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Essay about The Death of a Tragic Hero in The Crucible

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The internalism-externalism (I-E) debate lies near the Essay The Tragic Hero in The Crucible, center of contemporary discussion about epistemology. The basic idea of Essay about Taking a Look at the Indian-American internalism is that justification is solely determined by factors that are internal to a person. Externalists deny this, asserting that justification depends on additional factors that are external to a person. A significant aspect of the I-E debate involves setting out exactly what counts as internal to a person. The rise of the I-E debate coincides with the rebirth of of a Hero in The Crucible epistemology after Edmund Gettiers famous 1963 paper, Is Justified True Belief Knowledge? In that paper, Gettier presented several cases to show that knowledge is not identical to justified true belief. Cases of this type are referred to as Gettier cases, and they illustrate the Gettier problem. Standard Gettier cases show that one can have internally adequate justification without knowledge. The introduction of the Gettier problem to epistemology required rethinking the connection between true belief and knowledge, and the subsequent discussion generated what became the I-E debate over and Evil Illustrated Conrad’s Heart the nature of Essay about The Death of a in The justification in an account of knowledge. Internalists maintained that knowledge requires justification and that the nature of this justification is completely determined by a subjects internal states or reasons.

Externalists denied at least one of Themes Adventures of Huckleberry which these commitments: either knowledge does not require justification or the nature of justification is not completely determined by internal factors alone. The Of A In The! On the latter view, externalists maintained that the facts that determine a beliefs justification include external facts such as whether the belief is caused by the state of captivity narratives affairs that makes the belief true, whether the belief is Death Hero in The counterfactually dependent on the states of affairs that makes it true, whether the belief is produced by a reliable belief-producing process, or whether the belief is about Taking at the Culture objectively likely to be true. The I-E discussion engages a wide range of epistemological issues involving the nature of rationality, the ethics of belief, and skepticism. The simple conception of the I-E debate as a dispute over whether the facts that determine justification are all internal to a person is complicated by several factors. First, some epistemologists understand externalism as a view that knowledge does not require justification while others think it should be understood as an externalist view of justification. Second, there is an important distinction between having good reasons for ones belief (that is, propositional justification) and basing ones belief on the good reasons one possesses (that is, doxastic justification). This distinction matters to the nature of the internalist thesis and consequently the I-E debate itself. Third, there are two different and prominent ways of understanding what is internal to a person. About Death Of A Tragic! This bears on the nature of the internalist thesis and externalist arguments against The Art of Storytelling in The Essay internalism. This section explores these complications. The traditional analysis of Essay about The Death Tragic in The Crucible knowledge is that knowledge is justified true belief.

As Socrates avers in the Meno , knowledge is more than true belief. Superstitious beliefs that just turn out to be true are not instances of knowledge. Essay About Taking A Look At The Culture! In the Theatetus Socrates proposes that knowledge is true belief tied down by Essay about Death of a Tragic Hero, an account. Socrates proposal is the beginning of what epistemologists refer to as the justified true belief (JTB) account of knowledge. A true belief tied down by in The Adventures Finn which of Time and Culture, an account can be understood as a true belief for which one has adequate reasons . On the JTB account having adequate reasons turns a true belief into knowledge.

The JTB account was demolished by Gettiers famous 1963 article. As explained in the introduction Gettier cases demonstrate that knowledge is more than justified true belief. Suppose that Smith possesses a good deal of evidence for the belief that someone in his office owns a Ford. Smiths evidence includes such things as that Smith sees Jones drive a Ford to work every day and that Jones talks about the joys of owning a Ford. It turns out, however, that (unbeknownst to Smith) Jones is deceiving his coworkers into believing he owns a Ford. Essay About Death Of A Hero In The Crucible! At the same time, though, someone else in Smiths office, Brown, does own a Ford. Essay And Evil Illustrated In Joseph Heart! So, Smiths belief that someone in his office owns a Ford is both justified and true. Yet it seems to most people that Smiths belief is not an Essay The Death in The Crucible instance of knowledge. The Gettier problem led epistemologists to rethink the connection between knowledge and We Need to Talk About Kevin Rules Essay, true belief. An externalist position developed that focused on causal relations or, more generally, dependency relations between ones belief and Essay about Hero in The, the facts as providing the key to turning true belief into knowledge (see Armstrong 1973).

It is unclear from this move alone whether externalism should be understood as the view knowledge does not require justification or that justification should be understood externally. On Darkness And Evil Illustrated In Joseph! Some externalists advocate the view that knowledge doesnt require justification but that nonetheless justification is Essay The Death of a epistemically important (see Sosa 1991b). Captivity Narratives! Other externalists hold that knowledge does require justification but that the about The Death of a Tragic Hero in The, nature of the justification is amenable to an externalist analysis (see Bergmann 2006). A significant aspect of the issue of how one should understand externalism is whether the term justification is a term of logic or merely a place-holder for a necessary condition for knowledge. If justification is a term of logic then it invokes notions of consistency, inconsistency, implication, and of the period, coherence. On this conception of justification an externalist analysis of the nature of justification is implausible.

However, if justification is merely a place-holder for a condition in an account of knowledge then the nature of justification might be amenable to an externalist analysis. Essay The Of A In The! Externalists have defended both views. Some argue that justification is a term of narratives logic and so their position is best understood as the view that justification is not required for knowledge. However, other externalists have argued that justification is not a term of logic but a term that occurs in connection with knowledge talk and so is amenable to an externalist account. Many internalists, by contrast, claim that justification is necessary for knowledge and that the notion of about Death of a Tragic justification may be (partially) explicated by the concepts of consistency, implication, and coherence. b. Justification and Well-foundedness. There is a significant difference between merely having good reasons for ones belief that the Bears will win the Super Bowl and basing ones belief on those reasons. Mike Ditka may have excellent reasons for believing the Bears will win; they have a superior defense and an excellent running back. Nevertheless Ditka may believe that the captivity narratives, Bears will win based on wishful thinking. In this case its natural to Essay about The Death of a in The Crucible, make a distinction in ones epistemic evaluation of Ditkas belief. Ditkas belief is justified because he has good reasons for it.

But Ditkas believing the claim as he does is not justified because he bases his belief on wishful thinking and not the good reasons he has. Captivity Narratives! This marks the Essay Death Tragic Hero in The Crucible, distinction between propositional and doxastic justification. Other epistemologists refer to the same distinction as that between justification and well-foundedness (see Conee Feldman 2004). This leads to a second area of complication in the I-E debate. Internalists claim that every condition that determines a beliefs justification is internal, but causal relations are typically not internal. Since basing ones belief on reasons is a causal relation between ones belief and ones reasons, internalists should not claim that every factor that determines doxastic justification is internal (see 1c below for further discussion of this). Accordingly, internalism should be understood as a view about propositional justification. Moreover, given that one cannot know unless one bases ones belief on good reasons this implies that internalists will understand the justification condition in an account of knowledge as composed of two parts: propositional justification and some causal condition (typically referred to as the basing relation).

This considerably complicates the I-E debate because theres not a straightforward disagreement between internalist and externalist views of doxastic justification, since externalists typically avoid dissecting the justification condition. Common forms of externalism build in a causal requirement to justification, for composers of the baroque period example, ones belief that p is Essay The in The Crucible produced by a reliable method. Nevertheless it is important to get the in The Odyssey Essay, nature of the internalist thesis straight and Essay Death Tragic Hero, only then determine the nature of the externalist objections. The distinction between propositional and doxastic justification allows us to bring into focus different notions of and Evil in Joseph Conrad’s Heart internal states . Internalism is best understood as the thesis that propositional justification, not doxastic justification, is completely determined by ones internal states. But what are ones internal states? Ones internal states could be ones bodily states, ones brain states, ones mental states (if these are different than brain states), or ones reflectively accessible states. The two most common ways of understanding internalism has been to take internal states as either reflectively accessible states or mental states. Death Of A Hero! The former view is known as accessibilism and it has been championed by Essay about Taking a Look Indian-American, Roderick Chisholm and Laurence BonJour (see also Matthias Steup (1999)).

The latter view is known as mentalism and it has been defended by Essay about Death Tragic in The, Richard Feldman and Earl Conee. On an accessibilist view every factor that determines whether ones belief is propositionally justified is reflectively accessible. Since the composers of the period, causal origins of ones beliefs are not, in general, reflectively accessible they do not determine whether ones belief is propositionally justified. But whether or not ones belief that p and ones belief that q are contradictory is reflectively accessible. Since contradictory beliefs cannot both be justified one can ascertain by reflection alone whether pairs of beliefs lack this devastating epistemic property. One should note that the above claim that the causal origins of Essay about The Death of a Hero in The Crucible ones beliefs are not, in We Need to Talk About, general, reflectively accessible is an anti-Cartesian claim. Arguably, Descartes thought that one could always discover the Death of a Tragic in The, causal origins of composers period ones beliefs. On the Cartesian view causal relations that hold between beliefs and experiences and beliefs are reflectively accessible. Many scholars, however, believe this view is false.

Stemming from Freuds work many now think that one does not have the kind of access Descartes thought one had to the causal origins of ones beliefs. Given this an accessibilist view about doxastic justificationthat is, propositional justification + the causal origins of ones beliefis not feasible. Accessibilists should only require that every factor that determines whether ones belief is propositionally justified is Essay of a Crucible reflectively accessible. There are varieties of accessibilist views depending on how one unpacks what states count as reflectively accessible. In The Finn Which Boundaries! Are these states that one is able to reflectively access now or states that one may access given some time? If accessibilism is not restricted to current mental states then it needs to explain where the cut off is between states that count towards determining justificatory status and those that dont count.

Richard Feldman has a helpful article on this topic in which he defends the strong thesis that it is about Death Hero only ones current mental states that determine justificatory status (Feldman 2004b). Another dimension apropos accessibilism is whether the justificatory status of ones belief needs to be accessible as well. If it does then ones inability to determine whether or not ones belief that p is Essay Taking Indian-American justified demonstrates that p is Essay The Death of a Hero Crucible not justified for one. BonJour (1985, chapter 2), for instance, is commonly cited as defending this strong kind of accessibilism. This strong version of accessibilism is often taken to be the purest form of internalism since internalism is not uncommonly associated with a commitment to We Need to Talk and House Rules Essay, higher-order principles such as one knows that p only if one knows that one knows that p. Robert Nozick (1981, p. 281) takes internalism to be the thesis that knowledge implies knowledge of all the about Hero in The, preconditions of knowing. The other prominent view of internal states is that they are mental states. This view is composers of the period known as mentalism (see Conee Feldman 2004b). Mentalism, like accessibilism, is a view about propositional justification, not doxastic justification. Ones mental states completely determine the justificatory status of ones beliefs. Mentalism is connected to accessibilism since according to the Cartesian tradition one can determine which mental states one is in by reflection alone.

To the extent that mentalism is distinct from accessibilism it allows that some non-reflectively accessible mental states can determine whether ones belief is Death of a Hero Crucible propositionally justified. A defender of a mentalist view needs to explain which mental states determine justificatory status. Do all mental stateshopes, fears, longingsdetermine propositional justification or just some mental states, such as beliefs and experiences? Moreover, a defender of mentalism needs to clarify whether both current and non-current mental states can determine justificatory status. A non-current mental state is a mental state that you do not currently host. For instance, you believed a moment ago that 186 is greater than 86 but currently you are not thinking about this. One of the advantages of mentalism is that it upholds a clear internalist thesisjustification is determined by ones mental stateswithout appealing to the problematic notion of access. Many understand the notion of narratives access to be a thinly disguised epistemic term (see, for instance, Fumerton (1995) p. 64). To have access to some fact is just to know whether or not that fact obtains.

This is problematic for an accessibilist because he analyzes justification in terms of access and then use the notion of justification to partially explicate knowledge. In short, if access is an epistemic term then any analysis of knowledge that rests upon facts about access will be circular. The mentalist escapes this problem. Ones mental states determine justification, and Death of a Hero in The, one does not explicate what ones mental states are by in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn which Transcend and Culture, appeal to the problematic notion of access. However, mentalism does face the Essay about The Tragic Crucible, objection that since it eschews the notion of access it is not a genuine form of internalism (see Bergmann 2006 for a further examination of this issue). Before we press on to other issues in Rules Essay, the I-E debate let us take stock of what has been considered. About The Death Of A Tragic Hero Crucible! Internalism is the Adventures Transcend and Culture, view that all the factors that determine propositional justification are either reflectively accessible states (that is, accessibilism) or mental states (that is, mentalism).

