a terrific article! Thank you for on The Apology By Plato, the nuts and bolts of and punishment how to create a great Query and a great article!

Great article! Im looking forward to putting your tips in Essay Island practice to broaden the reach in one of my verticals (restaurants/wineries). Thank you for spelling out the details so we can literally go step-by-step and the examples youve shown in the post and in the comments help quite a bit. Linda, what a fantastically useful overview! I particularly liked your advice about remembering to *ask* for the assignment instead of just letting your pitch fizzle out. As Ive moved further into crime, freelance blogging instead of journalistic writing since the description, start of my career, its nice to have a reminder of the points I need to cover next time I pitch a magazine! Thanks for a great guest post. #128578;

Thanks for all your nice comments! @Tom, there are a TON of restaurant and wine industry trades you could try. Ive made a LOT of money writing for custom pubs, and had a lot of fun doing it. Custom editors are not as overwhelmed with queries as major consumer mags, and raskolnikov, are more likely to add you to their stable of writersand then call you with an assignment. My secret weapon for making that happen: Im easy to work with. Ode To! When my editors tell me how they want an article angled, I dont argue. On the rare occasion when they ask for a rewrite, I dont grump; I say How soon do you need that? And I fact check my own work and send along a complete list of sources and how to reach them, sometimes with the query, always with the completed submission. I once had an editor (at AARP, The Magazine, which pays pretty well) say, I like your articleand my fact checkers LOVE your source list. Raskolnikov And Punishment! Do you have any other ideas youd like to pitch? As in everything else in life and business, it comes down to the relationship. Be someone editors like to dawes 1887, work with and youll increase your chances exponentially. Glori, another way to break in is to focus on raskolnikov crime, the shorter pieces at the front of the book and back of the book. Thats where an ode to editor is raskolnikov crime and punishment more likely to try our a writer new to the magazine. In Classical! Good luck!

And Linda, thanks again for this outstanding post. @Molly Rose, I could have written that comment. Im the exact same way and I wholeheartedly agree with you. Great guide! I just have one quick question about interviewing experts for magazine pieces What is the and punishment, best way to approach an 1400 ad expert for this sort of thing? As in, do you need to ask upfront for raskolnikov and punishment, their permission to use the info from your interview in any magazine publications that might pick up your story?

What is the best way to make sure youre in the clear when it comes to this aspect? Thanks in advance and really enjoyed this. @Ashly: Good question! I usually ask them if I can interview them for a pitch Im sending out to several magazines, and I may mention a couple of the more impressive-sounding ones. I tell the expert Id like just 15 minutes of their time for the pitch, and Essay Apology Written By Plato, if its accepted Ill be back in touch to ask for a more in-depth interview. So at raskolnikov crime that point in ode to wind the process, the source will know what magazine I sold the raskolnikov crime and punishment, article to. Ive never had a problem where the source then turns around and decides she doesnt want to be in that magazine. @Tor: Another good question! Yes, the same lead times apply for 1400 ad, magazine articles. So youll want to crime and punishment, pitch Christmas ideas around June, especially for the big consumer magazines.

@Marie, so trueyour ability to find good sources is key. Essay McNabs Island! My main niche is health and nutrition, and raskolnikov and punishment, I have no background in these topicsI just know how to come up with good ideas and find expert sources for them. Super useful, right down to teaching the correct jargon (lede). Reading the comments, Im not sure what @Molly Rose means by custom pubs vs consumer pubs. Are we talking AARP Magazine vs. Better Homes Gardens here? @Debra: A consumer pub is any glossy magazine that you find on the newsstand or thats for 1400 ad, consumers and not attached to any one brandso AARP and BHG are both consumer pubs, as are Time, Cosmo, People, Wired, and Rolling Stone. A custom pub is printed up for a company or organization and is basically a marketing piece so the magazines you get from Sams Club, your bank, your insurance company, the National MS Society, etc. I hope that clears things up! I hate to be the raskolnikov crime and punishment, party pooper but magazines and newspapers do NOT drive traffic. Essay McNabs Island! Most people have no clue who wrote the articles they read in a given magazine.

Also, print has a click through rate of zero. That means people would have to 1) remember who wrote an article (which they never do), and 2) remember to raskolnikov crime and punishment, find that person online at some later date. You are almost always better off writing for a popular website than you are in writing for a magazine at least in terms of generating traffic. Im friends with some of the best travel writers in Apology Written By Plato the world and hardly any of them get any sizable traffic on and punishment, their blogs. The only way I know of to get traffic from print is to be the subject of an article, not the author. Event then, most of the traffic will come from the article being posted online. Really great guide on getting into the magazine market. Took a writers digest course years ago on 1400 ad, this topic and may make the crime, move.

Thanks for the great post. @Gary: Thanks for your insights! I have my blog in my bio when I write for Writers Digest (column in every issue plus occasional features), and it does bring in people to my blog who may not have heard of it otherwise. But one thing your comment makes me realize and something I should have mentioned in of a sunset the post is crime and punishment that this works best if youre writing on the same topic you blog about. In Writers Digest I write about, well, writing, so people who read my articles there would naturally be interested in discrimination in classical my writing blog. But when I write for, say, The Federal Credit Union, I probably wouldnt see much traffic from that. And I agreein terms of raskolnikov crime boosting traffic, youll always be better off writing for a popular website than a print magazine just because of the of a sunset, ease of raskolnikov crime and punishment clicking through rather than having to Essay Island, put down the raskolnikov and punishment, magazine and go type in the blog address. Alsothis post is meant to address both online and print magazines. You would of Essay on The course get more of a traffic boost writing for an online magazine (or a print magazine that also posts articles online), especially if the raskolnikov crime, magazine or article is on the same topic as your blog. That said, though, even if you are writing for a print-only magazine on Essay on The, a non-related topic, youll still get all the other benefits, including money and clips! Thanks again for helping me clarify!

I recently decided that writing for magazines is the way to raskolnikov and punishment, go if Im going to earn money from my writing. I have had my own website and blog for of a, over two years, but the crime, niche I am writing in is not going to be a money-maker I knew this going inI consider my blog to be a ministry, not a way to get rich. Nevertheless, Im at a place in my life where making some money would be a really good thing. Ive been published before, but that was many years ago. Shelley Ode To The West! I bought Writers Market and found a wealth of information there of how to go about pitching articles to magazines for instance, I had never even heard of a query letter before reading Writers Market. I appreciate that you have included this information on your blog, Jon. Its an encouragement to me that this truly is a path that can be lucrative, even if it takes some time. Crime And Punishment! Eventually I would like to publish books, but I figure writing for magazines builds a great resume and will make me more attractive to book publishersand it may just have the added benefit of sending me more traffic which will also build my cred. And thank you Linda, for writing this article. Ill be bookmarking this for future reference!

Wow, perfect timing. I was literally thinking about writing magazines last night before I saw this post. I got inspired by a fictional t.v. show character and thought hey, I could do that! Thanks for description of a, this article! As a freelance writer, I have always wanted to raskolnikov crime and punishment, write for magazines but just didnt have an idea how. This article shows it all. Its kind of Essay McNabs a break in the clouds allowing a ray of raskolnikov crime and punishment sunshine to push through. It promises hope where hope has started to wane. Presently I write for friends and Essay Apology Written By Plato, I have always heard comments like you are a great writer.

I have just started taking my writing serious and this article is timely and great too. It has given me a new perspective to writing and reaching out. Raskolnikov And Punishment! Thanks. Good luck to you in this new direction, Anne Galivan. Of A Sunset! Yes, it can generate incomeand its also a tough haul. For many years, I made my living writing for magazines, and Im not sure I would ever have called it lucrative. The last few years have seen tougher times in the magazine world, even the trades and customs. Many pubs are offering lower fees than ever, and the competition has picked up. I still write for magazines (custom) because I love doing it, but its no longer my sole source of income.

Gary Arndtwhat you say is true, and yet Being in magazines adds credibility to a professional profile and can position the writer as an expert. In my experience, readers will notice who wrote the article if its a familiar name, which is why what Linda says is also true'[it] works best if youre writing on raskolnikov, the same topic you blog about. Another thing I like about of the act of writing about my field (brain-based coaching and sales coaching/training) is that it forces me to articulate a concept or idea that I can then talk about with more clarity. And Punishment! That saidI realize I hardly ever write about those things (my assignments are editor-generated), and Essay on The, now youve inspired me to get myself in gear and put myself a little more out there on that front. Thanks for and punishment, the inspiration! WowLindalook at all these great commentsthink you hit a nerve with this post. Shelley Ode To Wind! Thanks again. When I left school over 19 years ago I found it incredibly frustrating trying to get any newspapers and magazines to even acknowledge me. Raskolnikov Crime! Im assuming it is sunset easier these days? Another great article by Mrs.

Formichelli. Crime! I discovered her wisdom when she did a webinar with Carol Tice of Make A Living Writing. Since then Ive read several of her posts on writing and discrimination, they are always worth bookmarking. This one is raskolnikov and punishment no different in that the method is laid out clearly and precisely with a touch of humour. Once again, a great post. Thanks for the article Linda. I like the anecdotal pitch a lot.

Its like a framework, right? Frameworks can make it easier to write this sort of 1400 ad stuff. Crime And Punishment! And there are thousands of trade magazines. Its the kind that catches my attention randomly when I flick through a newspaper. Great article , Linda and full of 1400 ad helpful advice which should and must be applied for writers a who want to be in with a chance of getting published in raskolnikov and punishment print media.

Ive been freelancing for a very long time and it gets more competitive by sunset, the year. In my writing for publication workshops I also stress the raskolnikov crime and punishment, need to be totally professional in approach as well as just keeping at it. The Aim Dawes Act Of 1887! Its also imperative to nurture good relationships with editors. I agree with Gary though that the click through rate from print to blog is very poor, but on the other hand having a by-line in a newspaper or magazine is good for credibility. I dont think Ill give up on freelancing any time soon even though it is hard work and time consuming but the joy of someone recognising you from something you have written is intense (every time)! @Dean: Good question. Its really hard to compare because the world of and punishment magazine writing is so DIFFERENT these days. Its more competitive, but there are also a lot more opportunities with online magazines, print mags that have separate online content, etc. I used to make almost 100% of my income from magazines but it burned me out and I started looking for Essay on Exploring, other things to do, and this happened at a time when mag writing started to become more competitive, so that was probably good timing on my part.

Now about half of my income comes from crime, magazines, and the other half is from a combination of e-courses and phone mentoring. Its hard to know whether I would be able to go back and description of a sunset, earn $70k per year writing almost solely for magazines as I used to. @Gemma: Yes, you could call it a framework. in magazine parlance, the way you organize and format an article is crime and punishment called packaging for example, clever subheds, anecdotes about each tip from real people, charticles, etc. Great insight and info. I have done a variety of jobs, before heading this route of shelley ode to wind freelance writing. It is encouraging to raskolnikov, know that someone with no one solid career can still offer their services of an article idea. (ok I have my degree in ode to wind law enforcement) I have never been afraid of crime and punishment meeting and talking to people, so interviewing professionals would be a great way to add the credibility to an offering. Thank you again Linda for your wisdom and willingness to share your wisdom. Linda. Thank you so much!

This is a great and act of 1887 was to, useful article. You actually gave me an idea. We right a lot on raskolnikov, other blogs and the aim act of, I never even thought about magazines. Thank you very much from Hungary! This is really helpful, thank you!

Thanks for reading, everyone! @Neil, see you in the Den! #128578; Great article! Good point about raskolnikov realising that you dont have to sunset, be an expert to write an raskolnikov crime and punishment article in a specialised field. Description Of A Sunset! The key is raskolnikov crime and punishment getting access to the experts. Thanks so much for the info Linda. Shelley! I took an e-course through about and punishment freelance writing for ode to, parenting publications.

Ive been pitching for about a year now, although off and on as time allows between a full-time marketing job and raising two little ones. Writing for the glossies is and punishment definitely a tough nut to crack, but Im making progress. Ive found that building my clips through my blog, writing for parenting websites, and sunset, other online sites like Huffington Post, has helped me along. Several times Ive had editors like my pitch, ask me for an outline, and then say no. Crime! So frustrating! Right now I have a Parenting editor liked my pitch and dawes 1887 was to, my outline, and is proposing it for the February issue.

So, its the and punishment, farthest Ive ever made it in ode to the west wind the process. Fingers crossed! Im off to read more of your tips on your blog. Raskolnikov Crime! Thanks again for the info! @Kristin: Youre right, they are a tough nut to crack. Thats why I focus on the aim act of, trades and custom pubs, pitching the glossies only raskolnikov and punishment, if I happen to 1400 ad, come up with an idea I really want to write that I think will be perfect for them. Crime And Punishment! But having clips from consumer pubs like Parenting can really open doors, so its worth the effort! Kristin @ What She Said. This is on Exploring McNabs Island one of the most informative articles Ive seen yet on how to break into magazine writing.

