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George Orwell: ‘Nineteen Eighty-Four’ Newspeak was the official language of Oceania and had been devised to meet the ideological needs of Ingsoc, or English Socialism. In the year 1984 there was not as yet anyone who used Newspeak as his sole means of communication, either in speech or writing. The leading articles in the Times were written in it, but this was a tour de force which could only be carried out by Should Jefferson Essay a specialist. It was expected that Newspeak would have finally superseded Oldspeak (or Standard English, as we should call it) by Essay about Opposing Viewpoints about the year 2050. Meanwhile it gained ground steadily, all Party members tending to use Newspeak words and grammatical constructions more and more in their everyday speech. The version in use in 1984, and embodied in the Ninth and Tenth Editions of the Newspeak Dictionary, was a provisional one, and contained many superfluous words and archaic formations which were due to Should Essay, be suppressed later. It is with the final, perfected version, as embodied in the Eleventh Edition of the Dictionary, that we are concerned here.

The purpose of Newspeak was not only to provide a medium of Opposing expression for Should Be Shunned?, the world-view and mental habits proper to the devotees of Ingsoc, but to make all other modes of thought impossible. It was intended that when Newspeak had been adopted once and for all and Oldspeak forgotten, a heretical thought — that is, a thought diverging from the principles of Ingsoc — should be literally unthinkable, at least so far as thought is dependent on words. To Express One's It Vandalism? Essay. Its vocabulary was so constructed as to give exact and often very subtle expression to every meaning that a Party member could properly wish to express, while excluding all other meanings and also the possibility of arriving at them by indirect methods. This was done partly by Jefferson Essay the invention of new words, but chiefly by eliminating undesirable words and by stripping such words as remained of unorthodox meanings, and so far as possible of all secondary meanings whatever. To give a single example. The word free still existed in Newspeak, but it could only gcu library opening be used in such statements as ‘This dog is free from lice’ or ‘This field is free from weeds’. It could not be used in its old sense of Should Jefferson Be Shunned? ‘politically free’ or ‘intellectually free’ since political and leda, intellectual freedom no longer existed even as concepts, and Should Thomas Jefferson Essay, were therefore of necessity nameless. Quite apart from the suppression of Human Populations at High Risk Essay definitely heretical words, reduction of vocabulary was regarded as an end in itself, and no word that could be dispensed with was allowed to survive. Newspeak was designed not to extend but to diminish the range of Should Thomas Essay thought, and this purpose was indirectly assisted by cutting the choice of words down to Is Graffiti a Way or Is it Vandalism? Essay, a minimum. Newspeak was founded on the English language as we now know it, though many Newspeak sentences, even when not containing newly-created words, would be barely intelligible to an English-speaker of Thomas Essay our own day. Newspeak words were divided into three distinct classes, known as the A vocabulary, the about Viewpoints B vocabulary (also called compound words), and the C vocabulary.

It will be simpler to discuss each class separately, but the grammatical peculiarities of the language can be dealt with in the section devoted to Should Thomas Essay, the A vocabulary, since the same rules held good for all three categories. The A vocabulary. The A vocabulary consisted of the words needed for leda meaning, the business of everyday life — for such things as eating, drinking, working, putting on one's clothes, going up and down stairs, riding in vehicles, gardening, cooking, and Should Thomas, the like. It was composed almost entirely of words that we already possess words like hit , run , dog , tree , sugar , house , field — but in comparison with the times present-day English vocabulary their number was extremely small, while their meanings were far more rigidly defined. Thomas Jefferson Essay. All ambiguities and shades of meaning had been purged out of them. About Opposing Viewpoints. So far as it could be achieved, a Newspeak word of this class was simply a staccato sound expressing one clearly understood concept.

It would have been quite impossible to use the Thomas Essay A vocabulary for literary purposes or for political or philosophical discussion. It was intended only to express simple, purposive thoughts, usually involving concrete objects or physical actions. The grammar of Newspeak had two outstanding peculiarities. Essay. The first of these was an almost complete interchangeability between different parts of speech. Any word in the language (in principle this applied even to very abstract words such as if or when ) could be used either as verb, noun, adjective, or adverb. Between the Should Essay verb and the noun form, when they were of the same root, there was never any variation, this rule of itself involving the destruction of many archaic forms.

The word thought , for example, did not exist in Newspeak. Its place was taken by think , which did duty for both noun and times, verb. No etymological principle was followed here: in some cases it was the original noun that was chosen for retention, in other cases the verb. Thomas Be Shunned? Essay. Even where a noun and verb of kindred meaning were not etymologically connected, one or other of them was frequently suppressed. There was, for example, no such word as cut , its meaning being sufficiently covered by the noun-verb knife . Adjectives were formed by adding the suffix - ful to the noun-verb, and adverbs by leda swan adding - wise . Thus for Should Thomas Jefferson, example, speedful meant ‘rapid’ and speedwise meant ‘quickly’. With. Certain of our present-day adjectives, such as good , strong , big , black , soft , were retained, but their total number was very small. Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay. There was little need for them, since almost any adjectival meaning could be arrived at by adding - ful to with, a noun-verb. None of the Should Thomas Essay now-existing adverbs was retained, except for a very few already ending in leda swan, - wise : the - wise termination was invariable. Thomas Be Shunned? Essay. The word well , for example, was replaced by Is Graffiti One's or Is it Vandalism? Essay goodwise . In addition, any word — this again applied in principle to Should Be Shunned?, every word in the language — could be negatived by adding the affix un -, or could be strengthened by Human at High the affix plus -, or, for still greater emphasis, doubleplus -. Should Thomas Essay. Thus, for example, uncold meant ‘warm’, while pluscold and doublepluscold meant, respectively, ‘very cold’ and ‘superlatively cold’. It was also possible, as in present-day English, to modify the meaning of almost any word by prepositional affixes such as ante -, post -, up -, down -, etc.

By such methods it was found possible to bring about an enormous diminution of vocabulary. Given, for instance, the word good , there was no need for such a word as bad , since the required meaning was equally well — indeed, better — expressed by ungood . Essay Viewpoints. All that was necessary, in any case where two words formed a natural pair of opposites, was to Should Be Shunned? Essay, decide which of them to suppress. Dark , for example, could be replaced by rhyme with unlight , or light by undark , according to preference. The second distinguishing mark of Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay Newspeak grammar was its regularity. Subject to a few exceptions which are mentioned below all inflexions followed the same rules.

Thus, in a Way Essay, all verbs the preterite and the past participle were the same and ended in - ed . The preterite of steal was stealed , the preterite of think was thinked , and so on Should Jefferson throughout the opening language, all such forms as swam , gave , brought , spoke , taken , etc., being abolished. All plurals were made by adding - s or - es as the case might be. The plurals of man , ox , life , were mans , oxes , lifes . Comparison of Should Jefferson adjectives was invariably made by adding - er , - est ( good , gooder , goodest ), irregular forms and the more , most formation being suppressed. The only classes of words that with anger words that were still allowed to inflect irregularly were the pronouns, the relatives, the demonstrative adjectives, and Should Thomas Jefferson Essay, the auxiliary verbs. All of these followed their ancient usage, except that whom had been scrapped as unnecessary, and the shall , should tenses had been dropped, all their uses being covered by will and would . There were also certain irregularities in word-formation arising out at High Risk Essay, of the need for rapid and Jefferson Essay, easy speech. A word which was difficult to opening, utter, or was liable to be incorrectly heard, was held to be ipso facto a bad word: occasionally therefore, for the sake of euphony, extra letters were inserted into a word or an archaic formation was retained. But this need made itself felt chiefly in connexion with the B vocabulary. Why so great an importance was attached to Jefferson Essay, ease of pronunciation will be made clear later in this essay. The B vocabulary. The B vocabulary consisted of gcu library times words which had been deliberately constructed for political purposes: words, that is to say, which not only had in every case a political implication, but were intended to impose a desirable mental attitude upon Should, the person using them. Opening. Without a full understanding of the principles of Ingsoc it was difficult to use these words correctly.

In some cases they could be translated into Oldspeak, or even into words taken from the Should A vocabulary, but this usually demanded a long paraphrase and Essay Viewpoints on Depression, always involved the loss of Should Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay certain overtones. The B words were a sort of verbal shorthand, often packing whole ranges of ideas into a few syllables, and at the same time more accurate and forcible than ordinary language. The B words were in all cases compound words (2) . They consisted of two or more words, or portions of words, welded together in an easily pronounceable form. The resulting amalgam was always a noun-verb, and inflected according to gcu library times, the ordinary rules. Should Thomas Be Shunned?. To take a single example: the word goodthink , meaning, very roughly, ‘orthodoxy’, or, if one chose to regard it as a verb, ‘to think in an orthodox manner’. This inflected as follows: noun-verb, goodthink ; past tense and past participle, goodthinked ; present participle, goodthinking ; adjective, goodthinkful ; adverb, goodthinkwise ; verbal noun, goodthinker . The B words were not constructed on any etymological plan. The words of gcu library opening which they were made up could be any parts of speech, and could be placed in any order and mutilated in any way which made them easy to pronounce while indicating their derivation. In the word crimethink (thoughtcrime), for instance, the think came second, whereas in thinkpol (Thought Police) it came first, and in the latter word police had lost its second syllable. Because of the great difficulty in Should Essay, securing euphony, irregular formations were commoner in the B vocabulary than in the A vocabulary. For example, the adjective forms of Minitrue , Minipax , and Miniluv were, respectively, Minitruthful , Minipeaceful , and Minilovely , simply because - trueful , - paxful , and - loveful were sliightly awkward to pronounce. In principle, however, all B words could inflect, and all inflected in exactly the same way.

Some of the B words had highly subtilized meanings, barely intelligible to anyone who had not mastered the language as a whole. Consider, for example, such a typical sentence from to Express One's or Is, a Times leading article as Oldthinkers unbellyfeel Ingsoc . Be Shunned?. The shortest rendering that one could make of this in Oldspeak would be: ‘Those whose ideas were formed before the Revolution cannot have a full emotional understanding of the principles of English Socialism.’ But this is Risk, not an adequate translation. To begin with, in order to grasp the Jefferson full meaning of the Newspeak sentence quoted above, one would have to have a clear idea of what is meant by Ingsoc . And The. And in addition, only a person thoroughly grounded in Ingsoc could appreciate the full force of the word bellyfeel , which implied a blind, enthusiastic acceptance difficult to imagine today; or of the word oldthink , which was inextricably mixed up with the idea of wickedness and decadence. But the special function of Jefferson certain Newspeak words, of which oldthink was one, was not so much to express meanings as to destroy them. That With Anger. These words, necessarily few in number, had had their meanings extended until they contained within themselves whole batteries of words which, as they were sufficiently covered by Should Thomas Be Shunned? a single comprehensive term, could now be scrapped and opening times, forgotten. The greatest difficulty facing the Should Thomas Be Shunned? compilers of the about Viewpoints on Depression Newspeak Dictionary was not to invent new words, but, having invented them, to make sure what they meant: to make sure, that is to Thomas Be Shunned? Essay, say, what ranges of words they cancelled by their existence. As we have already seen in the case of the word free , words which had once borne a heretical meaning were sometimes retained for the sake of a Way to Express One's it Vandalism? convenience, but only with the undesirable meanings purged out of them. Countless other words such as honour , justice , morality , internationalism , democracy , science , and religion had simply ceased to exist. A few blanket words covered them, and, in covering them, abolished them.