Internalists also hold that doxastic justification, which is propositional justification and a basing requirement, is necessary for knowledge. We can think of internalism as the view that all the factors that determine justification apart from a basing requirement are internal. Let us call these justification determining factors, minus the basing requirement, the J-factors. About The Death Tragic Crucible! Externalists about justification deny that the J-factors are all internal. If, however, we view externalism merely as a negative thesis then we lose sight of its distinctly philosophical motivation. Externalists positive views are grounded in the intuition that the natural relations between ones beliefs and the environment matter to a beliefs justification. If, for example, a subjects belief that there is a tiger behind the tall grass is caused by the fact that there is a tiger there this fact seems significant to determining the justificatory status of that belief, even though this fact may not be reflectively accessible to captivity narratives, one. At a certain level of generality, externalism is best viewed as stressing the justificatory significance of Essay about The Death of a Crucible dependency relations between ones belief and the environment. This section examines prominent reasons for internalism. I will discuss three motivations for internalism: the appeal to the Socratic/Cartesian project; the of Storytelling in The Odyssey, appeal to deontology; and the appeal to natural judgment about cases.

These three motivations are conspicuous in arguments for Essay Death Hero in The Crucible internalism. After giving each reason I shall consider externalist responses. One common strategy internalists employ is to emphasize that epistemic justification requires having good reasons for ones beliefs. As both Socrates and Descartes stressed its not rational to believe p without possessing a good reason for believing p. Suppose I believe that the Telecoms stock will drastically fall tomorrow. Its reasonable to ask why I think thats true. Clearly its wrong to repeat myself, saying I believe thats true because it is true. So it seems I must have a reason, distinct from my original belief, for thinking that Telecoms stock will fall. Also I cannot appeal to the causal origins of that belief or to the reliability of the and Evil Illustrated Conrad’s, specific belief process. Those sorts of facts are beyond my ken. Whatever I can appeal to will be something I am aware of. Moreover, I cant merely appeal to another belief, for example, Karen told me that Telecoms stock will fall. I need a good reason for thinking that Karen is good indicator about these sorts of things.

Apart from that supporting belief its not rational to believe that Telecoms stock will fall. Of A Hero Crucible! So rationality requires good reasons that indicate a belief is true. The appeal to Adventures of Huckleberry which Boundaries of Time and Culture, the Socratic/Cartesian project is a way to motivate the claim that it is a basic fact that rationality requires good reasons. This requirement conflicts with externalism since externalism allows for the possibility that ones belief is justified even though one has no reasons for that belief. To draw out this commitment let us expand on the above example. Suppose that my belief that Telecoms stock will fall is based on my beliefs that Karen told me so and that Karen is a reliable indicator of Essay The Hero in The Crucible these things. But not every belief of mine is supported by other beliefs I have. Narratives! These kinds of beliefs are called basic beliefs , beliefs that are not supported by other beliefs.

Consider your belief that theres a cube on the table. What reason do you have for this belief? It might be difficult to say. Yet internalism requires that you have some reason (typically, the Essay The Death of a Tragic Hero in The, content of Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Transcend of Time ones experience) that supports this belief if that belief is Essay The Death of a Tragic Hero rational. Externalists think that that is just too tall of an on Darkness Illustrated in Joseph of Darkness order. In fact one of the early motivations for externalism was to about Tragic in The Crucible, handle the justification of basic beliefs (see Armstrong 1973). In general, externalists think that basic beliefs can be justified merely by narratives, the belief meeting some external condition. One complication with this, though, is that some externalists think a basic belief require reasons but that reasons should be understood in an externalist fashion (see Alston (1988)). I shall ignore this complication because on Alstons analysis justification depends on factors outside ones ken.

So, to Essay about Death in The Crucible, the extent that one is moved by the internalist intuition, one will think that externalism falls. It allows for Themes in The Adventures Finn which Transcend Boundaries justification without good reasons. One should also note that this appeal to the Socratic/Cartesian project supports accessibilism. A related argument used to support internalism appeals to the inadequacy of externalism to answer philosophical curiosity (see Fumerton 2006). If we take up the The of a Crucible, Socratic project, then we are interested in determining whether our most basic beliefs about a Look Indian-American reality are likely to be true. Essay The Of A In The Crucible! It seems entirely unsatisfactory to note that if ones beliefs meet some specified external condition then the Essay about Taking a Look, beliefs are justified; for the natural question is whether ones belief has met that external condition. This suggests that to the extent that we are interested in whether our beliefs are epistemically justified internalism is the only game in town.

Externalist Response One early externalist response was to note that internalists focus on conditions they use to determine justificatory status but that this is conceptually distinct from Essay of a Tragic Hero in The Crucible, conditions that actually do determine justificatory status. Themes Adventures Which Transcend And Culture! An adequate definition of albinos may be entirely useless for finding actual albinos (see Armstrong 1973, p. 191). In a similar manner its at least conceptually possible that ones analysis of the nature of justification is not a useful tool for determining whether or not ones beliefs are justified. What this shows is that internalists need an additional argument from the fact that we can appeal to only internal factors to determine justification to about of a Tragic, the conclusion that only internal facts determine justification. Another early response to this internalist tactic is to argue that internalism fails to meet its own demands.

Alvin Goldman (1980) presents an argument of this kind, claiming that there is no definite and About and House Rules, acceptable set of internalistic conditions that determine what cognitive attitude a subject should have given her evidence. Goldman argues for this conclusion by supposing that there is some set of internalistic conditions and then contenting that there no acceptable way to accommodate this set of conditions within the constraints laid down by internalists. For instance, Goldman reasons that one internalistic constraint is Essay about Death of a in The Crucible that the correctness of these conditions be reflectively accessible. But, if the captivity narratives, correctness of The Tragic Hero in The Crucible this procedure depends on its ability to get one to the truth more often than not, then since that property isnt reflectively accessible, internalists shouldnt understand the The Art in The Essay, correctness of the procedure to consist in its ability to be a good guide to the truth. Goldman then argues that other accounts of the correctness of this procedure likewise fail. So it is not possible for internalism to The Death Tragic Hero, meet its own severe restrictions. Which And Culture! For a similar argument see Richard Foley (1993). b. Deontology (The Ethics of Belief) A prominent source of support for internalism is the allegedly deontological character of justification (see Plantinga (1993), chapter 1; this section relies heavily on Plantingas discussion). The language of justified unjustified invokes concepts like rightness wrongness, blameless blameworthy, and about Death of a Tragic Hero, dutifulness neglect. Facts about justification are set in the larger context of ones duties, obligations, and requirements.

Descartes, for instance, explains that false belief arises from the in The Finn which of Time and Culture, improper use of ones own will. There is a two-fold implication to this. First, if one governs ones believing as one ought then one is justified in Essay The Death of a Hero in The Crucible, ones believings. Second, if one maintains proper doxastic attitudes one will have (by and large) true beliefs. Locke, like Descartes, connects justification with duty fulfillment. Locke maintains that though one may miss truth, if one governs ones doxastic attitudes in captivity, accord with duty then one will not miss the reward of truth ( Essay , IV, xvii, 24). The argument from the about Hero in The Crucible, deontological character of justification to internalism proceeds as follows. Justification is a matter of fulfilling ones intellectual duties but whether or not one has fulfilled ones intellectual duties is entirely an internal matter. On Darkness In Joseph Conrad’s Of Darkness! One fulfills ones intellectual duties when one has properly taken into account the evidence one possesses. Essay About Death Tragic In The Crucible! If Smith scrupulously analyzes all the Essay on Darkness and Evil in Joseph of Darkness, relevant information about Telecoms stock prices and draws the conclusion that Telecoms prices will soar then Smiths belief is justified. If it later comes to light that the about Death Tragic Hero in The Crucible, information was misleading this doesnt impugn our judgment about Smiths belief at captivity that time.

Smith was intellectually virtuous in his believing and drew the appropriate conclusion given the evidence he possessed. In contrast if Jones is an epistemically reckless stock broker who does not study the market before he makes his judgments, but happens to Essay of a in The Crucible, hit on the true belief that Telecoms stock prices will fall then we do not count his belief as justified since he ignored all the relevant evidence. Jones should have believed otherwise. The cases of Essay about Taking a Look at the Indian-American Smith and Jones support the claim that fulfilling ones intellectual duty is entirely a matter of what one is able to determine by reflection alone. Both Smith and Essay The of a Tragic Hero, Jones are able to determine that their evidence indicates Telecoms stock will soar. Smith appropriately believes this and Jones does not. Since externalists would require some other non-reflectively accessible condition externalism is wrong. One should note that this argument supports accessiblism, not mentalism. Externalist Response Externalists have responded to this line of The Art of Storytelling argument in two ways. The Death Tragic Hero Crucible! First, some externalists deny that facts about duties, rights, or blameworthiness are relevant to the sense of justification necessary for knowledge. Second, other externalists deny that the deontological character of The Art of Storytelling Essay justification supports accessibilism.

Arguments of the first kind fall into two groups: (a) arguments that a necessary condition for rights, duties, or blameworthiness is not met with respect to belief and Essay of a Tragic Hero in The Crucible, (b) arguments that facts about deontology are not relevant to determining epistemic facts. The most common argument for (a) is that beliefs are outside of an individuals control, and so it does not make sense to of Storytelling in The Odyssey Essay, consider an individual blameworthy for a belief. This is the issue of doxastic voluntarism. Sosa (2003) and Essay about The Death of a in The, Plantinga (1993) present arguments for (b). The basic idea in Essay about a Look Indian-American, these cases is that an individual may be deeply epistemically flawed but nonetheless perfectly blameless in his or her belief. An individual may, for instance, be hardwired to accept as valid instances of Essay The Death Tragic in The Crucible affirming the consequent; nonetheless, a persons belief in A on Adventures which Transcend and Culture the basis of if A then B and B is not justified. Michael Bergmann (2006, chapter 4) presents an argument of the second type that the deontological character of justification does not support accessibilism. The basic idea of Bergmanns argument is Essay about The Death of a Tragic Hero Crucible that an appeal to the deontological character of justification only to Talk About Kevin Rules, supports the requirement that the person not be aware of any reasons against the belief. It does not support the stronger requirement that the about of a, person be aware of positive reasons for the belief. Bergmann then argues the weaker requirement is consistent with externalism. A different strategy to support internalism is to of Huckleberry which Boundaries, appeal to about The Hero in The, natural judgment about cases.

I shall consider two famous thought experiments designed to elicit internalist intuitions: BonJours Clairvoyant cases, specifically the case of Norman (BonJour 1980) and the new evil demon problem (Lehrer Cohen 1983 Cohen 1984). I shall present the two cases and then offer an externalist response. As Sosa (1991a) explains the two cases are related in that each is the mirror image of the other. In the Norman case there is reliability without internal evidence while in the new evil demon problem there is internal evidence without reliability. In BonJours (1980) article he presents four clairvoyant cases to illustrate the fundamental problem with externalism. Subsequent discussion has focused mainly on the case of Norman.

BonJour describes the Norman case as follows: Norman, under certain conditions that usually obtain, is a completely reliable clairvoyant with respect to certain kinds of Finn which Transcend subject matter. He possesses no evidence or reasons of about The in The Crucible any kind for or against Themes of Huckleberry Finn which Transcend Boundaries the general possibility of such a cognitive power, or for Essay Death or against the thesis that he possesses it. One day Norman comes to believe that the in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Culture, President is in New York City, though he has no evidence either for or against his belief. In fact the belief is true and results from his clairvoyant power, under circumstances in which it is completely reliable. (p. 21) Intuitively it seems that Normans belief is not justified.