I love the query breakdown, as well as tips on who to mail the query (that one always stumps me). Raskolnikov And Punishment! Thanks so much! Really good guide. Just another reminder that its the content that matters if you can generate good stuff then people will find you. What do you feel about on Exploring what is happening with the magazines these days? They are thin as a mofo whats up with that? @Jacko: I think youll see that if you look at certain newsstand magazines. But there are THOUSANDS of markets out there that are thriving or at least not dying #128578; and crime, that you wont find at Essay the local bookstore. FYI, magazine newsstand single-copy sales were down about 9% in and punishment the first half of this year over 1400 ad, last year, but e-versions are picking up. Also, in the first half of this year there were 100 new regular-frequency newsstand magazines. (If I remember all that correctlyyou can get magazine news at Excellent post Linda and very inspiring too.

Just after reading your post, i applied in 3 magazines offices. Sent them the mail and waiting for the response. Hope they respond positively #128578; Simply one of the best/most helpful/entertaining/did I mention helpful? posts Ive read since this year. And Punishment! Thanks Linda. Thank YOU for description, your kind comment! Good stuff, Linda!

This is one of the best guides Ive seen so far in crime terms of detailed magazine pitching. 1887 Was To! I appreciate the specific pitch examples and the various ways you can approach the same pitch. Thanks so much, Scott! Im glad you liked the guide. I believe I can write well enough, but what I have got is only 10-12 cents per word. Crime And Punishment! Can you advice on how do I land a $1 per word assignment. The best article i read this morning. Helped me a lot to understand on how to write and how to pitch to write to others as well.

Kudos to in classical, you Linda. This was very helpful! Thank you! Man, this really makes the and punishment, process 10 times easier. I feel a lot less intimidated now. So glad it was helpful to you! I just wanted to thank you for this article. I love that you treated me like a total newbie (which I am) and told what to do and then gave an actual example. Thats how I learn best. The Aim Dawes Act Of Was To! Thanks again for raskolnikov crime, taking the Essay Apology Written By Plato, time to help us! Thanks, Jenniferglad the post helped you!

I would like to raskolnikov and punishment, write motivational self-help articles for Silver Sages (AKA seniors). Most of my writings are 350-700 words. I write about feelings, self-esteem, aging thoughts, loneliness and more. These are all subjects faced by every age group, but silver sages have a different point of view due to years of experience in a much less technological world. My goal is to discrimination in classical, help people who would like to improve their lives. My writings encourage readers to be the best they can be. Where can I find publications that want motivational articles from a senior, for seniors? Marcia, Great topics! Though essays (which is what it sounds like you want to write) can be a hard sell. If you can turn your experiences into raskolnikov and punishment, reported service pieces, meaning they have advice from experts that readers can use, those are easier to 1400 ad, pitch to magazines for retired people, boomers, etc. You can still use your experiences as a personal anecdote in your pitch lede, but advice will come from experts.

Check Writers Market, Google, online mag directories, and custom content companies that publish materials for businesses that target this demographic. Good luck! Great! Thats a good trigger for some industries. I think that you should specialize in any of area. so you stand out. So glad you decided to update this post and put it out there again, Linda. Crime! This is something I never even would have considered, but I love the fact that it opens up a whole new audience that wouldnt find me in the places I already am. Thanks for this, its going on my to-do-soon list! (And thanks for your step-by-step instructions on description of a sunset, how to make it happen too.) Awesome, Im glad the post was helpful to raskolnikov and punishment, you! Let us know how it goes with your pitchingfingers crossed!

Excellent post Linda and very inspiring too. Just after reading your post, i applied in 3 magazines offices. Sent them the mail and waiting for the response. Hope they respond positively. What a wonderful article from you Linda? I think your post inspire every writer and the aim dawes act of 1887 was to, also me. I hope some more article like this from you.

Ive never seen a pitch structured in the way you presented it. You provided killer ideas for writing compelling queries. Writing for magazines has never crossed my mind, yet the way you describe it makes it seem so simple not easy but simple. It seems like a less crowded route than typical avenues, such as job boards for crime and punishment, freelance blogging. Thanks for this post. Smart blogger has the best guest contributors on the aim of the act of, the internet. Period. Yes, definitely not easy! #128578; Though the pitching process gets easier the more you do it, and once you have a core group of loyal clients, you wont need to pitch much at and punishment all anymore.

Good luck! What an awesome idea! Im still in discrimination in classical the comprehension stage, getting ready to move into crime and punishment, the connection stage, but I would love to write for magazines after I get my blog going! It would be a dream come true. Essay McNabs Island! Thank you for outlining the pitch so clearly. And Punishment! You are a master explainer. Thanks, glad the post resonated with you! Thanks for this long piece on writing for magazine.

Ive been pondering on Essay Apology By Plato, the ways to raskolnikov, build my credibility as a freelance writer from shelley ode to wind, a country like Nigeria (bastardize with news of fraudulent acts). And Punishment! I believe now that writing for the magazines can probably stand me out. The good news is, you can write for magazines pretty much IN any country FROM any country! I know lots of non-U.S. writers who write for American magazines. Until they need to description sunset, send you a check, editors may not even know where youre located! One thing Im wondering I got a rejection that said my story was close and they hoped I would send another story soon. Raskolnikov Crime And Punishment! Is that the kind of non-standard form I should bring up if I submit there again?

How do you mention that tastefully? Hi, Rosie! I would send a quick thanks to the editor, then get that editor another story asap. You can write something like, Recently I sent you my story X. Unfortunately, it was a close miss and you asked me to send again. Thanks for your feedback, and for conditioning, the invitation! I think youll like my latest effort, Y. Or something like that. Let us know how it goes! Bodacious Ledes and fantabulous body!

These are great tips Linda, thanks. I started out writing for raskolnikov crime and punishment, local lifestyle magazines and then some speciality magazines. Yes, they pay pretty well, but all of them were notoriously slow in paying. The record was 1 year later and then only after steadily reminding the editor. Many magazines are now using contracts, so that helps somewhat in Essay on The Apology Written By Plato the pay area and copyright can also be negotiated. It might be helpful for new writers to see if there is a contract that goes with the acceptance of an article. Thanks again for this informative post. I would never write for a publication that didnt offer a contract or at least allow me to send them a contract of my own. I think I had the no-contract problem just once in my 20 years of freelancing, with the second article I ever sold. Raskolnikov Crime And Punishment! I was afraid to ask for a contract, the on Exploring Island, editor told me Oh, we pay around $X and I never got paid.

My writer friend Carol Tice, when asked whether you need a contract, always responds, Only if you want to get paid. #128578; That said, I have had some SLOW payers despite the contracts. Raskolnikov Crime And Punishment! For example, a MAJOR womens magazine took nine months to the aim dawes 1887 was to, pay me. Crime And Punishment! I knew they were good for it, so I didnt freak even as I dinged them every so often for a check, but its no fun to wait nine months to get paid. A big parenting magazine I wrote for paid on publication, but was notorious for 1400 ad, pushing off the pub date. (I only wrote for raskolnikov crime, them because I was friends with the editor, and I knew that however slow they were, they were always good for shelley ode to the west wind, it.)

I wonder what these editors would have done if their paychecks were one WEEK late? This is raskolnikov really timely for me. I will use these days to seek writing opportunity around the web to ode to the west wind, see what the raskolnikov crime and punishment, future has to offer. Reading this sure makes me wish I was a better writer! I like to act of 1887 was to, write, but I dont think Im nearly good enough to ever be able to convince someone to pay me $250 an hour to do it! Dylan, heres the thing: You dont HAVE to crime and punishment, convince people to pay you $250 per on The Apology, hour! #128578; You dont want to charge your clients and hourly rate because that invites micromanagement, and penalizes you if youre a fast writer. Raskolnikov Crime! I have a post on about how I earn $250 per discrimination in classical, hour (and you can, too) including by writing fast, offering tons of value, and mastering your craft.

You can go to Copyblogger and do a search on Formichelli and youll find it. Thank you so much for crime and punishment, this info. This is both helpful and encouraging, Linda. For what its worth, a long time ago ( mid-1990s) I followed up on a query Id sent by calling Cosmopolitan Magazine. Ive long since forgotten the name of the shelley wind, male editor to and punishment, whom I spoke.

He didnt yell at me, true, but he certainly did treat me like so much chopped liver. I had a practice to on Exploring McNabs Island, run and a full life to live, I started working on a book, and Cosmo never heard from me again. But there are other fish in the sea. That guy sounds like a jerk but I hope it didnt dissuade you from pitching magazines altogether. Youll run into editors of all kinds, from brusque to super sweet. Ive actually most enjoyed working with editors who arent afraid to tell it like it is. Loved this, Linda, and very helpful. I was sending out a query or two a week and stopped.

Yes, rejection and busyness got the crime, better of me. But your post has given me the incentive to start again. Thank you. Glad to 1400 ad, hear youll keep pitching, Laurie! I knowit can be discouraging to get a lot of Nos. But also, whenever you get a nice rejection from an editor, like where they ask you to pitch again, offer a compliment on your idea but say they have a similar one underway consider it a win, and and punishment, an opening to build a relationship with that editor!

Thanks Linda for this amazing and really informative post. What a terrific and truly helpful article, Linda. It gave me the information and confidence to give this a try. Thank you. Good luckplease circle back and let us know how it goes!

Sheezus fries, this is a lot to read! Been writing for my blog, like forever, and little did I know that theres an ocean out there and here I am staying put in my little puddle. 1400 Ad! Thank you, Linda, for raskolnikov and punishment, these great insights. I cant wait to get my body out of the office (as a web content writer) and start exploring the world out there and maybe get published (wishful thoughts, forgive me). Shelley Ode To Wind! Thank you so much for this again, Linda!

Thanks for your comment, Andreaand no, it is NOT wishful thinking! Its hard work, yes, but there are many people out there earning income by writing for magazines. Good luck! i always get excited when I read your advice on raskolnikov, anything. I take notes and follow up. Now, I have to of a sunset, get to work. That was very informative. I am new to the blogging world and it almost came as a reflex; the thought of writing for magazines or having my own column in a local daily.

Now that I know what to raskolnikov crime, expect when I approach them, I sure shall have more patience in dealing with it. Thanks. Glad you liked the description of a, post. Crime! Let us know how it goes! This post reeks of on The Apology Written awesome sauce!

Thanks a lot! As Ive dipped my toes in blogging, and have gotten posted on some pretty large websites, I want to and punishment, venture into magazine writing. 1400 Ad! I was thinking about enrolling in J-School with you and Carol Tice. Is that a good alternative to your magazine writing class? Whens the next time it will be available?

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20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. Before you even walk into a job interview youve made a first impression on raskolnikov crime, the interviewer. How? Through your resume. Description Sunset. According to a study conducted by the job search site, recruiters spend only about six seconds scanning a resume. So its essential that your resume makes a great first impression that it looks professional and well organized. How do you do that? You start by raskolnikov crime and punishment, using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is for), then you design a resume that stands out from the rest (here#8217;s how you do that).

When you have both these things you go into Canva and design the thing for free in no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from this article into Canva and shelley ode to wind here#8217;s where you go in raskolnikov and punishment Canva to on Exploring Island, start your new resume design right now). Times New Roman is probably the most commonly chosen fonts for raskolnikov, resumes the very reason you should avoid it, and why it appears on 1400 ad, our Worst list. Raskolnikov Crime. So if you dont want your resume to look like hundreds of others, youll want to choose something else. Apology. And Garamond is a great alternative. A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamonds precursors have been in use for around 500 years. The modern version has the benefit of giving your resume a classic, polished look thats much more interesting that the overused Times New Roman. As a bonus, if youre struggling to condense your resume to raskolnikov and punishment, one to two pages (which is a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on a page without sacrificing readability by lowering the font size or crowding your design by tightening up the spacing.

This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in England in the aim of the dawes act of the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is both classic and modern. Its used widely in the UK (across the British Railways system, by the BBC) and elsewhere. You might also notice that Gill Sans is very similar to the custom lettering featured on and punishment, the famous, WWII-era Keep Calm and Carry On poster, rediscovered at a British bookstore in 2000 and discrimination in classical subsequently popularized with many replicas of the design. Youll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT. Cambria, a serif font, is part of a suite of typefaces called the ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs. Crime And Punishment. These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and Corbel) were designed specifically to perform well on shelley the west, computer monitors. The studio that created Cambria describes it as the new Times New Romandesigned specifically for on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for print, thanks to its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at small sizes. This makes Cambria a good choice for both online and printed resumes. Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans. Although it has been the default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is still not used as often as Arial, which landed on raskolnikov, our Worst list for that reason.

This font has other things going for it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out that typing in Calibri at Essay Apology Written By Plato, a 12 pt. size will produce around 500 to 750 words, the ideal length of a two-page resume. Our third and last selection from Microsofts ClearType Font Collection, Constantias rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and less stuffy than many serif typefaces. Its also suitable for use both on-screen and in raskolnikov printed documents, making it useful for when you need to distribute your resume in both digital and hard copy form. Originally designed for corporate use, Lato is sans-serif font created to look neutral in body copy but have some unique traits at larger sizes. The fonts designer describes Lato as serious but friendly perfect for resumes. It comes in a wide range of weights and styles, though the Written hairline, thin, and light weights will be too hard to see at small sizes.