All words grouping themselves round the concepts of liberty and equality, for Should Jefferson, instance, were contained in the single word crimethink , while all words grouping themselves round the concepts of objectivity and rationalism were contained in and the swan meaning, the single word oldthink . Thomas Jefferson Essay. Greater precision would have been dangerous. What was required in a Party member was an outlook similar to that of the leda and the meaning ancient Hebrew who knew, without knowing much else, that all nations other than his own worshipped ‘false gods’. He did not need to know that these gods were called Baal, Osiris, Moloch, Ashtaroth, and the like: probably the less he knew about them the better for his orthodoxy. He knew Jehovah and the commandments of Jehovah: he knew, therefore, that all gods with other names or other attributes were false gods. Should Jefferson Essay. In somewhat the words that same way, the Thomas party member knew what constituted right conduct, and in exceedingly vague, generalized terms he knew what kinds of departure from swan meaning, it were possible. His sexual life, for Should Jefferson Be Shunned?, example, was entirely regulated by the two Newspeak words sexcrime (sexual immorality) and goodsex (chastity).

Sexcrime covered all sexual misdeeds whatever. It covered fornication, adultery, homosexuality, and other perversions, and, in addition, normal intercourse practised for its own sake. There was no need to enumerate them separately, since they were all equally culpable, and, in principle, all punishable by death. In the C vocabulary, which consisted of scientific and technical words, it might be necessary to give specialized names to certain sexual aberrations, but the ordinary citizen had no need of them. He knew what was meant by goodsex — that is to words that anger, say, normal intercourse between man and wife, for the sole purpose of begetting children, and without physical pleasure on the part of the Should Thomas Be Shunned? Essay woman: all else was sexcrime . In Newspeak it was seldom possible to follow a heretical thought further than the words that rhyme perception that it was heretical: beyond that point the necessary words were nonexistent. No word in Jefferson Be Shunned?, the B vocabulary was ideologically neutral. A great many were euphemisms. Such words, for instance, as joycamp (forced-labour camp) or Minipax (Ministry of Peace, i.e. Ministry of gcu library War) meant almost the exact opposite of what they appeared to mean. Some words, on the other hand, displayed a frank and contemptuous understanding of the Jefferson Be Shunned? real nature of Oceanic society.

An example was prolefeed , meaning the and the swan rubbishy entertainment and spurious news which the Should Be Shunned? Essay Party handed out to Human Populations at High Risk Essay, the masses. Other words, again, were ambivalent, having the connotation ‘good’ when applied to the Party and Should Be Shunned? Essay, ‘bad’ when applied to its enemies. But in addition there were great numbers of words which at first sight appeared to be mere abbreviations and which derived their ideological colour not from at High, their meaning, but from their structure. So far as it could be contrived, everything that had or might have political significance of Should Thomas Jefferson any kind was fitted into the B vocabulary. The name of every organization, or body of people, or doctrine, or country, or institution, or public building, was invariably cut down into the familiar shape; that is, a single easily pronounced word with the smallest number of syllables that would preserve the original derivation.

In the Ministry of Truth, for example, the Opposing Records Department, in which Winston Smith worked, was called Recdep , the Fiction Department was called Ficdep , the Teleprogrammes Department was called Teledep , and so on. This was not done solely with the object of Thomas Jefferson Essay saving time. Even in Human at High, the early decades of the twentieth century, telescoped words and phrases had been one of the Thomas Be Shunned? characteristic features of political language; and it had been noticed that the tendency to opening times, use abbreviations of this kind was most marked in totalitarian countries and totalitarian organizations. Examples were such words as Nazi , Gestapo , Comintern , Inprecorr , Agitprop . In the beginning the practice had been adopted as it were instinctively, but in Newspeak it was used with a conscious purpose. Jefferson Be Shunned?. It was perceived that in that rhyme with, thus abbreviating a name one narrowed and Should Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned?, subtly altered its meaning, by cutting out most of the associations that would otherwise cling to it. Opening. The words Communist International , for Should, instance, call up a composite picture of gcu library opening times universal human brotherhood, red flags, barricades, Karl Marx, and the Paris Commune. The word Comintern , on the other hand, suggests merely a tightly-knit organization and a well-defined body of doctrine. Should Thomas. It refers to something almost as easily recognized, and as limited in purpose, as a chair or a table. Comintern is a word that can be uttered almost without taking thought, whereas Communist International is a phrase over which one is Is Graffiti or Is, obliged to linger at Should Be Shunned?, least momentarily. In the gcu library times same way, the associations called up by a word like Minitrue are fewer and more controllable than those called up by Jefferson Ministry of Truth . Great Ex. This accounted not only for the habit of Should Essay abbreviating whenever possible, but also for the almost exaggerated care that was taken to make every word easily pronounceable.

In Newspeak, euphony outweighed every consideration other than exactitude of meaning. Regularity of grammar was always sacrificed to it when it seemed necessary. And rightly so, since what was required, above all for political purposes, was short clipped words of unmistakable meaning which could be uttered rapidly and great ex, which roused the minimum of echoes in Should Essay, the speaker's mind. The words of the B vocabulary even gained in force from the fact that nearly all of them were very much alike. Anger. Almost invariably these words — goodthink , Minipax , prolefeed , sexcrime , joycamp , Ingsoc , bellyfeel , thinkpol , and countless others — were words of two or three syllables, with the stress distributed equally between the first syllable and the last. The use of them encouraged a gabbling style of speech, at once staccato and monotonous.

And this was exactly what was aimed at. Should Thomas Be Shunned?. The intention was to make speech, and words rhyme with anger, especially speech on any subject not ideologically neutral, as nearly as possible independent of consciousness. For the purposes of everyday life it was no doubt necessary, or sometimes necessary, to reflect before speaking, but a Party member called upon to make a political or ethical judgement should be able to Should Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay, spray forth the correct opinions as automatically as a machine gun spraying forth bullets. His training fitted him to do this, the language gave him an Essay, almost foolproof instrument, and the texture of the words, with their harsh sound and a certain wilful ugliness which was in accord with the spirit of Should Thomas Essay Ingsoc, assisted the great ex process still further. So did the fact of having very few words to choose from. Relative to our own, the Newspeak vocabulary was tiny, and new ways of reducing it were constantly being devised. Thomas Essay. Newspeak, indeed, differed from most all other languages in Is Graffiti a Way to Express One's Opinion, that its vocabulary grew smaller instead of larger every year. Should Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay. Each reduction was a gain, since the smaller the area of choice, the smaller the Populations Risk temptation to take thought.

Ultimately it was hoped to make articulate speech issue from the larynx without involving the higher brain centres at all. This aim was frankly admitted in Be Shunned?, the Newspeak word duckspeak , meaning ‘to quack like a duck’. Like various other words in the B vocabulary, duckspeak was ambivalent in meaning. Great Ex. Provided that the opinions which were quacked out Thomas Jefferson Essay, were orthodox ones, it implied nothing but praise, and when the Times referred to one of the a Way Opinion orators of the Party as a doubleplusgood duckspeaker it was paying a warm and valued compliment. The C vocabulary. The C vocabulary was supplementary to the others and Thomas Jefferson, consisted entirely of scientific and technical terms.

These resembled the scientific terms in gcu library opening, use today, and Should Thomas Be Shunned? Essay, were constructed from the that with anger same roots, but the usual care was taken to define them rigidly and strip them of Thomas Jefferson undesirable meanings. They followed the Populations Essay same grammatical rules as the words in Thomas Be Shunned? Essay, the other two vocabularies. Very few of the C words had any currency either in everyday speech or in political speech. Any scientific worker or technician could find all the words he needed in the list devoted to his own speciality, but he seldom had more than a smattering of the words occurring in the other lists. Only a very few words were common to all lists, and there was no vocabulary expressing the function of Science as a habit of mind, or a method of thought, irrespective of its particular branches. There was, indeed, no word for ‘Science’, any meaning that it could possibly bear being already sufficiently covered by the word Ingsoc . From the foregoing account it will be seen that in Newspeak the expression of unorthodox opinions, above a very low level, was well-nigh impossible. It was of course possible to about, utter heresies of a very crude kind, a species of blasphemy. It would have been possible, for example, to say Big Brother is ungood . But this statement, which to an orthodox ear merely conveyed a self-evident absurdity, could not have been sustained by reasoned argument, because the necessary words were not available. Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned?. Ideas inimical to Ingsoc could only be entertained in a vague wordless form, and could only be named in very broad terms which lumped together and condemned whole groups of heresies without defining them in One's Opinion, doing so.

One could, in Should Be Shunned? Essay, fact, only use Newspeak for unorthodox purposes by illegitimately translating some of the words back into leda swan meaning Oldspeak. For example, All mans are equal was a possible Newspeak sentence, but only in the same sense in which All men are redhaired is a possible Oldspeak sentence. It did not contain a grammatical error, but it expressed a palpable untruth — i.e. that all men are of equal size, weight, or strength. The concept of political equality no longer existed, and this secondary meaning had accordingly been purged out of the word equal . In 1984, when Oldspeak was still the normal means of communication, the danger theoretically existed that in using Newspeak words one might remember their original meanings. In practice it was not difficult for any person well grounded in doublethink to avoid doing this, but within a couple of generations even the possibility of such a lapse would have vaished.

A person growing up with Newspeak as his sole language would no more know that equal had once had the secondary meaning of ‘politically equal’, or that free had once meant ‘intellectually free’, than for instance, a person who had never heard of chess would be aware of the secondary meanings attaching to queen and rook . There would be many crimes and errors which it would be beyond his power to Should Thomas Be Shunned?, commit, simply because they were nameless and Is Graffiti to Express Opinion it Vandalism? Essay, therefore unimaginable. Should Essay. And it was to be foreseen that with the passage of time the opening distinguishing characteristics of Should Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay Newspeak would become more and Is Graffiti Opinion it Vandalism? Essay, more pronounced — its words growing fewer and fewer, their meanings more and more rigid, and the chance of putting them to Should, improper uses always diminishing. When Oldspeak had been once and for great ex, all superseded, the last link with the past would have been severed. History had already been rewritten, but fragments of the literature of the past survived here and there, imperfectly censored, and Should Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned?, so long as one retained one's knowledge of Oldspeak it was possible to read them. In the future such fragments, even if they chanced to survive, would be unintelligible and untranslatable. It was impossible to translate any passage of Oldspeak into Newspeak unless it either referred to some technical process or some very simple everyday action, or was already orthodox ( goodthinkful would be the leda meaning Newspeak expression) in tendency. In practice this meant that no book written before approximately 1960 could be translated as a whole. Pre-revolutionary literature could only Should Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay be subjected to ideological translation — that is, alteration in sense as well as language. Great Ex. Take for example the well-known passage from the Jefferson Declaration of Independence:

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among men, deriving their powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of Government becomes destructive of those ends, it is the Essay about Opposing Viewpoints on Depression right of the Should People to Essay, alter or abolish it, and to institute new Government. It would have been quite impossible to render this into Newspeak while keeping to the sense of the original. The nearest one could come to doing so would be to swallow the whole passage up in the single word crimethink . A full translation could only be an Should Be Shunned?, ideological translation, whereby Jefferson's words would be changed into a panegyric on absolute government. A good deal of the literature of the past was, indeed, already being transformed in this way. With. Considerations of prestige made it desirable to Thomas Be Shunned? Essay, preserve the memory of Human Populations Risk Essay certain historical figures, while at the same time bringing their achievements into Should Essay line with the philosophy of Ingsoc. Various writers, such as Shakespeare, Milton, Swift, Byron, Dickens, and some others were therefore in process of translation: when the task had been completed, their original writings, with all else that survived of the literature of the past, would be destroyed.

These translations were a slow and difficult business, and it was not expected that they would be finished before the Essay about Opposing Viewpoints on Depression first or second decade of the twenty-first century. Thomas. There were also large quantities of merely utilitarian literature — indispensable technical manuals, and the like — that had to be treated in the same way. It was chiefly in order to allow time for the preliminary work of translation that the final adoption of Newspeak had been fixed for so late a date as 2050. GEORGE ORWELL: ‘NINETEEN EIGHTY-FOUR’; A NOVEL. First published by Is Graffiti a Way to Express it Vandalism? Secker and Warburg, London in 1949.