Norman doesnt have any reasons for thinking that the President is in New York City. Norman just finds himself believing that. Essay The Death Tragic Hero Crucible! Were Norman to Taking a Look Indian-American, reflect on his belief he would come to see that that belief is unsupported. Yet in the situation imagined Normans belief is the product of a reliable process. Norman is not aware of this fact. But nonetheless on some externalist analyses Normans belief is about of a Hero in The justified because it is produced by a reliable process. The Norman case is used to of Storytelling Essay, illustrate a general problem with externalism. Externalists hold that the justification of basic beliefs requires only that the specified external condition is met (excluding the about Hero Crucible, complication with Alstons view, mentioned above).

Yet where the subject lacks any internally accessible reason for thinking the belief is true it seems irrational for the subject to maintain that belief. We Need Kevin And House Essay! Rationality requires good reasons. The original evil demon problem comes from Essay about The of a Tragic Hero in The, Descartes. In the Meditations Descartes entertains the possibility that he is deceived by a powerful demon in believing that (for example,) he has hands. Composers Of The! Descartes concludes that he needs to rule out this possibility by providing good reasons for thinking that he is not deceived in this way and that he can take the evidence of Essay Tragic in The his senses at face value. Most epistemologists think Descartes concedes too much by requiring that he rule out this possibility in order to know that he has hands on composers of the period the basis of the evidence he possesses. The new evil demon problem is different from Descartes evil demon problem. This problem does not require that one rule out the Essay about The Tragic Hero, possibility of massive deception in order to have knowledge. Rather the problem is intended to illustrate the inadequacy of externalism. The new evil demon problem was originally developed against reliabilism, the view that a beliefs justification consists in Essay about a Look Culture, the reliability of the process that produced it. The problem is that there are possible individuals with the same evidence as we possess but whose evidence is not truth indicative.

For instance we can conceive of individuals that have been placed in Essay about Death Tragic Hero Crucible, Matrix scenarios in which their brains are stimulated to in The of Huckleberry which Boundaries, have all the same experiences we have. When we seem to see a tree, normally a tree is Essay Death Tragic Hero Crucible present. However, when these individuals in captivity, a Matrix scenario seem to see a tree, there is Essay about The Death Hero in The Crucible no tree present. Their experiences are systematically misleading. Of The! Nevertheless since they possess just the same evidence that we have, the justificatory status of their beliefs is Essay about The Death of a Tragic Hero in The exactly the same as ours. If our beliefs are justified then so are their beliefs, and if their beliefs are not justified then our beliefs arent justified. This intuition reflects the key internalist claim that two individuals that are alike mentally are alike with respect to justification. Theres no difference in justification unless theres some relevant mental difference.

Externalists are committed to denying this symmetry. Since the individuals in the Matrix world fail to meet the relevant external condition their beliefs are unjustified, but since our beliefs meet the external condition our beliefs are justified. The Externalist Response. Both the Norman case and the new evil demon problem have led to significant modifications to externalism. Odyssey! At a very general level the basic externalist move is that relative to Essay The Death of a Tragic Hero in The Crucible, our world Normans belief is Essay about Taking at the unjustified and an individuals belief in Essay about The of a Tragic Hero, the Matrix world is justified. In our world clairvoyance is not a reliable belief-forming method. A clairvoyants belief that, for example, today is their lucky day is not caused by Essay Taking a Look at the, the relevant fact. Furthermore, a clairvoyants belief is not objectively likely to be true.

The externalist thinks that justification tracks these actual facts and Essay Hero, so accordingly our judgment of Normans belief is that it is unjustified. Similarly in the new evil demon problem justification tracks the actual facts. Since our perceptual beliefs meet the external condition they are justified. When we consider possible individuals with the same perceptual evidence that we have, we rightly consider their beliefs justified. Granted that their beliefs do not meet the external condition in that world , but in Essay about Taking a Look at the Indian-American Culture, our world such beliefs do meet the external condition. Alvin Goldman (1993) develops this externalist response to the Norman case.

Goldman argues that Normans belief is not justified because relative to our list of epistemic virtues and vices clairvoyant beliefs are unjustified. Goldman argues that justification is relative to actual intellectual virtues, where the Essay about The Death of a Hero Crucible, virtues are understood in The Art of Storytelling in The Odyssey, a reliabilist fashion. This is a departure from Goldmans earlier view in which the reliability of a belief forming process in about The of a in The Crucible, a world determined the justificatory status of the belief. Indian-American Culture! On that view Goldman is Essay about The of a Tragic in The Crucible saddled with the consequence that Normans beliefs is justified and the beliefs of the people in the Matrix world are unjustified. On his (1993) view a beliefs justification is determined by the reliability of processes in our world. Goldman is not saddled with those counterintuitive results but can instead maintain the internalists intuition without surrendering externalism.

For other instances of this relativization move see Sosa (1991a) and Bergmann (2006). The following is an in The examination of three prominent reasons for externalismthe argument from the Essay about The Death of a Tragic Crucible, truth connection, the argument from ordinary knowledge ascriptions, and the argument from the implausibility of radical skepticism. Also included are the main internalist responses. A very powerful argument for externalism is that epistemic justification is essentially connected to truth. Epistemic justification differs from prudential or moral justification. One can be prudentially justified in believing that ones close friend is a Look at the Indian-American Culture a good chap. About The Death Of A Hero Crucible! One is narratives prudentially justified in believing that this is about Death Tragic in The true. But its possible that one has good epistemic reasons for withholding this belief. So one is not epistemically justified in believing ones close friend is a good fellow. How should we account for this difference between prudential and epistemic justification?

The natural response is to About Kevin Rules, hold that epistemic justification implies that ones belief is Essay Death of a Tragic in The objectively likely to be true whereas prudential justification (or other non-epistemic forms of justification) does not. However, whether ones belief is objectively likely to be true is not determined by ones mental states or ones reflectively accessible states. A Look Indian-American Culture! The objective likelihood of a belief given a body of evidence is a matter of the The Hero, strength of correlation in the actual world between the truth of the belief and the body of We Need and House Essay evidence. If one applies some liquid to a litmus paper and it turns red then the objective likelihood that the liquid is acidic is very high. But the strong correlation between red litmus paper and acidity is not reflectively accessible.

So, if epistemic justification implies that ones belief is objectively likely to be true then justification is not determined entirely by ones internal states. Internalists argue that the problem of the truth connection is a problem for about The Death of a Hero in The everyone. Epistemic justification is essentially connected to the truth in a way that distinguishes it from, say, prudential justification. But it is exceedingly difficult to note exactly what this connection consists of. Internalists stress that the proposed externalist solution that epistemic justification raises a beliefs objective likelihood of truth isnt as straightforward as it first appears. The intuition in the new evil demon problem illustrates that epistemic justification does not imply that ones belief is objectively likely to be true.

So to generate an argument against internalism from the truth connection one needs to do more than appeal to Essay on Darkness Illustrated Conrad’s Heart, the intuition of a strong connection between justification and truth. Essay Death Tragic Hero Crucible! The problem of the truth connection for captivity narratives internalism is an active area of research. Essay Of A Tragic Hero! See Lehrer Cohen (1983) for the original discussion of this problem. One of the most powerful motivations for externalism is that we correctly attribute knowledge to Themes in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Boundaries of Time, unsophisticated persons, children, and Essay of a Hero Crucible, some animals. These individuals, though, lack internalist justification. So either knowledge doesnt require justification or justification should be understood externally.

Grandma knows that she has hands even though she can not rehearse an argument for that conclusion and can not even think of to Talk About Kevin and House Rules Essay anything else to defend the claim that she does have hands. Timmy knows that its a sunny day and Lassie knows that theres water in the bowl. In each case it appears that the subject is justified but lacks any internally accessible reason for Death Tragic Hero in The the belief. Reflection on these cases, and many others like them, supports the externalist central contention that internalism is too strong. Captivity! Persons can know without possessing internalistic justification. The main problem with appeal to cases like Grandma, Timmy, and Lassie is that the details of such cases are open to Essay Death of a in The, interpretation. Captivity Narratives! Internalists argue that when the cases are properly unpacked either these are not cases of justification or there is internalist justification (see Internalist Response immediately below). In an Essay Death of a Tragic Hero in The attempt to The Art Odyssey Essay, strengthen the argument for externalism some externalists appeal to non-standard cases.

One non-standard case is the chicken-sexer case. Chicken-sexers are individuals that possess the unique ability to reliably sort male from female chickens. As the case is described chicken-sexers do not know how they sort the chickens. They report not being able to Essay The Death of a Tragic Hero Crucible, offer the criteria they use to sort the captivity narratives, chickens. Nonetheless they are very good at sorting chickens and their beliefs that this is a male , this is a female, etc., are justified even though they lack internalist justification. Another non-standard case is the case of quiz-show knowledge. The case envisions a contestant, call her Sally, on a popular quiz show that gets all the answers right. When a clue is offered Sally rings in with the Essay The Death of a Hero in The Crucible, correct answer. Shes quite good at this. Intuitively Sally knows the answers to the clues; yet from of Storytelling, Sallys perspective the answers just pop into Death Hero in The her head.

Moreover, Sally may believe that she does not know the answer. What should we say about this case? Sally is very reliable. Her answers are objectively likely to We Need to Talk About and House Rules Essay, be true. We can fill out the case by stipulating her answers are caused in Essay Death Tragic, part by composers baroque period, the relevant fact. She learned the answer either by direct experience with the relevant factshe was in The Hero in The, Tiananmen Square during the famous protests of 1989or through a reliable informant. Yet Sally lacks any internal phenomenology usually associated with remembering an answer. The answers just seem to come out composers baroque, of the blue. Moreover, Sally doesnt take herself to know the answer. Yet given her excellent track record it certainly seems right to say that Sally knows the answer. This is a problematic case for internalists because it appears that no relevant internal condition is present.

The argument advanced by externalists above is a conjunction of two claims: (i) these individuals have knowledge and (ii) no internalist justification is present. In the cases of Grandma, Timmy, and Lassie one response is to deny that these individuals have knowledge, but that strikes many as incredibly implausible and too concessive to skeptical worries. A much more plausible response is to argue that an internalist justification is present. In the case of Grandma, for instance, she has experiences and memories which attest that she had hands. Though she doesnt cite that as a reason, it is nonetheless a good reason for her to believe that she has hands. Similar points can be made with respect to Timmy and Lassie. To the extent that our judgments that Timmy and Lassie have knowledge are resilient we can find appropriate experiences that indicate the truth of their beliefs. In the chicken-sexer case internalists respond by either denying that the subject has knowledge or claiming that there are features of the chicken-sexers experience that indicate the sex of the about Death Hero, chicken. Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Boundaries Of Time! The quiz-show case is The Death of a in The Crucible more interesting.

Given the description of the case its difficult to find a reason available to Sally that will meet internalist strictures. The options for narratives the internalists seem limited. Since its not plausible that theres a relevant internalist justification present, internalists are saddled with the result that Sally lacks knowledge. The Of A Tragic Hero In The! How plausible is this result? Richard Feldman (2005a) argues that its not apparent from the case that (for example) Sally even believes the in The Adventures of Huckleberry Transcend and Culture, answer. Sally is encouraged to answer and she goes with whatever pops in her head. Moreover, Feldman observes, the contestant seems to lack any stable belief forming mechanism.

Since knowledge entails belief it appears then that Sally lacks knowledge because she lacks belief. The Death Of A Tragic In The Crucible! Furthermore, as another option, since Sally may take herself not to know the answer she possesses a reason that undermines her knowledge (see Feldman (2005a) for the role of higher-order knowledge to defeat object-knowledge). The upshot is that the case of quiz show knowledge is indecisive against Essay about Taking at the internalism: either Sally lacks the relevant belief or she possesses a reason that defeats her knowledge. Another main motivation for externalism is its alleged virtues for handling skepticism in at least some of its varieties. One powerful skeptical argument begins with the premise that we lack direct access to facts about the external world. For any experiential justification we have for believing some fact about the external worldfor example, theres a magnolia treeits possible to have that same justification even though theres no such fact. The experience one has is caused by a state of ones brain and it is possible that science could develop a method to Essay about The Crucible, induce in one that brain state even though there are no magnolia trees for hundreds of miles.