Its available for and punishment, download (free for both personal and commercial use) and for web use on Google Fonts. Didot is a distinctive serif font with an upscale look (perhaps a product of its Parisian roots). This classy typeface can lend some style to your resume and seems to be particularly popular for industries like fashion and photography. However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at larger sizes, so youll do best saving Didot for headings rather than body copy. Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. This Swiss sans-serif typeface is considered by many designers and typographers to be the description of a sunset king of crime and punishment, fonts. It even has its own self-titled documentary film. Thanks to its modern, clean lines and exceptional clarity, Helvetica is widely used in everything from major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to ode to the west, New York Citys subway signs. Crime And Punishment. To give your resume a clean and contemporary look thats still professional, try Helvetica. Its included with Mac operating systems, but if youre wanting to use it with Windows, youll have to purchase it.

Georgia is another alternative to Times New Roman. This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to description sunset, read even at small sizes. Plus, because it was created specifically for crime and punishment, clarity on computer monitors, it looks great viewed on of the dawes 1887, any digital document, such as if youre sending your resume as a PDF. This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an updated look. It has multiple weights that you can use to differentiate the various sections and features of your resume, but you should probably avoid the book and light weights, as well as any condensed versions they can be hard to read. Avenir Next is and punishment, another good option; it was released as a follow-up to conditioning, Avenir to improve the and punishment fonts on-screen display capabilities.

Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo. Surprised this one is on the list? Theres nothing wrong with the font in discrimination in classical conditioning itself, its just that it has been (over)used and abused. Since everyone else is using it on their resumes, yours wont stand out. Plus, Times New Roman is hard to and punishment, read at conditioning, very small sizes and raskolnikov and punishment doesnt display particularly well on screens. Like Gill Sans on our Best list, Futura was created in the 1920s. Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in shelley ode to the west Germany and is more geometric in form. Although its a clean, attractive font, the overall appearance is somewhat stylized and atypical. Raskolnikov Crime And Punishment. With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and a jarring contrast between sharp and round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and conditioning interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to be used sparingly) than practical for text-heavy documents like resumes. In the overused category, Arial is Times New Romans sans-serif equivalent.

Using a font thats so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice not putting much thought or effort into your resume. Plus, Arial is basically an adaptation of Helvetica thats a little looser and more irregular in raskolnikov its construction. In Classical Conditioning. Theres nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out raskolnikov, there than Arial. Designed to in classical, replicate the look of a typewriter and later adapted for use on crime and punishment, actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like you guessed it you typed your resume on a typewriter. Which you didnt unless you havent updated your resume in 30 some-odd years.

Plus, because this is a monospaced typeface (every letter is spaced equally, as opposed to Essay Apology, most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for whole pages of text. Raskolnikov And Punishment. Tempted to put your name at the top of your resume in a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality? Dont do it! And especially dont use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and Essay on Exploring McNabs dated rather than retro and nostalgic (it was designed in raskolnikov 1942). While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in playing with the appearance of your resume, when in doubt, its always a safe bet to on The By Plato, stick to conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts). Unless youve been living under a rock for raskolnikov and punishment, the past several years, youll know that using Comic Sans is Written, considered the cardinal sin of font choices. It was created in 1994 to replicate the and punishment look of comic book speech bubbles, and thats about all its appropriate for. The casual, almost childish look of the font makes it distracting in on Exploring Island any serious context. And in case youre wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on raskolnikov and punishment, a resume, according to this manager, it does happen. Just remember: its a good rule of thumb to in classical conditioning, stay far away from any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky. Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but its probably a little too irregular for crime, resumes.

Additionally, the thin letters of this fonts regular weight can be hard to read, particularly at in classical, small sizes. Theres really no good reason anyone should want to use this on raskolnikov and punishment, a resume, but people seem to like it. Of A. So if youre tempted to give your resume an crime, adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist. Description Of A Sunset. This font is so cliche (probably second only to Comic Sans) that is has become something of a joke Fast Co. Design puts it this way: as everyone who has written a school project over the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the font you use to spell out the word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You dont need a bold, heavy font to do it. And Punishment. Impact is most likely intended for use in all caps for headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to use it for body copy, where its almost impossible to 1400 ad, read. And Punishment. Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into stone than typed on Essay Island, your resume. Thats because the raskolnikov typeface was inspired by the letterforms carved into Trajans Column, a monument dedicated to the Roman emperor of the of the dawes act of was to same name. The font only raskolnikov crime and punishment has capital letters and small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for typing out shelley wind, readable sentences on your resume. Crime. So its probably a good idea to leave Trajan to the movie posters (more than 400 of them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe.

For resumes, a font size of 10 to 12 pt. (depending on description, the particular font, but no smaller than that) is standard. Larger sizes are acceptable for crime and punishment, headings or subheadings. Remember that everyone viewing your resume on 1400 ad, a computer will have different fonts installed, and crime and punishment you dont want your carefully chosen typeface automatically replaced with a substitute that messes up the documents appearance and formatting. Thats why its a good idea to always save and send your resume as a PDF, which preserves the original appearance (unlike a MS Word document). Do you have a favorite (or least favorite) font for resumes? Share in the comments below. Bring great design to your entire workplace.

Janie is a freelance writer and discrimination graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. After college, she built on her background in art to explore design. and loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the crime and punishment craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of graphic design. The Aim 1887. Build Your Brand: How to Choose The Right Fonts. 60 Free Sans Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Modern . Raskolnikov Crime. 60 Free Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Traditional . Essay On Exploring. 60 Free Calligraphy Fonts to Bring Charm to Your Design. 60 Free Outline Icon Sets Perfect for Contemporary Desi. 60 Free Fonts for Minimalist Designs. 50 Free Headline Fonts Built For Impact And Audience En. 50 Beautiful Free Wallpapers For Creatives [2015 Editio. 50 Design Terms Explained Simply For Non-Designers. The 30 Best Free Social Media Icon Sets of 2015.

100 Brilliant Color Combinations and How to Apply Them . Free Icons: 49 Best Sites To Find Beautiful And Useful . 60 Awesome Free Tools To Create A Visual Marketing Camp. Free Stock Photos: 73 Best Sites To Find Awesome Free I. You're almost there! Youll receive an crime and punishment, email soon to confirm your subscription.

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conjugal roles essay Lifestyle as Resistance: The Case of the Courtesans of Lucknow. by Veena Talwar Oldenburg (1990) [[1]] When, in raskolnikov crime, 1976, I was doing the research for a study on the social consequences of colonial urbanization in Lucknow, /1/ a city in dawes act of, northern India situated about crime and punishment, a third of the way between Delhi and Calcutta, I came across its famous courtesans for description sunset the first time. Raskolnikov Crime And Punishment? They appeared, surprisingly, in the civic tax ledgers of 1858-77 and in the related official correspondence preserved in the Municipal Corporation records room. /2/ They were classed under the occupational category of dancing and singing girls, and as if it was not surprise enough to find women in the tax records, it was even more remarkable that they were in the highest tax bracket, with the on Exploring, largest individual incomes of any in the city. The courtesans' names were also on lists of property: (houses, orchards, manufacturing and raskolnikov, retail establishments for food and luxury items) confiscated by British officials for their proven involvement in the siege of Lucknow and the rebeilion against the aim of the dawes act of was to, British rule in crime and punishment, 1857. In Classical? These women, though patently noncombatants, were penalized for their instigation of and raskolnikov crime and punishment, pecuniary assistance to the rebels.

On yet another list, some twenty pages long, are recorded the spoils of war seized from one set of female apartments in 1400 ad, the palace and garden complex called the Qaisar Bagh, where some of the deposed ex-King Wajid Ali Shah's three hundred or more consorts /3/ resided when it was seized by the British. It is a remarkable list, eloquently evocative of a privileged existence: gold and and punishment, silver ornaments studded with precious stones, embroidered cashmere wool and brocade shawls, bejeweled caps and shoes, silver-, gold-, jade-, and amber-handled fly whisks, silver cutlery, jade goblets, plates, spitoons, huqqahs , and silver utensils for serving and sunset, storing food and drink, and valuable furnishings. The value of this part of the booty of war was estimated at nearly four million rupees (there were approximately two rupees to the U.S. dollar in 1857). These courtesans appeared in other British colonial records as well. They were the subject of frequent official memorandums written in connection with a grave medical crisis that engulfed the military establishment in and punishment, Lucknow, as well as in all the Essay on The Apology By Plato, major cantonments in British India. A greater number of European casualties during the mutiny and rebellion of 1857, it was discovered, were caused by disease than in raskolnikov crime and punishment, combat. Ode To? The shock of this discovery was compounded by the embarrassing fact that one in every four European soldiers was afflicted with a venereal disease. It became clear that the battle to reduce European mortality rates would now be joined on the hygienic front, to ensure a healthy European army for the strategic needs of the empire. It became imperative that the raskolnikov crime, courtesans and prostitutes of Lucknow, along with those in the other 110 cantonments in India (and in several towns in Britain) where European soldiers were stationed, be regulated, inspected, and controlled. The provisions of Britain's Contagious Diseases Act of 1864 were incorporated into a comprehensive piece of legislation, Act XXII of 1864 in of the dawes act of was to, India; it required the registration and periodic medical examination of prostitutes in all cantonment cities of the crime and punishment, Indian empire. /4/

The British usurpation of the Kingdom of Awadh in 1856, and the forced exile of the king and many of his courtiers, had abruptly put an end to royal patronage for the courtesans. The imposition of the contagious diseases regulations and heavy fines and penalties on the courtesans for 1400 ad their role in the rebellion signaled the gradual debasement of an esteemed cultural institution into common prostitution. Women who had once consorted with kings and courtiers, enjoyed a fabulously opulent living, manipulated men and means for raskolnikov crime their own social and 1400 ad, political ends, been the custodians of culture and the setters of fashion trends, were left in raskolnikov, an extremely dubious and Essay on Exploring, vulnerable position under the British. Singing and raskolnikov crime and punishment, dancing girls was the classification invented to describe them in the civic tax ledgers, and encapsulates one of the many profound cultural misunderstandings of exotic Indian women by Essay on Exploring McNabs, colonial authorities. These new challenges provoked these women to intensify their struggle to keep out an intrusive civic authority that taxed their incomes and inspected their bodies. Characteristically, they responded by keeping two sets of books on their income, bribing the local da'i , or nurse, to raskolnikov crime avoid bodily inspections, bribing local policemen to avoid arrests for selling liquor to shelley ode to the west the soldiers, or publicly refusing to pay taxes even when threatened with imprisonment. The tactics were new but the raskolnikov crime and punishment, spirit behind them was veteran. These methods were imaginative extensions of the ancient and subtle ways the the aim, courtesans had cultivated to contest male authority in crime and punishment, their liaisons with men, and add up to a spirited defense of their own rights against colonial politics. Their loyalty to the king of Awadh's regime underscores the position and privileges that were the sine qua non of their existence. /5/ In a departure from the conventional perspective on this profession, I would argue that these women, even today, are independent, and consciously involved in the covert subversion of a male-dominated world; they celebrate womanhood in the privacy of their apartments by resisting and inverting the rules of gender of the larger society of which they are part. The Aim Of The Dawes Was To? Their way of raskolnikov life is not complicitous with male authority; on the contrary, in their own self-perceptions, definitions, and shelley ode to wind, descriptions they are engaged in ceaseless and chiefly nonconfrontational resistance to the new regulations and the resultant loss of prestige they have suffered since colonial rule began.

It would be no exaggeration to say that their life-style is resistance to rather than a perpetuation of raskolnikov patriarchal values . [[2]] Quite unexpectedly, another set of archival documents led me to a group of courtesans living in Lucknow in 1976, proud descendants of those who had survived first the pressures of a century of systematic harassment by the colonial authorities, and then the ban placed on their activities by description of a sunset, the government of independent India. These documents were the intercepted letters written by the Shi'i ruler, Wajid Ali Shah, to some of his wives, whom he had been forced to abandon in the capital city of Lucknow, after the crime and punishment, British annexed the description of a, prosperous and fertile Awadh Province in northern India and exiled him in 1856. I engaged a young Persian scholar, Chhote Miyan, /6/ to help me decipher these Persian letters. He not only provided the entree required to visit this group of courtesans but also, quite fortuitously, the key to comprehending their world. He explained why he had only been given a pet name (roughly, Mr. Small) instead of a serious Muslim famiiy name. He was the son of a courtesan, and she had never revealed to him the identity of raskolnikov and punishment his father. Ironically, his sad life story had all the elements of the socialization and description, upbringing accorded to a girl in a normal household: While I love and respect my mother and all my aunts (other courtesans) and my grandmother, my misfortune is that I was born a son and not a daughter in their house. When a boy is born in the kotha (salon), the day is without moment, even one of quiet sadness.

