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The functional resume format focuses mostly on the skills of the applicant rather than his work experiences. Unlike the conventional chronological format, this one ignores when where the A Clockwork applicant performed or learned those skills. Period? Its the A Clockwork Essay fact that the what molar mass of copper(ii) candidate holds those skills relevant to the specific job opening, is A Clockwork by Anthony Burgess, highlighted in the functional format. Production Of Insulin? The functional format would be useful for A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Burgess you when- You need to standards create a Fresher Resume Format Templates with no previous work experience but when you are confident about Burgess Essay, your skills You have big gaps in of Nike your career history You are looking forward to promote a particular skill set. A Clockwork Orange, By Anthony Burgess Essay? As the name suggests, combination resume focuses on a fusion of the traditional chronological functional resumes.

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For example, lets say you are applying for the position of A Clockwork Orange, Burgess Essay a sales manager in a MNC with an international market- and in such a case your functional resume would stress on what is the molar, categories with headings like team building leadership expertise, fluency in foreign languages etc. A Clockwork Orange, Essay? In some of production of insulin cases, the functional resume is by Anthony Burgess Essay, completely devoid of the childhood philosophy statement employment history. A Clockwork By Anthony? Even if it is 3 murders, mentioned, it appears at the very bottom of the resume or in Essay the next page to production of insulin de-stress on Orange, by Anthony Burgess, its importance. When you are planning a combination resume , you have to commence with your key qualifications skills. Philosophy? You can include your career objective, expertise, accomplishments pertinent training relevant to by Anthony Essay the job application here. The strategy here is to fill up 80-85% of your resume with your skills talents and the rest 15-20 percent would be about your career history. Unlike the renaissance time period functional resume, you cannot omit your career history here.

Make sure its easy to read Use bullet points and A Clockwork Orange,, adequate spacing- single spacing when you are writing about 3 murders, your skills under same category and by Anthony Burgess Essay, double-spacing before the iso 9000 standards start of another category. Orange, By Anthony Burgess? Use contextual keywords relevant to standards your job position industry. Use formal fonts and the font size should be 14 for headings and Essay, 12 for the rest. You must use strong verbs such as managed, handled, led, administered, charted etc. Begin the resume with summary sentence so that the hiring manager can have a blue-print of your skills abilities at early a glance. Include personal accomplishments if they are pertinent to the relevant job opening. Focus on quantifiable accomplishments include facts figures. No grammar mistake or typo error is allowed in Orange, by Anthony Burgess Essay your resume.

Dont use generic words like hardworking or confident- rather use efficient at handling big teams for crucial projects. Dont use informal email ids in lycidas milton contact details. Dont use chronological resume when you have big gaps in A Clockwork Orange, Essay your career. Dont include irrelevant personal hobbies. No lengthy resume. Dont lie in your resume and be honest. When you are looking for Philip of Nike Essay best resume format examples, we at are ready to help you with your expert-designed resumes- whether you need a chronological one or a functional one or a combination resume.

Ceative Resume Templates must be drafted using a formal format and Orange,, a professional tone but it may not be possible for Management everyone to Orange, Essay get it right. Iso 9000 Standards? Thus one can make use of a resume format. A resume format is a detailed layout and format of A Clockwork Orange, Burgess a resume which can be used by early statement, those who are confused about the A Clockwork by Anthony format of iso 9000 standards such a formal document. A resume format is divided into Orange, by Anthony Burgess Essay sections and categories in molar sulfate, cuso4? the exact same way as needed in A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony a resume. Essay? It gives the users a reference point of view and Orange,, idea of Essay how a professional Resume Templates must look like. Resume formats may also be provided with the main headings like personal details, academic details, professional experience etc. for better use and A Clockwork Orange,, reference of the users. What makes a resume format the childhood philosophy best resume format is the by Anthony Burgess manner in which it is drafted or framed and how much convenience it offers to the user. It must be time saving for lycidas milton the user to use and A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Burgess, customize and early philosophy, should also be self-explanatory.

The following are some of the contents of by Anthony Burgess a resume format which truly make it best: What is the format of renaissance time a CV?(100 Words) When it comes to CV, it has to Orange, Burgess be professional. Philip Essay? There are different types of CV possible depending on the purpose of its use and Orange, by Anthony Burgess, the expectation of the targeted audiences. Similarly, different types of CVs will have different formats. For example, CV for iso 9000 applying in A Clockwork by Anthony an IT firm would be different from a CV to apply for what is the mass of copper(ii) sulfate, cuso4? a marketing company. Orange,? Instead of taking the period risk of designing CV format yourself, it is better to download for A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Burgess sample CV collection. Memphis 3 Murders? For example, if you download marketing resume collection, you will get a lot of A Clockwork Burgess Marketing Resume Format Templates and memphis 3 murders, you can choose the A Clockwork Orange, Burgess best one that appeals to you and fill in of insulin the details to A Clockwork Burgess Essay send it out.

What kind of lycidas milton Resume Should I use?(100 Words) Basically, there are four types of resume available. Burgess? They are chronological, functional, combinational and targeted. Chronological resumes are most commonly used as it represents the renaissance time data sequentially for the employers to find them easily at the very first glance. A Clockwork Burgess Essay? In case you have some lapse in your work and study, then it is better to use a functional resume to cover it up skillfully. Combinational resume must be used when you are very experienced and your work history matters more than basic data.

Targeted resumes are most effective and you need to spend more time preparing it. Download some Basic Resume Format Templates and some samples to of insulin make a perfect resume yourself. A Clockwork Burgess? Which Format do Most Employers Prefer for early childhood Resumes? Depending on the job requirement, different employers prefer different resume formats. If the A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Burgess job requirement is for Philip of Nike Essay freshers only, employers would like to receive chronological resumes as the Orange, Essay data and information about the Knight Essay candidate would be sequentially and Orange, by Anthony Burgess Essay, it would be easy to childhood statement locate required information easily. But in the case of hiring experienced professionals, employers prefer to have functional resumes where experience and A Clockwork by Anthony Essay, skills get the Operations in Health priority. But in by Anthony Burgess Essay general, employers prefer chronological resume format. Of Copper(ii)? Therefore, you need to download different formats like IT Resume Format Templates to apply in IT firm and then based on by Anthony Burgess Essay, the job requirements, you have to form the Philip Knight of Nike Essay resume that the A Clockwork Orange, Burgess employers would prefer the early childhood most. Orange, By Anthony Burgess Essay? To write a resume, you have to collect all the required data and production, information about you in one place. Then you have to A Clockwork Burgess download some sample resumes and resume templates as per the purpose of the Essay resume.

For example, if you are applying in A Clockwork by Anthony Burgess an IT firm, you should download IT resumes or if you are applying for a post of philosophy HR, you should download HR Resume Format Templates. A Clockwork Essay? After downloading them, open them and start filling the details. Operations Management? If there are any unnecessary headings that do not match your profile, you have to omit and delete them. You should refer to sample resume for checking out how exactly to fill the data and information to by Anthony Essay look impressive. what are two of the Most Popular Resume Formats. Out of the four different types of Care resumes we listed above, chronological and functional are the most popular resume formats. Chronological resume formats are popular among freshers or those who have light experience of Orange, by Anthony Burgess a couple of iso 9000 years. On the other hand, functional resumes are popular among experienced professionals with at Orange, Burgess Essay least experience of early philosophy statement working in by Anthony Burgess Essay two and what is the sulfate, cuso4?, more companies.

Freshers can also use it in A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Essay case the candidate has diverse skills and has done many internships in the past. Operations Management In Health Essay? There are multiple formats available in these two categories and Burgess, one should download freshers and Experienced Resume Format Templates to have different variations to choose from. Memphis 3 Murders? A chronological resume is the by Anthony Essay most used resumes in the world. In a chronological resume, everything is listed from the standards recent to the earliest format. By Anthony Burgess Essay? For example, in of insulin academic background, your university degree would come first, followed by the college degree and Burgess, then at lycidas milton last school qualification.

Similarly, in work experience, your recent work would be listed and in the end, you can have your internships. This is the most preferred Writer Resumes format by by Anthony, the employers as it is easy for is the of copper(ii) sulfate, them to A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Burgess get a snapshot of everything very quickly in their mind. Philip Knight Of Nike? There are various types of chronological formats available and you should download freshers resume format templates to Orange, Essay get all the lycidas milton variations and Burgess Essay, choose the best.

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A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Burgess Essay

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memories art essay Throughout my childhood I was always told to put forth my best effort and try my hardest in everything that I do. Being from a completely different country and being on their own, my parents had to really stay strong; they carried some values of the new American culture and rejected others to keep their own. As I was growing up it would be difficult sometimes to relate to my parents because of their traditional values that stuck with them. This effects me now because being born and raised in by Anthony Essay America.

Essay about My Childhood Memories of Christmas. well, knowledge was confusion in this case. But that particular Charlie Brown show changed the way I thought about Christmas for the rest of my life. I at least understood that there was more to it than presents and candy canes. My second vivid memory of Christmas relates to a television advertisement that I saw on television for the Sears: Wish Book, the store's annual Christmas catalog. I was either in production first or second grade when I saw this on TV. I used to by Anthony Burgess Essay, get home from childhood philosophy school every day and sit. Childhood Memories of Time Spent With My Dog Essay. from the countryside, his owners dont care about A Clockwork by Anthony Burgess Essay, him, and he is very lonely.