The skeptic continues to to Talk About and House, argue that since we lack direct access to facts about the external world we lack non-inferential knowledge (or justification) for Essay about The Death of a Hero believing those facts. The final step of the skeptics argument is that we do lack sufficient evidence for inferential knowledge (or inferential justification) for believing those facts. Here the captivity narratives, skeptic argues that the evidence we possess for external world beliefs does not adequately favor commonsense over a skeptical thesis. Any appeal to experiential evidence will not decide the case against the skeptic and the skeptic is happy to enter the Essay about of a Tragic Hero, fray over whether commonsense beats skepticism with regard to the theoretical virtues, for example, coherence and We Need to Talk Essay, simplicity. Berkeley, for instance, argued that commonsense decidedly lost the contest against a kind of skeptical thesis (Berkeley Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous ). Internalists find this kind of argument very difficult to rebut. Internalists tend to The Death of a Hero in The, focus on Essay on Darkness and Evil in Joseph Heart of Darkness the final step and argue that even though experience does not imply that skepticism is false it nevertheless makes skepticism much less probable than commonsense.

This response is about Death of a Tragic Hero intuitive but it brings with it a number of in The Essay controversial commitments. The ensuing debate is too complex to summarize here. About Hero Crucible! The upshot though is that it is no easy task to maintain this intuitive response. Consequently externalists think they have a distinct advantage over internalism. Externalists tend to think internalism lands in skepticism but that we have good reason to suspect skepticism is false. Externalists eagerly point out that their view can handle the skeptical challenge. Externalists typically address the skeptics argument by denying that lack of direct access with a fact implies lack of The Art in The Odyssey non-inferential knowledge (or justification).

In terms of an early version of externalismD.M. Armstrongs causal theory (Armstrong 1973)if ones perceptual belief that p is caused by the fact that makes it true then one knows that p. Other externalists unpack the externalist condition differently (for example, reliability or truth-tracking), but the Essay about Death, core idea is narratives that a lack of direct access doesnt preclude non-inferential knowledge. Externalists press this virtue against internalist views that are saddled with the claim that lack of direct access implies no non-inferential knowledge (or justification). Assuming that the first and final steps of the skeptical argument are good (a very controversial assumption), internalism would imply that we lack knowledge. Externalists thus see their analysis of knowledge as aligning with commonsense (and against the skeptic) that we possess lots of knowledge. One internalist response to Essay about The Tragic in The, this reason for favoring externalism is to challenge the claim that internalism lands in narratives, skepticism. Some internalists develop views that imply one does have direct access to The of a in The Crucible, external world facts (see entry on direct realism). To Talk Kevin Rules! Another internalist move is the abductivist response which challenges the claim that we lack inferential knowledge or justification for believing commonsense.

The abductivist response gets its name from Charles Sanders Peirces description of abduction as a good form of inductive reasoning that differs from standard inductive inference (for example, enumerative inductionthis swam is white, so is the next one, so is this one as well, , so, the general rule that all swans are white). The abductivists argues, to put it very roughly, that commonsense is the best explanation of the available data that we possess. About Death Hero Crucible! Accordingly, we do possess inferential justification for about Taking a Look at the Indian-American Culture believing that skepticism is false. A different response to this alleged virtue of externalism is to argue that externalism yields only a conditional response to skepticism. If externalists maintain that some external condition, E, is sufficient for non-inferential knowledge or justification then we get the result that if E then one has non-inferential knowledge. About The Of A Tragic! For instance, if, for example, perception is The Art in The Essay reliable then we have perceptual knowledge. But, the internalist argues, we are not able to derive the Essay Death, unconditional claim that we have perceptual knowledge. In order to Themes Transcend and Culture, conclude that we would have to know that E obtains, but it seems all the externalist can do is appeal to some other external condition, E1, and about The Death of a Tragic Hero Crucible, argue that if E1 then we know that E obtains. This strategy looks unpromising (see Stroud 1989). 4. The Significance of the I-E Debate. What is the I-E debate all about?

Why has the debate garnered so much attention? This section considers several proposals about the significance of the I-E debate. Most everyone sees the I-E debate as metaepistemological. The I-E debate concerns fundamental questions about epistemology: what is nature and goals of epistemological theorizing. The three proposals I examine in this section need not be exclusive. Each proposal reflects facets of the I-E debate. a. Captivity Narratives! Disagreement over the Significance of the Thermometer Model.

D.M. Armstrong introduced the thermometer model in epistemology as a way of grasping his externalist theory (see Armstrong 1973). The thermometer model compares non-inferential knowledge with a good thermometer. A good thermometer reliably indicates the temperature, that is, the temperature readings reliably indicate the Essay The Death of a Tragic Hero in The, actual temperature. In a similar manner non-inferential knowledge is a matter of The Art of Storytelling Odyssey Essay a belief being reliably true. On the thermometer model a belief that is reliably true need not meet any internalist conditions; if the belief stands in The of a Hero Crucible, the right relation to the truth of what is believed then the belief is an Essay and Evil Illustrated in Joseph Heart of Darkness item of knowledge. The significance of the about Death Hero in The, thermometer model is whether one should understand non-inferential knowledge purely in terms of external conditions. The driving motivation behind this model is Themes in The of Huckleberry which Boundaries of Time that non-inferential knowledge should be understood in just the same naturalistic sense in which one understands a good thermometer. The model aims to remove questions about non-inferential knowledge from about Death Tragic Crucible, what might be called a rationalist framework in which all forms of knowledge are explicated in captivity, terms of reasons . Given the rationalist approach to noninferential knowledge one looks for about Death Tragic Crucible some fact, different from the original belief, that one is aware of and that makes probable (or certain) the truth of ones belief. The thermometer model cuts to the heart of this rationalistic project. It is not at all surprising that the thermometer model met heavy resistance.

Laurence BonJour argued that stress on the thermometer model would imply that Norman knows that the president is in New York. BonJour observes that the thermometer model has us view epistemic agents merely as cognitive thermometers. If they reliably record the composers baroque period, facts then they have noninferential knowledge even though from their own perspective their beliefs have little by way of positive support. The metaepistemological issue about what to make of the Essay of a Tragic Hero, thermometer model is closely related to the issue of what to make of ordinary knowledge ascriptions. It is a common practice to ascribe knowledge to individuals that are in many respects like reliable thermometers. The significant question is what to make of of the this fact. Do such individuals meet internalistic conditions? Are our ascriptions of knowledge correct in cases in Essay about Death of a Tragic Hero Crucible, which individuals dont meet any internalistic conditions?

These are areas of ongoing research. The issues here are discussed in the contextualism literature. b. Disagreement over the Guiding Conception of Justification. Another way to view the I-E debate is The Art of Storytelling in The Essay a disagreement over the guiding conception of justification. Alvin Goldman (1980) distinguishes between the regulative and theoretical conceptions of justification. The regulative conception of justification takes as its aim to Essay about Death of a Tragic Crucible, offer practical advice to Essay Illustrated Conrad’s of Darkness, cognizers in about Death of a Tragic in The, order to improve their stock of beliefs. The Art Of Storytelling In The Odyssey Essay! This epistemological aim, Goldman notes, is prominent in Descartes. The theoretical conception, by The Death Tragic in The, contrast, aims to offer a correct analysis of composers justification, that is, to specify the Essay about The Death of a Tragic, features of in The Finn Transcend of Time and Culture beliefs that confer epistemic status.

Goldman sees our interest in about Hero in The, a theory of justification as driven by in The Odyssey, these two different conceptions. One way of explaining the significance of the I-E debate is over the role of regulative considerations in an account of Essay about The Death of a Tragic Hero in The Crucible justification. The access internalist can be seen as stressing the significance of some regulative conditions for a correct account of justification. This is most clearly seen in the stress on the ethics of and Evil in Joseph of Darkness belief. If a subjects belief is justified then, in some sense, the subject has regulated her doxastic conduct appropriately. Externalists, by contrast, want to draw a sharp distinction between regulative and theoretical considerations to get the result that regulative considerations do not enter into ones account of the The Death Tragic Hero, nature of justification. c. Disagreement over Naturalism in Epistemology. Another proposal about the significance of the I-E debate is that it is over the issue of Taking a Look whether to naturalize epistemology (see, for instance, Fumerton 1995, p. 66). As we saw above with the thermometer model a thread that runs through externalist analyses is the idea that epistemic conceptsjustification, evidence, and knowledgecan be understood in terms of nomological concepts.

Armstrongs account of noninferential knowledge invokes the Essay about of a Tragic in The Crucible, idea of a natural relation that holds between a belief and the true state of affairs believed. When a belief stands in this natural relation to the true state of in The Finn Transcend affairs believed then the belief is an instance of noninferential knowledge. Moreover this natural relation is similar to Essay Death Tragic Crucible, the relation between a thermometer reading and the actual temperature in Themes in The Adventures which Boundaries, a good thermometer. Other externalist analysis invoke different nomological concepts: Goldmans (1979) account makes use of the idea of Essay The Tragic Hero reliability; Robert Nozicks (1981) account appeals to the idea of truth-tracking which he unpacks in Essay on Darkness Conrad’s, terms of causal concepts; and Fred Dretskes (1981) account makes use of a naturalistic concept of information processing. Its important to stress the context in which these externalist accounts arose. As we have seen the recognition that the traditional justified true belief (JTB) account of knowledge failed led epistemologists to Essay The Death of a Tragic Crucible, rethink the connection between true belief and knowledge. Composers! It is widely recognized that the traditional JTB account was largely explicated within a rationalist understanding of The Death of a Hero justification. Justification, on this tradition, invoked concepts such as implication , consistency , coherence , and more broadly, reasons of which the subject was aware . The introduction of the Essay in Joseph of Darkness, Gettier problem led epistemologists to Essay about Tragic, question whether this traditional assumption was correct. Externalist analyses attempted to explain how natural relations like causation and reliability could provide the key to We Need About Kevin and House Rules Essay, understanding noninferential knowledge. Internalists, by contrast, stress the significance of mental concepts to understanding noninferential knowledge or basic justification. These concepts need not be irreducible to physical concepts.

But the The Death of a Tragic in The Crucible, key idea for internalism is that mere external facts which a subject lacks awareness of are not sufficient for analyzing epistemic concepts. And House! As Fumerton stresses (Fumerton (1995) p. 67) the key epistemic concepts for internalist are concepts like Descartes clarity and The Death in The, distinctness, Russells notion of direct acquaintance, ormore elusivelyChisholms basic notion of more reasonable than . There are wide ranging issues with respect to We Need Kevin Rules, naturalism in epistemology. One main issue is whether the evidential relation is contingent or necessary. Essay About The Death Tragic Crucible! Internalism can be understood as the view that the The Art of Storytelling in The, most basic evidential relation is necessary and consequently the theory of evidence is an a priori matter. Externalism, by Essay The Tragic Hero, contrast, can be understood as affirming that evidential relations are contingent (see, for example, Nozick (1981) Chapter 3 section III). Another issue with respect to naturalism in epistemology is its connection to naturalism in the philosophy of mind. The naturalist aims to understand the mind as a physical system. Since physical systems can be explained without invoking mental concepts a naturalist in epistemology is weary of using questionable mental concepts to elucidate the nature of epistemic concepts.

Internalism in epistemology is not necessarily at odds with naturalism as a metaphysical view but the internalists preferred concepts tend to come from commonsense psychology rather than the natural sciences. Of Storytelling In The Essay! Externalists, by contrast, tend to stress natural concepts like causation, reliability, and tracking because these set up better for a naturalist view in The of a in The, the philosophy of mind. The I-E debate develops out of the ruins of the traditional justified true belief account of knowledge. As Edmund Gettier famously illustrated knowledge is more than justified true belief. Of The Baroque Period! Attempts to answer the Gettier problem generated the I-E debate. The Of A Crucible! This debate centers on a diverse group of issues: the significance of ordinary knowledge attributions, the nature of rationality, the ethics of belief, and the role of naturalism in We Need About Kevin Rules, epistemology.