When my sister was born, there was a joyous celebration that was unforgettable. Crime And Punishment? Everyone received new clothes, there was singing, dancing, and feasting. My aunts went from the aim 1887 was to door to door distributing sweets. My sister is, today, a beautiful, educated, propertied woman. She will also inherit what my mother and crime and punishment, grandmother own. She will have a large income from rents; she doesn't even have to work as a courtesan, if she so chooses. I am educated, but I have no money or property.

Jobs are very hard to come by, so I live in a room and subsist on ode to, a small allowance that my mother gives in exchange for running errands for her and helping her deal with her lawyers. (She was trying to evict a tenant from a house she owned.) She paid for my education, but a degree is pretty worthless these days. My only hope is that I may marry a good woman who has money and who gives me sons so they can look after me in my old age, or find a way of getting a job in raskolnikov crime, Dubai, as my cousin did. Otherwise my chances in life are pretty dim. Funny isn't it, how these women have made life so topsy-turvy? In order to appreciate this rather remarkable inversion in a society that blatantly favors males over females, a brief sketch of the historical background of the 1400 ad, tawa'if , or the courtesans of Lucknow, is in order. /7/ At all Hindu and Muslim courts in the many kingdoms that made up the subcontinent before the raskolnikov, British began to conquer them and in classical conditioning, displace their rulers, the courtesans were an influential female elite. The courtesans of raskolnikov crime and punishment Lucknow were especially reputable. They had established themselves at the Awadh court in description, the eighteenth century, under the lavish patronage of the chief noblemen, merchants, and crime, the official elite of the capital city. Abdul Halim Sharar, an description sunset early-twentieth-century novelist and journalist who constructed a remarkable history of the Nawabs of Awadh, based mainly on crime, the oral testimony of the survivors of the events of 1857 in Lucknow, tells of their compelling role in court politics. The Aim Of The Act Of? A cultivated man like Hakim Mahdi, who later became Vazir (prime minister of crime Awadh), owed his initial success to a courtesan named Piyaro, who advanced her own money to enable him to make an offering to the ruler on his first appointment as Governor of the Province of Awadh. These absurdities went so far that it is 1400 ad, said that until a person had association with courtesans he was not a polished man. At the present time (c.1913) there are still some courtesans with whom it is not reprehensible to raskolnikov associate, and whose houses one can enter openly and unabashed. /8/ While implying that the coming of the Essay Written By Plato, British had left these women as a beleaguered community, Sharar was strongly of the opinion that the morals, manners, and raskolnikov crime, distinctiveness of Lucknow culture and society were sustained by the courtesans.

Ensconced as they were in lavish apartments in the city's main Chauk Bazaar, and in the Qaisar Bagh palace, they were not only recognized as preservers and performers of the high culture of the court, but they actively shaped the developments in Hindustani music and Kathak dance styles. Description? /9/ Their style of entertainment was widely imitated in other Indian court cities, and their enduring influence on the Hindi film is raskolnikov crime and punishment, all too patent. /10/ They commanded great respect in the court and in society, and association with them bestowed prestige on those who were invited to their salons for cultural soirées. It was not uncommon for the young sons of the act of was to, nobility to be sent to raskolnikov the best-known salons for instruction in etiquette, the art of conversation and polite manners, and the appreciation of Urdu literature. [[3]] In Lucknow, the world of the tawa'if was as complex and hierarchical as the society of which it was part. Courtesans were, and still are, usually a part of a larger establishment run by a chaudharayan , or chief courtesan, an older woman who has retired to the position of discrimination in classical conditioning manager after a successful career as a tawa'if . Having acquired wealth and fame, such women were able to recruit and train women who came to them, along with the more talented daughters of the raskolnikov crime and punishment, household. Typically a wealthy courtier, often the 1400 ad, king himself, /11/ began his direct association with a kotha by and punishment, bidding for a virgin whose patron he became, with the full privileges and obligations of that position. He was obliged to make regular contributions in cash and jewelry, and privileged to invite his friends to soirées and enjoy an exclusive sexual relationship with a tawa'if . His guests were expected to impress the management with their civilities and substance, so that they would qualify as patrons of the women who were still unattached, or at description sunset least as regulars of the kotha . Raskolnikov And Punishment? The chaudharayan always received a fixed proportion (approximately one-third) of the earnings to maintain the apartments; hire and train other dancing girls; and attract the musicians, chefs, and special servants that such establishments employed. Many of the musicians belonged to famous lineages, and much of late-nineteenth-century Hindustani music was invented and transformed in these salons, to accommodate the the aim act of 1887, new urban elite who filled the patronage vacuum in the colonial period. The household had other functionaries beyond the core group of daughters or nieces of the senior tawa'if . These women, called thakahi and randi , were affiliates of a kotha but were ranked lower; their less remarkable appearance and talent restricted them to providing chiefly sexual services in rather more austere quarters downstairs. Another interesting group of women secretly associated with the establishment were khangi , or women who were married and and punishment, observed strict pardah , but who, for financial or other reasons, came to the kotha for clandestine liaisons; the chaudharayan collected a fee from them for her hospitality.

Doormen, watchmen, errand boys, tailors, palanquin carriers, and others, who lived in the lower floors of the house, or in shelley, detached servants' quarters, and were also often kinsmen, screened suspicious characters at raskolnikov crime and punishment the door, acted as protectors of the house, and spied on the activities of the police and medical departments. Ode To The West Wind? Pimps or other male agents simply did not exist, then or later. It is popularly believed that the chaudharayan's most common mode of recruitment has always been kidnapping; that the tawa'if were linked to a large underground network of raskolnikov male criminals who abducted very young girls from 1400 ad villages and small towns and sold them to the kothas or nishat-khanas (literally, pleasure houses). This belief was fueled, if not actually generated, by Lucknow's famous poet and littérateur , Mirza Hadi Ruswa, in his Umra'o Jan Ada . The novel first appeared in 1905 [[actually 1899--fwp]], was an immediate success, and was translated into English in 1961. It has been reprinted several times since it was reincarnated as a Bombay film in raskolnikov, 1981. The influence this novel has exerted on the popular imagination is enormous; it is the single most important source of information on courtesans of Essay on The By Plato Lucknow, and by extension, the raskolnikov, entire profession as it was practiced in the nineteenth century, in northern India. Set in the second half of the 1887 was to, nineteenth century, it is a melodramatic story of a tawa'if , Umrao Jan, who as a beautiful child of five is kidnapped and sold to a tawa'if in Lucknow, where she trains and becomes, after a few complicated twists and turns in the plot, a renowned and raskolnikov crime and punishment, much-sought-after courtesan. Ruswa uses the classic ploy of writing an introduction wherein he explains that he is merely recording the true story of Umra'o Jan, told to him by ode to the west, the protagonist herself. His use of the first person in the memoir, in which the courtesan frequently addresses him by raskolnikov, name, makes it all the on The Written By Plato, more convincing. Ruswa was a regular participant at several salons, and crime and punishment, the glimpses he provides of the rigorous training and the world view of the courtesan are quite accurate historically.

What is less known is Essay Island, that Ruswa had a keen interest in crime, and several of his translations and adaptations were of contemporary Victorian and Urdu potboilers. He published a then-popular series of khuni novels (literally, bloody killer), some of whose titles, such as Khuni Shahzada (The killer prince), Khuni Joru (The killer wife), Khuni 'Ashiq (The killer lover), betray his predilection for the sensational. One of the older courtesans I interviewed, who had known Ruswa personally, gave the book a mixed review. She commended Ruswa for raskolnikov crime understanding the mentality of the courtesan, but blamed him for inventing characters such as the the aim dawes 1887, evil kidnapper and the exploitative madame who became the stuff of later stereotypes. /12/ [[4]] The greatest harm was done to the reputation of the kotha , however, by British political propaganda. The older courtesans I interviewed, who felt keenly about contemporary politics and had connections among the and punishment, local power elite, were impressively knowledgeable about the of a sunset, history of their city. In their view it was official British policy to malign the courtesans and the culture of salons, in order to justify the British role as usurpers of the throne of Awadh in 1856. British high-handedness in this and other policies unleashed a widespread rebellion in north and central India in 1857, which raged for ten months in raskolnikov crime and punishment, Awadh until Lucknow was recaptured by the British. To consolidate their rule in the Province of Awadh, the British turned their fury against the powerful elite of Lucknow, of which the tawa'f were an integral part. Yet when it came to matters such as using these women as prostitutes for the European garrison, or collecting income tax, the shelley the west, eminently pragmatic British set aside their high moral dudgeon.

It became official policy to crime and punishment select the healthy and beautiful specimens from among the kotha women and arbitrarily relocate them in the cantonment for discrimination in classical conditioning the convenience of the European soldiers. This not only dehumanized the profession, stripping it of its cultural function, but it also made sex cheap and raskolnikov crime and punishment, easy for the men, and exposed the women to venereal infection from the soldiers. /13/ Kidnapping may have been (and perhaps still is) one of the methods by which girls fmd their way into the tawa'if households, but it is certainly not the ode to the west wind, most common. Crime? From my interviews with the thirty women who today live in the Chowk area of Lucknow, and whose ages ranged from thirty-five to seventy-eight, a very different picture emerged. 1400 Ad? In recording the life stories of these women, who spanned three generations, I found that the compelling circumstance that brought the majority of them to the various tawa'if households in Lucknow was the misery they endured in crime and punishment, either their natal or their conjugal homes. Four of 1400 ad these women were widowed in their early teens, two of whom hailed from the same district and had lost their husbands in a cholera epidemic; three were sold by their parents when famine conditions made feeding these girls impossible. Seven were victims of physical abuse, two of whom were sisters who were regularly beaten by their alcoholic father for not obliging him by making themselves sexually available to the toddy seller. Three were known victims of rape and raskolnikov crime, therefore deemed ineligible for marriage; two had left their ill-paid jobs as municipal sweeper women, because they were tired of collecting other people's dirt; two were battered wives; one had left her husband because he had a mistress; and ode to the west, one admitted no particular hardship, only a love for singing and dancing that was not countenanced in her orthodox Brahmin home.

Three said they had left their marriages without much ado; they saw the raskolnikov, advantage of earning their own living and being at wind liberty to use their resources as they wished, and they did not want to have children. Only four of them were daughters of other tawa'if . Raskolnikov Crime And Punishment? Not one claimed that kidnapping had been her experience, although they had heard of such cases. Shelley Wind? This assortment of refugees from the sharif , or respectable, world gave a completely ironic slant to the notion of respectability. The problem, according to Saira Jan, a plump woman in her early forties, who recounted her escape from a violent, alcoholic husband at length and with humor, was that there were no obliging kidnappers in her muhallah [neighborhood]. Crime? Had there been such farishte [angels] in Hasanganj I would not have had to plot and plan my own escape at Essay on Exploring great peril to my life and my friends, who helped me. /14/ This catalog reflects the wide range of miserable circumstances from crime and punishment which these women had escaped. Desertion has been traditionally resorted to by those trapped in situations they had no other effective means of fighting or changing. To the description of a, list of fugitives from oppression, which includes black slaves in and punishment, the ante­bellum United States, bonded laborers on of a sunset, colonial plantations, and raskolnikov crime, drafted soldiers, can be added women fleeing the quotidian suffering they encountered as daughters, sisters, or wives. Ode To? /15/ Gulbadan, who was a chaudharayan from her late thirties (she claims she was born in 1900 and initiated when she was thirteen years old), had been the niece of a tawa'if and was raised in the household she now managed.

She spoke of the kotha as a sanctuary for both women and raskolnikov and punishment, men: women found in 1400 ad, it a greater peace and freedom than in the normal world; men escaped the boredom of raskolnikov crime and punishment their domestic lives. She reminded Saira that she was a miserable, under-weight, frightened wretch when she had first appeared at her doorstep. She was thin as a stick, her complexion was blotchy, her eyes sunk in black holes, and she had less than two rupees tied to the end of her sari. Even these she had to steal, explained Rahat Jan, Gulbadan's partner (her term). Now look at her, we call her our hathini [female elephant], who eats milk and jalebi [syrup-filled, deep-fried sweets] to keep herself occupied between meals, although she argues it is to keep her voice dulcet. Most women told their stories with enthusiasm.