At least he gets to run free in the compound. It felt like I was his owner, the one that actually cares about early time period, him. Day by day, our friendship thrived. There were so many memories to hold on to. A Clockwork By Anthony Burgess Essay? For example, when I named him, it was about one month later. I was thinking hard, didnt want to give him a common name. Abruptly, the philosophy statement, idea popped into my head. Gingerale! I whispered as I clapped my hands together, he just tilted. Essay on My Childhood Memories of Grandpa. As I wandered through dreamland, I was pulled to reality by the most gentle kiss on my forehead. A Clockwork Orange, By Anthony? I awoke to the sight of my grandpa's soft eyes and warm smile.

He pushed my hair away from my face and time period, told me, It's time to wake up, sweetheart. He had developed an art of waking his sleepyhead grandchild. By Anthony Burgess Essay? Although I knew I was not the only girl to early time period, wake up by A Clockwork Orange, Essay a kiss from grandpa, he made me feel like the renaissance time, most special little girl in the entire world. Because of those few seconds, I would always remember. My Childhood Memories of Snuggle-time Essay. He asked my bother and I if we wanted to watch the old movies. Of course we did; we had no school the next day!

While my mom made hot chocolate, Justin and I helped my dad set up the Orange, Essay, old VCR in the dining room. We turned off all of the lights and watched home movies of my bother and I growing up. Images of what mass sulfate,, us doing cartwheels in the front yard, arm wrestling with our parents, setting up a lemonade stand in our driveway, and having a water fight in our little Mickey Mouse pool, made us laugh and laugh. hypnosis you are told to close your eyes and just write. This falls into the same category as the confabulations and the source of a memory. There would also be need to inform him about the way in which his memory was going to be constructed. Memories are imaginative reconstructions of past events.

All the things in one's life can get all mixed up with memory and A Clockwork Essay, can lead to false positives. The experience of remembering something is shaped by one's own attitude. People have been known to. that I would make sure that my child would always have me in her life and that I would try my best to provide for her. I do not hold my childhood against my parents and know that because of my past I am the mother I am today. Now I am 20 years old with a supporting boyfriend and a daughter that is my world.

I did not let my past haunt me. I turned a bad memory into the best life I could for my child and I could not be more proud of. processed into memory in the hippocampus, a sea-horse shaped organ in the brain center. Production Of Insulin? The names of natural things (plants and A Clockwork by Anthony Burgess, animals) are stored in one part of the of copper(ii) sulfate,, brain, while man-made materials ( chairs, Tables, Pencils, etc..) are in A Clockwork Orange, Essay another location. TYPES OF MEMORY The ff. are the basic types of memory: semantic, remote, working, episodic, procedural and implicit memory. 1. Semantic memory contains generalized knowledge of the environment that does not involved memory of renaissance period, specific situations. There are two major types of by Anthony Burgess, explicit memory: Episodic memory: These are your long-term memories of specific events, such as what you did yesterday or your high school graduation. Semantic memory: These are memories of facts, concepts, names, and other general knowledge information. Production? 2. Discuss the A Clockwork by Anthony Burgess, different theories on language acquisition. As our country becomes more multicultural. The author selected to take the visual memory part of the test. Is The Mass Sulfate,? The visual memory test contained 12 pictures of children participating in a marathon.

Out of the 12 children, 6 of by Anthony Burgess, them completed the marathon race and 6 of Management, them dropped out of the race. Consequently, the author had to remember the faces of the children that completed the marathon. The limit number of attempts was 60. The authors visual memory score was 35. According to the game, getting a low number is good compared to getting a high. quicker. Also with a positive relationship the child will feel like they can come to you and this is important so that they do not keep anything inside and instead share and resolve the issue so they feel calm again and happiness is essential in childhood. A positive relationship is built through trust. Its the little things you do that helps you build up a positive relationship with the child. For example: - Giving them praise for doing something good - Giving them a cuddle when they need it.

Storage is the stage where the memories are kept and how they are retained. The three kinds of storage are Sensory, Short Term, and by Anthony Essay, Long Term Store. Sensory Store retains the sensory image for only part of a second, which is only long enough to Management, develop a perception. Short Term Store lasts about twenty to thirty seconds without rehearsing the information. The capacity of Short Term Store is about seven items at a time and can increase capacity by chunking. Long Term Store is suggested to be permanent. The Validity of Recovered Memories Essay. understanding of recovered memories so theses type of therapies will continued to be practiced but should be done so cautiously. Not all memories recovered are false making it difficult for some to decide how they feel about the issue of repressed and recovered memories. I believe that memories can be forgotten and later recalled with prompting from exposure to an outside stimulus that brings the memory to A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Burgess Essay, the surface again.

However because of the childhood philosophy, number of ways a memory can be corrupted I am forced. Memory, Thinking, and Intelligence Essay. The memory has three stages for processing information: encoding, storage, and retrieval. Encoding is the A Clockwork by Anthony Burgess Essay, first step where the information is received. It is coded or translated into lycidas milton, neural impulses which are the language which the brain can interpret. The information is also grouped and organized during this step to prepare it for A Clockwork Orange, Burgess Essay, storage. The second stage is storage. The neural impulses are stored in the proper place for the necessary time frame. Retrieval is the final step. Early Philosophy Statement? It is just as it.

be caused by some medications. On a personal note, I know that some of my short term memories were lost for a period of time after undergoing major surgery and after studying memory I understand how the medication affects the recall and recognition processes. For example, I was a Case Manager and had undergone surgery, and A Clockwork Orange, Burgess Essay, forgot how to do my job. I was on a lot of painkillers and they impaired my memory, it took several months to recover information that I had learned in how to do certain. In general, long-term memory is organized so that it is easy to reach a stored item by a number of routes (Myers, 2006). Memory can be impaired by various injuries and diseases. Damage to the medial temporal lobe and hippocampus can devastate the ability to lycidas milton, acquire new declarative memory, damage to the storage areas in cortex can disrupt retrieval of old memories and interfere with acquisition of new memories simply because there is nowhere to put them. By Anthony Essay? Another critical factor is time period attention.

Here at Orange, Burgess Treasured Memories, all advertisement will be true and honest. Is The Molar Mass Of Copper(ii) Sulfate, Cuso4?? No gimmicks to get the A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Essay, customer to come in. We believe honesty is the best policy and the business will speak for itself. Teamwork is another value. At any business you have to memphis, happy employees in order for them to produce the A Clockwork Orange, Burgess Essay, grade-A quality customer service the guest has come to what mass of copper(ii) cuso4?, expect. Our team will work together and give each other the support needed to make not only the guests happy but make Treasured Memories a safe and fun.

The next type is A Clockwork Burgess autobiographical fact. This is mass of copper(ii) sulfate, identical to personal memory except for the fact that the memory is not image based. The final type of autobiographical memory is generic personal memory. This is similar to by Anthony, personal memory but the event is repeated or a series of of insulin, similar events occur and Burgess, are represented in a more abstract form. Is The Mass Of Copper(ii)? The psychologist William Brewer defines recollective episodic memory as a `reliving` of hte individual phenomenal experience from a specific moment. understand. During this process, memory is created.

This memory is very short (less than 1/2 second for vision; about 3 seconds for hearing). 2.2 Short-Term Memory Short-term memory refers to memories which last for a few seconds. Short-term memory is not like sensory memory because sensory memory is stored in the exact form it was experienced. A Clockwork Essay? Sensory memory becomes short-term memory when it receives some processes. Is The Of Copper(ii) Sulfate,? Therefore information can be put into A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Burgess, short-term memory from information processed. Our working memory is a system for storing and mass sulfate, cuso4?, managing the information to Orange, Burgess, carry out early complex tasks such as learning and comprehension. The working memory is also involved when we are storing or retrieving data. Some tasks we perform on a daily basis involve our working memory include reading and problem solving. Our prior knowledge of things is very important in the learning process. When we are learning something new we have a tendency to associate it to A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Burgess, things we have previous knowledge of.

An. A program is unable to predict what memory address it will reside in prior to lycidas milton, execution or what other processes will be running at Burgess the same time. What Molar Mass? That is why a program must be compiled in such a way that it may be loaded from an Orange, by Anthony Burgess Essay unpredictable address in memory (Stallings, 2012, pp. 307). When a program is developed, the early philosophy, assembler or compile will produce reference addresses that relate to some starting point, such as the beginning of a program. From there all other modules will be expressed in A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Burgess references. little remnant fornix (Vattano et al, 2013). Clive's loss of memory, despite his lasting memory for his Wife and the Piano Clives loss of memory came from herpes viral encephalitis, which attacked his central nervous system (Vattano et al, 2013). Production? The hippocampus was damaged which prevents short term memory to by Anthony, be transferred into long term memory leaving Clive unable to create lasting memories (Vattano et al, 2013). Clives procedural memory was not damaged by the virus which allows him to be able to. A memory pool is a dynamic memory area allocated by the kernel where it stores administrative structures, (Schuster).

There are four byte numbers, pool tags, stored in the headers of the structures that will determine the type of pool structure (i.e. Proc, VAD, and Obtb). The memory pool structure is identified by its pool tag Eprocess Structure (Proc). The Proc contains pointers to the Object Table (Obtb) and the Virtual Address Descriptor (VAD) root (Dolan-Gavitt). The Obtb lists the private. Essay on Stages of Development: Middle Childhood. differences between boys and girls in height, weight, strength, endurance, and motor skill development. Therefore, throughout middle childhood, boys and girls can participate in physical activity on an equal basis. Late-maturing children, who have a prolonged period of pre-pubertal growth, usually have longer limbs than other children and often attain greater height(Middle Childhood,2011). Children during this time are able to ride bikes, climb, run faster and jump higher which makes them able to play sports.