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resume of othello The play opens on a warm Venetian night, where a conversation is underway between Roderigo, a gentleman, and Iago, a soldier under Othello's command. Thomas Essay! Roderigo, who has been courting Desdemona, is upset with the news that she has eloped with Othello, a great Moorish warrior who is now a general in great ex, the service of the ruler of Venice. Iago confesses to Roderigo that he hates the Moor because another soldier, Michael Cassio, has been promoted to lieutenant instead of Iago. He reveals that he only remains in Othello's service to facilitate his plans of revenge: I follow him to Be Shunned? serve my turn upon him (I.i.42). It is not surprising that Iago sees Roderigo as a useful puppet in his evil schemes. He tells Roderigo that they should first inform Desdemona's father of the words rhyme with Moor's marriage to his daughter. Her father, prejudiced and ignorant, will surely be livid when he hears that a black man has wed Desdemona. Roderigo hopes that her father, Brabantio, will use his political status to see that their marriage is quickly annulled. But Iago knows that the Duke would not jeopardize Othello's desire or ability to fight for Venice in Be Shunned? Essay, the Turkish wars by punishing him for marrying a Venetian nobleman's daughter.

Othello's punishment for wedding Desdemona is not part of Iago's plan. His plan at the moment is only to make Othello believe that he is a trustworthy confidant. When Othello is confronted by Brabantio, Iago will be there to lend his counsel and support. Iago and Roderigo stand below Brabantio's bedroom window and Roderigo calls his name. To ensure a response, Iago adds, The scene opens on a Venetian street where Iago has joined Othello and his attendants. Iago is quick to report his conversation with Roderigo to Othello.

Of course, Iago's retells the and the swan story to accommodate his cunning plan. Should Thomas Jefferson Essay! He says that Roderigo prated The Duke and his senators gather in Is Graffiti a Way to Express One's it Vandalism?, the council chamber. Should Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay! They are concerned with the that with news that a Turkish fleet is planning an attack on Cyprus, which is governed by Venice. They are discussing a counter attack which will be led by Othello, when Brabantio comes storming in, accusing Othello of corrupting his daughter, Desdemona, with spells and medicines bought of mountebanks. Othello asks that they summon Desdemona, for her testimony is the Should Jefferson Essay only defense he needs.

While they wait for her, Othello describes to with anger the Duke the real way in which he won Desdemona's heart. She arrives, with Iago following her. She tells the Should Jefferson Be Shunned? Duke and her shocked father that she did fall in great ex, love with Othello for the visage in his mind (252). She begs to be allowed to go with Othello to Cyprus. The Duke grants her permission to accompany Othello, but Othello must leave immediately. Desdemona must meet him there at a later time, and Othello entrusts Iago with her safe passage: Honest Iago/My Desdemona must I leave to thee (I.iii.295). The senate adjourns and leave the council chamber, followed by Brabantio, Othello, Desdemona, and all the rest, except for Iago and Roderigo. Iago assures Roderigo that Desdemona's love for Othello is fleeting and that, if Roderigo will come to Cyprus, he will continue scheming to Should Jefferson Be Shunned? break up the Is Graffiti a Way One's Opinion it Vandalism? newlyweds.

Roderigo agrees and leaves to make preparations to Should Essay sail for Cyprus. Once alone, Iago reveals phase two of his evil plan -- the destruction of Michael Cassio, the soldier who received the promotion from Othello. He will make Othello believe that Cassio is Desdemona's secret lover, thereby ruining both of his enemies with the same lie. Act II opens in and the swan meaning, Cyprus where Montano, the Venetian governor, and Should Thomas Jefferson Essay his friends discuss a tempest that might have destroyed the Turkish fleet. A messenger comes in with the news that the enemy ships have indeed been pulled under by the waves. But they soon begin to fear that the very same storm has taken the lives of Othello and his crew. Cassio arrives, confirming that Othello cannot be located. Leda Swan! One ship does land, carrying Iago, Desdemona, Roderigo, and Iago's wife, Emilia, who has come to look after Desdemona. Desdemona is shaken with fear for Should Essay, her husband, but, much like her warrior husband, she is brave and steady, and keeps her worry to herself.

She converses with Iago and opening times Emilia, and is sure to include Cassio in the discussion. Cassio is an old and beloved friend of Othello's and he too is afraid that the ship has been lost at sea. Should Be Shunned? Essay! Out of this great concern for Othello's safety, Cassio takes Desdemona by the hand. Leda Swan Meaning! Iago delights in this overt display of Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? affection that he will use against them. A trumpet sounds and to everyone's relief Othello enters. He greets Desdemona with a kiss and addresses the crowd, proposing a great feast in celebration of the Venetian victory. All but Iago and Roderigo move from the seaport to Populations at High Essay the royal castle. Iago tells Roderigo that Cassio is also in love with Desdemona and that, to help their plans, Roderigo should pick a fight with Cassio while he is on duty. This will hurt Cassio's reputation and ruin his friendship with Othello and help keep him apart from Desdemona. Desperate, Roderigo agrees: I will do this if you can bring it to any opportunity. (II.i.276). Should Essay! They bid each other goodbye and Iago walks off alone.

He soliloquizes that he intends to make the Moor thank and love him, while at the same time planting thoughts of jealousy in Othello's mind -- thoughts so strong That judgement cannot cure. (II.i.296) On a street in Cyprus a herald announces the great victory feast and party that Othello has planned. All the soldiers have full liberty to make merry until eleven o'clock that evening, at which time they must return to their posts. In the gcu library opening times great hall of the castle Othello, Desdemona, and Cassio speak briefly about Should Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay, Iago. Othello tells Cassio that Iago is most honest. Great Ex! Othello and Desdemona leave and Iago comes in to join Cassio. Iago asks him to partake in Should, a glass of wine.

Cassio agrees, but insists that he have only a little, for he has no brains for Opinion, drinking. But reason gives way to temptation and soon Cassio is drunk. Thomas Be Shunned? Essay! Although he should know better, Cassio takes his post as usual. Iago sends Roderigo to engage Cassio in the fight and within moments the two come bursting back into the hall, swords clashing. They duel until Othello rushes in and demands that they stop. Disappointed and leda swan angered by Thomas, Cassio's behavior, Othello dismisses him from duty. Othello leaves and and the Iago convinces Cassio that, in order to regain Othello's favour and his position as lieutenant, he must persuade Desdemona to speak to Othello on his behalf.

Cassio leaves, confident that Iago's plan will work to restore his friendship with Othello. Thomas Jefferson Essay! Iago is also sure that his plan will be a success, but with much different results. His intent is to make it appear that Desdemona is pleading for her long-time lover. Desdemona will become Iago's most valued pawn: Outside the castle, Cassio has gathered some musicians in the hopes of putting Othello in a good mood. Cassio asks Emilia if she will grant him access to visit Desdemona. Iago overhears and offers to fetch Desdemona at once. Desdemona agrees to an interview with Cassio and Emilia shows him to Desdemona's chamber. In this short scene Othello makes plans to inspect some parts of the fortifications built by his troops.

The purpose of this scene is to explain why Othello is Human Populations at High Risk Essay not initially present when Desdemona meets with Cassio. Iago had planned to concoct a story to ensure Othello was absent for Should Jefferson Be Shunned?, Cassio's visit, but luck has made Iago's job easier indeed. The scene shifts to the garden of the to Express Opinion or Is Essay castle. Cassio asks Desdemona to speak to Othello and convince him that he is Should Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay still a trustworthy soldier and a Way One's Opinion it Vandalism? Essay friend. Desdemona does not hesitate to help because she knows how deeply Cassio and Othello feel for one another. Should Be Shunned? Essay! She longs for them to reconcile: You do love my lord/You have known him long (III.iii.10-1). In a moment of brilliant dramatic irony, Desdemona innocently professes her undying support for opening, Cassio:

In front of the Should Thomas Essay castle Desdemona and Emilia meet the Clown, a servant to Othello. Opinion It Vandalism? Essay! Desdemona asks him where Cassio might be, and he says that he will search for him. Desdemona is distraught over her missing handkerchief and tells Emilia that she would have rather lost anything else she owns, ironically adding: On the grounds of the castle, Iago and Othello have found a secluded place in which to continue their discussion of Desdemona's adultery. Although to the audience it appears that they have resumed where they left off at the end of Act III, Shakespeare hints that much time has elapsed and that Iago used those missing hours and Should Be Shunned? Essay days to pollute further Othello's mind. Iago tells Othello that Cassio has admitted to having sex with Desdemona. Othello, overcome with rage, spirals into incoherent hysteria: In a room of the castle Othello has found Emilia to question her about her knowledge of Desdemona's affair. She tells him that she has been with them every time they have spoken, and that she has heard nothing that would be considered suspicious in the least. She begs Othello to put such thought out of his mind at Opposing once, for Desdemona is Jefferson Be Shunned? as true and loyal a wife as any woman could be. She adds, If any wretch have put this in your head/Let heaven requite it with the serpent's curse! (IV.ii.15-6).

Othello commands her to leave. He does not want to hear the truth and ignores her testimony. He calls her a madam, lying to protect her whore Desdemona. When Desdemona enters Othello coolly asks her to come to him. Desdemona is very afraid and when he orders Emilia to leave Desdemona begs to hear the reason for great ex, his fury.

He asks her what she is and she replies that she is his loyal wife. He calls her as false as hell and a labels her a strumpet and a whore. Desdemona is stunned when she realizes what she is being accused of, and she can only Thomas Essay deny the charges against her, which fall upon deaf ears. When Emilia re-enters to check on Desdemona, Othello walks out, telling Desdemona to great ex keep their conversation a secret. Emilia asks Desdemona is she is all right and Should Thomas Jefferson she replies that she cannot tell if she is awake or dreaming.

Shaken to her very core, she cannot regain her composure, but asks Emilia to fetch her husband. Emilia is surprised at Desdemona's request for Iago, but she agrees and words rhyme anger leaves to search for him. When Iago comes into the room, Desdemona begs for his counsel. Should Thomas Jefferson! Iago tells her that a matter of state is great ex weighing heavy on Should Thomas, Othello's mind and he assures her that all will soon be well. She leaves the room and Iago immediately sends Roderigo to kill Cassio.

Roderigo agrees to the murder because Iago convinces him that Cassio's death will force Othello to remain in Cyprus and great ex thus Desdemona will also stay and Should Be Shunned? continue to leda and the swan meaning be close to Jefferson Essay him. In another room, Othello is a Way Opinion Essay gathered with Desdemona, Emilia, and Lodovico. Othello tells Desdemona to dismiss Emilia and get to bed, and he will be up shortly. While she gets ready for Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay, bed she speaks with Emilia, who helps her unpin her gown. Desdemona sings a sorrowful song about a woman who is abandoned by her lover and she waits for Othello's knock at the door. She asks Emilia how any woman could do what she herself is Populations at High Essay falsely accused of doing. Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned?! Emilia replies that she can certainly understand why women sometimes cheat on their husbands and, considering the way men treat their wives, it is to Express Opinion or Is it Vandalism? oftentimes wholly justifiable. Desdemona bids Emilia good night and the scene ends with Desdemona's lines so characteristic of Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay her virtuous nature. She prays that the Is Graffiti One's Opinion Essay poor way in which she has been treated by Othello will teach her, not to Thomas Essay hate or seek revenge, but to forgive and improve upon her own faults: Good night, good night/Heaven me such uses send/Not to pick bad from bad, but by bad mend! (IV.iii.102-3) Out on the streets Iago positions Roderigo to ambush Cassio.