They had wanted to escape hell (the word jahannum , the Islamic hell, was frequently used to in classical conditioning describe their earlier homes) at any cost. Learning professional skills and earning their own money helped them develop self-esteem and value the relative independence they encountered in Rahat Jan's kotha . And Punishment? It may well be that some of the women exaggerated the horrors of the past, but the kernels of their stories were embedded in the reality of the gender bias in act of 1887 was to, society. Here they could be women first, and raskolnikov crime and punishment, Hindus and Muslims in a more mutually tolerant way, because the culture of the kotha represented elements of both and shelley ode to wind, was acknowledged as a truly synthetic tradition. [[5]] The story of crime and punishment one of the Hindu child widows, Rasulan Ba'i, thirty-five, is especially compelling, because it exposes the ineffectiveness of the social reform legislation passed in the last 150 years, and the lack of options for in classical conditioning young widows even today. Although it is the story of a habitual but covert rebel, it also explains why a courtesan is not willing to engage in questioning her status as a collaborator in crime, perpetuating patriarchal values in society that keep other women in powerless positions. /16/ I was married when I was ten. My natal family was Rajput, my father and uncles owned fifty acres of irrigated land; my mother did not have to work too hard because we had two servants who did most of the household work. I had attended three years of of the dawes act of 1887 was to school, but I barely knew how to recognize the letters that spell my name. My gauna ceremony occurred just three months after menarche. I remember being taken to my husband's house with my dowry and plenty of gifts for my in-laws. My father sent several sacks of wheat, sugar, lentils, and other produce from the raskolnikov, farm, because I was married to 1400 ad a young Rajput boy whose father had gambled away most of their wealth.

That summer [19601 there was a very big flood, which washed away the mud huts in the village, the livestock, and our food reserves. While my husband was out with his brothers trying to salvage some of the food stored in earthenware jars, he slipped and fell into raskolnikov crime and punishment, the water, and three days later was dead after a severe bout of cholera. I survived, but I often wished I were dead. The local Brahmin said that my ill-starred presence had brought flood and death to discrimination the village. My jewels, clothes, and the few silver coins which I had hidden away were all forcibly taken away from me, and I became a widow in white who did all the and punishment, nasty, heavy chores for the household. Shelley Ode To Wind? I was fed scraps when I cried out in hunger. You talk about the laws that were passed by the British to prevent child marriage, you talk of the rights we won when the and punishment, Hindu Civil Code (1956) was passed, but I sneer at all that. I had no recourse to shelley the laws, or to lawyers, only to crime my wits sharpened by adversity. I first tried to get back at them with sly acts of sabotage.

I did the washing up indifferently, leaving a dull film on the metal platters and the pots. For this my mother-in-law thrashed me. I would sneak into the kitchen when my sister-in-law had finished cooking and add a heuvy dose of salt to the lentils and vegetables.. I would hide my smile when I heard the yells and abuse heaped on her by shelley wind, the menfolk. Raskolnikov? She caught me one day and thrashed me soundly until I howled with pain.

Her husband came home and 1400 ad, gave me another hiding. Life was unbearable, but I was trapped; there was nowhere that I could go. My parents, who had come for the funeral to our village, were distressed, but they did not offer to take me back, because they still had my younger sisters to marry. Fights, violence erupted all the raskolnikov and punishment, time. My sister-in-law kept wishing me dead. When it was discovered that I stole money to buy snacks from the vendor, they threatened to burn me alive. I wanted to run away but didn't know where I would go, except to the river to drown myself. On Exploring McNabs Island? Finally when an itinerant troupe of entertainers was encamped in our village, I saw the performance and thought I would secretly apply to work for them, just do their housework or something.

They agreed to shelter me, after I told them my troubles and showed them the and punishment, bruises on my body. On The Apology Written By Plato? They smuggled me out of that hell, gave me bit parts in their dramas, and finally brought me to the lap of Bibi Khanum (another tawa'if ) in Lucknow, and I have never looked back. Crime? I had no option but to run away. Tell me, sister, what would you have done in my place? There were many stories, each with its own flavor of horror, and of courage, and none that did not have a relatively happy ending. The Aim Dawes? Comparable employment opportunities for crime and punishment women simply did not exist then, and are few and far between even now. Gulbadan explained that not all women in need can make the of a sunset, kotha their refuge; some are not talented enough to raskolnikov become courtesans, and some are too anxious about their moral standing. Women, particularly from the higher strata of Hindu and discrimination, Muslim society, fear violent reprisals if discovered by their families, or shrink from exposure to strange men. She went on to say that many women flee their homes in the villages and come to the anonymity of the crime, city to work as domestic servants, as ayahs [nannies] or maids or cooks. Some join road gangs run by government or private building contractors, only to break bricks into small pieces with a hammer all day in Essay Apology Written By Plato, the sun, and earn in a month what we make in a few hours of crime passing the time in civilized company. /17/ To make ends meet they have to sleep with their employers and the dalal , or middle­men who found them their jobs, and get beaten up by shelley ode to the west wind, their husbands when they find out: Gulbadan explained that a woman compromises her dignity twenty.four hours of the day when she has no control over her body or her money. Crime And Punishment? /18/ This response was unanimously endorsed by Essay, the other courtesans. The women who said that their own parents had sold them when they were unable to raskolnikov crime and punishment feed them, much less pay for a wcdding and a dowry, felt that their parenls were forced by circumstances to make such a hard decision.

Yet they sent money home every month to take care of their impoverished families, which was gratefully received, and whatever resentment they may have felt for being abandoned as children had dissipated through understanding the limits imposed on women in this world. Gulbadan, who spoke more aphoristically than the of a, others, explained that even fifty years ago there was very little scope for women to change the lives they grumblingly led: What they couldn't change they called their qismat , their fate. Here, in raskolnikov, our world, even though things are not as good as they were before the British came, women change their qismat . Even philosophers and poets will tell you that no one can change their qismat . Ask these women, who have lived and worked together for more than twenty years, whether or not they think that I taught them how to 1400 ad mold their own fate like clay with their own hands. I did, and they agreed, with laughing nods, while they celebrated Janmashtami (birthday of the Hindu god Krishna, the patron of their dance) and and punishment, the Muslim festival of 'Id, on the third floor of Gulbadan's impressively large building. And this was the very essence of their world view.

[[6]] Gulbadan had tossed this off as she sat on the large platform covered with an old Persian rug and velvet and brocade bolsters that propped her up. Watching her deft fingers prepare a paan , or betel leaf, with its half-dozen nut-and-spice fixings, I felt I was in the presence of an alchemist who had transformed base fortunes into gold. She, along with her septuagenarian friends, had inherited a way of life and struggled to preserve it, quite selfishly, in the face of an increasingly hostile future. The Aim Act Of? Their business was neither to exploit women, nor to transform the lot of the generality of crime womankind, but to in classical conditioning liberate and empower those with whom they were associated. The high level of raskolnikov crime and punishment camaraderie, wit, teasing, and affectionate interaction that I observed and participated in on several visits to the apartments of the older women over shelley the west wind, ten years affirmed this impression repeatedly. The process of changing one's fate ( qismat badalna ) is, under closer scrutiny, a psychosocial process through which the social construction of gender (and sexuality, as we shall see) is stripped bare. The chaudharayan acts in several capacities, the most challenging being to raskolnikov crime and punishment inspire in the women who come to her a confidence in their own ability and worth, restore shattered nerves, set about undoing the socialization they had received in their natal homes. This delicate and difficult task, at one level, is not unlike the task modern psychotherapy purports to perform in Western society. The problem, according to Essay By Plato Rasulan, was to forget the expectations inherent in the meaning of the word 'aurat , or woman, as it obtained in the larger society: The notion woman was dinned into my mind and had shaped my behavior from the day I was born.

Fortunately I was still a child (thirteen or fourteen), so forgetting was not as difficult as it might have been even a few years later. I forgot my misery upon arriving in a house where a different meaning of that word was already in place, where Amina Ba'i and Zehra Jan [Gulbadan's granddaughters] were acting out those meanings for crime and punishment us all. They did not fear men because they were admired and praised by men; nor had they ever been nagged by their mother and description sunset, grandmother about not doing this or that or they would not be able to get married, nor slapped by crime, a father for being immodest. They had never been upset at being a burden to conditioning their parents, since the shadow of dahej [dowry] has never darkened their lives. I resented them to raskolnikov begin with, thought them spoilt and selfish, but slowly 1 began to realize that they were of discrimination in classical conditioning a different mold.

I would have to break my own mental mold and recast myself. I got a lot of raskolnikov love from Gulbadan, Rahat Jan, and on Exploring McNabs Island, Amiran. Raskolnikov Crime And Punishment? They would listen to me, and conditioning, I would regurgitate all the sorrow, pain, and poison I had swallowed, again and again. Now when I tell you my story, it is as if I am telling you another's tale. Really, I didn't know that I was capable of doing anything, being anyone, or owning my own building and employing seventeen men in a charpa'i karkhana [wooden cot workshop]. I had the mentality of raskolnikov crime a timid and ugly mouse; now I am accused of description sunset being too arrogant and am envied for raskolnikov crime and punishment the property I own. Shelley Wind? /19/ The process of rehabilitation for these women is rapid, since they generally arrive young and are plunged into a welcoming environment. The self-affirming ethos of the kotha makes it possible for them to assimilate their newly revised perceptions and behavior patterns, while living among a host of raskolnikov nurturing and supportive women, and without the shelley ode to, fear of men. Raskolnikov Crime And Punishment? Freedom from the pressure of the marriage market where grooms were for sale to the woman with the largest dowry, they unanimously agreed, gave them the inner courage to develop their skills and treat men as equals, or even as inferiors. [[7]] There are other therapeutic devices invented over the ages that are still in use in these salons. Novices are introduced to a secret repertoire of satirical and bawdy songs, dances, informal miming, and dramatic representations, aimed at the institution of marriage and ode to wind, heterosexual relations.

These entertainments are privately performed only among women. These matinee shows, as they jokingly call them, are not only crime crucial for the solidarity and 1400 ad, well­being of the group, but they also help the crime and punishment, newcomers to discard the old and ode to, internalize the new meaning of being an raskolnikov and punishment 'aurat . Of A Sunset? I recognized this, when in answer to one of my early (and very naive) questions I was treated to a vignette on the joys of marriage. /20/ VTO: Gulbadan, since you are a handsome woman, so well educated, with all this money and property and raskolnikov crime, jewels, why didn't you marry a sharif [respectable) nawab (there are several descendants of noble families in Lucknow who use this honorific) and settle down to a life of respectability? Gulbadan: Your use of the word respectable is thoughtless. Is marringe considered the only respectable alternative for women in America? Are married women not abused? Well, let us show you what marriage is before you wish it on an old and Apology By Plato, respectable woman like myself, or any of us here. Let us dispel the darkness in your mind about the nature of marriage. Raskolnikov Crime And Punishment? Of what they then played out for of the dawes 1887 me I can only raskolnikov and punishment offer an inadequate summary, because it is difficult to capture the visual details of the half-hour-long satirical medley of 1400 ad song, dance, dialogue, and mime that followed.

Rasulan immediately took her dupatta [long scarf] and wound it around her head as a turban to play the husband. Elfin Hasina Jan took her cue as the wife, others became children and members of the extended family, while Gulbadan remained on her settee amid the bolsters, taking occasional drags from the huqqah , presiding, as a particularly obnoxious mother-in­law, over a scene of domestic disharmony. The wife/mother first surveys the raskolnikov crime and punishment, multifarious demands on her energy and time: the children squall, ask for Essay on The Apology By Plato food, drink, and want to be picked up; the mother-in-law orders that her legs, which have wearied from sitting, be massaged; the husband demands food and attention; the father-in-law asks for raskolnikov crime his huqqah to be refilled; and a sister-in-law announces that she cannot fmish doing the laundry, nor knead the chapati dough, because she is not feeling too well. Hasina is defeated, harried. Muttering choice obscenities /21/ under her breath, she begins, in a frenzied way, to do the Essay Island, job of raskolnikov and punishment a wife. She lights the coal stove, dusts and tidies the room, cooks, presses the legs of the mother-in-law who emits pleasurable grunts, tries to soothe the baby who is now wailing, and puts plates of food in front of the demanding husband. She finally collapses, her hands striking her own brow as she croaks a hai tobah or never more. A little later the din subsides and she, choked with sobs, says that her qismat is terrible, that she would do anything not to the aim of the dawes act of 1887 was to have to be the bahu , or daughter-in-law, in this or any other household, if she only had a choice. She is trapped. The rest of the household snores noisily while her husband, belching and hiccupping after his food and drink, makes a lunge at her for raskolnikov crime some quick sex.

She succumbs, and after a few agitated seconds he appears satisfied. He grudgingly parts with twenty rupees he owes her for household expenses. She complains that the money is just not enough for ode to the west wind the groceries, ducks a blow, cries some more, and finally falls asleep, wretched and hungry. Apart from the crime, cathartic value of such a representation, it transmuted grim reality into mordant comment, marked with their own brand of exaggeration and mockery. The women pointed out the several morals embedded in Essay on The Apology Written, the story to raskolnikov me. Description Sunset? Those who dare to hold moral objections to crime the life of a tawa'if should first examine the thankless toil of an average housewife, including her obligation to satisfy a sometimes faithless or alcoholic or violent husband for the sake of a meager living.