Alston, W. 1983. Whats Wrong with Immediate Knowledge? Synthese 55, 73-95. Alston, W. 1986. Internalism and Death Tragic Hero Crucible, Externalism in Epistemology. Philosophical Topics 14, 179-221. Alston, W. 1988. An Internalist Externalism. Synthese 74, 265-283. Alston, W. 1995. How to think about Reliability Philosophical Topics 23, 1-29. Alston, W. 2005. Beyond Justification: Dimensions of Epistemic Evaluation . Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Armstrong, D.M.

1973. Belief, Truth and Knowledge . New York: Cambridge. Bergmann, M. We Need To Talk About Kevin And House! 2006. About The Death Of A Tragic In The! Justification without Awareness . New York: Oxford. BonJour, L. 1980. Externalist Theories of Empirical Knowledge, Midwest Studies in Philosophy 5, 53-73. Reprinted in in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn of Time, Kornblith 2001.

Page references are to the Kornblith reprint. BonJour, L. 1985. The Structure of Empirical Knowledge . Essay About The Death Tragic! Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Chisholm, R. 1988. Narratives! The Indispensability of Internal Justification. Synthese 74:3, 285-296. Cohen, S. 1984. Justification and Truth. Philosophical Studies 46, 279-295. Essay Death Of A Hero In The! Conee, E., and of Huckleberry Finn Boundaries and Culture, R. Feldman. 2004a. Evidentialism: Essays in Epistemology . New York: Oxford.

Conee, E., and R. Feldman. 2004b. Internalism Defended in Evidentialism: Essays in Epistemology. New York: Oxford, 53-82. Dretske, F. 1971. Conclusive Reasons, Australasian Journal of Philosophy , 49, 1-22. Dretske, F. 1981. Knowledge and the Flow of Information . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Feldman, R. 2004a. In Search of Internalism and Externalism. The Externalist Challenge , ed.

Richard Schantz. New York: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 143-156. Feldman, R. Of A Hero! 2004b. Having Evidence. in Conee Feldman, Evidentialism: Essays in Epistemology. New York: Oxford, 219-241. To Talk About And House Rules Essay! Feldman, R. The Death Tragic Hero! 2005a. Respecting the on Darkness and Evil in Joseph, Evidence. Philosophical Perspectives 19, 95-119. Feldman, R. 2005b. Justification is Internal. Contemporary Debates in Epistemology . eds.

Matthias Steup and Ernest Sosa. Malden, MA: Blackwell. pp. 270-284. Foley, R. 1993. The Tragic Hero! What Am I to Believe? in S. Wagner and R. Warner, eds. Naturalism: A Critical Appraisal . University of Notre Dame Press, 147-162. Fumerton, R. A Look Indian-American Culture! 1988. The Internalism/Externalism Controversy. Philosophical Perspectives 2, 443-459. Fumerton, R. 1995. Metaepistemology and Essay Crucible, Skepticism . Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield. About Taking At The Culture! Fumerton, R. 2004. Inferential Internalism and the Presuppositions of Skeptical Arguments. in The Externalist Challenge , ed. Richard Schantz.

New York: Walter de Gruyter. pp.157-167. Fumerton, R. 2006. Epistemic Internalism, Philosophical Assurance and the Skeptical Predicament. in Knowledge and Reality: Essays in honor of Alvin Plantinga , pp. 179-191. Gettier, E. 1963. Is Justified True Belief Knowledge? Analysis 23: 121-3 Goldman, A. 1967. A Causal Theory of Knowing. The Journal of Philosophy 64, 357-372. Goldman, A. About Death Hero! 1979. What is Justified Belief? in Themes Adventures Transcend Boundaries, Justification and Knowledge ed. About The Of A Tragic Hero! G.S. Pappas. Dordrecht: D. Reidel. 1-23.

Goldman, A. 1980. The Internalist Conception of Justification, Midwest Studies in We Need to Talk and House Essay, Philosophy 5, 27-51. Goldman, A. 1993. Epistemic Folkways and Scientific Epistemology, Philosophical Issues 3, 271-285. About Death Tragic In The Crucible! Goldman, A. We Need To Talk About Kevin And House Rules! 1999. Internalism Exposed. Journal of Essay about The Death Hero Philosophy 96, 271-93. Kornblith, H. 1988. How Internal Can You Get? Synthese 74, 313-27. Kornblith, H. (Ed.) 2001. Epistemology: Internalism and Externalism . We Need To Talk Kevin! Malden, MA: Blackwell. Lehrer, K. and The Hero in The Crucible, S. Cohen.

1983. The Art Of Storytelling In The Odyssey Essay! Justification, Truth, and Coherence. Synthese 55, 191-207. About Death Of A Hero In The! Nozick, R. 1981. Essay A Look Indian-American Culture! Philosophical Explanations . About The Death Tragic Crucible! Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press. Captivity! Plantinga, A. About Of A Tragic In The Crucible! 1993. Warrant: The Current Debate . New York: Oxford. Sosa, E. 1991a. Reliabilism and to Talk Essay, intellectual virtue in Knowledge in Essay about The Hero in The, Perspective: Selected Essays in We Need to Talk About Kevin Essay, Epistemology . New York: Cambridge University Press, 131-145. Sosa, E. 1991b. Knowledge and intellectual virtue in Knowledge in Essay about of a Tragic in The Crucible, Perspective: Selected Essays in Epistemology . New York: Cambridge University Press, 225-244. Sosa and in The of Huckleberry Finn which, BonJour, L. 2003. Epistemic Justification: Internalism vs.

Externalism, Foundations vs. Virtues . Malden, MA: Blackwell. Steup, M. 1999. A Defense of Essay about The Death Tragic Hero in The Internalism. in The Theory of Knowledge: Classical and Contemporary Readings , 2nd ed. Of The Baroque Period! Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 373-84. Steup, M. 2001. Epistemic Duty, Evidence, and about of a Tragic Hero in The Crucible, Internality. in Knowledge, Truth, and Duty . ed. M. Steup. New York: Oxford. Stroud, B. 1989. Taking A Look At The! Understanding Human Knowledge in about The in The Crucible, General, in M. Clay and K. Lehrer, eds., Knowledge and Skepticism . Essay On Darkness And Evil In Joseph Heart Of Darkness! Boulder: Westview Press.

Stroud, B. Essay About The Death Of A Tragic Hero! 1994. Scepticism, Externalism, and the Goal of Epistemology, Proceedings of the narratives, Aristotelian Society , Supplementary Volume 68: 291-307. Email: poston at jaguar1 dot usouthal dot edu.

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10 Most Common IELTS Writing Task 2 Topics. The post will give you the Essay about The Death of a Hero, 10 most common IELTS Writing Task 2 topics. A question my students keep asking, again and again, is #8216;What are the most common IELTS writing part 2 topics?#8217; They are worried that they won#8217;t be familiar with the topic and will not have any relevant ideas. This is especially true for students from #8216;developing#8217; countries, because most of the about Taking a Look at the, questions are #8216;first world#8217; problems and issues. Let#8217;s turn that disadvantage into an advantage. To answer the question I have asked my students over the last few years to send me the Essay about Death of a in The Crucible, topics on About and House Rules their exams.

A big thank you, to those students, who were kind enough to send me their questions. I have built up a huge amount of questions and Essay Death of a Hero in The Crucible I think it is about time to analyse them. Are the same Writing Task 2 topics repeated? The answer is yes and no. There are a huge amount of topics that come up in writing task 2. At last count there were around 50 different topics (based on narratives collecting data over the last few years) and if you would like all 50, please let me know, but I#8217;m more concerned about the topics that come up again and again. If you have time to familiarise yourself with over about Hero Crucible 50 topics then please do, but I think must people have to be smart with their time and it therefore makes more sense to of Huckleberry Finn Boundaries and Culture prioritise the Essay about of a Crucible, most common topics. Baroque. I try to encourage my students to be efficient when it comes to learning.

However, I don#8217;t agree with the Essay The Death of a Tragic in The Crucible, saying #8216;Work smart, not hard#8217; as this implies you can do very little work and of Storytelling in The Odyssey still achieve your goals. Tragic Hero In The Crucible. My motto is work hard and smart. There are 10 general topics that come up more often than all of the rest put together. They are: So what can I do with this information? Now you know the common topics there are 3 things you can do: 1. Baroque. Develop a vocabulary list for Essay The of a Tragic in The Crucible, each topic. Having relevant vocabulary for each topic will give you a big advantage. Many students fail to provide relevant vocabulary and their band score suffers. When looking at period, new vocabulary try to guess the meaning from Essay about The Death of a Hero Crucible context first and then look up the meaning to make sure your idea matches the Rules, actual meaning. Also, be sure to look at the word within a sentence to be aware of the way it relates to about Death in The Crucible other words. Essay On Darkness Conrad’s Heart. When recording vocabulary do it in a way that will help YOU remember it. Everyone learns in a different way and everyone learns vocabulary in a different way.

Some people like to draw pictures beside the word, some people like to write synonyms or antonyms, others prefer to write a few sentences and some people like to use the phonemic chart to write the about The Death Hero in The Crucible, word that way. Whatever works for you, do it. It is narratives, also very important to review words regularly. This is the The Death of a Hero, most effective way to remember the words. So many people learn lots of words and a week later they cant remember them. I would recommend reviewing them one day after learning them for the first time, then one week later and then finally one month later. After that they should be firmly stuck in your head for good. I am developing a vocabulary list for each of the topics above which you can access here. 2. Practice reading and listening within these topics. To do well on your IELTS test you should practice at home. Narratives. Even just 60 minutes per day can make a big difference.

This will not only improve all four skills but familiarise you with the common topics at the same time. Why waste time listening or reading something, if it is Essay about The Tragic Hero in The Crucible, about something that probably won#8217;t come up on the test? Unless of course you are listening or reading for pleasure, in captivity, that case, be my guest. If you are reading an The of a Tragic in The, English newspaper, look for articles on the common topics and highlight any good vocabulary. If you like listening to the radio or podcasts, find ones on the common topics. Please check out my 25 online language learning tools for lots of narratives, ways you can study at home for Essay Death Hero, free. This method is so effective that some of the best IELTS schools are starting to adopt this approach. If you are going to study or practice anything then do it within the context of one of the captivity, common topics. For example, if you are practicing speaking with a friend on Skype, why not discuss one of the issues above? If you are practicing writing essays, find a question about one of the Essay about The Tragic in The Crucible, most popular or repeated IELTS topics. This method allows you to Essay about a Look at the Indian-American Culture practice both the Essay The Death Tragic in The Crucible, skills and learn about these crucial topics.

They also come up quite a lot in the speaking test. Can I just focus on these topics and get a high band score? Obviously, there is much more to achieving a high score than just focusing on the repeated topics but this will allow you to Essay on Darkness Illustrated in Joseph Conrad’s of Darkness study and prepare in a smarter and Essay The more efficient way, giving you a huge advantage. However, I would like to add that it is also important to Odyssey study things you have a passion for. If you are genuinely interested in a topic then it is much easier to Essay about The study and you are less likely to and Evil Illustrated in Joseph Heart of Darkness quit. Please also make time to read, listen, talk and write about about The Tragic in The Crucible your passion. If you love football, read about The Art your team everyday on The Death Hero Crucible Love fashion?- find some fashionista blogs. Have a passion for photography?- why not blog about it? Have a passion for astrophysics?

Listen to star talk radio. Essay And Evil. I looked at 15 Writing Task 2 papers over July, August and September of 2015 to see if the same common topics were coming up. Here are the topics: Traditional Culture Government Spending Technology Technology Education Health Technology Traditional Culture Education Health International Aid The Environment Economics Education Health. As you can see, Technology, Health and Education are still prominent Task 2 topics. It was interesting to about Death Tragic in The Crucible see Traditional Culture popping up twice in such a short period of time, but that doesn#8217;t mean that it will definitely feature again soon. I still think that Technology, Health, Education and the Environment are important topics and will feature regularly in of the, the future. Reading within these topics will help you and you will also pick up other vocabulary just by reading about them. The important thing is to read actively. When you see a word you don#8217;t know, note it down and find out the meaning, collocation and synonyms. Soon you will have a notebook full of new words and you review them regualelry until they become part of Hero, your vocabulary. Here#8217;s a live video I did on Facebook about this topic: I would recommend looking at our IELTS task 2 page for The Art Odyssey Essay, lots more lessons, tips and Essay The Tragic Hero sample task 2 answers.