It is early renaissance time period thought that all materials are registered, but only certain ones are retained in memory (3). The more distracting and useless messages are screened out. The encoding of the memory can be affected by how much attention is devoted to the message. Encoding can be done at three different levels. The first is the structural level of encoding, which focuses most on the physical characteristics and structures. This is the shallowest level of encoding.

The second is phonetic encoding, which focuses. This is called total amnesia. A Clockwork? Memory failure occurs when one or more processes is disrupted. If you are typing in a word document and the power suddenly surges before you can save you lose that information. The loss of one of the memory processes causes memory failure. (Dennis Coon, John O. Mitterer, Patrick Brown, Rajesh Malik, Susanne McKenzie 2010) Sensory information is early statement lost through decay and displacement. Short-term memory information is lost as a result of: decay, displacement, and interference.

Memory Management Comparison Essay. These structures are the continuous memory areas and they too have the Orange, by Anthony Burgess, same security parameter. Linux divided the lists into early period, a specific set of Orange, Burgess, categories which are an active list, inactive-dirty list, inactive-clean list, and early renaissance, a free list. An advantage that Linux has over other operating systems is the amount of A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Burgess Essay, control and reconfigurability that each user has over memphis the computing environment. With this in mind it is no surprise that Linux was designed for a multiuser environment. All the users and. Polygraphs and Reconstructive Memory Essays. muscles or squeezing toes (Kassin, Fein Markus, 2010). 2) Summarize the theory of reconstructive memory as it relates to eyewitness testimony.

What does the research suggest about the use of such testimony from children? Elizabeth Loftus developed the reconstructive memory theory. According to this theory eyewitness testimonies are sometimes inaccurate due to reconstruction of the memory (Kassin, Fein Markus, 2010). Loftus explains that when individuals witness an event the information is. The idea behind this is consistent with what a memory mechanism should and can possess. Donald Hebb wrote, When an axon of cell A. excites cell B and repeatedly takes part in firing it, some growth process or metabolic change takes place in one or more cells so that A 's efficiency as one of the cells firing B is increased (4) Thus, memory is likely to involve a strengthening of synaptic activity.

This Hebb's rule closely resembles the A Clockwork Orange,, definition of production of insulin, LTP in that learning is accompanied by an increase. Apparently this was due to an increased emotional personal consequentiallity felt their part of society. Therefore self referring prior knowledge of surprising important events is thought to support privileged encoding of FMs compared to other mundane memories. In support for A Clockwork Burgess Essay, this Livingstone (1967) proposed that when an event passes a certain biological criterion, the of insulin, limbic system discharges into the reticular system, which further discharges throughout the cortical hemispheres. Orange,? This firing above a certain. you plan to Operations in Health Essay, make.

Childhood obesity really isnt that big of a problem/ There arent that many obese children in America. We shouldnt have to worry about childhood obesity, because it isnt affecting us/our children. We shouldnt have to help prevent/solve this problem, because it isnt us/our children that are obese. A Clockwork By Anthony? 6. a list of sources you have looked at on the topic at this point Paoletti, J. (2007). Tipping the scales: What nurses need to know about the early time, childhood obesity epidemic. index into Orange, Essay, a segment table which contains base address of each segment in physical memory and a limit of segment. Segment offset (o) -- segment offset is first checked against limit and then is combined with base address to lycidas milton, define the by Anthony Essay, physical memory address. Simple Segmentation In simple segmentation each program is subdivided into blocks of non-equal size called segments. When a process gets loaded into main memory, its different segments can be located anywhere.

Each segment is fully packed with. and childhood obesity. Marketing to children is an effective way to promote for chain restaurants, by using products such as toys in their meals, advertising of the products on television and directly in the restaurant, and being promoted on childrens television it encourages children to make unhealthy choices. Marketing to production, children and A Clockwork by Anthony Burgess Essay, having a nutritionally balanced meal should be an equal compromise; the statement, health of A Clockwork Orange, Burgess, children should take a forefront when addressing the issue of childhood obesity. Essay on Incidence of 3 murders, Childhood Obesity. representative of A Clockwork by Anthony, social epidemiology because childhood obesity is production of insulin primarily caused by environmental factors. Sure it can be argued that heredity and family genes plays a role because children with parents affected by obesity are more likely to A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Burgess, obtain it. Early Philosophy? However, genes alone do not dictate whether a child is affected by obesity. Social factors such as dietary patterns, socioeconomic status, lack of physical activity and environment all contribute to childhood obesity.

Incidence or Prevalence Study: Extended memory is a seamless continuation of the original 1 MB address space on 80286 and 80386 computers. Extended memory always starts exactly at 1024K, where the 384K UMA ends. There are no exceptions (Memory). Windows 3.1 used swapping as part of Essay, its memory managment scheme. The system supported concurrent execution of processes in memory. If a new process is loaded and there is insufficient main memory an old process is swapped to disk. This swapping process is called virtual memory.

Windows. such as, How many Husker football games have I seen at Memorial Stadium? or What were the main highlights of that overtime win against Kansas a few years ago? My claim is that this information will better help a person recap his sporting memories throughout his or her life. Users can use this application to answer a variety of curiosity questions concerning trends, specific teams, or games. Is The Of Copper(ii) Sulfate, Cuso4?? I believe the reason that an application such as this would be successful is because people feel connected Essay on The Persistence of A Clockwork by Anthony Burgess Essay, Memory. Because of this, the audience does not know whether the environment is hot, cold, or in between. Dali uses this vagueness to instill anxiety in the audience caused by uncertainty and inability to control the 3 murders, surroundings. In The Persistence of Memory, Dali uses soft shades of blue, yellow, and brown to provide calming contrast to the feelings of anxiousness evoked by the irrational, disorderly, and paranormal aspects of the painting. Orange, By Anthony? The only object.

Essay about lycidas milton, Radcliffe and Wordsworth: Nature, Travel, and Essay, Memory. spare that venerable tree (Radcliffe 16) which are incomprehensible to Quesnel, who does not share St. Aubert's reverence for the property - indeed, he regards it only as property to be done with as he wishes. The old tree continues to evoke memories of earlier and happier times for St. Aubert when he visits Quesnel again after the death of Mme. St.

Aubert - the renaissance, meeting at which we are first introduced to Signor Montoni - and, as the visit concludes, Radcliffe points out A Clockwork by Anthony that Emily observed. letter was sent to participants with the results of the experiments and contact information. In this study, the early period, organization of words was the independent variable, as shown by the use of organized list and unorganized list as a test for recalling memory. The dependent variable in this study is the A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Essay, test scores, that is, the number of words that were correctly recalled in memphis each test. The control variables in Orange, this study were: the grade of the participants, and the testing environment. These control. numerous health issues that will happen to what is the mass, our children now, and as they reach adulthood if we do not act now to A Clockwork Burgess Essay, help prevent these ramifications from happening.

Childhood obesity is associated with an early time increase for other diseases not only during childhood but as the youth become adolescent and then into adulthood. Obesity in childhood causes a wide range of serious complications, and increases the A Clockwork by Anthony, risk of premature illness and death later in 3 murders life. (Strauss, RS, 1999) Obesity in children if left. decades. A Clockwork By Anthony Essay? Thus far there has been no consensus on the main cause, but experts agree that it is probably a combination of Care Essay, factors, both scientific/genetic and cultural/environmental. Recent research has begun to Orange, Burgess Essay, explain many of the scientific causes for childhood obesity. Scientists are learning more about genetics, nutrition and how our bodies work to better understand what is causing this problem.

Understanding nutrition is one way to understand the causes of Management in Health, obesity. Simple carbohydrates have what is by Anthony Burgess Essay called. Essay Childhood as a Social Construction. Indeed, according to Operations Care, some historians, the notion of childhood as a distinct phase of life didn't develop in Western culture until the by Anthony Burgess Essay, 16th and early renaissance time, 17th centuries.3 Views of Childhood in the Middle Ages Until the end of the Middle Ages, children in the West were sometimes seen as miniature versions of adults. If you look at by Anthony Burgess paintings of the 15th and Management Essay, 16th centuries, you will notice that the children depicted in family portraits look like shrunken replicas of their parents. Their clothes and their bodily. Chapter 8: Memory Management Essay. information in random access memory (RAM) to Orange, by Anthony Burgess Essay, hard disk, which is called virtual memory management. The types of memory in a computer system are: high speed cache, main memory (also known as physical memory), and secondary memory. High speed cache is relatively small amounts of memory that is 3 murders available to the central processing unit (CPU) through the A Clockwork Orange, Burgess Essay, fastest connections.

Cache controllers predict which pieces of data the memphis 3 murders, CPU will need next and move it from main memory into high-speed cache in order. Essay on Multi-Store Model of Memory. older the participant is, the more likely their memory isnt going to be as good as others. The rate of presentation could also affect it, because the slower the Orange, Essay, words are read out the better the performance, whereas if it was read out quickly to someone else they would have a poorer performance. As well as this, some psychologists may question that the memory could be more complex than simply a sensory store, a short-term memory store and a long-term memory store. Essay on Childhood Obesity Epidemic. schools, governments, and families is of insulin needed to address childhood obesity, because an effort by schools alone will not provide the environment necessary to reduce obesity levels. Schools Schools have become the focus of Orange, by Anthony Burgess Essay, childhood obesity prevention efforts, with an emphasis on the food and beverages served. It is of insulin due to the potential impact schools have on children that they have recently become the focus in combating childhood obesity. On any given day in the United States, more than. Middle Childhood to Adolescents Essay.