Such an existence is without dignity, and was not the situation of the housewife tantamount to that of a common prostitute, giving her body for money? /22/ It is description of a, we who are brought up to live in raskolnikov crime, sharafat [genteel respectability], with control over our bodies and our money, and they who suffer the degradation reserved for lowly [ nich ] women. /23/ Such vivid reversals of social perception and logic are stock idioms in the courtesans' speech and song. Male affines, particularly fathers and brothers-in-law, are caricatured in countless risqué episodes enacted regularly and privately among women. They mock the repressive relationships and male sexuality in the conjugal home, even as they amuse, educate, and edify the the aim of the dawes act of, denizens of the kotha . /24/ The routines, studded with subversive and raskolnikov crime, irreverent jokes and conditioning, obscene gestures, are performed like secret anti-rites /25/ which have been carefully distilled and raskolnikov and punishment, historically transmitted from generation to sunset generation, to form the core of their private consciousness and oral heritage. [[8]] I had also seriously questioned the courtesans' use of the burqa' , which is a long overcloak that Muslim women in pardah wear for extended seclusion outside the crime, home. This cloak, usually black or white, is worn over regular clothes and covers the wearer from head to discrimination conditioning foot. It has a small rectangular piece of raskolnikov crime and punishment netting that fits over discrimination conditioning, the eyes that enables the crime and punishment, wearers to see, while they cannot be seen at all. It is certainly an artifact of a male-dominated society, where men could dictate that women keep themselves covered so as not to provoke male lust. /26/ It was, at first, inexplicable why tawa'if not only used the burqa' to move around when they went visiting or shopping, but actually insisted that I too should wear one as they led me to other kothas in the vicinity, because injunctions about on The Written, female modesty did not apply to raskolnikov crime and punishment them. It was precisely because they were not expected to be in pardah , they reasoned, in another classic reversal of patriarchal logic, that they chose to block the gaze of men. It was an extension of the autonomy they enjoyed in their living space and their jism [bodies], unlike normal women whose bodies were the property of their husbands and conditioning, who were secluded but lacked privacy in their own homes. And Punishment? The latter were kept in pardah to maintain (and increase) khandani 'izzat , or family honor; for them to show their faces in Essay on Exploring, public would bring disgrace to their families.

Ah, but our case is just the opposite, said Saira, men long to see our faces. If they could brag among their friends that they had seen Gulbadan or Amiran in the bazaar without a covering, they would go up in the esteem in which their friends hold them. Crime And Punishment? We are not in Apology By Plato, the business of giving them cheap thrills. While we walk freely and anonymously in public places, looking at and punishment the world through our nets, they are deprived because we have blinkered them. We do not, as you know, bestow anything on men without extracting its price. /27/ I would have disputed this had I not experienced the freedom the burqa' gave me to walk along the Essay on Exploring Island, winding alleys in a very old­fashioned and gossip-filled city, where I formerly never passed without being accosted with vulgar taunts from the idle youths who mill on the streets. These women had appropriated the power of the gaze, while eluding the leer of sexually frustrated men. A great deal has been said, and is known, about the rigorous training and education courtesans undergo to ultimately please and entertain their patrons. /28/ What has never received discursive treatment, because of raskolnikov and punishment its very nature, is their secret skill the art of nakhrah , or pretense, that courtesans have to master in 1400 ad, order to spare no opportunity of raskolnikov crime coaxing money out of their patron and his friends. Their avowed and unabashed purpose is to amass a tidy fortune as early in discrimination in classical, their careers as possible, so that they can invest the surplus in income-producing properties or enterprises and retire comfortably at and punishment the age of thirty-five or so. 1400 Ad? To achieve their material ambitions, they use, in addition to their exorbitant charges, an raskolnikov crime and punishment arsenal of devious routines that make up the hidden text of an the west evening's entertainment. These are subtly deployed to bargain, cajole, and extort extra cash or kind from crime and punishment their unsuspecting clients. /29/ Some of these are learned, some invented, some even improvised, but nuances are refigured with care to suit the temperament of a client, or the on Exploring Island, mood of the moment, to raskolnikov crime appear spontaneous.

Repeated rehearsals by the trainee are evaluated by the adept tawa'if , until no trace of the pretense is discernible. [[9]] These well-practiced ploys the feigned headache that interrupts a dance or a song, feigned anger for having been neglected, a sprained ankle, tears, a jealous rage have beguiled generations of men to lose thousands of extra rupees or gold coins to these women. 1400 Ad? The tawa'if's refusal, at a critical juncture, to complete a sexual interlude with a favorite patron is a particularly profitable device, because feigned coital injuries or painful menstrual cramps involve expensive and patient waiting on the part of the patron. Gulbadan said she often carried the raskolnikov crime and punishment, game a step further by allying herself with the patron against the offending courtesan, to set the seal of McNabs Island authenticity on the scene. She would scold and even slap her till the patron begged her not to be so harsh. Gulbadan was the privately acclaimed champion of these more serious confidence tricks, and others cheerfully confessed to having blackmailed, stolen, lied, and cheated for raskolnikov material gain as soon as they acquired competence in this art. On The? This may sound more like self-enrichment than resistance, but because society has virtually denied women control over crime, wealth or property, it is essential to establishing a countercultural way of description of a life. The formula, Gulbadan confided, is to win the complete trust of the man. This they do by first mastering all the information about the man his public reputation, his finances, his foibles and crime, vanities, his domestic life, and the skeletons in his closet. Not many come here openly any more, because our salons are regarded as houses of ill-repute in these modern times.

Most come to drink and for sexual titillation. We know how to get a man drunk and pliant, so that we can extort whatever we want from of a him: money, even property, apologies, jewels, perfume, or other lavish gifts. Industrialists, government officers, other businessmen come here now; they have a lot of black money [undeclared cash] that they bring with them, sometimes without even counting it. We make sure that they leave with very little, if any. We know those who will pay large sums to insure secrecy, so we threaten them with careless gossip in crime and punishment, the bazaar, or with an anonymous note addressed to their fathers or their wives.

We do not act collectively as a rule, but sometimes it may become necessary to do so. Dawes? We once did a drama against a money lender who came and would not pay us the money he had promised for holding an exclusive soirée for him. Crime? So when a police officer who had fallen in Island, love with me came by. we all told him tales of how the wretched man would not return jewels some of us had pawned with him. We filed a police report, he was arrested, and some of the pawned items (which the jeweler had taken from some of our recently straitened noble patrons) were made over to us by the lovelorn officer; others of his debtors sent us sweets and thanks for bringing the crime, hated Ram Swarup to justice. But our biggest gambit of discrimination in classical conditioning all is the game of love that makes these men come back again and again, some until they are financially ruined. They return every evening, like the raskolnikov crime, flocks of homing pigeons, in the vain belief thnt it is we who are in love with them. /30/ In Ruswa's 1905 novel about Lucknow's courtesans, this particular nakhrah is 1400 ad, insightfully described by the protagonist, Umra'o Jan : I am but a courtesan in whose profession love is a current coin. Whenever we want to raskolnikov crime and punishment ensnare anyone we pretend to of the act of 1887 fall in love with him. No one knows how to raskolnikov love more than we do: to heave deep sighs; to burst into 1400 ad, tears at the slightest pretext; to go without food for days on end; to sit dangling our legs on the parapets of wells ready to jump into raskolnikov, them; to threaten to take arsenic. All these are parts of our game of love.

But I tell you truthfully, no man ever really loved me nor did I love any man. /31/ [[10]] A discussion of the feigning of love for 1400 ad men (a discussion which occurred only after several visits) brought perhaps the most startling hidden text to light. It was difficult to imagine that these women, even though they were economically independent, educated, and in control of their lives, would spurn the opportunity for real intimacy and emotional stability. Everyone agreed that emotional needs do not disappear with success, fame, or independence; on the contrary, they often intensify. Almost every one of the women I interviewed during these many visits claimed that their closest emotional relationships were among themselves, and eight of them admitted, when I pressed them, that their most satisfying physical involvements were with other women. They referred to themselves as chapat baz , or lesbians, and to chapti , or chipti , or chapat bazi , or lesbianism. /32/ They seemed to attach little importance to labels, and made no verbal distinctions between homosexual and heterosexual relations. There was no other serious or poetic term for lesbianism, so I settled for the colloquialisms. Their explanation for this was that emotions and acts of love are gender-free. Serious words such as muhabbat (Urdu) or prem (Hindi) or love (English) are versatile and can be used to describe many kinds of love, such as the crime, love of man or woman, the 1400 ad, love for country, for siblings, parents of either sex, so there was no need to have a special term for love between two women. There are words that suggest passionate love, like 'ishq ; these have the same neutral capability and are used by either gender. Although their lesbianism is raskolnikov crime, a strictly private matter for them, the absence of a specialized vocabulary makes it a simple fact of Essay Island life, like heterosexual love, or the less denied male homosexual love.

The lack of terminology or the scrambling of pronouns may also be interpreted as the ultimate disguise for it; if something cannot be named, it is easy to deny its existence. In Urdu poetry, ambiguity about gender is not uncommon, and homosexual love often passes for raskolnikov crime heterosexual love. /33/ The frank discussions on 1400 ad, the subject of their private sexuality left some of my informants uneasy. I had probed enough into their personal affairs, they insisted, and they were not going to satisfy my curiosity any further; they were uncomfortable with my insistence on stripping their strategic camouflage, by which they also preserved their emotional integrity. Their very diffidence to crime and punishment talk about their lesbianism underscores the thesis that they believe in a quiet, but profound, subversion of patriarchal values. It became clear that for many of them heterosexuality itself is the ultimate nakhrah , and feigned passion an occupational hallmark. My ardor for precise statistics faded as the real and of the 1887 was to, theoretical implications of their silences and their disguises began to emerge. /34/ And it is to these that I now turn. [[11]] What do all these stories signify? Does the courtesans' presentation of their life-style add up to crime and punishment a subversion of existing gender relations in heterosexual marriage? Can their beliefs and behavior be seen as feminist by conditioning, modern standards, or are they just another example of that widespread affliction, false consciousness? How do we reconcile the raskolnikov crime, horizontal stratifications of the aim of the was to class with the raskolnikov crime, vertical divide of gender, and their anomalous position in either group?

Do they qualify as a subaltern group as women, or as an elite group by virtue of their power and connections? Does this life-style not signify that sexuality, including lesbianism, is indeed socially constructed? Let me begin to hack at this thicket by citing Romila Thapar's perspective on Hindu ascetics. In taking ascetics (an equally unlikely-seeming group of in classical conditioning rebels) both as individuals or in organized groups, as dissenters, she sees in their rejection of the grahasta-ashrama , or the householder stage in a prescribed four-stage cycle (student, householder, recluse, and ascetic) of an raskolnikov crime and punishment upper-caste Hindu male's life, the essence of their rebellion. An aging grahasta [householder] taking to samnyasa [the ascetic life] was merely conforming to the ideal vita. Of The Dawes Was To? The negation of the family as a basic unit of society is evident from the opposition to the grahasta status and specially the insistence on raskolnikov, celibacy. [Inherent in] the act of Essay on The Written By Plato opting out crime of the existing life­style and substituting it with a distinctively different one. [is that] the characteristics of the new life-style be seen as a protest against the existing one. To this extent such movements may be regarded as movements of dissent. But the element of protest was muted by the wish, not to change society radically, but to stand aside and create an alternative system. /35/ The life-style of female ascetics could not be reckoned as a true counterpart because, as Thapar points out, female ascetics, with few exceptions, were always subordinate to shelley the west wind the authority of males. They were not really autonomous, and their right to moksha (spiritual liberation) as Hindu women is dubious, if not entirely denied. I would argue that the true female counterpart of the and punishment, rebellious ascetic,and perhaps the far more daring, is the tawa'if . By listening carefully to the stories the courtesans tell, it becomes undeniable that they too are rebelling, all the in classical conditioning, more explicitly, against the housewifely stage, since this is the only .stage of life implicitly mandated for all women in both Hindu and Islamic cultural systems. It is in raskolnikov crime and punishment, this stage that the woman must achieve total fulfillment, because she does not graduate, as the man does, to a more mature level.

The informal student stage for a girl used to be, and still is for the majority, the description of a, acquisition of practical experience in raskolnikov crime, housework and childcare. Her gurus are the sternly admonishing older generation of similarly trained mothers and aunts. Modesty, obedience, and other subordinate behavior patterns are drilled into her until she comes to Essay on Exploring McNabs hold the single-minded belief that her eligibility for marriage is the only index of her worth. It is the normal woman's social and sexual regimen that courtesans-in-the­making must unlearn and supplant by undergoing a radically different socialization process and adopting the life-style that gives them the raskolnikov and punishment, liberation they desire, without jerking the reflexive muscle of of the dawes act of 1887 a repressive system. Although life-styles of the crime and punishment, male ascetic and the female courtesan are both modes of Essay on The Written By Plato social dissent, the sexual differences, and the social prescriptions on which they are predicated, produce interestingly contrasted strategies and ideologies. The former emerges from a religious interpretation of grahasta with the denial of sexuality, lineage, and property ownership, as its strategic thrust to gain spiritual liberation.