The best way to keep up to date with our latest posts is to like our page on Facebook. There are also daily practice activities on our Facebook page. As always, if you have a question about this post or anything else, please let me know in the comments section below. 46 Comments on 10 Most Common IELTS Writing Task 2 Topics Chris. Composers Of The Period. am not able to watch ur video.any idea? i think the first step is to pass the ielts exam is to understand where you are on in regards to your 4 skills and then prepare your plan ,without plan and agreed source of knowledge you will be lost . the Essay about The Death Crucible, question is how to captivity prepare a proper plan to enhance your skills ,get familiar with the exam ? also if you can prepare PDF for all the Essay The Tragic Hero, Tips that we need to take care of during the exam of the 4 skills ,that will be great . hello from uzbekistan))) Hello from a Look at the Indian-American Culture Tashkent)) Home Writing Task 2 10 Most Common IELTS Writing Task 2 Topics. Check your email for the link. Advantage Exam Preparation Limited. 4 Castleglen Park, Dundrum, County Down, BT33 0WL United Kingdom. The information on this site is for information purposes only.

IELTS is about The of a Hero in The Crucible, a registered trademark of University of Cambridge, the British Council, and IDP Education Australia. This site and about Taking a Look Culture it's owners are not affiliated, approved or endorsed by the University of Cambridge ESOL, the British Council, and IDP Education Australia. For full information please refer to our terms and conditions and disclaimer.

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cons on homework Maybe you're a kid wondering how a move from the United States to a foreign country might change your life. Essay The Death In The Crucible? Maybe you're a parent pondering the pros and cons of taking another foreign assignment. Will multiple moves irrepairably damage a youngster's psyche? Here are some of my thoughts, based on my personal experience. When I use the term global nomad(s) I do so loosely to describe my own thoughts as one member of that group. This is not an academic treatise on the subject -- only a sketch of composers baroque period, some elements of the experience I have found particularly noteworthy. Who is a global nomad? A global nomad is an individual who, spending a significant part of their developmental years in another culture, develops some sense of belonging to both the host culture and the home culture, while not having a sense of total ownership in either. Elements from both (or multiple) cultures are blended, resulting in the third culture.

Global nomads don't all have the Essay about The of a Hero in The same experiences in the same countries. What they have in common is the experience of moving multiple times to various countries that become part of their cultural identity. They don't necessarily share a similar background, they don't necessarily speak the same languages, they didn't necessarily go to the same international schools. But they share the experience of growing up in about a Look at the Culture, culture(s) not their own. I personally prefer the term global nomad coined by Norma McCaig to another frequently used phrase, third culture kid or TCK. Beginning in 1970, at the age of 18 months, I spent sizeable portions of my childhood, adolescence and teen years moving every one, two or three years.

I didn't stop to question my nomadic life until I was 26, working in of a Crucible, Japan for a Japanese company and feeling completely uprooted. The comments that follow relate mostly to my experiences of being a US passport holder, but a mix of Japanese and American cultures with a dash of We Need to Talk About Kevin Rules Essay, European for spice. It took misery to prompt me into Essay about Death in The Crucible wondering what it would be like not to move every couple of years. It seemed to me that for many people, having a stable community and home during childhood was a source of stability and strength. I began questioning how my life would have been different had I not moved so continuously. I realized that my journey had provided me with many positive tools, and some very difficult experiences.

I needed to sort them out, so I made a list and pondered it. The following is a result of my thoughts. I like to start with the bright side. After comparing notes with other global nomads and thinking over Essay Taking at the Culture my life, these are some of the upside elements of living all over the world. Cross Cultural Skills. It took me a long time to about Hero in The Crucible, articulate and value the concept of cross cultural skills. This shouldn't happen anymore . On Darkness And Evil Illustrated In Joseph? . . parents, teachers and business communities must become more aware of these skills so they can acknowledge and encourage them in their children, employees and peers.

Flexibility, tolerance and Death of a Crucible strong observation skills are cross cultural skills par excellence. And as the world becomes ever more fast-paced global nomads come already equipped with the necessary skills to change adjustment stress into success. As cultures and communities come increasingly into captivity contact, global nomads know how to respect, observe and learn from cultural differences. We don't assume that our way is the best or only Essay Death of a Tragic Hero in The way. We are life-long learners, and Conrad’s Heart the world is our classroom. These are critical skills in a world looking for economic prosperity and Essay The of a Tragic Hero in The peace, when in the past there has been a tendency to on Darkness and Evil Heart, destroy what we don't understand and Essay about in The annihilate those who are different. We can also be wonderful teachers for others who aren't used to dealing with rapid change. Global nomads tend to think quickly on our feet and can take the initiative to troubleshoot -- but we often do so in a context of understanding the currents and observing the situation first. Since being back in Essay about Indian-American, the US for several years now, I've noticed that flexibility and about of a Tragic Hero in The Crucible tolerance don't always translate as strong points in American life. And Evil Illustrated? It seems to about Hero in The Crucible, me that holding a strong personal viewpoint and demonstrating leadership is highly valued.

A person's forceful thinking and Essay and Evil Conrad’s Heart handling of Death of a Tragic, a situation garners kudos. Observation in particular seems to be underrated. I know from to Talk Rules Essay, experience that Americans will often underestimate or ignore someone who is not loud, flashy, and quick. Many cultures point out that we have two eyes, two ears and only one mouth. . . for good reason. The Japanese have a saying, Silence is golden. Global nomads try to figure out about Death Hero in The Crucible which way the in The Adventures of Huckleberry Transcend of Time river is flowing before we jump in.

There are many times when I have thought how much Americans have to learn from these perspectives. Another great aspect of being a global nomad is our multi-dimensional world view. Essay About The Tragic Hero Crucible? From a very young age the composers baroque world as we know it is not limited to county lines, a section of the mid-West or even a single country. The rest of the world is not merely a 20 minute segment on Essay about Death Hero Crucible, Fifty Minutes, a National Geographic article or an English speaking pen-pal. I have celebrated Oktoberfest on the Rhine with German friends, eating raw pork with onion on a thick slice of rye bread. I have walked around the magnifient ice carvings during the Japanese Sapporo snow festival with friends from Japan, Indonesia and Palestine. I know as much about British history and narratives geography as I do about the United States, and I remember when commemorative coins were issued in Tragic Crucible, Solihull, England to celebrate the marriage of Diana, Princess of Wales, to the heir to the British throne, Prince Charles. When a global nomad reads the news, they can often picture and feel what's happening thousands of miles away. This does not generally apply to kids who grow up in one culture. My sister Suzanne returned to the United States at the age of We Need Rules, 14, having lived abroad since she was three years old. It was her most difficult move, and part of that was because she no longer had a global nomad peer group.

She was attending school at about The Death Tragic Hero in The Crucible an upscale, East Coast boarding school as a day student. The day the Berlin wall fell in 1990 she ran to the commons room to Essay on Darkness and Evil in Joseph of Darkness, watch the news. She and Essay about The Tragic Hero in The I had once stood, gazing at the concrete and barbed wire no-man's land dividing Germany, with a German friend who had family somewhere past the armed guards. Excitedly thinking about how the Froelich family must feel, Suzanne asked her fellow students to on Darkness and Evil Illustrated, turn to the news. It was 12 o'clock.

Several other young teens deemed a popular soap opera more important. This is an Essay about The Death of a Tragic important point, because unlike kids who grow up in one place, a global nomad feels connected to events taking place all over the world. When an composers baroque period earthquake toppled highways in Kobe in January of 1995 and killed over 5,000 people, I wept with the The Death Tragic rest of Japan. Of Huckleberry Finn Which Transcend Of Time And Culture? When floods destroy parts of Bangladesh and typhoons sweep away hundreds of people in India, I think of Essay The Death of a Hero in The Crucible, my friends, and their families, and I pray for their safety, just as I do for people killed in Essay Heart of Darkness, mudslides in Death of a Tragic Hero Crucible, Seattle. Baroque? We recognize that people everywhere share the joys and Essay about The Hero pains of life. We've lived, felt, smelt, heard and a Look Indian-American Culture witnessed wide swaths of Essay about The of a Tragic Hero in The, human experience. One of my personal challenges has been to accept people who haven't traveled and aren't interested in on Darkness and Evil Illustrated in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness, traveling as fine people. About The Of A In The? For a long time I felt that most people from my home culture -- Americans -- were relatively shallow and narrow-minded. During conversations with most Americans I found them woefully ignorant of international events, personalities or issues. About Rules Essay? In general they seemed uninterested in the world, complacent and arrogant. Feelings like these can really put a damper on friendships -- but more about that in the section on intimacy.

Along with a wider world view comes a greater spiritual perspective as well. This is partly the result of global nomad skills with flexibility and tolerance. It is also because we observe that different people's experience has created different truths in their lives -- from about Tragic in The, how to relate to self and others to how to relate to spirituality. When you spend your childhood observing and experiencing so many wonderful variations on how and what to eat (most Americans won't touch raw fish and Essay Illustrated in Joseph Conrad’s of Darkness visibly cringe at the idea of raw pork), how to speak and Essay The Death Tragic Hero in The Crucible dance and organize in groups -- it's easy for the global nomad to and Evil Conrad’s of Darkness, question those who promote a belief that there is of a Tragic Hero in The only ONE way to nourish a spiritual life. Composers Period? Rather than be threatened by different belief systems, global nomads often relish the beauty in the diversity of religious systems, taking something from everything. And then there is about Death of a Tragic in The Crucible maturity level. Most global nomads tend to be a couple years ahead of baroque, their home country counterparts in terms of maturity. We have wonderful skills for handling formal situations, and when we answer phones we are polite, we remember to take messages and we are often mistaken for our parents. It comes from often being repeatedly tossed into situations where entertaining -- either business or diplomatic -- is a regular event. There is also a sense of maturity that springs from success when you make friends, adjust to a new school, and learn your way around public transportation systems. By the Tragic in The Crucible time I was a senior at the American School in Japan getting around Shinjuku station was a breeze, a daily 2 and a half hour commute to and from school was nothing, and my day away from home generally stretched from 7 am to 6 pm -- with homework until late at night.

I worked harder in highschool for longer hours than I did for the first year and a half at Pomona College. In fact, when I arrived at captivity college I had few common interests with my first year classmates, and The Death in The Crucible found myself making more friends among the Juniors and Seniors. On the other hand, there are areas of development where the global nomad may be totally out of phase. My parents actually had to bully me into a driver's education class when I was 17. We were in The Art in The Odyssey Essay, Maine on Essay about of a Tragic in The, homeleave for two months, and I didn't want to do it. What was the point? In Tokyo there was a great train and composers of the baroque subway system that got me where I wanted to go far faster than any car could have. I had no interest in Essay The Death Hero in The Crucible, learning how to drive a car -- I figured when I returned for college that I would rely on the train and bus system wherever I wound up. There were kids in my driver's ed class who were 14 and a half and We Need About and House couldn't wait to Essay about The Death Tragic Crucible, be able to drive -- and We Need to Talk About Kevin Essay couldn't believe I had no interest in learning how to about The Hero Crucible, drive. I still have trouble remembering my social security number, and I only composers period established a credit card history two years ago at the age of 27.

Being bilingual or multi-lingual is valuable. Essay Death Tragic Crucible? When you're at a school where people speak five, six or seven languages it doesn't seem like knowing another language is Essay about Taking a Look Culture that big a deal -- but it is. I deliberately put this in the pro category because people (and Americans in about of a Tragic in The, particular) can be strange about language ability. There is a lot of lip service paid to the advantages of knowing another language, but there are still alot of people who think of it as a novel conversation piece and leave it at that. Beyond working for the UN or doing translation work people rarely see language capability as important, and are quick to stick to their own familiar words. When I lived in England, despite being obviously American, my English papers had marks taken off for to Talk About and House Essay every u I forgot to add to words like colour and favour. Most Caucasian Americans I know dismiss language ability as unimportant in Essay The Death of a Tragic in The Crucible, a world where English is the language coin of the realm. Language is a touchy, natinalistic issue (witness the French rejection of English infiltration). I maintain that the Canadians and the continental Europeans (many of whom know at least two or three languages) are on the right track. Languages offer different people a variety of way of expressing themselves creatively. Who wants only one kind of art?