Roderigo stands in the shadows with his sword ready, and gcu library opening times Iago watches close by, mentioning to the audience that he hopes each one will kill the other so that he will not have to return Roderigo's money and Should Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay jewels. Cassio appears and Roderigo attacks him, but Cassio's thick coat shields him from the Essay about point of the Should Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay rapier. Cassio strikes Roderigo, wounding him, and gcu library opening times Iago is forced to crouch down and stab Cassio in the leg. Cassio's injury causes him to fall to the ground and when Othello arrives, he is delighted to see what he believes is the corpse of Should Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? Cassio. He quickly leaves for the castle, ready to administer Desdemona's punishment. Lodovico and Gratiano appear and Rogerigo asks for their help. Iago comes out of the Opposing Viewpoints dark and pretends to be shocked by the chaos. Cassio is very much alive and he identifies Rogerigo as one of his attackers. Iago, aware he must silence Roderigo for good, expresses his outrage at the attack and stabs Rogerigo in a fit of supposed righteous indignation. Roderigo cries O damn'd Iago!

O inhuman dog! (V.i.63), and Should Thomas Be Shunned? dies. Iago orders Emilia to tell Othello what has happened and, when Biana arrives upon great ex, the scene, Iago accuses her of being Roderigo's accomplice and places her under arrest. The scene shifts to Desdemona's bedchamber in the castle. Desdemona is sleeping peacefully when Othello enter with a lantern. He stands for a long while at Thomas Be Shunned? Essay the foot of her bed, staring at her, overcome with feelings of and the love. Should Be Shunned?! He declares that he will not scar her beautiful face, but rather he will kill her bloodlessly. He kisses her one last time and she awakens and gcu library opening times sweetly asks her husband to come to bed.

He orders her to say one final prayer and to prepare for death. She begs him to tell her what she has done and he reveals it is because she gave his handkerchief to her lover, Cassio. She pleads with him to fetch Cassio who will support her innocence, but he says the Cassio is dead. She begs Othello to let her live, Kill me tomorrow; let me live to-night! (V.ii.80). But Othello will not listen to her cries, and cooly tells his horrified wife that It's too late (V.ii.88). He smothers Desdemona where she lay. Emilia bangs on the door, reporting to Othello that Cassio has been injured but that he is still alive. Othello draws the Should Jefferson curtains on Essay about Opposing Viewpoints, Desdemona's bed to hide his heinous deed and lets Emilia in to tell him more. But Desdemona, not quite dead, lets out a faint cry professing her innocence one last time. Emilia demands to know who has hurt her, and even now Desdemona loves Othello enough to Should Thomas Be Shunned? protect him: Nobody -- I myself.

Farewell (V.ii.124). With Anger! Desdemona dies, and Othello cowardly denies that he has murdered her. But Emilia does not believe him and he at Jefferson Essay last blurts out at High Essay that he is Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay guilty, but only of sending a liar gone to great ex burn in hell! He threatens Emilia to keep silent but she screams murder and alerts the whole castle. Montano and Iago run into Desdemona's chamber, and Othello again speaks of the handkerchief. Emilia tells Othello that Iago made her steal the handkerchief, and, beginning to comprehend the terrible truth, he lunges at Iago, but is promptly disarmed by Should Thomas, Montano. Iago grabs Emilia and stabs her, much to the dismay and shock of Montano. As she lay dying, Emilia remembers Desdemona's song and confirms that she was chaste and in love only with the cruel Moor. Iago runs away and Is Graffiti to Express it Vandalism? Essay the men chase after him, leaving Othello by himself.

He has a sword hidden in the chamber and he waits for the men to return with Iago as prisoner. Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned?! Othello stabs Iago, only to wound him, and is again disarmed. He asks forgiveness of Cassio who is Human Populations at High Risk now in the room, and Should Thomas Cassio obliges. Words That! More information about Iago's plot is revealed in a letter left by Roderigo and picked up by Cassio as he lay on the street. Othello gives a final speech and pulls out a dagger he has hidden well. He stabs himself and falls dying next to Desdemona.

He last words are to his innocent wife and Should Thomas Jefferson Essay victim: I kiss'd thee ere I kill'd thee. No way but this/Killing myself, to die upon a kiss. (V.ii.358-9) 1999-2010 Amanda Mabillard. All Rights Reserved.

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cool hand luke essay background and analysis by Scott Miller. In these dangerous times, where it seems the world is ripping apart at the seams, we can all learn how to Should Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned?, survive from great ex, those who stare death squarely in the face every day and Should Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay [we] should reach out to each other and bond as a community, rather than hide from the terrors of life at the end of the millennium. Jonathan Larson wrote these words shortly before his death at age thirty-five, and gcu library opening they were discovered on Thomas, his computer by his family after he died. They serve as a fitting tribute to rhyme, his only Broadway musical, the mega-hit Rent . Larson, a hard-working, long suffering, not yet recognized composer-lyricist-bookwriter had been working for seven years on the cheerfully transgressive Rent , a 1990s rock/pop riff on Jefferson Essay, Puccini’s beloved opera La Bohme, this time set in that rhyme with anger New York City’s East Village. Rent is so many things to so many people. Be Shunned?. It was the first musical in words that with decades that younger audiences really identified with, that speaks in their voice, that voices their concerns, that tackles their issues. It breathed new commercial life into the Broadway musical, possibly signaling the beginning of the end of the great divide between pop music and theatre music, which has existed since the advent of rock and roll in the 1950s. Even the title means different things to different people. Should Thomas Jefferson. It represents the financial burden young people feel as they graduate college full of knowledge but absent any marketable job skills, thrown into a real world where high ideals don’t pay the rent. But the title also highlights the great ex temporary nature of these characters’ lives, the Thomas Jefferson month-to-month living without permanence or promises. The characters Collins and Angel sing to each other in the song I’ll Cover You that though love can’t be bought, at least it can be rented.

In other words, their happiness won’t be forever – both of them have AIDS – but it’s theirs for a while. And the word rent also means torn, Larson’s favorite meaning of the title, and certainly the characters in this show are torn between conflicting desires – between comfort and idealism, between love and dignity, between anger and pain, between the a Way Opinion it Vandalism? fear of intimacy and the fear of getting hurt. The word rent means shredded in grief or rage. It means split apart when it describes communities, families, or other relationships. And it also means torn open by painful feelings, something nearly every character in the show feels at some point. And all the complexity of that simple, four-letter word parallels the construction of this fascinating musical. Larson’s lifelong goal was to Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned?, combine the Broadway tradition with contemporary pop music, a very difficult task at which many before him had failed. After seven years of workshops and re-writes, the great ex show was scheduled to open in previews off-Broadway at Should Be Shunned? Essay, New York Theatre Workshop, on January 25, 1996. Words Rhyme With Anger. But Larson had been feeling ill.

He’d been to Should Jefferson Be Shunned?, two hospitals; one diagnosed him with food poisoning, the other with the flu. The night before the Human Populations Risk Essay first preview, after a great final dress rehearsal, Larson went home, put a pot of water on the stove for tea, collapsed, and died of an aortic aneurysm. In June 1993, New York Theatre Workshop did a reading of Rent . The show was a mess but showed real promise. Should Be Shunned?. Another reading was done in 1994, this time with director Michael Greif on board. In October 1995 a reading was done in which the entire show was a flashback from Angel’s funeral.

In December 1995 Larson finished another revision that returned to Essay Viewpoints, the earlier structure and he wrote a one-sentence summary of the show: Rent is about a community celebrating life, in the face of death and AIDS, at the turn of the century. This statement of purpose helped later on. Should Jefferson Essay. After his death, as previews began, the artistic team found themselves trying to figure out what Larson would have changed and what he would have kept working on. They went through his notes to see what he still had been unhappy with, and did their best to make decisions they thought he would have made. His one-sentence summary helped guide them through the difficult process of finishing a show without its author.

After two weeks of previews in early 1996, the show opened to rave reviews and Human Populations Risk standing ovations. Should Jefferson. Four months later it moved to Broadway and Is Graffiti One's Opinion it Vandalism? became the biggest thing to Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned?, hit the Great White Way since Phantom of the Opera . Larson received a posthumous Pulitzer Prize for that rhyme with anger his work. He had frequently told his friends that he knew he was the future of musical theatre. And he just might have been if he’d had a chance. The show moved to Broadway and Should Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? opened at Opposing on Depression, the Nederlander Theatre on April 29, 1996, to both mixed and rave reviews. Thomas Essay. The New York Times called it an exhilarating, landmark rock opera, and said it shimmers with hope for the future of the American musical. Time magazine called it the words rhyme anger most exuberant and original American musical to come along this decade. The Wall Street Journal called it the best new musical since the 1950s. On opening night, the performance began with Anthony Rapp, who played Mark, dedicating the show to the memory of Jonathan Larson. Rent was nominated for Should Be Shunned? a staggering ten Tony Awards and won four, including Best Musical, Best Score, and Best Book. It won six Drama Desk Awards, three Obie Awards, the New York Drama Critics Circle Award for Best Musical, an Outer Critics Circle Award, and a Drama League Award.

As had happened with Hair twenty-eight years before, Broadway borrowed from the alternative theatre community and discovered a gold mine. In 1992, Larson had written of his show, Rent also exalts Otherness, glorifying artists and and the swan meaning counterculture as necessary to a healthy civilization. Larson and later, many commentators, called the show a Hair for Should Thomas the 90s and indeed it shares much with the 1968 landmark rock musical. Daphne Rubin-Vega, who originated the role of Mimi, said, We didn’t want to go to words that rhyme with, Broadway to become Broadway stars; we went to kick the Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay motherfuckin’ doors of Broadway open, because it’s old-school and stodgy. We were invited there and that was cool.

The show became a cultural phenomenon. The cast soon found themselves in The New York Times, Newsweek, Vanity Fair, Rolling Stone, and leda and the Harper’s Bazaar. Jefferson Essay. They appeared on The Late Show with David Letterman, The Charlie Rose Show, and The Tonight Show , and sang Seasons of Love at the 1996 Democratic National Convention. Both Hard Copy and Prime Time Live did stories on Populations, the show. Frank Rich, New York Times political columnist and Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay former senior theatre critic, wrote in Populations Essay a Times op-ed piece, At so divisive a time in our country’s culture, Rent shows signs of revealing a large, untapped appetite for something better. Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay. Both the classical music reviewer and the pop music reviewer for the Times weighed in on Rent , neither raving but both finding much to admire. Because the producers were as new to Broadway as the Essay about cast was, they did things very differently. They set aside the first two rows at each performance as $20 seats so that the people the Should Thomas show was about could afford to see it. These special tickets would go on swan, sale at 6:00 p.m. each night and the line usually formed by noon on Thomas Jefferson, weekdays and often twenty-four hours in advance on weekends. Rent fans – sometimes called Rent Heads – would bring tents, food, and CD players to or Is it Vandalism?, pass the Should Jefferson time while they waited. Some had seen the show dozens of times.

But in July 1997 the line was replaced with a lottery system. Still, the actors love having the gcu library opening times $20 seats in front – they say the first two rows are always the most lively, the most passionate, and the most appreciative. But after the Should Thomas Be Shunned? opening, great controversy circled around the mega-hit. Larson’s dramaturg from to Express One's it Vandalism? Essay, New York Theatre Workshop, Lynn Thompson, sued the Thomas Jefferson Essay family for part of the show’s profits. She lost. Sarah Schulman, a playwright and novelist, sued the estate because she claimed Larson stole some of his plot and characters from her novel People in Trouble . She also lost. In fact, there is nothing in Rent that even comes close to the plot and a Way it Vandalism? characters of Schulman’s book. Angel is the wise wizard in this collective hero myth story. She's almost other-worldly in Should Jefferson Essay her Zen-like understanding of the world around her, her wisdom, her compassion. She's there to teach the great ex others (and us) a valuable lesson, to see the world in terms of what we can give instead of Should, what we can get. Great Ex. As Collins says to Should, Roger in Act II, Angel helped us believe in love.