The latter, on crime and punishment, the other hand, emerges from the secular and domestic context in which women's lives are enmeshed. The courtesans seek material and social liberation by reversing the constraints imposed on women's chastity and economic rights, and by establishing a female lineage of selected and ascriptive members who make up their gharana . The male becomes celibate, renounces property and the privileges of Essay Island his gender in raskolnikov, this world of other-worldly rewards; the female becomes sexually active and aggressively acquisitive, prefers autonomy to virtue, and dawes act of 1887, seeks this-worldly women's liberation. Yet some consequences of these divergent paths are strikingly similar. Both life-styles subvert the hierarchies of caste and class, because in both groups lower caste and economically disadvantaged persons find refuge. The tawa'if have created a secular meritocracy based on talent and education, accepting Hindus and raskolnikov, Muslims alike. They too, like the ascetics, hold positions of respect by the society at large, and both countercultures exist by Apology By Plato, maintaining vital links to the overarching patriarchal culture, while consciously inverting or rejecting its values.

Although neither group has the pretension of changing the entrenched notions of the householder stage, both serve their own personal ends by elaborate strategies of avoidance. And Punishment? By opting for the institutional security of a monastery or a brothel, both groups wielded political power in the past through the powerful heads of sects in ancient Hindu kingdoms in the subcontinent or through the chaudharayan in precolonial Lucknow and other court cities, such as Hyderabad, Rampur, Banaras, Bijapur, and Golkonda. In unfavorable historical circumstances, both groups lost political power, but their patented life-styles still remain viable modes for women and men to elude the shackles of patriarchy and seek their own brands of liberation. [[12]] During the reign of the nawabs of Awadh, these women could manipulate powerful courtiers and the nawabs themselves, and even the Essay Apology Written By Plato, most powerful patron did not have any authority over the women's lives. The executive authority and managerial functions were the exclusive preserve of the chaudharayan and raskolnikov crime and punishment, her appointees. An angered patron had few options, because of the material investment he had made in a kotha (there are no refunds or exchanges); and his honor, too, would be on the line (gossip about him would quickly circulate in the bazaar). It is therefore not the patron who is ultimately significant but the on Exploring McNabs Island, matron, who creates the raskolnikov and punishment, ethos, reputation, and the quality of ode to the west wind life and services in her establishment. The courtesan's position is of course much diminished by crime, the events and on The By Plato, reconfigurations of power in the colonial and post­colonial periods. Fully aware of this history, these women find hope in other educational and and punishment, employment opportunities that have recently opened up for women, for their basic goal is to free themselves from direct economic dependence on men.

They already had daughters or nieces competing for and obtaining posts in Essay on Exploring McNabs Island, the banking system, or as pleaders in crime, the local courts, but these professions were not, as Chhote Miyan, the Persian-speaking son of one of the courtesans and my first informant, pointed out, a way of discrimination life. Women might become financially independent, but without the refuge of the kotha they would again be forced to marry and possibly suffer the degradation at the hands of unsympathetic husbands. Amiran's daughter, a banker, chose to marry. We were wary of this alliance, Amiran recollected, and sure enough her husband took up with another woman, and my daughter and granddaughter are back with us. She looks after our investments and bank work, so that she does really contribute to the household with her labor just as we all do. In other words, they shrewdly recognized that while financial independence was important, it did not solve the central problem of the raskolnikov, gender inequality inherent within marriage in a patriarchal society. Some of the covert strategies of courtesans that I have described earlier defy analysis, for they do not fit the scholarly definitions of protest and resistance. The defections of abused daughters, child widows, or unhappy wives to high-class prostitution are indeed unorganized, sporadic, individual attempts prompted by thoughts of self-preservation or self-interest rather than by hopes of wider social change. The courtesan's nakhre , which include blackmail, theft, confidence games, and Essay Apology Written, even feigned heterosexuality, smack more of and punishment a sleazy underworld than of the acts of Essay McNabs Island determined rebels, particularly because the consequences of raskolnikov crime and punishment such acts neither threaten nor change the overall power relations against which they are aimed. Most of my analytical and definitional qualms have been dealt with in James C. Scott's study on in classical, everyday forms of raskolnikov peasant resistance, Weapons of the Weak . He refutes theoretical objections and accusations of excessive romanticism so compellingly that I find it pertinent to quote him at on Exploring Island some length: Real resistance, it is crime, argued, is (a) organized, systematic, and cooperative, (b) principled or selfless, (c) has revolutionary consequences, and/or (d) embodies ideas or intentions that negate the basis of domination itself.

Token, incidental, or epiphenomenal activities by contrast, are la) unorganized, un­systematic, and individual, (b) opportunistic and self-indulgent, (c) have no revolutionary consequences, and/or (d) imply, in their intention or meaning, an accommodation with the system of domination. These distinctions are important for any analysis. [but my] quarrel is with the contention that the latter forms are ultimately trivial or inconsequential, while only the former could be said to constitute real resistance. This position, in my view, fundamentally misconstrues the shelley, very basis of crime economic and political struggle conducted daily by subordinate classes not only slaves, but peasants and workers [and, I would add, women] as well in repressive settings. It is based on an ironic combination of 1400 ad both Leninist and bourgeois assumptions of whot constitutes political action. The problem lies in what is raskolnikov crime, a misleading, sterile, and sociologically naive insistence upon distinguishing self-indulgent,. individual acts, on the one hand, from presumably .principled, selfless, collective actions, on the other, and excluding the former from the category of real resistance. /36/ [[13]] If traditional constructs of class and class struggle are not directly relevant to the clandestine and unorganized struggles of the peasants in Malaysia whom Scott studied, they are even farther removed from the arena of gender relations and ode to, the courtesans' style of reversing an raskolnikov crime oppressive order. One does not use a hammer to prune a rose bush. Women's struggle obviously cannot be a class struggle:, for the gender divisions are vertical, not horizontal, and cut through class lines, so the validity of the Essay on The Written, courtesans' struggle cannot be refuted on the grounds that it is engaged in at a private, unobtrusive level. The courtesans have uniquely combined the crime and punishment, elements of 1400 ad struggle for their material needs with those of an ideological struggle against patriarchal values, by creating and hiding behind their many masks. They live in outward harmony with male power and male sexuality, for raskolnikov the struggle can only be effective if their subterfuges are mistaken for compliance, and their true intentions as collusion with men against other women. Their cooperation with some women outside the kotha , such as the khangi , or the married women to wind whom they rent space so that they too can earn (undisclosed) extra money, is also little known, and it would be no longer politic or possible if it were uncovered. It is for these reasons that courtesans have had to resort to outward conformity and the partial transcript, as Scott calls the off­stage behavior of Sedaka peasants: That the poor should dissemble in the face of power is hardly an occasion for surprise.

No close account of the life of raskolnikov crime and punishment subordinate classes can fail to distinguish between what is said 'backstage' and what may be safely declared openly. /37/ If it can still be argued that no matter what the tawa'ifs' self-perceptions, actions, goals, and ideology are, they were and are still complicitous in discrimination in classical conditioning, perpetuating patriarchal relations in society, it is to insist on raskolnikov crime and punishment, the ideal instead of the possible in a struggle for power. In Classical? As Gulbadan, the oldest courtesan I interviewed, responded to raskolnikov crime and punishment this question: I know we are blamed for Essay McNabs enabling men to perpetuate their double moral standards and dominating women. Must we desert our own interests, give up our own strategy, for the dubious cause of women who suffer such men as husbands, fathers, and brothers? Today we are silent, we are despised, and the law has cracked down on us; has that helped the cause of women, or only made life harder for us? /38/ In fact, their silence is so complete that for all official intents and raskolnikov and punishment, purposes (such as taxation), this category of women is no longer acknowledged in postcolonial India. This for them is sunset, a mixed result. It is a small triumph, because their professional incomes are no longer taxed, yet among their patrons are a large number of raskolnikov crime and punishment public officials.

It is a larger defeat, because officialdom can piously claim that they have banned female sexual exploitation while converting their once-proud profession into a species of vice. [[14]] And finally I return to of a sunset the question of crime and punishment sexuality, as reality and shelley ode to the west wind, as a nakhrah , because there is the larger question, that of the social construction of sexuality, that may well be illuminated by analyzing the world view of courtesans of Lucknow. It is obvious that hegemonic gender relations are effectively perpetuated, and sexuality itself constructed, through the process of raskolnikov and punishment differential socialization of women and men. I would (tentatively) argue further that by systematically reversing the socialization process for females, in order to combat the disabilities inherent in Essay, women's existing social and sexual roles, the courtesans have logically constructed lesbian existence as a legitimate alternative, just as much as Indian society at large constructs and enforces, through the institution of compulsory marriage, heterosexuality as normative behavior. Heterosexual relations for raskolnikov most of the courtesans was work, not pleasure. Right from birth, if we recall the testimony of Essay on The By Plato Chhote Miyan, the raskolnikov crime, female is celebrated, empowered, cherished; those who arrive as adolescents in the kotha are methodically reeducated within the shelley ode to the west wind, context of this parallel and exclusive society of women, and its woman-centered vision of power relations. Their relationships with men in the kotha are congenial but businesslike; except for kin, only raskolnikov and punishment very few ever become emotional bondsmen. Essay By Plato? Men play diverse roles: not only are they servants, cooks, watchmen, and musicians, but they are also wealthy, generous, powerful patrons.

The latter relate on equal terms with the courtesans precisely because power is genuinely shared in that cultural setting. Arguably, it is therefore in the kotha , rather than in raskolnikov and punishment, the normal world, that female sexuality has the chance of Apology Written being more fairly and raskolnikov and punishment, fearlessly constructed by women. I do not have the space to McNabs explore the and punishment, subject cross-culturally to the aim dawes act of 1887 offer, in support of and punishment this contention, the growing evidence of description of a lesbianism in brothels, salons, geisha houses, and raskolnikov, apartments of call girls in international capitals, which is a universal common denominator across time and space. Ode To Wind? That sexuality competes with economics for priority in the struggle against gender inequality is not surprising, That male sexual control and aggression is neutralized in a setting where the heterosexual sex act is mere routine, and crime and punishment, passion and pleasure are simulated or distanced, is the aim dawes act of was to, perhaps an essential mechanism that women, both wives and prostitutes, have universally used to preserve their emotional integrity and dignity. All the courtesan's nakhre , particularly the crime, sexual pretenses, are brilliantly echoed in the following interview Studs Terkel conducted, in the early 1970s, with a Chicago hooker, Roberta Victor: Of course we faked it. The ethic was. The Aim Of The Dawes Act Of? You always fake it. You're pulling something over on him and he is paying for something he really didn't get. Raskolnikov? That's the only way you keep any sense of self-respect.

The call girl ethic is very strong. You were the lowest of the low if you allowed yourself to feel anything. The way you maintain your integrity is by acting all the way through. Here I was doing absolutely nothing, feeling nothing, and in twenty minutes I was going to walk out with fifty dollars in my pocket. How many people could make fifty dollars for twenty minutes' work? [and] no taxes, nothing.

The overt hustling society is the microcosm of the Essay Apology Written, rest of society. The power relations are the same and the games are the and punishment, same. Only this one I was in control of. The greater one I wasn't. /39/ Roberta's philosophy of life and Written By Plato, her indictment of contemporary American society matches, in startling detail, that of the crime and punishment, courtesans of Lucknow, and this coincidence, including a lesbian lover, gives their stories a timeless, transcultural resonance. In quest of a room of their own and considerably more than five hundred pounds a year, these women had taken control of their lives by reversing not only the social rules but even the sexual fantasies of patriarchy.

The research for this paper was conducted in India and in Britain between 1976 and 1986 and was funded by the American Council for Learned Societies, American Institute for Indian Studies, and 1400 ad, the Social Science Research Council, for which I am very grateful. I thank Douglas Haynes, Philip Oldenburg, Frances Pritchett, Catherine R, Stimpson, Romila Thapar, Judy Walkowitz, Judy Walsh, and Gauri Vishwanathan for their prompt and insightful comments, The responsibility for raskolnikov crime and punishment the interpretive framework is Written, my own. /1/ Lucknow, situated 300 miles southeast of Delhi, was the capital of the Muslim Kingdom of Awadh, 1775-1856. Awadh was annexed by the British in 1856, the court was disbanded, and the king was dethroned and exiled. In the following year, the great rebellion of 1857, which began as a mutiny of and punishment Indian sepoys (soldiers) against the British, broke out. It was suppressed in shelley the west, 1858 and sweeping changes were made in the city of Lucknow and the provincial government to avoid such uprisings in and punishment, the future. Lucknow remained a seat of regional power under the British, 1856-1947, and is today the capital of ode to the west wind Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state in the Republic of India.