Why would we want only one kind of in The, language? So that's a quick summary of some of the The Hero in The pros that come to mind about being a global nomad. Obviously all the of the baroque period above skills vary depending on Essay in The Crucible, the person, how many times they moved, and captivity narratives the attitudes of their parents. So what's on the darker side of the global nomad experience? I have found that to get to Essay about The Death Tragic Hero Crucible, the place of celebrating the of Huckleberry which Boundaries of Time and Culture pros of being a global nomad, I had to deal with some painful emotional issues -- and I still do. Death Of A Tragic Hero? I suspect that the global nomad who does not at some time recognize and work with the following issues finds sooner or later that their relationships, their work, and their larger world view are in chaos. One of the drawbacks is a sense of rootlessness.

The belief that you belong simultaneously everywhere and The Art of Storytelling Odyssey Essay nowhere. When I meet people and they ask me casually, So, where are you from? I always determine what level answer I want to share. There's the Essay Death of a Crucible short story -- Seattle. There's the potential story -- Seattle, but I spent over twelve years of my life living abroad. And finally there's the all out response -- I call Seattle home now, but I lived in Japan for Illustrated Heart ten years, Germany two years and spent a year and Essay Death of a Hero in The Crucible a half in the United Kingdom. I consider myself to be different parts of all these places and people. The struggle in answering the question Where are you from? is a common experience, and you don't want to waste time and composers of the breath on someone who doesn't really care. To transcend rootlessness is to feel at home wherever you are, regardless of environment. Home is reframed to include the world.

For me, this journey started when I made the decision to Tragic Hero in The, start with my self. I believe that as long as you feel at on Darkness and Evil in Joseph Conrad’s Heart home in your own skin, you'll always find a way to create home around you. Restlessness is a kindred spirit to rootlessness. About The Tragic In The Crucible? I once read that 75 percent of captivity, global nomads change colleges at least three times. Neither I nor my sister changed colleges once. . . so someone out there is doing a lot of Death Tragic Hero, moving around! On the other hand, once I graduated from college I moved four times in as many years. My sister Suzanne just graduated from college and has moved three times in nine months. For most global nomads, it's simply a question of period, when, not if, they're going to about The Death of a, keep on roaming. Yet sooner or later most global nomads face a crisis (or repeated crises) that bring them face to face with the question of how often and where do they really want to move. How restless are they? Why do they feel that way?

Is it serving them or is it an archaic bit of life left over from their childhood experiences? It took me until my late twenties to acknowledge the deep sense of rootlessness and Taking a Look Culture insecurity that my exotic overseas life masked. Essay About Death Tragic Hero In The Crucible? I'm still in Themes in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Boundaries, the process of trying to Essay of a Hero in The, figure it all out. We Need To Talk Kevin And House Rules? Right now what seems to work is living in a place I call home while knowing that I could travel if I wanted to. Pretty soon I will have been in Essay of a, Seattle for three years. . . the longest I've lived anywhere since I was nine. . . and I'm curious to see how that will feel.

Trouble with intimacy. Global nomads know how to be mobile. Traveling for business or fun poses little problem. But that same footloose attitude doesn't always bode well for relationships. The idea of at the, commitment, daunting enough for most people, can stir tremendous insecurity and fear in for those raised around the world. It's ironic.

On one hand global nomads step into about The of a in The Crucible situations with other global nomads and rapidly form strong relationships with them -- usually because they are talking about of Storytelling, their experiences, their shared culture. But on the other hand global nomads know how to Death of a Hero in The, keep emotional distance. Themes In The Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Which Boundaries? Until recently I always kept a margin of Tragic Hero, emotional detachment in all my relationships. My emotional antennae, finely tuned for to Talk Rules any vibration of the word goodbye, worked overtime. I felt like I had to be vigilant and prepared at any moment to draw into the protective sheath of my goodbye armor.

Global nomads say goodbye multitudes of times -- not only to people, but to schools, to homes, to cultural identities, to aspects of The Crucible, a country they have come to love. Trusting a relationship to stay the course through the joy and the pain of life flies in the face of accumulated global nomad experience. We all handle the separation from friends and places differently. Some global nomads attempt to maintain friendships long distance. With each move, as the list of correspondants grows and the pain increases, this can be a formidable task. The Internet, with it's gift of e-mail, is a godsend for global nomads. Instead of expensive phone calls and/or time-consuming and outdated letter correspondence, you can type off an composers of the baroque period update and send it to dozens of people all over the world and they'll be reading it sometime within the next 24 hours. Although some global nomads work at relationship despite time and distance, some do not. Some can end relationships on the turn of a dime.

When they learn a friend is leaving in a couple months, they turn and walk away, thinking that if they start letting go now that when the moment of Essay Death Tragic Hero, true goodbye arrives it will not sting and ache quite as much. This is narratives not just some neurotic problem -- it is a response that builds up over several experiences of being told by a parent that We're leaving Singapore for France when the school year ends. Isn't that a surprise? It builds when global nomads discover that friends are leaving a year earlier than expected, and Essay about The of a Crucible will be gone within the month. For a long time my thinking ran something like this: the best line of captivity narratives, defense against pain is a good offense, therefore guard against vulnerability and be prepared to drop a relationship at a moment's notice. Some of my deepest on-going struggles are the ones I have with trusting and creating geniune relationships. Because I am asked again and again to be vulnerable. To reveal my true feelings. To allow myself to care deeply about the of a presence and love of other human beings.

To be willing to share pain and tears and witness them in another without running away. In this journey there is no room for unilateral decision-making, or unilateral leave-taking. This will be part of my life-time work. Loneliness and isolation can become unwelcome bosom buddies as a single move turns into two, into three, into four. It is a lifelong challenge for anyone to handle the balance of past and present in a way that leads to a fully lived present. Global nomads tend to either be more susceptible to living more in the past (especially if they're unhappy with a new school, location or living circumstance) or denying they ever had a past at of the baroque all.

Opening to past sadness or other people requires a level of vulnerability that can at first feel devastating. It is tempting to insist that I can take care of myself, I don't need anyone else. Self-reliance and Essay about The of a Hero independence are valuable resources, but not at the expense of pushing away help when you need it. When I was about 13 years old I adopted the narratives Simon and about Tragic in The Garfunkel I am a rock philosophy of life -- and Adventures Finn which I spent years feeling isolated and lonely . On top of that, I learned to about of a Tragic Crucible, expect airport delays, long waits for The Art Odyssey the packers to finish packing or unpacking our home and an even longer time spent finding friends. I filled those hours/days/months with books and about Hero Crucible thoughts.

If I am being aware, I can slip into times when being sociable is too much of a burden. . . it's easier, more pleasant, and more fun to be by myself. We Need About And House? When you haven't had a sense of having a large social support group, it can be difficult to about The Death, develop and maintain a social support group later. Most people take this for granted -- they have friends, family, church folks and a sense of community to lean on. Captivity? They know that they are isolated only if they choose to be. But for those of us who have moved around a lot, stable community is a new concept, and it takes time to really understand or trust it. The rootlessness and Essay about Death of a Tragic struggle with intimacy will create all kinds of learning opportunities in any close relationship a global nomad has. Those who have grown up in one place will probably have a tough time understanding their friend or partner's restlessness, the desire to in The Odyssey Essay, move, the need for about The in The change. And if you're with another global nomad. . . who gets to choose where to of Storytelling Essay, live next?!

Of course there are those who, having moved all over the world as a child have no intention of moving again, ever! They can become very permanently settled, but this is less common, particularly during the Essay Hero in The Crucible college transition. Unresolved grief is composers of the baroque probably the heaviest burden in the backpack of the about The Death of a Tragic in The global nomad. We Need And House Rules? When you say goodbye as many times as a global nomad does you can start building up some pretty intense grief. I've been told the average number of goodbyes for global nomads is The Death of a Tragic in The Crucible eight times by the time they're 18 years old, although for me it was five times. But that's just the times when I was the one leaving, it doesn't include the goodbyes I said to others who were going while I stayed behind. How you handle partings becomes a critical component of the rest of your life.

It's taken me years to figure out how to respond when even small goodbyes trigger mudslides of Essay, denial and emotion. For example, 24 hours before my fiancee leaves for a three day business trip I start withdrawing. A sense of loneliness way out of proportion with the time he will be gone wells up in me. And as I'm driving away from dropping him at the airport, I always cry. Over the about The Tragic Hero in The Crucible last year I've gone from tears streaming down my face to a tear drop or two, and now I don't have a crushing sense that I'll NEVER see him again. Because now I know it's less about him leaving than it is about my emotional goodbye button getting a firm push. The goodbye at the airport scenario takes on gothic, mythic overtones for of Storytelling in The Essay the global nomad.

Grief happens and it can't be reasoned with. The truth is The Death of a Crucible there's only way out of it -- and that is by baroque going through it. If nobody gives you time to say what you're feeling out loud, to listen to you in your sadness, or to acknowledge that it hurts to be away from people and places you love, you tend to stuff it all inside. And when this happens over several moves, you've got some pretty potent grief gnawing at your heart. Everyone experiences grief -- it's not that global nomads have a corner on the grief market. But we experience loss on a more regular and intense basis, and about The Death of a Hero in The often with a greater sense of being alone than those who experience loss while living continuously in their home town. Parents and educators need to composers of the baroque, realize that it is critical for the global nomad (and themselves) to have time to Essay about The Death of a Tragic Hero Crucible, grieve. Parents need to witness to Essay and Evil Illustrated in Joseph of Darkness, that grief. Without guilt, without defensiveness -- but to really hear the sadness. Otherwise, that grief and loneliness will help create relationship chaos for that global nomad throughout his or her life.

Technology -- and a culture that values stoicism -- doesn't allow much time for dealing for grief anymore. Planes take off from the US and land half a world away in Essay Death of a Tragic Hero, a matter of 13 hours. Air journies don't lend themselves to grieving. You're dehydrated (no way to cry), cramped (no room to draw a breath) and in Themes in The Finn which of Time, a public area (the person next door is not going to be thrilled about witnessing your emotional squall). There used to be time to Essay about The Death Hero in The, process grief associated with travel. Captivity Narratives? My ancestors who left Scandinavia in 1891 and 1902 took steamship rides that lasted five or six weeks -- they had ample time to process their leave-taking. There is another closely related con here too, which is unresolved anger.

I'm not going to write about it yet though, because I haven't figured this one out. I can say that it's there, but I can't offer any perspective or suggestions for how to about Death Hero, recognize or cope with it yet. . Composers Of The? . but give me time. What I realized writing this is that every pro carries seeds of cons and every con carries seeds of pros. Essay Tragic Hero In The Crucible? Because global nomads have ached at the loss of locations and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Culture friends we love, we tend to be highly compassionate and empathic folks. We understand isolation, we understand discomfort around being new, we understand the feeling of not belonging. It is a rare global nomad who will not reach out to the person who is new, or try to comfort someone suffering from Essay about The Death Hero Crucible, a deep loss. To this day certain memories are a source of joy and wonder to me. I am continually reminded of captivity, how blessed I have been to have two parents who were brave and strong enough to venture into unknown lands. They wanted to get to of a, know people in various countries on a deep personal level, rather than isolating themselves comfortably in narratives, ex-pat communities.

When I get married this coming August there will be people present who will have traveled from all over Essay of a Tragic Hero the US, Germany, Japan, Australia and Singapore to join the celebration. The Art Odyssey Essay? These are people who have been part of my family's international community of friends for decades. About Death Of A In The Crucible? It is an honor to know that I am woven into the weave of so many different worlds. I can truthfully say that looking back from where I am today, I wouldn't have choosen a different childhood. 1997, Debra Carlson, WorldWeave Publications.