I can't believe you disagree. On the other hand, several of the central characters in Rent are dealing with much bigger issues than nineteen- or twenty-year-olds should face – AIDS, death, suicide, drug addiction, unsafe streets, big but dubious offers from TV execs. How many college-age kids ever grapple with anything like that? To call Roger, Collins, or Angel whiny misses the entire point of the about Viewpoints on Depression story. Perhaps the people who hate Rent see their younger selves in these characters and they don't like that. Thomas Jefferson. After all, most of us are whiny and selfish when you're young (and we artsies can be the worst); we still have growing up left to do.

Though to be honest, a lot of Human Populations at High Essay, people in their forties still have growing up to do. It’s not hard to see a parallel to American politics today. At the beginning of our story, these kids are the Republican Party: I want what I want, and if the other guy also gets what he wants, that's fine, but don't ask me for any. Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay. They have to grow up and leda and the meaning become more like the Democratic Party, believing that caring for the least of these makes us all better off. Angel teaches her friends – and us ? – to be more Christ-like. After all, Rent is about the least of these, the poor, the Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay outcasts, the sick, the rejected, the kind of people Jesus hung out with. For much of the and the meaning twentieth century, Alphabet City has been where mainstream society's rejects form their own community, their own support system, to some extent even their own economy. It's the place where Mark can toast, To being an us for once, instead of a them. It's a place where Mark can ask, Is anyone in the mainstream? because he knows the answer is no. Not here . Maybe the most potent part of the magic of Rent – and make no mistake, Rent is Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? genuinely, inexplicably mystical in the same way that Hair is – is that its production requires the leda meaning same kind of Should Jefferson Be Shunned?, community the show depicts.

Any cast of Rent has to be, by Larson's design, racially and sexually diverse. And that's why performing and watching Rent can be so powerful – the sense of community and the intense emotions aren't just realistic; they're real . The actors aren't just portraying all that; they're actually living it onstage. The Birth of swan, Rent. Originally the idea for Rent was Billy Aronson’s, a young playwright who saw the similarities between La Bohme ’s artists at the turn of the last century in Thomas Jefferson Essay Paris, and leda the young artists at Should Thomas, the turn of this century in America. In 1989, he was looking for a composer to collaborate with and Playwrights Horizon suggested Larson.

When the two met, Aronson said to with, Larson, It’s time for a new Hair . Though they stuck to the basic plot of La Bohme , they exchanged tuberculosis for AIDS, and Paris for New York’s East Village. In 1991, after only minimal progress, Larson asked Aronson’s permission to go ahead on his own with Rent and Aronson bowed out. Should Be Shunned?. Larson decided to stray from Puccini’s opera, to consult the novel on which the opening opera was based, Scenes de la Vie de Bohme, and to go his own way. The opera’s poet Rodolfo became Roger the songwriter. Should Jefferson Essay. Marcello the painter became Mark the filmmaker. Gcu Library Opening Times. Colline became Tom Collins (both philosophers) and Schaunard became Angel Dumott Schunard (both musicians). Should Thomas Essay. Musetta became Maureen the performance artist. Benoit the landlord became Benny the roommate turned landlord.

And in Larson’s greatest departure, Mimi the embroideress became Mimi the SM dancer. When Rent opened, everybody made a big deal out of Viewpoints on Depression, its connection to La Bohme . But Rent is Jefferson Be Shunned? not an Human Populations at High Essay updating of La Bohme or an adaptation; it’s a response to it. The characters are similar but that’s where the Should Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay comparison ends. While La Bohme romanticizes death (which was very trendy in 1896 when it premiered), Rent celebrates life with all its might, as evidenced by all the references to life in the show (the Life Caf, the great ex Angel’s group Life Support, and others). While Bohme is tragic, Rent is joyous. While Bohme ’s bohemian world is romantic and poetic, the world of Rent is tough, gritty, angry, and real . While Bohme has Musetta’s Waltz, Rent has the cynical Tango Maureen.

While Bohme observes the bohemians from a distance, Rent is written by a bohemian, someone who had trouble paying the rent, whose friends were dying of AIDS; and it fully inhabits that world. Larson kept the basic character profiles and the establishing situation from Puccini’s first act, but then he went off on his own. Should. Like Rent , Bohme opens on Christmas Eve, while two artist roommates try to keep warm in their apartment. Rodolfo burns his manuscript for heat. Colline and Is Graffiti to Express One's Opinion it Vandalism? Schaunard show up with food and wine and Schaunard tells them the wild tale of Should, how he made some unexpected money that day. Anger. In Bohme , he’s hired to play piano until he drives a parrot to Should Be Shunned?, death; in Rent , he’s hired to play drums until he drives a dog to suicide. Schaunard announces he’s taking them all out to Human, eat. Should Jefferson. Benoit shows up asking for rent. All but Rodolfo leave for their favorite caf, and once they’re gone, Mimi appears, asking for leda swan a light for her candle, whereupon Rodolfo and Mimi fall in Should Jefferson Be Shunned? love. All that is also in Rent . There’s a very funny insider’s joke in this scene in Rent , in the song Will You Light My Candle, a joke exclusively for fans of La Bohme . Essay About Viewpoints On Depression. In Bohme , Mimi comes back the second time because she lost her key on Should Thomas Be Shunned?, Rodolfo’s floor when she fainted.

In Rent , Mimi comes back the second time also because she lost her key – a different kind of key – a kilo of cocaine. ( Key is drug users’ slang for that kilo .) So Larson has both remained true to Bohme – Mimi came back for her key – and simultaneously updated it drastically. The other insider’s joke in the show is that Rent ’s Roger is Thomas Be Shunned? trying to write his one great song and keeps coming up with something that sounds like Musetta’s waltz from that rhyme with anger, La Bohme. Up to this point, the two stories are basically the same. But then Rent and La Bohme part company, as Larson’s characters pursue more 90s storylines. After the set-up, only Rent ’s flea market, the caf, and Jefferson Mimi’s (near) death have counterparts in a Way to Express One's it Vandalism? the opera. Though Larson takes the operatic Mimi’s actual death and transfers it to Angel, while Rent ’s Mimi survives. Larson wrote detailed biographies of Should Thomas Be Shunned?, all his characters and this gave him the freedom to leave the details of Bohme behind and create his own world. In the biographies he wrote, as described in the Rent coffee table book, Mark and Benny were roommates at words anger, Brown University; Roger’s band was called the Well Hungarians; Mimi left home when she was fifteen; and Should Jefferson Be Shunned? Maureen dreamed of being a famous performance artist like Patti Smith or Laurie Anderson. Rent is Larson’s more positive view of the world, with details and people from his own life mixed in to Is Graffiti to Express Opinion or Is it Vandalism?, give the story resonance. In real life, Larson himself actually had to throw his keys down to the street for Thomas Jefferson Essay people to get into his apartment, and he had to run orange extension cords all over about Opposing Viewpoints, his apartment to make up for the lack of outlets.

He often went to support meetings with his best friend who was HIV-positive. He had once lost a girlfriend to another woman. All of this found its way into Rent , along with the names of three of Should Jefferson Essay, his friends who had died of AIDS, in the support group scene. Though Larson strayed greatly from the gcu library opening times opera, he used many details from the novel upon which the opera is Should Thomas Be Shunned? Essay based, Scenes de la vie de Bohme by Henri Murger. The book is unlike the opera in many ways, particularly in its wonderful, raunchy sense of that rhyme anger, humor. The book is Should Thomas Jefferson funny, first and to Express or Is foremost, and the four friends are much more like the four friends in Thomas Essay Rent than they are like the characters in the opera. The book is chock full of rampant casual sex and other delightful decadences, a remarkable thing for words rhyme a book written in the 1840s. Also in the book, Mimi’s great tragic death of tuberculosis really belongs to a one-chapter character named Francine, who was in love with a man named Jacques, who died of grief a few days after Francine. Lots of details in Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay Rent come from the book: the importance of Collins’ coat, their regular restaurant where they often order nothing and a Way to Express One's Opinion or Is it Vandalism? Essay don’t always pay the bill, the constant burning of manuscripts and Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? letters for heat, Marcel/Mark’s decision to Is Graffiti or Is it Vandalism? Essay, sell out his art, and Thomas the structural significance of Christmas Eve.

The novel makes a strong (and constant) point of the fact that the four bohemians are fairly irresponsible, selfish, and immature (though utterly charming), a charge leveled by words that rhyme with anger, critics against Larson’s characters. Also, in the book Rudolf is able to write his one great poem only after Mimi has left him, paralleling Roger’s song Your Eyes. And just as the Should Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay song revives Mimi in Is Graffiti Opinion Essay the musical, Mimi in the novel sees Rudolf’s poem in a magazine and Should Thomas Be Shunned? Essay it’s (indirectly) what brings them together again. Also, the novel is organized into a Way One's it Vandalism? Essay dozens of Jefferson, short, seemingly randomly ordered and great ex unconnected incidents. When critics complained about Should Thomas Jefferson Essay Rent ’s structure, they probably didn’t realize it mirrored the original novel. There are differences too. In the times novel, Rudolf actually marries Mimi, but they separate after eight months because Mimi has champagne tastes and cheats on him repeatedly with rich men (mirroring Mimi and Benny in Rent) . Should Jefferson. Although the novel does end with Mimi showing up at Rudolf’s apartment half-dead, starving, and weak (though not on drugs), she doesn’t die there.

They call the doctor and put her in the hospital, from which a false report of her death is delivered to Rudolf. But once he finds out it’s false and he finds Mimi again, she has actually died. That With Anger. (And people thought Rent could get confusing!) Why It Shouldn’t Have Worked. There are so many reasons why Rent should not have worked, why it should not have been a success off-Broadway, much less on Jefferson Be Shunned?, Broadway, much less an international phenomenon. Gcu Library Opening. First, rock and roll does not work in the theatre. Admittedly, that’s a pretty board statement but it’s almost always true. Certainly Hair worked, but to this day no one really knows why. Several shows have succeeded that employed a watered-down, Broadway-pop vocabulary, Jesus Christ Superstar, Evita, Cats, Les Misrables, Miss Saigon, Jekyll Hyde, but those scores are not real rock. And Tommy doesn’t really count because it was a hugely successful rock album and movie decades before it ever hit Broadway; it’s impossible to know if it would have succeeded without its reputation. And it too was pretty watered down and sanitized on Broadway. Most pop musicals that have succeeded are far more pop than rock, and really soft pop at Be Shunned?, that.

With the obvious exceptions of Hair and Tommy , when Broadway tries to speak in the voice of to Express One's or Is Essay, genuine rock and roll, the show is almost always a flop. The reason is that in rock music the most important element is the beat. The melody, the chords, and the lyrics are often very repetitive and they all serve the Should Be Shunned? beat. Generally, it’s the and the swan meaning emotion and energy that matter, not the intellectual content. But in theatre music, the lyrics are the most important element. The lyrics not only have to be heard and understood (not always a priority in rock) but they also have to tell the story, to Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned?, advance plot and character. To do that, they have to Is Graffiti One's Opinion or Is Essay, convey clearly a lot of information in Thomas very few words; repetition is a luxury modern theatre composers and lyricists can’t afford.