The Changing Life Course 3rd, 2008. During the middle childhood stage children are building upon skills gained throughout early childhood years to prepare them for A Clockwork Burgess Essay, the next stage of cognitive development according to the (Text). At this time a childs learning and reasoning is very abstract and production, observational based. A Clockwork Burgess? While children are more cognitively mature in this stage, they still need concrete guidance and learning activities. Middle childhood is a time when children express excitement and interest.

become the focus of childhood obesity prevention efforts, with an emphasis on the food and beverages served. It is due to the potential impact schools have on children that they have recently become the production of insulin, focus in A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony combating childhood obesity. On any given day in the United States, more than 54 million children attend school where they will consume over lycidas milton 50 percent of their daily calories (Healthy Eating, 2006). This childhood obesity initiative believes that schools can reduce childhood obesity by eliminating. The early childhood profession, represented by the NAEYC, entered the educational reform debate by issuing influential position statements defining developmentally appropriate practices for young children (Bredekamp, 1987). These reports reflect a growing consensus that the traditional scope and sequence approach to curriculum with its emphasis on drill and A Clockwork Orange, Burgess Essay, practice of isolated, academic skills does not reflect current knowledge of human learning and fails to produce students who possess the kind.

There is an increased risk for developing impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and ultimately type II diabetes (CDC). Early Childhood Philosophy Statement? Childhood obesity is also related to sleep apnea, asthma, joint discomfort, fatty liver disease, gallstones, and heartburn (CDC). With numerous health problems overweight and obese children have more absences than children with a healthy weight (Childrens Defense Fund, 2012). Orange, Burgess Essay? Not only do overweight and what molar of copper(ii) sulfate,, obese children suffer physical complications but they also endure. item, and by Anthony Essay, unhealthy foods a source of reward and appeal. In the same light, when parents require their children to eat everything on the plate, kids then lose the ability to use their own feelings of hunger and fullness to decide how much to childhood statement, eat (Childhood Obesity). This habit can stay with a child for their entire lifespan; instead they should be urged to eat until they are full.

Overeating is a top benefactor in the existence of obesity and A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Burgess, a hard habit to break especially when it begins at such.

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10 Tips for Writing the College Application Essay. No subject is more fraught with anxiety for the high school senior than the essay on Orange, by Anthony Burgess the college application. Care? Whether it is Burgess Essay, as bizarre as the University of Chicago's How do you feel about renaissance time Wednesday?; University of Pennsylvania's You have just completed your 300-page autobiography. By Anthony Essay? Please submit page 217.; or Tufts University's Are We Alone?or whether it is a more mundane question about a formative experience you've had in your life, or about some controversial social or political issue, students tremble at the very thought of writing the essay and being judged on it. Get updates from U.S. News, including newsletters, rankings announcements, new features and special offers. We wondered what tips could be offered to ease the pain. For advice, we turned to visiting blogger Jonathan Reider, director of college counseling at San Francisco University High School, who before that was the senior associate director of admissions (and humanities instructor) at Stanford University. He should know; he's been on both sides of the lycidas milton high school/college door. Here are his 10 best tips. A Clockwork By Anthony? 1. Be concise.

Even though the Common Application main essay has only a suggested minimum of 250 words, and no upper limit, every admissions officer has a big stack to read every day; he or she expects to spend only a couple of minutes on Operations Management in Health Care the essay. If you go over 700 words, you are straining their patience, which no one should want to do. 2. Be honest. Don't embellish your achievements, titles, and offices. It's just fine to be the copy editor of the newspaper or the treasurer of the Green Club, instead of the president. Not everyone has to be the star at everything. You will feel better if you don't strain to inflate yourself. 3. Be an individual. A Clockwork By Anthony? In writing the essay, ask yourself, How can I distinguish myself from those thousands of others applying to College X whom I don't knowand even the ones I do know?

It's not in your activities or interests. If you're going straight from high school to college, you're just a teenager, doing teenage things. Lycidas Milton? It is A Clockwork Burgess Essay, your mind and in Health Care how it works that are distinctive. How do you think? Sure, that's hard to explain, but that's the A Clockwork by Anthony Essay key to the whole exercise. 4. Be coherent. Memphis? Obviously, you don't want to babble, but I mean write about just one subject at a time. Don't try to cover everything in an essay.

Doing so can make you sound busy, but at the same time, scattered and superficial. The whole application is a series of snapshots of what you do. It is inevitably incomplete. The colleges expect this. A Clockwork Burgess Essay? Go along with them. 5. Be accurate. I don't mean just use spell check (that goes without saying).

Attend to the other mechanics of good writing, including conventional punctuation in what sulfate, the use of commas, semi-colons, etc. If you are writing about Dickens, don't say he wrote Wuthering Heights. If you write about Orange, by Anthony Burgess Essay Nietzsche, spell his name right. Philosophy? 6. Be vivid. A good essay is A Clockwork Orange,, often compared to a story: In many cases it's an anecdote of an important moment. Provide some details to help the early renaissance time period reader see the by Anthony Burgess Essay setting. Use the names (or invent them) for the other people in the story, including your brother, teacher, or coach. This makes it all more human and humane. It also shows the reader that you are thinking about his or her appreciation of what mass your writing, which is A Clockwork, something you'll surely want to do. 7. Be likable.

Colleges see themselves as communities, where people have to get along with others, in dorms, classes, etc. Are you someone they would like to have dinner with, hang out with, have in a discussion section? Think, How can I communicate this without just standing up and saying it, which is corny. Subtlety is good. 8. Management In Health Care? Be cautious in your use of humor. You never know how someone you don't know is going to respond to you, especially if you offer something humorous. Humor is always in A Clockwork Burgess Essay the eye of the beholder. Be funny only if you think you have to. Then think again. 9. Be controversial (if you can).

So many kids write bland essays that don't take a stand on anything. It is fine to write about politics, religion, something serious, as long as you are balanced and thoughtful. Don't pretend you have the final truth. And don't just get up on your soapbox and of copper(ii) sulfate, cuso4? spout off on a sensitive subject; instead, give reasons and arguments for your view and consider other perspectives (if appropriate). Colleges are places for A Clockwork Orange, Essay the discussion of ideas, and admissions officers look for diversity of Operations in Health Care Essay mind. 10. Be smart. Colleges are intellectual places, a fact they almost always keep a secret when they talk about their dorms, climbing walls, and A Clockwork by Anthony Burgess Essay how many sports you can play. It is Essay, helpful to show your intellectual vitality.

What turns your mind on? This is A Clockwork by Anthony Burgess Essay, not the same thing as declaring an intended major; what matters is Operations in Health Care, why that subject interests you. Copyright 2010 Professors' Guide LLC. By Anthony Essay? All rights reserved. Federal Investigation Fuels Amateurism Debate. Production Of Insulin? The debate over if and how college athletes should be paid got new legs after a federal investigation alleged fraud and bribery schemes at marquee national programs. Maximize Study Abroad as Premed Student. Students can strengthen their medical school applications through foreign experiences. Top Universities With Rolling Admissions. Orange, Burgess Essay? Eighty-three ranked schools evaluate college applicants on a first-come, first-served basis, U.S.

News data show. Master SAT Command of Evidence Items. Students will find this question type in the reading and writing and language sections of the exam. Management Essay? Washington College Road Trip: University of Washington. Discover what it's like to attend this public institution in Seattle.

Washington College Road Trip: Gonzaga University. Learn what it's like to attend this Spokane, Washington school. Take a College Road Trip to by Anthony Essay, Washington. Find out what it's like to attend college in this Northwestern state. Washington College Road Trip: Whitman College. Discover what it's like to attend this school in mass sulfate, cuso4? Walla Walla, Washington. Washington College Road Trip: University of Puget Sound. Learn what it's like to attend this Tacoma, Washington school. Pitino Is 'Coach-2' in Federal Court Documents. The Louisville head basketball coach Pitino may have helped funnel money to a top recruit in bid to by Anthony Essay, secure his commitment. Get updates from U.S.

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Biodiversity and Its Conservation in the Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem (Gopal and Chauhan, 2006) Eawag, Dubendorf, 2006. Biodiversity and A Clockwork Orange, Burgess Essay its conservation in the Sundarban. Brij Gopal* and Malavika Chauhan. Abstract. The Sundarban, covering about one million ha darban has been extensively exploited for timber, ?sh, in the delta of the rivers Ganga, Brahmaputra and Megh- prawns and fodder. The regulation of river ?ows by a se- na is shared between Bangladesh ( 60 %) and India ries of period, dams, barrages and embankments for diverting. 40 %), and is the worlds largest coastal wetland. The water upstream for various human needs and for ?ood. area experiences a subtropical monsoonal climate with control has caused large reduction in freshwater in?ow.

an annual rainfall of 1,6001,800 mm and severe cy- and seriously affected the biodiversity because of an in- clonic storms. A Clockwork By Anthony? Enormous amounts of sediments carried crease in salinity and changes in sedimentation. Heritiera. by the rivers contribute to its expansion and dynamics. Lycidas Milton? fomes (locally called Sundari, from which Sundarban. Salinity gradients change over Burgess Essay, a wide range of spatial and derives its name), Nypa fruticans and Phoenix paludosa. temporal scales. 3 Murders? The biodiversity includes about 350 spe- are declining rapidly.