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Health/ Liver Cancer term paper 18276. Cancer is a group of many related diseases. All forms of cancer cause cells in the body to Essay about Death of a Hero Crucible change and grow in Taking a Look at the Indian-American Culture, an abnormal way. Normal body cells divide and grow in The of a in The, an orderly fashion. But cells changed by cancer can divide and grow out of control. Baroque. This out-of-control-growth damages normal body tissues and of a Tragic disrupts the ability of organs to function, as they should. During the early years of a person's life, normal cells divide rapidly until adult size is reached. After that, normal cells of most tissues divide only to replace worn-out tissue and to repair injuries.

Cancer cells, however, continue to grow. Often the a Look Culture, cells form tumors (lumps) that compress, invade, and The Death of a Hero in The destroy normal tissue. Unless the cancer is treated, the tumors can grow and spread. If cells break away from such a tumor, they can travel through the captivity narratives, bloodstream or the lymph system to other areas of the body. There, they may settle and form colony tumors.

In their new location, the cancerous cells begin growing again. The spread of a tumor to a new site is Death of a Tragic Hero in The Crucible called metastasis. Leukemia, a form of The Art in The Odyssey Essay cancer, does not usually form a tumor. Instead, cancer cells invade the blood and blood-forming organs (spleen, lymphatic system, and bone marrow). It is important to realize that not all tumors are cancerous. Benign tumors, which stay in one place and have limited growth, is usually not life threatening. Cancer is classified by the part of the body in which it develops, by Essay The Tragic in The Crucible, its appearance under the Essay on Darkness and Evil Heart, microscope, and by the results of Death a laboratory test. Since cancer is not a single disease, each type of captivity narratives cancer behaves differently. What's more, different cancers also respond in various ways to different types of treatment. That's why people with cancer need treatment that is The Death in The aimed at their specific forms of the disease. In America, half of all men and on third of all women will develop cancer during their lifetime.

Cancer is not necessarily fatal, however. Today, millions of people are living with cancer or have been cured. And the risk of developing many types of cancer can be reduced by changes in on Darkness Illustrated in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness, a person's lifestyle. The sooner a cancer is found, and the sooner treatment begins, the better a patient's chances are of a cure. What is Liver Cancer? The liver is the largest internal organ of the Essay The Death of a Tragic Hero Crucible, body. It weighs about 3 pounds and accounts for composers, about 2% of Essay about Death of a Tragic Hero in The Crucible a person's body weight. It is sheltered by captivity, the lower right ribs and it is found underneath the right lung, separated from it by a muscle known as the diaphragm. It is Essay The Death Hero in The shaped like a pyramid and divided into right and left lobes. Each of Essay on Darkness and Evil in Joseph Conrad’s of Darkness these lobes is further divided into segments. The liver, unlike most other organs, receives blood form two sources.

The hepatic artery supplies the Essay Death of a Tragic Hero in The, liver with blood that is rich in oxygen. The portal vein carries nutrient-rich blood from the intestines to the liver. Because the liver is involved in many important metabolic functions, a person cannot survive without a liver. Some nutrients and vitamins absorbed by the intestines are stored in the liver until other organs need them. Other nutrients must be metabolized (chemically changed) in Themes in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Transcend Boundaries, the liver before they can be used by the body for energy or to build and repair tissues. Carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism all depend on proper liver function. Blood levels of Death of a Hero Crucible glucose and controlled by the liver.

Glucose is a type of sugar that serves as the main source of energy for most tissues and organs in the body. The lover produces albumin. Albumin is a blood protein with several essential functions that include keeping a proper balance of fluid between tissues and the bloodstream, and transporting many hormones and drugs through the bloodstream. Several clotting factors are made in to Talk About Kevin Essay, the liver. Without these factors to plug up damaged blood vessels, even small cuts or scrapes would cause life-threatening bleeding.

Without amino acid metabolism by of a Tragic Crucible, the liver, other tissues of the captivity narratives, body could not produce the structural proteins of our bones and about The Death of a connective tissues or enzymes (proteins that regulate nearly all chemical processes of the body). The lover also plays a part on the metabolism of lipids (fats) and makes cholesterol, which is an essential part of the membranes that surround all cells and divide the cells into organelles (specific parts of cells). The liver also inactivates many drugs and toxic chemicals. If the liver is not working well, these substances can build up and interfere with many of the body's functions. The liver also produces bile, which is needed for the intestines to absorb certain nutrients. Types of Liver Tumors. There are several types of Essay and Evil in Joseph malignant (cancerous) and benign (non-cancerous) tumors that con form in the liver.

Because these tumors have different causes, are treated differently, and have a different prognosis (outlook for Essay about of a Hero in The Crucible, survival), it is important to briefly review their names. Several different types of cells form the liver. Different tumors can start in any of these cell types. The most common type of benign liver tumor starts in blood vessels. It is called a hemangoima. In The Which Boundaries. Most hemangiomas of the liver cause no symptoms. Some may cause blood loss. This type of The Death of a Hero tumor can be cured by surgical removal. Hepaticadenomas are benign tumors that start from hepatocytes (the main type of liver cell). Most cause no symptoms but some cause abdominal (stomach area) pain, an captivity, increased by long-term use of oral contraceptives (birth control pills).

This type of tumor can be cured by surgical removal. Hepaticadenomas are benign tumors that start from hepatocytes (the main type of liver cell). About Death Tragic Hero In The. Most cause no symptoms but some cause abdominal (stomach area) pain, a mass in the abdomen, or blood loss. The risk of Taking Culture having a hepatic adenoma is increased by Essay about of a Tragic in The, ling-term use of oral contraceptives ( birth control pills). This type of tumor can be cured by surgical removal.

Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a tumor-like growth of several cell types (hepatocytes, bile duct cells, and connective tissues.). FNH is also cured by surgical removal. Both FNH and Essay on Darkness in Joseph Conrad’s hepatic adenomas are more common in women that in men. There are four main types of Essay Death Tragic Hero in The malignant liver tumors: Angiosarcomas or hemangiosarcomas begin from narratives, blood vessels of the liver. The risk of developing an angiosarcoma is greatly increased by exposure to vinyl chloride or to thorium dioxide (Thorotrast). Vinyl chloride is a chemical used in manufacturing some kinds of plastics. In the past, Thorotrast was a chemical injected into some patients as part of a certain x-ray test. Once the cancer-causing properties of these chemicals were recognized, steps were taken to Essay about in The eliminate or reduce the risk. Workers exposed to to Talk Kevin and House vinyl chloride are strictly regulated, and plastics manufacturing processes have been changed to lower exposure. Essay About The Death Of A Hero In The Crucible. Medical use of of Storytelling in The Essay Thorotrast was stopped about 50 years ago. Angiosarcomas of the Death Tragic in The Crucible, liver are rare, accounting for about 1% of liver cancers.

Unfortunately, they grow rapidly and are usually too widespread to be removed surgically by narratives, the time they are found. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy does not help much. The typical patient survives less than 6 months after diagnosis. Cholangiocarcinoma is about of a Crucible a type of adenocarcinoma (malignant glandular tumor) that starts in small bile ducts within the liver. About 13% of primary liver cancers are cholangiosarcomas. People with gallstones are gallbladder inflammation, chronic ulcerative colitis (a longstanding inflammation of the large bowel), or chronic infection with Clonorchis sinensis (a parasitic worm found in parts of Asia) has an increased risk of developing this cancer. Signs and symptoms may include abdominal pain, liver enlargement, or jaundice (green-yellow coloration of the skin and eyes). Joundice without abdominal pain is most typical of Essay Conrad’s cholangiocarcinomas that start near the hilum to The Death of a Tragic the liver (the area where bile ducts exit the liver on their way to the gallbladder). Cholangiocarcinomas in that area also known as Klatskin tumors.

Most cholangiocarcinomas cannot be completely removed by surgery, due to their size and location within the liver. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy is also not effective. For these reasons, their prognosis is poor, with an average survival after diagnosis of about 6 months. When possible, complete surgical removal is attempted. Surgery to bypass bile ducts blocked by cancer can temporarily relieve some symptoms. Hepatoblastoma is a rare type of liver cancer that is usually found in children less that 4 years old.

Under the microscope, the cells of hepatoblastoma resemble embryonic or fetal liver cells. About 70% of children with this disease are treated successfully and the survival rate is over 90% for early stage hepatoblastomas. In contrast with most adult liver cancers, hepatoblastomas usually respond well to chemotherapy. Hepatocellular carcinoma (also known as hepatoma or HCC) develops from captivity, hepatocytes (the main type of Essay The of a in The Crucible liver cell). It is the most common type of primary liver cancer (cancer beginning within the liver). HCC accounts for about 84% of primary liver cancers. For this reason, the remaining sections of this document refer only to HCC. There are several subtypes of HCC which appear slightly different when viewed under a microscope.

The fibrolamellar subtype of HCC is the most significant of these. Patients with fibrolamellar HCC are usually younger than those with other subtypes. They are usually women and do not have diseases of their non-cancerous liver tissue. Most importantly this subtype is associated with a much better prognosis that other forms of HCC. In contrast to primary liver cancers that form in narratives, the liver, metastatic or secondary liver tumors are those that develop in other organs (such as the pancreas, colon, stomach, breast, lung, etc.) and secondary metastasize (spread) to the liver. In the United States and about The Death of a Tragic Hero Crucible Europe, secondary liver tumors are more common than primary liver cancer.

The opposite is true for on Darkness Illustrated in Joseph Conrad’s Heart, many areas of Asia and Death Tragic in The Crucible Africa. Do We Know What Causes Liver Cancer? Although several risk factors for HCC are known, the Essay about at the Indian-American, exact way in which these factors cause normal liver cells to become cancerous is only partially understood. Scientists believe that cancers develop in Death of a Tragic Hero Crucible, two steps: The first step requires damage to the DNA cells. DNA contains the instructions for nearly every chemical process in our bodies. Composers Of The. Some of these instructions help cells to grow at a proper rate. If these instructions are altered, the Essay Death of a Hero in The, cells may grow too much and form a tumor. Fortunately, our cells have the ability to repair our DNA, so that most DNA damage does not cause a cancer. The second step in Essay Taking a Look Indian-American, cancer formation requires cells to grow and divide.

When cells divide shortly after their DNA is damaged, two new daughter cells may be formed before the original cell has time to repair its DNA damage. Both daughter cells will have the same DNA error. Essay About The Death. Once this happens, it is too late to We Need About repair the damage, which may eventually cause a cancer. Certain chemicals that cause liver cancer, such as aflatoxins, are known to damage liver cells' DNA. Recent studies have shown that aflatoxins can damage the p53 gene. The DNA of these genes normally works to prevent cells from Essay in The Crucible, growing too much. Damage to the p53 DNA can lead to increased growth of Themes in The Finn which Transcend cells and formation of Essay Tragic Hero cancers. A Look At The Indian-American Culture. Infection of liver cells with hepatitis viruses can also cause DNA damage.

These viruses have their own DNA, which carries instructions on Essay The Death Tragic Crucible how to infect cells and produce more viruses. In some patients this viral DNA can become inserted into the liver cell's DNA. An insertion of virus DNA can cause confusion in the DNA instructions of a liver cell. About And House Essay. If the Essay about The Death Hero, virus interrupts instruction related to cell growth control, a cancer may be formed. Cells of certain tissues such as blood, skin, and the intestinal lining constantly wear out and of Storytelling in The Essay must be replaced.

Under normal conditions, adult liver cells rarely wear out and rarely divide. Only a small fraction of liver cells undergo cell division in Tragic in The, response to minor cell loss due to natural aging. However, if hepatitis viral infection, alcohol abuse, or iron accumulation damages the liver, cells can die. This leads the remaining liver cells to grow and on Darkness Heart divide. This growth and division can pass damaged liver cell DNA (due to virus insertion, aflatoxin, or other causes) on to the Essay Death of a, new daughter liver cells before it can be repaired. The result is that cell instructions for growth control can be permanently altered, and at the Culture a cancer may form. Although scientists are making progress in understanding this process, there are still some points that are not completely understood. It is Essay about The Death of a in The Crucible hoped that a more complete understanding will help in developing ways to better prevent and treat liver cancers.

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