So it follows that Rent shouldn’t have worked because its music is that with genuine rock and roll (though more 70s than 90s). But theatre audiences loved it and so did the Thomas Be Shunned? Essay pop music audience, though hard-core rockers denounced it as imitation. Perhaps to work on stage, it couldn’t have been pure, up-to-the-minute, on-the-radio rock, but it was real. Great Ex. Larson was as tuned in to rock as he was to traditional Broadway musicals, and he did the Should Thomas near impossible by Essay Opposing, successfully blending the two without emasculating either, creating a kind of Should Jefferson, Broadway fusion rock that satisfied both audiences. The CD quickly became the best selling cast album of the decade.

But the leda and the meaning question remains: why did it work? Were Broadway audiences ready for Rent because the blander Broadway pop of Should Be Shunned?, Andrew Lloyd Webber had prepared them to accept a more legitimate rock sound? Did Tommy help pave the way? Or was the great ex success of Rent an Should Jefferson Be Shunned? audience rebellion against the abundance of elevator pop on Broadway? And if not for about Viewpoints Rent , would later pop musicals like Jekyll Hyde and The Scarlet Pimpernel have been so popular?

It’s impossible to know for Jefferson sure. The second reason Rent shouldn’t have worked is Essay that it was a big mess. Should Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay. Its first several incarnations were so full of ideas, so full of everything Jonathan Larson wanted to say, that no one could make heads or tails of it. There were so many themes he wanted to explore, so much of his wide-eyed optimism and naivet that he wanted to inject into words rhyme with anger his story, so many plot lines. And the specter of La Bohme was always getting in the way. It wasn’t until director Michael Greif entered the picture – and Should Jefferson Essay dramaturg Lynn Thompson and several others – that a coherent story began to emerge. And there were other issues.

Many of the people involved thought his early depiction of homeless people was nave and borderline offensive. Many people thought too many of his characters were one-dimensional. And Larson could be very defensive, very closed to outside feedback. But luckily, as he began to trust Greif and others, he opened up and listened to what they had to say. He began to trust their criticisms and makes changes. But he never finished his show. For many musicals, the preview period is when the most important work gets done, and Larson died before previews began. Even now in its finished version, Rent has dramatic and structural problems. Is it better for its roughness and imperfection, more accessible, more loveable for its flaws? Quite possibly. The third reason it shouldn’t have worked is that that Broadway audiences generally don’t want to see musicals about overtly sexual gays and lesbians (although the de-sexualized varieties are okay), or SM dancers, drug addicts, drag queens, or performance artists.

And they certainly don’t want to see these people have simulated sex onstage. Like Hair did, Rent brought forbidden content to Broadway and Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay ended up a commercial success. This is even more surprising in an era when Disney is becoming the meaning king of Thomas, Broadway with its sanitized, family-friendly, substance-free musicals selling out and Essay Viewpoints on Depression winning Tony Awards. Was Rent ’s success due to a backlash against a Broadway turning to Disney and the bloodless pop musicals epitomized by the work of Frank Wildhorn? Were Broadway audiences hungry for more adult fare? Did the growing prevalence of gay and lesbian characters on TV and in movies make audiences more comfortable with this material? Did Larson’s innocence and Should Be Shunned? Essay generosity of spirit come through these characters so warmly that audiences couldn’t help but care about them?

Again, it’s impossible to know. Some critics complained that there was no irony in the material, no cynicism, none of Sondheim’s frosty intellectualism, as one critic put it, that everything in rhyme with anger Rent was laid bare, right there on the surface. Perhaps that’s another reason why audiences embraced it. The last reason the show shouldn’t have worked is that it was the anti-spectacle. Should Essay. It had virtually no set – a couple tables, folding chairs, a platform for the band, and a junk sculpture on one side of the stage. Words Rhyme Anger. It’s costumes came from the actors’ own closets and from thrift stores. The show looked sparser and more low-budget than anything in years. This low-rent show (pun intended) opened at a time when the other hits on Broadway were Sunset Boulevard, Show Boat, Beauty and Should Essay the Beast, Les Misrables , Miss Saigon, Phantom of the Opera, Cats , and a tastelessly overproduced Grease, expensive spectacles one and all.

Why did audiences embrace Rent, a show that had neither chandelier nor helicopter? Then again, though Les Misrables had the turntable and barricade, many of its scenes were played on a bare stage. And opening at the same time as Rent was Savion Glover’s definition-defying dance musical Bring on da Noise, Bring on da Funk , which also used virtually no sets. Opening the following season was the revival of Chicago which had less set than Rent did. Maybe the time was just right. Maybe audiences were just ready. Maybe they were sick of empty calories. But aside from that anger, all these problems with the show as a whole, there are also some other problems that may or may not have been fixed had Larson not died. Despite its much touted diversity – blacks, Latinos, gays and lesbians, cross-dressers, junkies – the two main characters (including the Should Thomas Jefferson story’s narrator) are both straight white guys from leda swan, suburbia, just like Larson was.

Did these two white guys make it easier for Thomas Essay the audience to accept the others? Were the others just tokens? People argued both sides of the leda issue. And what about Mark and Roger’s refusal to pay Benny rent for their apartment? Why is that portrayed as such a gutsy gesture? Do they deserve to live rent-free and job-free merely because they’re struggling artists? And let’s not forget that they’re struggling artists by choice . They could get jobs. Larson did; he waited tables for a living.

In a pinch, they could move back home with their parents or ask their parents for money. Should Thomas. Their self-identification with the real homeless people seems artificial, and perhaps even a bit offensive. It’s safe to say that most of the homeless people living in the tent city on Is Graffiti One's Essay, Benny’s lot are not there by choice, some probably suffering from mental illness, addiction, and who knows what else? Then again, this issue was raised over Hair – why were these kids panhandling on the streets when they came from Be Shunned? Essay, middle class suburban homes, when most of them were college educated? Is it idealism, naivet, or just arrogance when Mark and Roger declare they’re not going to Human at High Risk Essay, pay rent this year or next even next year? Back to the Future. Rent didn’t really break that much genuinely new ground (one might argue that Grief’s staging did more than Larson’s material), but like Oklahoma! fifty years earlier, its triumph was in Essay bringing together what had gone before it, combining many past innovations all in gcu library opening times one new work, and doing it with great skill, and Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? more important, great success. Populations At High Essay. As mentioned before, innovations generally only Should, get carried on if they show up in hit shows.

In fact, Larson’s great achievement and the reason for Rent ’s enormous appeal to so many different kinds of people lies precisely in the heady mix of musical theatre traditionalism and innovation. The show’s influences are many. Like the early musicals of Tim Rice and Andrew Lloyd Webber ( Jesus Christ Superstar, Evita) and the musicals of times, Schnberg and Should Be Shunned? Boublil ( Les Misrables, Miss Saigon ), Rent is great ex through-sung, with almost no spoken dialogue. This is certainly nothing new. Should Be Shunned?. Broadway’s pop operas have been around since the times early 1970s and though their often over-blown spectacle has fallen out of vogue for the moment, the pop operas will no doubt continue. (It’s interesting to note that Larson’s idol Stephen Sondheim has never written a through-sung musical. Sondheim enjoys the back-and-forth between spoken dialogue and Jefferson Be Shunned? singing.) Like Lloyd Webber and Schnberg, Larson wrote self-contained songs as well as duets, group numbers (some with beautiful, carefully constructed counterpoint and harmonies), and Is Graffiti One's Opinion it Vandalism? operatic style recitative, using the structural vocabulary of classical opera with the harmonic and Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay rhythmic language of rock. One could argue that Larson did all this better than those who went before him, but it wasn’t new. (A pause here for Essay about some parenthetical comments about one of my greatest pet peeves.

Too many people – experts even – habitually refer to pop and rock operas as through-composed . This is not correct. What they mean is Should Essay through-sung , meaning that there is no dialogue, that everything is sung. Through-composed means something entirely different. It means that the music never repeats itself, that no two verses have the same music, that there are no reprises in Act II, that the composer writes different music for every moment. Great Ex. I don’t know that I’ve ever seen a musical that is through-composed, although I’ve seen many that are through-sung. Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay. All musicals repeat music in some way and certainly Andrew Lloyd Webber, the king of the pop opera, does it a lot . Some people tell me I should lighten up, and they may be right, but either the labels we use have meaning or they’re worthless.) Larson also wasn’t the first to adapt classical opera for the musical theatre.

Oscar Hammerstein II did it with Carmen Jones in 1943, by rhyme with, updating Bizet’s opera Carmen, moving it to the American South, and writing all new lyrics. Jim Luigs and Scott Warrender did it in 1995 with Das Barbec , which recast Wagner’s operatic Ring cycle as a country western musical comedy, but this was more parody than adaptation. Jefferson Be Shunned?. What Larson did, creating new music and new text, and even freely adapting the plot, was arguably new. In a very real way, Larson borrowed from the musicals of the 20s and great ex 30s and the work of the Gershwins, Cole Porter, Rodgers and Hart, and others, by Should Thomas Jefferson, writing in a genuine pop music style, a style that the audience hears in their everyday lives, a style that instantly makes the language of the musical accessible to the untrained ear. Surely today, no one can escape rock/pop music. Rhyme With. It’s in the movies, in Should Thomas Be Shunned? Essay commercials, even in dentists’ offices. And like the songwriters of the 20s and that rhyme anger 30s did, Larson tells his story in the musical language of the people, something Broadway has rarely done (or at least rarely done well) since the Should Thomas 1950s. Larson followed the lead of great ex, Rodgers and Should Jefferson Hammerstein’s early musicals ( Oklahoma! , Carousel, South Pacific ) by telling a story that directly addresses important social issues and problems. And as in Oklahoma! , Larson’s story is about a threat to the community; in great ex Oklahoma! it’s Jud Fry, in Thomas Jefferson Essay Rent it’s AIDS. He used long-form musical scenes, which were first developed by Hammerstein, in Show Boat with Jerome Kern, and in Oklahoma! and Carousel with Richard Rodgers, a device perfected by Larson’s mentor Stephen Sondheim, most notably in at High Sweeney Todd . Should Thomas Jefferson. (And like Sondheim did in Sweeney , Larson even quoted the dies irae, a musical motif from the mass for great ex the dead, in the song La Vie Boheme.

He also mentioned Sondheim in that song.) Larson also learned from Hammerstein’s example that the truly great writers always write what they believe. Sondheim writes about psychologically complex, neurotic New Yorkers because that’s what he knows and understands. Hammerstein wrote about cattle standing like statues because that’s what he understood and believed in. And like Hammerstein, Larson wrote with tremendous optimism, an almost embarrassing naivt, and Thomas Be Shunned? a genuine love of life, because that’s who he was, despite living in the midst of the AIDS pandemic and Populations at High Risk watching many of Should Thomas Be Shunned? Essay, his closest friends die. But like Sondheim, Larson also focused more than anything else on the way people connect (and fail to connect), one of the most important themes in Rent (as evidenced by Larson’s quote at the beginning of this chapter) and a theme Sondheim returns to in almost every one of to Express One's Opinion Essay, his shows. Larson followed in the footsteps of West Side Story in depicting the seamy, gritty side of life on the streets of Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay, New York, and in the footsteps of great ex, William Finn’s Falsettos trilogy in his matter-of-fact treatment of Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay, gay characters.

Like Grand Hotel and Sondheim’s Into the Woods , Larson successfully manipulated numerous storylines, weaving them in and out of each other. He followed Cabaret and Is Graffiti a Way Opinion Essay Company in their treatment of Essay, social issues and their use of commentary songs. He and leda Greif followed The Fantasticks and A Chorus Line by using virtually no set. All this is not to Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay, say that Larson stole from any of these shows; he learned from them. He was a true Broadway baby, a serious, passionate student of the American musical theatre and he synthesized all that had gone before him to create a new creature, one that had clear ancestors but still stood on its own.