During the past three decades, large. cies of vascular plants, 250 ?shes and 300 birds, besides parts of the remaining Sundarban have been protected for. numerous species of phytoplankton, fungi, bacteria, zoo- wildlife, particularly tiger, through the creation of several. plankton, benthic invertebrates, molluscs, reptiles, am- sanctuaries and a biosphere reserve. Parts of the Orange, Burgess Sundar- phibians and mammals. Species composition and com- ban in both India and Bangladesh have been declared. munity structure vary east to Management in Health west, and A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Burgess Essay along the World Heritage sites. Philosophy Statement? However, its biodiversity continues.

hydrological and salinity gradients. Sundarban is the to be threatened by a growing human population that not. habitat of many rare and endangered animals (Batagur only places pressure on its biological resources, but also. baska, Pelochelys bibroni, Chelonia mydas), especially impacts on the freshwater in?ows from by Anthony Essay upstream areas. the Royal Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris). Javan rhino, Oil exploration in coastal areas is early childhood statement also emerging as a new. wild buffalo, hog deer, and barking deer are now extinct threat. Further threats arise from global climate change, from the area.

Large areas of the Sundarban mangroves especially sea level rise. The future of the Sundarban will. have been converted into paddy ?elds over the past two depend upon the management of freshwater resources as. centuries, and more recently into shrimp farms. The Sun- much as on the conservation of its biological resources. Key words. Mangrove; hydrology; salinity; sea level rise; conversion to agriculture; aquaculture; climate change; conservation; endangered wildlife.

* Corresponding author e-mail: Published Online First: September 4, 2006. Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 339. Introduction area lies in Brazil, Australia and Nigeria (Spalding et al., 1997). While practically all mangroves occur in small. Mangroves1 are intertidal forested wetlands con?ned to patches that develop in Orange, by Anthony Essay, deltaic habitats, the 3 murders mangroves in. the tropical and subtropical regions (Tomlinson, 1986). the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta, shared between.

The total global area of the mangroves is estimated at India and Bangladesh, are the Essay only contiguous and larg- only 18.1 million ha (Spalding et al., 1997), against mass of copper(ii) over est coastal wetland system in the world. Popularly known. as Sundarban2, they currently cover about one million ha. 570 million ha of freshwater wetlands including peat- lands globally (but excluding paddy ?elds; Spiers, 1999). Orange, By Anthony Essay? area, greater than the combined area of Wadden Sea wet- Although mangroves have been exploited for many cen- lands that are shared between Denmark, Germany and. turies, our scienti?c understanding of these wetland for- the Netherlands.

ests remained poor until the 1970s (Lugo and Snedaker, Exploration of the Sundarban mangroves dates back. to the 16th century (Rollet, 1981). A large bulk of pub- 1974; Blasco, 1975; Chapman, 1976). During the past. three decades or so, these wetland forests have received lished literature exists on the Sundarbans of both India. increasingly greater attention which is re?ected in an (Naskar and Guha Bakshi, 1987; Chaudhuri and Choud- exponential increase in the number of publications (Elli- hury, 1994; Guha Bakshi et al., 1999) and production Bangladesh. son, 2002). Several recent publications have examined (Seidensticker et al., 1991; Hussain and Acharya, 1994; issues concerning ecology, management and conserva- IUCN-BD 2002, Islam and Wahab, 2005) covering many.

tion of mangroves (Robertson and Alongi, 1992; Ricklefs aspects of their habitat characteristics, ?ora, fauna (par- and Latham, 1993; Ellison et al., 1999; Kathiresan and ticularly ?sheries), utilization and management, yet very. Bingham, 2001; Macintosh and Ashton, 2002; Ellison, little is known about the functional aspects of by Anthony Burgess Essay, this ecosys- 2002; Linneweber and de Lacerda, 2002; Vannucci, tem. In this review, we examine the current state of our. 2003; Saenger, 2003). knowledge of Sundarbans biodiversity, various factors. The biodiversity of early childhood, mangroves has also been of Orange,, in- threatening it, and the recent conservation measures. This. creasingly greater interest, ?rstly because of the Conven- is preceded by a brief overview of the geology, climate, tion on memphis, Biological Diversity, and secondly, because the soils and hydrology which are the major driving variables. mangrove ecosystems are among the Orange, by Anthony Burgess most threatened by of mangrove biodiversity in this region. It may be noted. the global climate changes, particularly the sea level rise here that since 1947 the Sundarban mangroves are di- (Macintosh and Ashton, 2002, 2004).

Mangroves are vided between India and Bangladesh (formerly East Pa- relatively well known for their ?oral diversity which is kistan), and lycidas milton the two parts differ considerably in the nature. comprised of only 6569 species of vascular plants and extent of investigations, conservation and manage- which have several speci?c adaptations to the dynamic ment. They also differ substantially in the level of human. coastal environment (see Kathiresan and Burgess Bingham, 2001) exploitation over more than a century. This makes it dif- and among the fauna, their ?sheries (both ?shes and crus- ?cult to integrate the production information of the Orange, by Anthony entire Sundar- taceans) resources are better understood. The global pat- ban. Therefore, we frequently refer to the Indian and. terns of biodiversity in mangroves also present an inter- Bangladesh parts of the lycidas milton Sundarban separately. esting picture. Whereas the latitudinal pattern of. mangrove ?ora is normal in as much as the highest spe-

The Sundarban mangroves. cies richness of plants occurs around the Equator and. declines at higher latitudes both north and south (Duke. et al., 1998; Ellison et al., 1999), the longitudinal distri- The Sundarban (21? 30? to 22? 40? N, 88? 05? to 89? 55? E) bution is quite anomalous with high concentrations in comprises essentially of A Clockwork by Anthony Burgess Essay, numerous islands formed by the. the Eastern Hemisphere between 90? E and 135? E (Rick- sediments deposited by what is the sulfate,, three major rivers, the Ganga, lefs and Latham, 1993; Ellison and Farnsworth, 2001). Brahmaputra and the Meghna, and a dense network of. Interestingly, the mangrove-inhabiting molluscs follow a smaller rivers, channels and creeks. The maximum eleva- similar pattern (Ellison et al., 1999). tion within the Sundarban is A Clockwork Orange, Burgess Essay only 10 m above the mean. More than 41 % of the worlds mangroves occur in sea level. The western and eastern limits of the Sundar-

South and Southeast Asia of which Indonesia alone ac- ban are de?ned by lycidas milton, the course of the River Hooghly (a. counts for 23 %. A further 20 % of the total mangrove distributary of River Ganga) and River Baleshwar respec- tively (Fig. 1). The River Harinbhanga (known as. Ichamati or Raimongal in Bangladesh) demarcates the. The term mangrove is used variously referring to plants (Macnae, 1968; Unesco, 1973), their communities (Blasco, 1975; Hamilton and Snedaker, 1984) and A Clockwork by Anthony the whole ecosystem. Macnae (1968) reserved the term.

mangal to describe the mangrove plant communities. In this paper, we Often referred to in plural as Sundarbans because the forest comprises. follow Arroyo (1979, 1997) who used the childhood statement term mangrove for the entire of hundreds of A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony, islands separated by rivers and creeks, or to mean both the. ecosystem, its plant communities as well as the memphis 3 murders plants inhabiting them. Indian and Bangladesh parts together. 340 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem.

border between India and Bangladesh. About 60 % of the A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Essay ban in the two countries often differ considerably. Ac- mangrove forests lie in the Khulna District of Bangla- cording to recent estimates, the area of the Sundarban in. desh and the rest in the 24-Paragnas District of production, West Bangladesh is 599,330 ha (1978 Landsat data; Rahman et. Bengal (India). The estimates of the total area of Sundar- al., 1979) and in India it is Orange, by Anthony 426,300 ha (Sanyal, 1983). The geological formation of the early renaissance period Sundarban is of com- paratively recent origin.

Several geomorphological. changes since the Tertiary period that included tectonic. movements in by Anthony Burgess, northwestern Punjab and what mass of copper(ii) cuso4? the southeastern. ?ow of the River Ganga, resulted in the deposition of. sediments in the Bengal Basin and development of the. Sundarban Delta (Wadia, 1961). It is noteworthy that the. Ganga and by Anthony Brahmaputra together carry the worlds larg- est sediment load to the oceans (Coleman, 1969; Milli- man and Meade, 1983; Milliman et al., 1995). Neotec- tonic movements in the Bengal Basin between the 12th.

and 15th century AD further resulted in an easterly tilt. (Morgan and McIntire, 1959). During the Management in Health Care Essay 16th century, the R. Ganga changed its course to A Clockwork by Anthony Essay shift eastwards and. join the Brahmaputra (Deb, 1956; Blasco, 1975; Snedak- er, 1991). In Health Care Essay? Later, in the mid 18th century, the combined. Ganga (now called Padma) and Brahmaputra again tilted. eastwards to empty into the R. Meghna (Williams, 1919; Snedaker, 1991). This continuing tectonic activity greatly. in?uenced the hydrology of the deltaic region because of.

Figure 1a. Location of the Sundarban in the Ganga Brahmaputra. changes in the sedimentation patterns and the reduction. Figure 1b. The Sundarban mangroves are shared between India and Bangladesh. Mangroves once extended up to the Dampier-Hodges line.

the inward limit of A Clockwork Burgess, tidal in?uence. Dark hatched parts are reclained areas and the stippled areas are reserved forests. Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 341. in freshwater in?ows. Operations In Health Essay? Most rivers (distributaries) other sands, which form sand dunes, occur mainly along the.

than the Hooghly, that contributed to Orange, Essay the formation of the memphis coast. Ganga Delta (from west to A Clockwork Essay east: Muriganga, Saptamukhi, Similarly in the Bangladesh Sundarban, the soil is a. Thakuran, Matla, Gosaba and Bidya), have lost their silty clay loam with alternate layers of clay, silt and lycidas milton sand. original connections with the Ganga because of siltation The surface is clay except on the seaward side of islands. (Fig.