/2/ For a detailed history of the crime and punishment, city and an account of these sources, taxation policies, and the subtle and overt forms of resistance and evasion adopted by the citizens of Lucknow, see my book, The Making of Colonial Lucknow, 1856-1877 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984), chap. 5. I have referred freely to my earlier work to construct the history of the courtesans in the colonial period. A full analysis of 1400 ad earlier interviews, especially those conducted in 1980-81, 1983, 1984, and 1985-86, is presented here for raskolnikov and punishment the first time. Names have been changed to keep their identities private, as they had requested. /3/ The last Shi'i nawab , or King, of Awadh, Wajid Ali Shah, had acquired a large harem of singers and dancers by using a Shi'i variant of Islamic marriage called mutah . This allows a man to enter into on Exploring McNabs, numberless marital contracts, which expire when the stipulated time elapses. Crime? It saves men and women from the accusation of adultery, and in Wajid Ali Shah's case, gave him the opportunity to be a true patron of these talented women by bestowing on description sunset, them some of the best real estate in Lucknow. He married both Hindu and Muslim women, and the courtesans I met in 1976 were also of both faiths. /4/ Oldenburg, passim. For a detailed account of British reaction to the mortality statistics in the colonial army and their control of prostitutes, see Kenneth A. Ballhatchet, Race, Sex, and Class under the raskolnikov, Raj (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1980).

/6/ This scholar requested anonymity, so I have referred to wind him as Chhote Miyan. The interview occurred in January 1976. /7/ This section is summarized from Oldenburg, 131-42. Corroborative evidence from other sources will be noted. The term tawa'if is the word most commonly used (both as singular and plural) for courtesan in Lucknow. Other terms used to designate these women are kothewali , nachwali , and the honorific baiji . I will use the first term, and this will also distinguish the courtesans from common prostitutes, whose main service was to provide sexual services to their clients. /8/ Abdul Halim Sharar, Lucknow: The Last Phase of an Oriental Culture , trans. and ed. E.S. Harcourt and Fakhir Hussain (London: Paul Elek, 1975), 192.

/9/ Peter Manuel, Courtesans and Hindustani Music, Asian Review 1 (Spring 1987):12-17. In this brief piece, Manuel sketches the role of the and punishment, courtesans in enriching the musical traditions of India and McNabs, describes the development of thumri and ghazal , semiclassical genres of singing, by raskolnikov crime, the courtesans of ode to the west Lucknow in crime and punishment, their bid to 1400 ad adapt to the taste of their new patrons, the taluqdars of and punishment Awadh, after Wajid All Shah and his chief courtiers were exiled in 1856. I have discussed the of the 1887 was to, role of the raskolnikov and punishment, rural taluqdars (large landowners) and their transformation into an urban elite in Essay on Exploring, great detail in my Making of Colonial Lucknow , 215-30. /10/ Most Hindi films, called masala , or formula, films, are popular because of the raskolnikov, songs and dances in them. The very notion of the romantic musical owes its inspiration to the style of entertainment at the kotha . It goes without saying that a film will fail at the box office if it has no songs. /11/ The romantic and generous patronage of Wajid Ali Shah, who fell in love with a large assortment of 1400 ad female palanquin bearers, courtesans, domestic servants, and women who came in and out of the palace, in short with hundreds of. beautiful and dissolute women, is legendary and retold by Sharar.

He goes on to say (p. 631) that soon dancers and singers became the crime and punishment, pillars of state and favorites of the realm. /12/ Interview with Gulbadan, aged eighty-three, in August 1980, at 1887 her kotha in Lucknow, after the raskolnikov and punishment, release of the film Umra'o Jan Ada . Four other retired courtesans in their late sixties and early seventies were present at this visit. They had not seen the film but had read the novel (Mirza Mohammad Hadi Ruswa, Umrao Jon Ada , trans. Khushwant Singh and M.A. Husaini [Madras, India: Sangam Books, 1982]); two of Essay on Exploring Island them claimed to have known Ruswa in their youth. Raskolnikov And Punishment? All the interviewees that I cite have been given names by me to disguise their real identities. I have translated into English the 1400 ad, substance of the crime and punishment, unstructured interviews I conducted more in the form of conversations in Urdu with these women. The following paragraph is constructed out of the conversation we had on this occasion. /13/ See Oldenburg, 138-41, for 1400 ad a detailed account.

The courtesans' version of these events conformed closely to what I reconstructed from the archives. /14/ Saira Jan spoke to crime me for two hours on 2 Nov. 1976, at the kotha in Lucknow, and conditioning, never failed to add her opinion to crime those being voiced on countless other occasions, if she was within earshot. /15/ An extremely interesting article by Raymond A. The West? Bauer and Alice H. Bauer, Day to Day Resistance to Slavery:, The Journal of Negro History 27 (October 1942) presages much of the literature on what they call less spectacular and crime and punishment, indirect retaliation for their enslavement. It was very useful in formulating the argument that I present here, and description, I wish to thank Geraldine Forbes for raskolnikov the reference. /16/ This story is the story of the courtesan I call Rasulan Ba'i, The other widows whom I interviewed were from the same clan of Rajput Hindus from western Uttar Pradesh, and the outlines of the stories were similar. No story was ever told without comments or interruptions from the others present. This life story was related to me in November 1980. /17/ In the 1860s In Lucknow a randi . charged a nightly rate of five rupees and often more; tawa'if insisted on a hundred rupees a night and also received lavish gifts of jewelry and property. McNabs Island? (A male laborer was only paid two to raskolnikov and punishment four annas (one rupee = 16annas) and ode to the west, a female laborer only and punishment half that.) See Oldenburg, 138. A century later, with the of a, number of raskolnikov and punishment generous patrons on the wane, the disparities in income were only slightly less ridiculous. 1400 Ad? A contractor pays women laborers between seven and raskolnikov crime and punishment, ten rupees a day, and description, a well. known tawa'if charges three thousand rupees for raskolnikov and punishment a muscial evening.

Most have regular income besides, from 1400 ad investments, rents, and raskolnikov and punishment, sale of produce from orchards or shops. /18/ Interview with Gulbadan, November 1980, at her kotha in Written, Lucknow. /19/ Interview with Rasulan, thirty-five, Amina Ba'i, forty-two, and Zehra Jan, forty-eight, in raskolnikov crime, December 1980, at Gulbadan's kotha in Lucknow. /20/ I was not allowed to take notes or record this performance, play-cum-mime, nor any of my conversations with these women, because this is part of kotha life that is on Exploring McNabs, not shared with male patrons or outsiders. So what I present here is reconstructed from memory and and punishment, the notes I wrote after the meeting. This event occurred in September 1976 and was repeated in a slightly modified version (because oral tradition is description, not bound by a text) at my request in July 1984. /21/ These are not the and punishment, run-of-the.mill obscenities heard in the bazaar; they are special gaaliyan , poetic, funny, stylized terms and phrases of abuse. An example: Is kohri ka ghar sar bal ja'e (let the house of this leper burn to the ground). Male genitalia were also a popular target for verbal abuse. /22/ Similar sentiments are expressed about the bourgeois housewife in Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto . /23/ Rasulan Ba'i, November 1980, at Gulbadan's kotha in Lucknow. Elsewhere, prostitutes also express a strong aversion to marriage.

Geraldine Forbes brought to my attention a late-nineteenth-century account of the profession in Essay Apology Written By Plato, Bombay that reiterates these sentiments: No Bhavin (very degraded catcgory of prostitute) would consent to contract matrimony with a person of her own caste, or remain in his keeping. as prostitution in their view, is more honorable; it enriches and makes them sole mistresses of raskolnikov crime and punishment their liberty and property, and their protectors are ever ready to be at their command: See.K. Conditioning? Raghunathji Bombay Dancing Girls, Indian Antiquary 13 (June 1884):165-78. A great many of the Bombay prostitutes had left their husbands willingly for raskolnikov a better life. /24/ Ruswa has Umra'o Jan flatly deny the in classical, existence of these obscene routines performed privately among the courtesans, but informs her that there are eyewitnesses' reports to crime the contrary. She finally concedes that such things do go on, but refuses to explicate any further (Ruswa, 321). Less risqué versions of such songs form the repertoire of village women, and Essay on Exploring Island, they are sung at weddings or as women go about doing their daily chores. /25/ Mary Douglas, in an interesting analysis of joking rites, in raskolnikov, her essay entitled Jokes (see her Implicit Meanings: Essays in Anthropology [London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1975], 90-114), writes: The message of a standard rite is that the ordained patterns of social life are inescapable. Sunset? The message of the joke is raskolnikov crime and punishment, that they are escapable. A joke is by nature an anti-rite. 1400 Ad? Recall that a joke connects and disorganizes. It attacks sense and hierarchy.

The joke rite then must express a comparable situation. If it devalues social structure, perhaps it celebrates something else instead. It could be saying something about the value of individuals as against and punishment, the value of social relations in which they are organized (103-04). /26/ The most comprehensive treatment of the subject of pardah in India is to Essay on Exploring be found in Hannah Papanek and Gail Minault, eds., Separate Worlds: Studies of Purdah in South Asia (Delhi: Chanakya Publications, 1982). /27/ Interview with Saira Ba'i, July 1984, at Gulbadan's kotha in crime, Lucknow. /28/ The Kamasutra of 1400 ad Vatsyayana (trans. Crime And Punishment? Sir Richard F. Burton [New York: E.P. Dutton, 1962]) describes the sixty-four arts the courtesan was supposed to on Exploring Island master as a skilled practitioner of her profession (69ff). Ruswa describes in great detail the musical and formal education of raskolnikov crime Umrao Jan Ada (119-23), and throughout the book comments on her mastery of Apology Urdu poetry and the styles of the leading poets, her ability to write poems and converse with wit and wisdom. /29/ Only after I was accepted as a friend and confidant among the women were they willing to apprise me of their many stylized nakhre , or feigning games. The acting ability of some of these women is astonishing, and it is no accident that some, like Nargis, moved on to becoming famous film stars of the Bombay screen.

/30/ Interview with Gulbadan, November 1980, at her kotha in Lucknow. /32/ I am grateful to Catherine R. Stimpson for crime informing me that the discrimination, word lesbian did not come into the English language until the late nineteenth century and that history has constructed its meaning. I was unable to find another Hindi or Urdu equivalent. Platt's Urdu, Classical Hindi, and English Dictionary does not give a root or even an English definition of these terms. It only defines them with customary bashfulness in Latin: capat , s.f. [feminine] = capti (used in comp.): capat baz , s.f. Raskolnikov Crime And Punishment? Femina libidini sapphicae indulgens: capat bazi , Congressus libidinosus duorum mulierum. The Kama-sutra refers to Essay on The Apology Written By Plato this practice being rampant among courtesans but docs not give it a nnme (198). Raskolnikov Crime? No term is in common usage, and an organization of Indian lesbians in the United States tellingly calls itself Anamika, i.e., nameless. /33/ This is discussed in C. M. Essay McNabs Island? Naim, The Theme of Homosexual (Pederastic) Love in Pre-Modern Urdu Poetry, in Studies in raskolnikov crime, the Urdu Gazal and of a, Prose Fiction , ed. Muhammad Umar Memon, South Asian Studies Series, no. 5, (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1979), 120-42.

Shaikh Qalandar Bakhsh Jur'at, an Urdu poel from I.ucknow (1749-18091, wrote a poem, Chapti Namah , in which he describes the sexual intimacies shared by two married women lovers, who elude their husbands every afternoon nnd speak wistfully of the crime and punishment, frequent gatherings with other married women who are of the same persuasion. I am grateful to C. M. Naim for the reference. /34/ I have to confess that I wanted a precise head count of the lesbians, because I wanted to bolster these facts with figures, but the women refused to oblige, for it militates against their interest to have me as a credible witness who might want to testify in writing one day. I roughly estimate that there were at least one in four who admitted to sexual relations with other women, some from beyond the kotha . Does this 25 percent estimate reflect the life and dawes 1887 was to, values of the kotha only, or can it be extrapolated to the women in Indian society at large? This will remain a question until women agree to talk about their sexuality, not as a matter or duty bounded by raskolnikov crime, normative riues, but as a matter of experience and preference. Although the thirty women I have spoken to over the in classical, past decade is a somewhat self-selected sample from raskolnikov that society, this finding has interesting implications about female sexuality in general, because that is the truly hidden text, which defies investigation even by women scholars of South Asia. Discrimination? Certainly women in the normal world use their sexuality, by crime and punishment, denying it, by making it available, or by disguising it entirely, to gain varying measures of autonomy in a world dominated by men.

/35/ Romila Thapar, Ancient Indian Social History (New Delhi: Orient Longman, 1978), 73-86. The essay is entitled Renunciation: The Making of a Counter-culture? (63-104). /36/ James C. Scott, Weapons of the Weak (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985), 292-93, 295. The theoretical implications of his analysis of everyday forms of peasant resistance are contained in the two final chapters of this exceptionally lucid and 1400 ad, compelling work. /38/ Interview with Gulbadan in raskolnikov, July 1984, at her kotha in Lucknow. /39/ Studs Terkel, Working (New York: Ballantine Books, 1974), 94-103. This electronic version of the article is presented here through the generous permission of the author. The original print version was published in Feminist Studies 16, 2 (Summer 1990). This present version contains minor adjustments of punctuation for clarity, and minor improvements in transliteration, made by FWP.

The numbers in double square brackets, for convenience in classroom discussion, have been added by FWP. Ode To? All editorial comments in double square brackets are by FWP, May 2008. -- Umrao Jan index page -- fwp's main page --