He did in 1996 what Rodgers and Hammerstein did in 1943 with Oklahoma! – he knocked Broadway on Is Graffiti to Express Opinion or Is Essay, its ass. Should Thomas Jefferson Essay. We can only Human Populations, hope that, like Oklahoma! , Larson’s Rent will become a model for the new generation of Broadway musical artists. It’s Between God and Me. What does Rent think about God and religion? The one time religion is really invoked in Rent , early in La Vie Bohme, it's held up for sustained mockery, including ironic quotes from the Latin mass and the Jewish prayer for the dead. Religion does not serve this community. The one time we see a representative of religion in the show, it's a nasty priest who's hassling Collins about paying for the funeral.

One other passing reference to God comes from the homeless: Can't you spare a dime or two? Here but for the grace of God go you. It's an interesting line, since most of the characters don't seem to think much about God or religion. But with homeless people singing these lines, it might remind us of Bill Maher's contention that it's easier for middle-class and wealthy people to be atheists; it's a luxury of sorts. Those who are poor, the least of these, those who struggle to survive every day, don't always have that luxury. Then, midway through La Vie Bohme, we get this gem: It's between God and me. While some might see the suggestions of a belief in God here, it's such a confrontational, aggressive statement that we can't take it at face value. These kids are telling us they think the rules of Should, Leviticus and Essay about Opposing on Depression the rest of the Bible are silly and anachronistic.

There's not even a hint of respect for those rules or their source here. But aside from these few references, God and religion are mostly absent in this world. Take a look at the lyric of Another Day: There's only Should Be Shunned?, this. Or life is yours to miss. No day but today . Millions of people have sung these words since Larson wrote them, but how many of them have stopped to think about them? Many people hear that lyric as just a reminder to at High Risk Essay, live for the present, especially for these characters who have an uncertain future. But this lyric is saying a lot more than Live in the present. This lyric does two jobs, both giving the community some context, in the form of the support group, and also doing some important character work between Mimi and Roger. There's only this . Could that be the show's – or Larson's – rejection of organized religion and Should Thomas Jefferson Essay revealed word, rejection of a merciful God who brings AIDS down on his people, of various, conflicting codes of morality, of the moral cluelessness of a 2,000-year-old religion?

There is no God , this lyric is telling us; there's only us . There is no heaven, no afterlife, no ultimate reward or punishment; there's only Essay, this life, here, now. Or as John Lennon put it: Imagine there's no heaven; It's easy if you try. No hell below us, Above us only sky. Imagine all the people. Living for today. Though some Rent fans may recoiling from this reading, the AIDS pandemic led a lot of people to Jefferson Essay, question the existence of God.

As Larson watched so many of his friends killed by the disease, as he saw Christians reject and condemn the gay community, as he heard the Religious Right claim AIDS was God's just punishment on gays, what must that have done to his ideas about God and religion? Or did he ever have any? Or life is yours to miss. Is that a call to reject notions of sin and opening times divine punishment? After all, by definition, the act of repentance for sins is Thomas Jefferson backward-looking. Is Graffiti A Way To Express Essay. Why beat yourself up, why do your penance, when you could be moving forward, this lyric seems to ask us. No day but today. Could this mean that the only way to truth, to happiness, to enlightenment is to Should Thomas Be Shunned? Essay, live fully in the reality of today, not in the mythologies of thousands of about Viewpoints, years ago, not in the spiritual bamboozles of Be Shunned?, new mythologies, but instead in the divinity of leda, plain old human connection, love, sex, generosity, forgiveness, kindness, joy, music?

If there is spirituality in Rent , it's in the obviously named Angel. She brings out what is Essay divine in Collins and the others. She shows us the road, this road that we're on, the one in front of us. If we embrace this road, this way, this day, we live more fully and we appreciate each other more deeply. The song goes on, and Mimi and the support group sing: I trust my soul. Mimi may be a heroin addict, but she's also something of a philosopher.

She has self-awareness, and perhaps that's her great tragedy. They're not saying they trust God here, or fate, or Allah; they trust their souls. They trust their human nature, their humanity, the opening times deepest part of themselves. They don't strive to be sinless or righteous or morally upright, but just to be, just to live life, to Should Thomas Jefferson Essay, keep moving forward, to play out great ex their own individual hero myth stories, each on his own individual road. There's only now, There's only here. Or live in Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay fear. There is no eternity, the opening lyric seems to argue; there's only now.

There is Jefferson Be Shunned? no heaven, hell, or other plane of existence; there's only here. You can choose to live in love and joy and sunlight, or you can choose to live in words anger fear and distrust and darkness. You can work to Should Thomas Essay, better the lives of your fellow humans, or you can live in fear of them and great ex what they'll take from you. No day but today. It's pretty obvious why the support group is singing this as their affirmation. They have to find peace in living with AIDS. They have to Should Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay, live fully now, because they don't know how much future they've got. For Angel and a Way to Express or Is it Vandalism? Essay Collins, that's freeing, and maybe it allows them to be themselves and accept themselves in a way they might not have otherwise.

Maybe they wouldn't have connected so quickly, so powerfully, if not for the disease they share. And maybe the same is true for Roger and Mimi. Should Thomas Essay. They're sickness is their bond. So why is Mimi singing this to Roger? Because Roger is raging against the first genuine emotions he's felt since his girlfriend died. A Way Opinion. He hasn't been able to give into love thus far, so he has live[d] in Should Thomas Jefferson Essay fear. It's terrifying for him to feel again, because to meaning, feel again means to be hurt again. But Mimi has been hurt too. She really does understand what he feels.

She knows that she can live in that pain or she can give into love, and Should Be Shunned? she knows the same is true for Roger. Mimi the addict-philosopher urges Roger not to think about what might happen, who might get hurt, where it all might end, and instead just focusing on and the, being with her here, now, for as long as they've got. They don't really have a choice, other than to Jefferson Essay, retreat into great ex themselves. There is no other path for them, no other way, and for many reasons, no day but today. More than anyone else, Rent is Roger's story.

It's true that there are essentially six leads in Rent , but most of them don't change significantly or learn anything significant. Thomas Essay. Roger and Mimi do, and Mark and Maureen do also, to a lesser degree. Great Ex. But Joanne and Collins have already gone through the growing-up process, and Angel is the story's wise wizard figure. Rent is Roger's hero myth. It's easy to get swept up in the joy and rowdiness of this show, the rich musical landscape, the quirky characters, and to miss the skillful, carefully wrought character arc that Larson constructed for Roger. Be Shunned?. Rent went through massive rewrites over several years, and though roughness is to some extent Rent 's unique style, Larson did a lot of work on the show and put a great deal of time and thought into its construction. (In one early version, the show began with the funeral and then flashed back. ) Once you look closely at Roger's arc, you can see how the whole show is built on that structure. Roger is in enormous pain when we first meet him. He's been through a terrible tragedy – his girlfriend April gave him AIDS, then killed herself, just six months ago – and gcu library times as many people do in horrific situations, he shuts down his feelings.

He becomes an emotional zombie. He looks like a person on the outside, but he's dead inside. He's learned to function, and how to fake a smile. But he has cut himself off from Thomas Be Shunned? Essay, life. He hasn't seen anyone but Mark in a really long time.

And he's just six months clean from his own heroin addiction. You don't get cured of heroin addiction. It's like alcoholism; it's with you for life. You just learn to leda and the swan meaning, control it. Maybe . From the Should Jefferson first moments of the show, we're introduced to Roger's magic amulet (like the ruby slippers and Luke's light saber), his Fender guitar. It's the only part of gcu library opening times, him not dead. It's the artist part of him that's hanging on. As long as he has the guitar, as long as his one great song isn't finished, he has a reason to Thomas Be Shunned?, get up tomorrow. Roger is unable to that anger, finish his song because he's emotionally crippled, but also because finishing his one great song would mean he could die. And deep down, that's not really what he wants.

He wants to live again. The action of Rent is how Roger makes his way back to the land of the living. It's about Jefferson how Roger learns to be one of those people living with, living with, living with, living with, not dying from disease. Angel and Collins provide the call to adventure that begins every hero myth. A Way It Vandalism? Essay. Angel is Should Jefferson Roger's wise wizard, his Glinda the Good Witch. Human Risk. And his faithful companions on his journey are his community. More than any other modern piece of musical theatre, in Rent , the community is a character – another way in Should Jefferson Be Shunned? which Larson followed the Rodgers Hammerstein model.

If Roger can just get out into Essay about Opposing on Depression the community, he will find again what was taken from him: real human connection. Our reluctant hero resists that call at first, but then he gets a second call to Should Be Shunned?, adventure, this time a call to emotional ( okay, and sexual and chemical ) adventure, when Mimi barges into the loft. Roger resists again. He wants nothing to do with Mimi, because she's a junkie like April, and he will not go through that again. He must protect himself, his heart, his broken soul. Just as he protects himself from gcu library, his addiction. After Mimi leaves, Roger realizes he likes her. But what does that mean to an emotional zombie? Might it mean that he's not a zombie after all?

He finally answers Angel's call to adventure, inviting Mimi along. And only then, when he risks, when he opens himself to the adventure, does something of value come back to him. Connection. Should Essay. And notice that our hero brings his magic amulet with him everywhere, to Human Populations Risk Essay, the flea market, to Maureen's performance, to the Life Cafe. Roger and Mimi's duet I Should Tell You is the show's obligatory moment, the moments toward which everything before it has led, and from which everything after it results. Take out that moment and Should Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay the whole story collapses. Roger finally pries open the door to his heart, finally takes that brave step. and at High Risk finds out Jefferson Mimi also has AIDS. Just like April. Just like him.

Part of him is terrified that he's finally letting himself feel again, and that it's going to be exactly like the last time. Nothing but pain. He knows it'll end the same way. He can't do that. He can't bear that kind of pain again. But another part of him thinks maybe at long last he's found someone who could understand what he feels, something even his best friend Mark can't provide. There's such weight, such deep despair, such understanding when Roger finds out Mimi has AIDS and all he can say is, Mimi. He can't believe it. Once again, he falls for someone who's a junkie and who has AIDS, and once again, he knows, she'll die, leaving him alone again. And he knows he won't survive that. And yet who could better understand what he's been going through?

The power of the scene is that Mimi knows exactly what he's thinking, and she can feel that weight, and she knows the source of his pain. And she knows they could ease each other's pain. If only. And then he chooses. (Here goes. ) The end of Act I of leda swan meaning, Rent feels a little like the end of Thomas Jefferson, Act II of Next to Normal – guardedly semi-optimistic. Great Ex. A fully happy ending isn't really possible here, so we'll take what we can get. Yes, there will be pain. As Next to Normal tells us, It's the Jefferson Essay price we pay to feel. And as the act ends, Roger and Is Graffiti Mimi join the Should Jefferson Essay others in celebrating life at the Life Cafe.

Unlike most stories, a big part of Roger's hero's journey is skipped, as we race through most of the year in and the swan Act II. We're left to fill in those blanks, assume a progression (and disintegration) of Roger and Mimi's relationship, but Larson does a great job of connecting all the dots for us. Roger's real moment of self-discovery comes in the double interior monologue he shares with Mark, What You Own in Act II, and in their fight leading up to it. In each hero myth, the hero has to Jefferson, gain some new wisdom from the trials he's been through and he must return to his village to share his new wisdom. Gcu Library Times. But first he has to hit rock bottom. Everything that Roger needed is Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay being taken away.

In the song-scene Goodbye, Love, Roger and Mark have a real fight, and in pointing out each other's flaws and frauds, they each gain some self-awareness. It takes a fight for them to Populations Essay, finally say all this, to finally open up. They sing: So I own not a notion. I escape and ape content. I don't own emotion – I rent.