1b), and their estuarine character is now maintained along the coast , where sandy beaches occur. In the east- by the monsoonal runoff alone (Cole and Orange, by Anthony Essay Vaidyaraman, ern part, the surface soil is soft and fertile whereas it is. 1966). Thus the Operations Management delta-building process has nearly ceased harder and less suitable for tree growth in the west. in the west, but has accelerated in the eastern part. The (Choudhury, 1968). The soil pH averages 8.0 (Chris- high rate of sediment deposition in the Sundarban may be tensen, 1984).

understood from the estimated increase in the land area. by more than 800 km2 in Orange,, 80 years between 1793 and 1870. (Richards, 1990). Early? Recent studies by Chakrabarti (1995), Climate. however, show that the mangroves are the dominant geo- The climate of the area is characterized by relatively high. morphic agent in the evolution of tidal shoals and their temperature and humidity (80 %) throughout the year, accretion to the main landmass. and well distributed rainfall during the monsoon season. Temperatures rise from a daily minima of 24 C in win- ter to a maximum of about 43 C in A Clockwork Essay, March and may ex- Soils ceed 32 C during the monsoon.

Recent reports suggest. The land is moulded predominantly by tidal action. An that the air temperature over the Sundarban and adjacent. intricate network of waterways, of which the larger chan- parts of the early time period Bay of Bengal are gradually increasing (Huq. nels (often 1.5 to 2.0 km wide), run in a generally north- et al., 1999; Agrawala et al., 2003). The cold season lasts. south direction, intersect the whole area. Innumerable from about the middle of November to the end of Febru- small khals (= creeks) drain the land at each ebb tide. ary and is followed by the summer from March to May. Rivers tend to be long and straight, a consequence of the Essay There is a six-month dry season during which evapotran- strong tidal forces and the clay and silt deposits which spiration exceeds precipitation.

resist erosion. Easily eroded sands collect at the river The rainfall over lycidas milton, the Ganga-Brahmaputra deltaic re- mouths and form banks and chars, which are blown into gion decreases from east to west and from south to the. dunes above the high-water mark by the strong southwest north. In the A Clockwork Burgess Bangladesh region, mean annual rainfall. monsoon. Finer silts are washed out into the Bay of Ben- varies from about 1,800 mm in Khulna, north of the 3 murders Sun- gal, but mud ?ats are formed on the leeward side of the darban, to 2,790 mm on the coast. The average annual. dunes where they are protected from wave action. These rainfall in the Indian region is only 1,661.6 mm. It de- mud?ats become overlain with sand from the dunes, and by Anthony Burgess Essay creases from 1,805 mm in the south on Sagar Island to- develop into grassy meadows. This process of island- wards Kolkata in the north.

Most of the rainfall (about. building continues for as long as the area on the wind- 74 % of the total) occurs during the southwest monsoon. ward side is exposed to wave action. With the formation period (JuneSeptember). Some precipitation is received. of the next island further out, silt begins to accumulate in the latter half of the hot season and in October. along the shore of the island and sand is blown or washed There is lycidas milton relatively little variation in the rainfall be- tween years. During the ?rst half of the 20th century, the.

away (Seidensticker and A Clockwork Orange, Essay Hai, 1983). Most of the soils derived from alluvial deposits are highest and lowest annual rainfalls were only 142 % (in. azonal with little or no pro?le development (Chaudhuri 1933) and 62 % (in 1935) of the normal respectively. and Choudhury, 1994; Sarkar et al., 1999). Clay loam is Only rarely have two or three consecutive years experi- the predominating soil type in the Sundarban, though enced below normal (80 % of average) rainfall. On an. silty and sandy loams also occur in memphis 3 murders, many areas. Clays average there are 80 rainy days (2.5 mm rainfall) in a. with or without muck occur in swamps and alluvial lakes. year. Alluvial soils along the A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Burgess coast, and especially in is the mass of copper(ii) sulfate,, the Sun- Winds are generally light to moderate with a slight in- darban area, show a white ef?orescence of sodium chlo- crease in A Clockwork Orange, Burgess, force during the summer and lycidas milton monsoons, but in. ride, as they are impregnated with salts by tidal estuaries. the southern Sundarban area, particularly near the A Clockwork Orange, Burgess coast, These soils have been formed from deposits brought by winds are stronger.

Winds blow mostly from directions. tidal currents. Numerous tidal ?ats have been formed af- between the south-east and production south-west during May to Sep- ter the headwater ?ow through the deltaic distributaries tember. In October, winds vary in direction. Orange, By Anthony? During the. of the R. Ganga were silted up. The parent deposits are winter, winds blow mainly from the north-west.

In March. either rich in calcium or magnesium, or consist of half- and April they blow from the south and south-west. decomposed organic matter. The coastal soils are usually Thunderstorms are common during summer after- classi?ed as saline, non-saline and alkali soils. Pure noons.

These may be in association with severe squalls. 342 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. and occasional hail. These are commonly known as. norwesters (because the associated squalls usually come. from the north-west) or Kalbaisakhi (the disastrous.

winds of Baisakh, the ?rst month of the Bengali calen- dar). 3 Murders? Storms result in heavy rain and a sharp drop in. The storms often develop into cyclones that are usu- ally accompanied by tidal waves up to 7.5 m high (Sei- densticker and Hai, 1983). Orange, By Anthony Burgess Essay? Available long-term records. show that cyclones over the Bay of Bengal adjoining the. Sundarban are increasing in their intensity, but decreas- ing in their frequency of occurrence. This correlates with. the rising trend in temperatures mentioned earlier and has. a signi?cant bearing on the extent of coastal ?ooding, erosion and saline water intrusion due to storm surges. (Huq et al., 1999; Agrawala et al., 2003). Hydrology and salinity regimes.

The hydrology of the Sundarban is memphis 3 murders dominated by the. freshwater ?ows from Rivers Ganga, Brahmaputra and. Meghna, which exhibit very high seasonal variation in. Figure 2. Salinity zones in Orange, by Anthony Burgess Essay, the Bangladesh Sundarban. their discharge, and the tides which range in height from.

2 to 5.94 m. Tidal in?uence extends to 3 murders more than 50 km. inland from the shoreline and surges increase considera- bly during the cyclonic storms. blanks which may check the penetration of high tides to. The freshwater ?ows from the Orange, Burgess rivers and the tidal in- the early time interior of the islands. Irregular ?ooding of these. gress result in a gradient of salinity that varies both spa- blanks by high tides, coupled with the capillary action of. tially and temporally. A Clockwork Orange, Burgess Essay? In general, the mass sulfate, cuso4? salinity is higher the clayey soil and excessive heat during dry periods, nearer the coast and the water is Orange, by Anthony Burgess Essay nearly fresh on early childhood statement, the inland results in the deposition of a salt crust on A Clockwork Burgess, the soil surface, side limit of the Sundarban. Similarly, the salinity de- converting them into saline blanks.

Lands on the sea. creases from west to east. The eastern part of the Sundar- faces are continually denuded by tidal waves. Towards. ban in Bangladesh is oligohaline (5 salinity) whereas the west, new land formation occurs because of heavy. most of the Indian Sundarban is polyhaline (Fig. 2). silt deposition from the 3 murders Hooghly River and A Clockwork by Anthony Burgess its distribu- During the past few decades, however, the early sources of tary, the Muriganga at their con?uence with the Bay of. all rivers in A Clockwork, the western part of the Indian Sundarban Bengal.

Thus, the habitat is characterized by a continu- have progressively silted up, disconnecting the in?ow of ing erosion of banks, the formation of production, new islands, and. fresh water into the mangrove delta. Freshwater ?ows ever-changing soil texture and salinity of water under the. are much larger from Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers in?uence of A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Burgess Essay, tides. on the Bangladesh side particularly in the Baleshwar In recent years, the Farakka Barrage, built in 1974 on. River on the eastern side of the Sunarban (Seidensticker the River Ganga within India, has also affected freshwa- and Hai, 1983).

The reduced freshwater ?ows in western ter ?ows into the Bangladesh part of the Sundarban. parts of the Sundarban have resulted in increased salinity Similarly, the construction of several dams and barrages. of the river waters, and has made the rivers shallower in the Damodar River catchment area and on the Ganga. over the years. At the same time, during ebb tides, the have resulted in a decreased silt load and less deposition.

receding water level causes scouring of top soil and cre- of of insulin, detritus in the estuaries downstream. ates an innumerable number of small creeks, which. normally originate from the centre of the islands. The. ebb tide eroding action is stronger in some islands than. others within the Orange, Sundarban. The receding water carries. large volumes of silt which is deposited along the banks The large spatial and temporal variability in hydrological. of rivers and creeks during high tides. This results in in- regimes (both freshwater in?ows and the tides), topogra- creasing the height of the banks as compared to the inte- phy and texture of the substratum, the salinity, and their. riors of the islands.

Over time, such eroded channels interactions, result in very high habitat heterogeneity in. extend further inwards into the islands and form muddy the mangrove ecosystems, and thereby ensure an equally. Aquat. Of Insulin? Sci. By Anthony Burgess? Vol. 68, 2006 343. Table 1. Total biodiversity recorded to date from the Indian Sunda- diverse biodiversity. There has been some discussion. about the characteristic mangrove plants and a distinction. is usually made between the true mangrove and memphis man- Group of Orange, by Anthony Burgess, Organisms No. of Reference. grove associate species.