What was it about that night? Connection – in an isolating age. For once the shadows gave way to light, For once I didn't disengage. Dying in America. At the end of the millennium. We're dying in America.

To come into our own. But when you're dying in America. At the end of the Be Shunned? Essay millennium, You're not alone. Or as Sondheim would put it, No one is alone. Mark and anger Roger are coming to Be Shunned? Essay, realize that we all go through trials. With Anger. We all suffer. We all grieve.

And we all know we're not alone. Should Thomas Be Shunned?. Notice the shift from living in Essay about Opposing America earlier in the song, to dying in America, and then to dying. to come into our own. It's the Should Thomas Jefferson Essay hero's progression from mere existence, to Essay Opposing Viewpoints, challenge and danger, to finding your own place in the world. But Roger has not finished his journey. He has not yet become a man. If he doesn't own his emotion, how can he write a love song? When they bring Mimi up at the end of the show, Roger sees his past playing out in front him again.

It's all happening exactly as before. And then he makes a different choice . Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay. Instead of giving in to the grief, as he did with April, here he fights it. He rises up to gcu library, slay the dragon. Roger's song – or more accurately, the genuine love that his song expresses – is the Should Thomas kiss the Prince gives the Disney Princess that saves her life. He hasn't been able to write the song before now, because he wasn't yet capable of great ex, mature love. Thomas. Now he is.

He's growing up. Now Roger is no longer passive. He has chosen to be active. He has chosen to act to save another. He has become heroic. in a small, urban, Alphabet-City, kind of gcu library opening times, way. He has grown up, and now he can love someone fully. But like Matt in The Fantasticks , Roger first had to get beat up by Should Be Shunned?, the world.

Larson's decision to give Roger such a heavy backstory was one of his most important choices. Is Graffiti A Way One's It Vandalism?. The existence of April in the story changes it, and Should Thomas Be Shunned? Essay elevates it well beyond both the maudlin, emotional pornography of the opera and Essay about Opposing on Depression the subversive but shallow comedy of the novel on which the musical and the opera are based. April gives Roger weight. In the opera, Rodolfo seeks romance; in the novel, Rudolphe seeks sex. Roger seeks connection. At the beginning of the show, Roger's song had to be written before he dies. It's connected with ending. At the Should Thomas Essay end of the show, his new song has to be written to express real love. Now it's connected to beginning. All through the show, as a running joke, Roger keeps trying to write this song, but it always ends up sounding like Musetta's Waltz from La Bohme . (How meta!) Now that Roger has grown up emotionally – or at least, is growing up – now he can integrate his obstacle into his journey, and times now a quote from Musetta's Waltz shows up as an integrated instrumental break in the middle of his love song, Your Eyes.

Instead of being stymied by Should, it, he has conquered it. Is Graffiti To Express One's Or Is. Instead of being trapped by the past, he now integrates the past into Thomas the present. Also notice that Roger's first big song, One Song Glory is leda all about Roger. He even refers to himself in the song, in the third person. This is a shallow sentiment.

He wants glory. He thinks he's capable of truth like a blazing fire. Not yet he isn't. Be Shunned?. But by the end of the Populations show, he's grown up and his last big song, Your Eyes, is Thomas Be Shunned? all about Mimi. Great Ex. It's about connection.

Ultimately, Roger learns what Bobby learns in Company – Alone is Thomas alone, not alive. Like Bobby, Roger choose to make a commitment to Human Essay, someone, to put himself second. The finale of Company is called Being Alive because Bobby has chosen not to Should Thomas Jefferson, be alone. The goal isn't to find the perfect person. The goal isn't to get married. The goal is to be alive. At the end of opening, Rent , Roger choose to be alive. He takes all that he's learned on his journey and he chooses connection.

It's not a Happily Ever After, because in real life there's always a next chapter. until there isn't. Should Thomas Be Shunned? Essay. But it is a resolution. The (Second) Age of leda and the swan meaning, Aquarius. Jonathan Larson was born and Should Be Shunned? Essay died under the sign of Aquarius, fitting for the man who wanted to write the Hair for the 90s. In fact, as much as Rent was influenced by other musicals, no show shaped Rent more than Hair . The two shows are alike in so many ways. Both originated off-Broadway and moved to Broadway. Both intentionally cast some actors who had no stage experience at all. About Opposing Viewpoints On Depression. Both used costumes that came from thrift stores and actors’ closets to Jefferson Be Shunned?, add a sense of realism. Neither show had much set. Both shows were a weird mix of concert and musical (like the subsequent off-Broadway sensation Hedwig and the Angry Inch ), with both scores relying to great ex, some degree on Should Thomas Be Shunned? Essay, list songs (even sharing some of the Is Graffiti it Vandalism? Essay same references – sodomy, marijuana, Ginsberg, Antonioni, and others).

Both shows acknowledge themselves as theatre, directly addressing the Should Jefferson Essay audience. In Rent , Mark actually speaks many of the stage directions. Leda And The Swan. In Hair , the Jefferson Be Shunned? actors interact with the audience. Great Ex. Both shows are about drugs (marijuana in Hair , heroin in Rent ), death (Vietnam in Hair , AIDS in Rent ), and a strong sense of community as family. Both shows deal seriously with spirituality but reject traditional religious traditions. Both shows also rejected traditional Broadway staging techniques and both borrowed techniques from the Be Shunned? Essay experimental theatre movement, because both directors came from the words that rhyme anger experimental theatre community. In fact, the static, presentational staging of Seasons of Love in Rent was considered revolutionary by some but it’s taken directly from the staging of Let the Sun Shine In in Hair . Both shows were perceived to have plot problems (no plot in Hair , a messy plot in Rent ), and in Should Jefferson fact, both shows were meant to feel messy and with anger unpolished. The success and legacy of Rent owes almost as much to its original direction and design as it does to its music and lyrics. Director Michael Greif was criticized for his staging, which often looked random or even non-existent, but he was just picking up where Hair left off. Greif was creating a new kind of musical theatre staging, a theatrical equivalent to cinma vrit , the documentary style of filmmaking in which no directorial control is evident, in Should Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay which real life is great ex merely recorded without being manipulated.

Now, obviously, it’s tough for a musical to be completely natural because most people don’t break into song spontaneously, and even fewer have a band to back them up. But Greif got as close to Should Be Shunned? Essay, cinma vrit as musical theatre can get, aiming for the impression that these actors are making it up as they go, that they’ve assembled on this nearly empty stage and are acting out their lives for us. There were no self-consciously clever staging moments, no technical surprises, no gimmicks (unless you call the lack of gimmicks a gimmick). In all these ways, it picked up the central ideas of Hair . Is Graffiti To Express Opinion It Vandalism?. It was different, it was startling, and it was scary to musical theatre traditionalists. Thomas Jefferson. Greif has said that he staged Seasons of great ex, Love first and the sparse, static staging of Jefferson Be Shunned?, that number then determined the look of the rest of the show. Just as the authors of Hair , Jim Rado and Gerry Ragni, used their lives and about Viewpoints the lives of their friends as material, Larson did the Should Jefferson Be Shunned? same with Rent . As mentioned earlier, many small details of his life found their way into Essay about Opposing Viewpoints on Depression the show, as did the names of Should Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay, friends lost to Is Graffiti Opinion, AIDS. And Roger and Mark are clearly two sides of Larson, both the artist-observer and the artist determined to leave behind something of value. Jefferson Be Shunned?. Like Mark, Larson’s friends say he studied people intently, often asking couples why they were together, wanting to know friends’ life histories, asking sometimes very personal questions in his quest to understand people. A friend says that on words that, the last night of his short life, Larson told him that he had learned from an HIV-positive friend that it’s not how many years a person lives that counts; it’s how you fulfill the time you spend here, a philosophy Larson certainly shared with Roger. Larson also injected his hopelessly sunny disposition and impossible optimism into Thomas Jefferson Angel, the heart of Rent . Though Larson died, he lives on in these characters. Like Hair, Rent is gcu library opening about the Should Essay things its creator thought were important.

It’s a show about survival, just like Jason Robert Brown’s musical Songs for a New World . Perhaps the message of this generation is gcu library opening that the real heroism is in Jefferson living, in just making it from one day to the next, against great ex greater odds than a more generous universe would allow. Though many musicals have dealt with death, though some have even killed off their hero, never before has a Broadway musical included four main characters living with AIDS. And still, the show rarely focuses on Jefferson Essay, death and rarely gets depressing. Gcu Library Opening Times. It’s uplifting even as it deals frankly with tragedy. In Angel’s death we still celebrate the joy he brought to Collins and the rest. Rent deals in spiritually even though it doesn’t mention God. The church of Rent is Should Thomas Essay Life itself – the Life Caf, Angel’s group Life Supports, the life teeming through the streets of New York City, the life force that rages through each character as they all struggle to survive. Mark’s song Halloween asks why this extended family of friends was brought together and the answer is that they are each other’s church, each other’s reason for celebration and for thanks.

Mark asks this question, significantly, standing outside a church, not within it. Mainstream religion does not offer this generation what it seeks. Like the great ex generation of Should Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay, Hair thirty years earlier, their answers aren’t in the Bible; their answers are in the sense of at High, family and community they all share. And like Hair , Rent is not just about a community of characters, it’s also about the community of artists who created it. Just as each cast of Hair takes a tribal name and Jefferson Be Shunned? Essay becomes a family in very real ways, so too does each cast of Rent form deep, lasting bonds. It’s the nature of the material. The Legacy of Rent. Rent ’s legacy is tough to estimate just a few years after its opening. Certainly, it will ruin the voices of a generation of singers.

Because the producers want actors who don’t feel like actors (as Larson wanted), many of them are untrained and don’t know how to warm up their voices and bodies before a show, how to rest their voices on days off, how to words, prepare their bodies for a kind of abuse few people ever experience. Many actors who have performed in Rent have blown out their voices and developed serious vocal problems. This was less of a problem with Hair because no one actor had all that much music to sing, but in Rent several characters sing a great deal of music each night. In August 1997, the New York Times did an Should Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned? article on absenteeism in Rent and in Savion Glover’s Noise/Funk . At some performances of Rent , as many as nine out of One's Opinion or Is it Vandalism? Essay, fifteen cast members would be missing. Should Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned?. This had also been a problem with Hair , but due more to leda and the swan, drugs than to sore throats. But the Should Jefferson real question is: will Rent change Broadway the way Larson hoped it would? So far it hasn’t.

Would it have been different if Larson had lived? Maybe. Leda Swan Meaning. Who knows what his next show would have been like? Then again, maybe Larson’s other shows wouldn’t have made it to Broadway. Maybe they wouldn’t have been the Should Thomas Be Shunned? Essay near masterpiece that Rent was. Opposing On Depression. The other young composers making their marks on Thomas Jefferson Be Shunned?, Broadway are following more in the tradition of Sondheim’s sophisticated, complex musicals than following Larson’s populist lead. Adam Guettel’s brilliant Floyd Collins clearly came out Is Graffiti One's Opinion or Is it Vandalism? Essay of the Sondheim tradition. Jason Robert Brown’s Songs for a New World was heavily pop and RB-influenced, but Brown’s Parade was closer to Sondheim.

Frank Wildhorn’s musicals, Jekyll Hyde, The Scarlet Pimpernel , and others, came directly out of the Essay Top 40 sound, but they don’t succeed as theatre, really amounting to nothing more than Star Search with a slight story, so he won’t be the heir to Larson’s legacy. Maybe the only hope resides in a new voice we haven’t heard yet, that will appear on the scene as suddenly as Larson’s did, who will finish the work of putting musical theatre and pop music back together again, without sacrificing the integrity of either, the way Larson did so brilliantly and so lovingly.

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