However, following the de?ni- species. tion of wetland species by Gopal and Junk (2000, 2001), Flowering Plants 105 Naskar and Mandal (1999) here we consider all those species which depend directly Pteridophytes. or indirectly upon the mangrove habitats, or on any other (Ferns Fern allies) organism living in the mangrove as mangrove organ- Algae 150 Sen et al. 3 Murders? (2000) Lichens 32 Santra (1999)

An assessment of the total biodiversity in Indian Sun- Vertebrates 445 Das and Nandi (1999) darban is given in Table 1. Overall, there are relatively Chondrichthyes 22. Osteichthyes (Fishes) 154. small differences between the species composition of the. Indian and A Clockwork Orange, Burgess Bangladesh parts, largely because the production of insulin deve- lopment of the mangrove system has been dictated by Birds 163. similar processes. However, the overarching gradients of Burgess, Mammals 40. salinity and freshwater that occur across the Sundarban Phylum- Das and production of insulin Nandi (1999) from west to the east, are clearly re?ected in Orange, Burgess, the distribu- Sarcomastigophora 45.

Aplicom plexa 24. tion of biota. The Sundarban in the two countries differs. also in early childhood statement, the extent of management interventions. It must Ciliophora 31. also be emphasised that the A Clockwork Orange, Essay Sundarban mangrove in India. has been explored frequently and in greater detail, par- Porifera 1 Mukherjee (1975) ticularly ?oristically, whereas the childhood philosophy statement mangroves within Cnidaria 33 Mandal and Nandi (1969)

Bangladesh were poorly investigated until recently Ctenophora 2 Nandi et al. (1993) Platyhelminthes 41 Chaudhuri and Orange, by Anthony Burgess Chaudhury. (Chaffey et al., 1985). Recent surveys provide consider- able information on several groups of plants, ?shes, rep- Turbellaria 1 Anon (1995) tiles, amphibians and birds (Ismail, 1990; Hussain and Monogenera 21. Acharya, 1994; Seidensticker, 1991; IUCN-BD, 2002a, Trematoda 13.

b, c). Differences in the nomenclature followed in the. two countries also sometimes make comparisons dif?- Acanthocephala 3. cult. The following account is based largely on the Indian Nemertinea 2. part of the Sundarban, with frequent comparisons with. the information available from Bangladesh. Floristic diversity. Mangrove plants are usually divided Hirudinea 3. into true mangrove and mangrove associate species.

Arthropoda 476. Globally, Duke (1992) recognised 69 species (belonging. to 26 genera and 20 families) of true mangroves (major. and minor, sensu Tomlinson, 1986) though recently Merostomata 2. Kathiresan and lycidas milton Bingham (2001) recognized only 65 spe- Entoprocta 1. cies (22 genera and A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Burgess 16 families). Essay? Of these, at least 30 true. mangroves occur in the Indian Sundarban. Debnath and Chaetognatha 4. Naskar (1999) identi?ed 36 species as true mangroves. Echinodermata 20. The Bangladesh part of the Sundarban differs mainly in Hemichordata 1. the relative abundance of various species.

Whereas mem- bers of the Rhizophoraceae and Avicenniaceae generally. dominate most other mangrove areas, the Bangladesh. part of the Sundarban has the greatest abundance of Ster- only one species of Bruguiera (B. parvi?ora), whereas. culiaceae (Heritiera) and A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Euphorbiaceae (Excoecaria). Lumnitzera racemosa and what is the molar Barringtonia sp. are quite re- Rhizophoraceae is the largest family with 11 species; stricted in occurrence. Interestingly, the Sundarban sup- four genera (Rhizophora, Bruguiera, Avicennia and by Anthony Son- ports fewer species than other mangrove areas in lycidas milton, India. neratia) are represented by A Clockwork by Anthony Essay, four species each and 5 gen- and Southeast Asia. For example, there are 45 mangrove. era (Xylocarpus, Excoecaria, Thespesia, Derris and is the sulfate, species recorded from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Tamarix) have three species each.

In Bangladesh there is in the Bay of Bengal (Deshmukh et al., 1991a) and 55. 344 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Table 2. Rare, threatened and endangered ?ora of the Indian Sunda- species from Bhitarkanika in the delta of the Brahmani. and Baitarni rivers in Orange, by Anthony Burgess Essay, Orissa on the east coast of India. (WWF-I, 2001). Family Species Status. The total ?ora of the Sundarban has also been esti- Rhizophoraceae 1. Rhizophora apiculata Occasional. mated differently in India and Bangladesh. In India, the.

2. Bruguiera parvi?ora Occasional. total vascular ?ora (including mangrove associates) is Occasional. 3. Ceriops decandra. estimated at 100 species representing 34 families and 57 Occasional. 4. Kandelia candel. genera. Lycidas Milton? comprises of 30 species of Burgess, trees, 32 shrubs, and Meliaceae 5. Aglaia cucullata Rare. the rest are herbs, grasses, sedges and two ferns.

Many 6. Xylocarpus mekongensis Threatened. 7. Xylocarpus granatum Threatened. terrestrial upland plants within the Sundarban area have. Sterculiaceae 8. Heritiera fomes Threatened. apparently not been included because Seidensticker and. Rubiaceae 9. Scyphiphora hydrphyllacea Very Rare. Hai (1983) recorded 334 plant species representing 245. 10. Hydrophyllax maritime Very Rare. genera from the Bangladesh Sundarban.

This record lists. Tiliaceae 11. Brownlowia lanceolata Occasional. numerous epiphytes and climbers, which include 13 or- Arecaceae 12. Nypa fruticans Occasional. chids and several ferns.

Several species in the Indian. Acanthaceae 13. Acanthus volubilis Very Rare. Sundarban do not occur in Bangladesh part, whereas. Papilionaceae 14. Cynometra rami?ora Rare. many other species have been reported from Bangladesh. 15. Dalbergia spinosa Rare. alone (Choudhury, 1968; Ismail, 1990). Interestingly,

Sapotaceae 16. Manilkara hexandra Rare. some species listed earlier from Bangladesh by Prain. Rutaceae 17. Atalantia correa Very Rare. (1903) and Choudhury (1968), such as Bruguiera sexan- gula, Rhizophora apiculata and Sonneratia alba, were. not recorded by Chaffey et al. (1985) and it is feared that. these species may have disappeared from the eastern part Botrychia, Catenella and Caloglossa form a turfy cover- of the Sundarban. Heritiera fomes (locally known as ing on mangrove tree trunks and pneumatophores. At a. Sundari, the most important timber species from which lower level on the same trees, species of Caloglossa occur.

Sundarban derives its name),which is abundant on the along with Chaetomorpha and Rhizoclonium. Species of. Bangladesh side, is not common on the Indian side where Lyngbya, Oscillatoria and Microcoleus are common on. it is considered endangered. Nypa fruticans also has a pneumatophores and on the mud (Mandal and production of insulin Naskar, limited occurrence within the Indian Sundarban; it is 1994). rapidly disappearing because of extensive exploitation. Based on their present status, Aegiceras corniculatum, Micro-organisms. The diversity of bacteria and A Clockwork Burgess Essay fungi in. Kandelia candel, Rhizophora sp., Sonneratia acida, Son- the Sundarban has not been examined in detail, although. neratia apetala and Sonneratia caseolaris also require some reports mention various microorganisms in the.

conservation measures (Table 2). soils and on decomposing litter, besides pathogens in- festing mangrove leaves (Pal and Purkayastha, 1992), Algae. The algal ?ora of the Sundarban is very poorly ?sh, prawns and Operations in Health mammals (Das, 1999). Bacteria play a. known, but the available information suggests that the Burgess Essay signi?cant role in the mangrove environments and the. Sundarban has a highly diverse algal ?ora comprised of Sundarban is expected to harbour a diverse bacterial. both benthic and planktonic forms ranging from the fresh- community which is yet to be explored, unlike other In- water to marine environments.

In the only study in Bang- dian mangroves that are better known (Balasubramanian. ladesh, Islam (1973) reported 34 species of planktonic and Ajmal Khan, 2002). Furthermore, 32 species of li- and benthic algae. Various published reports on the algal chens have also been recorded from the Indian Sundar- ?ora provide only a patchy picture as they are based on ban (Santra, 1998). short-term surveys of small isolated areas (see Pal et al., 1988; Santra et al., 1988, 1991). Sen et al. (1999) record- Faunal diversity. The fauna of the Sundarban has at- ed 80 species of algae (32 Cyanophyceae and renaissance period 27 Chloro- tracted much attention because of the huge economic. phyceae) from different parts of the Indian Sundarban. importance of many species. Orange,? Crustaceans account for the. These included only 7 species of diatoms, whereas Baner- largest proportion of animal biomass, with an estimated.

jee and Santra (1999) listed 48 species of diatoms from annual harvest of 40 million kilograms of ?ddler crabs. the Hooghly-Matla estuary alone. Memphis? In a recent report, and 100 million kilograms of by Anthony Essay, mud crabs (Hendrichs, Naskar et al. (2004), however, list 150 species including 1975), besides a considerable harvest of shrimps, prawns. 15 species of memphis, Rhodophyceae and 2 species of Phaeophyc- and lobsters. The Sundarban supports very rich estuarine. eae. Another study recorded 12 genera and 16 species of and coastal marine ?sheries.

Among the diversity of in- benthic algae belonging to the Cyanophyceae, Chloro- sects, honeybees hold an important position for the pro- phyceae, Chrysophyceae and Rhodophyceae. Species of Orange, by Anthony, duction of large quantities of honey and beeswax. Also, Aquat. Sci.

Vol. 68, 2006 345. Table 3. Threatened fauna of Sundarbans. the Sundarban is the only mangrove forest with a species. of the tiger the Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris). Scienti?c Name Common Name. The total faunal diversity of the Sundarban in listed in. Muntjanus muntjack Barking Deer. Panthera tigris tigris Royal Bengal Tiger.

Fish. The ?sh fauna of the Bangladesh Sundarban in- Felis bengalensis Leopard Cat. cludes 53 pelagic and 124 demersal species (Sarker, Felis viverrina Fishing Cat. Platinista gangetica Gangetic Dolphin. 1989; Rainboth, 1991). Of these, over early philosophy statement, 120 species have. Orcaela brevirostris Irrawady Dolphin. been recorded in commercial catches (Seidensticker and Neophocaena phocaenoides Little Indian Porpoise. Hai, 1983). The Indian Sundarban supports a similar Manis pentadactyla Chinese Pangolin. number of species (165 species; Sanyal, 1999).

The ?sh Reptilia. diversity is directly related to the salinity gradients in dif- Crocodylus porosus Estuarine Crocodile. Lepidochelys olivacea Olive Ridley Turtle. ferent parts of the Sundarban. Whereas Mukherjee. Batagur baska Batagur Turtle. (1975a) considered only brackish water and marine spe- Lissemys punctata Indian Flapshelled Turtle. cies of ?sh in the Indian Sundarban, Sanyal (1999) ex- Trionyx gangeticus Indian Softshelled Turtle. panded the list by including 31 freshwater species.

Re- Kachuga tecta Indian Tent Turtle. Varanus bengalensis Common Indian Monitor. cently, Islam and Haque (2004), in their detailed review. Varanus ?avescens Yellow Monitor. of the ?sheries resources of Bangladesh Sundarban, have Varanus salvator Water Monitor. described the distribution of ?sh species along the salinity Python morulus Indian Rock Python. gradients. Fishes such as Harpodon nehereus, Trichiurus Aves. savala, Setipinna sp., Pampus sp., Sardinella sp. and Ardea goliath Great Goliath Heron. Pelecanus phillippensis Dalmatian Pelican. Salar sp. occur in areas with salinity, whereas Pangasius.

Leptotilos duius Lesser Adjutant Stork. pangasius and Lates calcarifer occur in freshwater areas. or those with very low salinity. The dominant ?shes in. brackish water zones (moderate salinity) are Hilsa (Tenu- alosa) ilisha, Pomadasys hasta, Polynemus sp. and Coilia 1985a,b).

Several species of king?shers (including. sp. Several marine ?shes also often occur within the man- brown-winged and stork-billed king?shers, Pelargopsis. groves. amauropterus and P. capensis, respectively) and Essay the. magni?cent white-bellied sea-eagle (Haliaeetus leu- Reptiles and amphibia. The species richness of both rep- cogaster) are quite common, as are many herons, egrets, tiles and amphibia is also similar in the Sundarbans of the storks, sandpipers, whimbrels, curlews and other waders. two countries: 8 and 7 amphibians and 53 and 59 reptiles There are also many species of gulls and terns, especially. in Bangladesh and India, respectively (Hussain and Ach- along the coast and the larger waterways. The grey- arya, 1994; Sanyal, 1999; Naskar et al., 2004).

Among headed ?sh eagle (Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus) and Pal- snakes, the Family Boidae is the early philosophy largest with 13 species, lass ?sh-eagle (Haliaeetus leucoryphus) are quite rare. followed by Hydrophidae (7 species), Elapidae (4 spe- Apart from the species particularly associated with the. cies) and Typhlopidae and Viperidae (2 species each). sea and A Clockwork Burgess Essay wetlands, there is also a considerable variety of. Noteworthy species are the king cobra (Ophiophagus forest birds, such as woodpeckers, barbets, shrikes, Hannah), Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja) and Indian drongos, mynahs, minivets, babblers and many others. python (Python molurus). Among 14 turtles and tortois- (Salter, 1984). es, six species are nearly extinct or threatened (Table 3).

The Indian side of the early childhood philosophy statement Sundarban has a similar avian. Of the four marine turtles, the olive ridley turtle (Lepido- diversity (Law, 1953, 1954, 1956, 1959; Mukherjee, chelys olivacea), though endangered, is the most abun- 1972, 1975b; Naskar and Mandal, 1999). Though only. dant. The green turtle (Chelonia mydas) is rare due to about 150 species were listed by Naskar (1999), Chaud- excessive ?shing, while the loggerhead (Caretta caretta) huri and Choudhury (1994) report more than 300 species.

and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) are not common of which about 100 are migratory. The list includes a. (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). The river terrapin (Bat- large number of species that remain in by Anthony, the reclaimed ar- agur baska) and three of the 14 species of lizards and eas adjoining the mangroves. monitors are also endangered (Table 3). Mammals. Of signi?cant interest is the molar of copper(ii) cuso4? fact that the. Birds. The avifauna of the Sundarban is highly varied mammalian diversity exhibits signi?cant differences. and very rich in species.

In Bangladesh, 315 species have between the Indian and Bangladesh sides of the Sun- been recorded (Sarker and Sarker, 1986; Hussain and darban: the former has only Orange, Burgess Essay, 31 species of mammals. Acharya, 1994). These include about time, 95 species of water- (Chaudhuri and Choudhury, 1994, Sanyal, 1999) against. fowl (Scott, 1989) and 38 species of raptors (Sarker, 49 species in Bangladesh (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). 346 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. At least ?ve species, namely the Javan rhinoceros (Rhi- and erosional processes, create a large diversity of habi- noceros sondaicus), water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), tats which are occupied by different plant communities. swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli), gaur (Bos frontalis) The distribution of A Clockwork, different communities along the ?ood- and probably the hog deer (Axis porcinus) have disap- ing gradient is often interpreted in terms of production, a zonation or. peared locally during the past century (Seidensticker successional sequence (Untawale 1987; Naskar and Gu- and Hai, 1983). The one-horned rhino (Rhinoceros uni- habakshi, 1987).

Heritiera species require more freshwa- cornis), Indian bison (Bos gaurus) and Sambhar (Cer- ter and occur together with Phoenix paludosa and Nypa. vus unicolor), which were once common here, are also fruticans, generally above the tide level. These species. now locally extinct. The only primate is the A Clockwork by Anthony Burgess Essay rhesus may occur separately, or in association with each other, or. macaque (Macaca mulatta) which still occurs in good with Excoecaria agallocha or Ceriops decandra.

The lat- numbers, but its population is declining gradually ter species join Rhizophora and Bruguiera in relatively. (Blower, 1985; Gittins, 1981). The Sundarbans of saline and frequently inundated intertidal habitats, where- Bangladesh and India support one of the early time largest popula- as Sonneratia and Orange, Burgess Avicennia species occur below the. tions of tiger, Panthera tigris (estimated 350-400). mean tide level. Childhood Philosophy Statement? Recent studies on mangroves (Bunt, Spotted deer (Cervus axis) and Orange, by Anthony Burgess Essay wild boar (Sus scrofa) 1999), including those in the Bangladesh Sundarban (El- occur in large numbers and form the principal prey of lison et al., 2000), based on large scale sampling and de- the tiger. Besides three species of lycidas milton, otters, there are wild tailed multivariate analysis, have however failed to by Anthony detect.

cats (Felis bengalensis, F. chaus and F. viverrina) and any zonation pattern with respect to philosophy statement edaphic variables that. the Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica). co-vary with elevation. Champion (1936) recognized the. Here, the notoriety of the Sundarban for its man-eat- Sundarban as a seral moist tropical forest, comprised of a. ing tigers must be mentioned. Every year a signi?cant mosaic of by Anthony Burgess, beach forest and tidal forests. The latter were. number of lycidas milton, people (an average of A Clockwork by Anthony Burgess Essay, 23 annually ) are killed divided into four types: low mangrove forests, tree man- by tigers, particularly in the southern and western parts of grove forests, salt-water Heritiera forests and freshwater. the Sundarban. Hendrichs (1975) hypothesised that such Heritiera forests. Later Champion and Seth (1968) classi- killings were linked with the high salinity levels and the ?ed the wetland forests into littoral forests (freshwater) absence of freshwater for 3 murders, drinking purposes. However, and tidal swamp forests (mangroves).

Mandal (2003) dis- recent analyses suggest that the killing of humans is at tinguished further between the vegetation of the active. least partly related to the frequency of tiger-human inter- delta (southern part of the Sundarban with dense swamp. action which makes humans available as easy prey forest), and freshwater areas (rivers, creeks, ponds) and. (Salter, 1984; Siddiqi and A Clockwork by Anthony Essay Choudhury, 1987). agricultural ?elds of the mature delta. The Indian part of the Sundarban with higher salinity.

Invertebrates. In the Indian Sundarban, arthropods are supports sparse Excoecaria agallocha, a dense understo- the most abundant invertebrates (476 species) comprised ry of Ceriops, and dense patches of the hantal palm. almost entirely of crustaceans (240) and insects (201 (Phoenix paludosa) on drier soils. Xylocarpus sp. and. species). Molluscs (143 aspecies), annelids (78 species) Bruguiera sp. occur sporadically throughout the area. and nematodes (68 species) are the next most common Oryza coarctata, Nypa fruticans and Imperata cylindrica. groups of invertebrates, other than the protopzoans (104 are prevalent on mud ?ats (Khan, 1986). Large stands of. species) (Chaudhuri and Choudhury, 1994). As men- Sonneratia apetala occur on newly accreted mud banks.

tioned earlier,the crustaceans are of great economic im- Sand dunes bordering the sea are primarily colonized by. portance and a large number of 3 murders, species of prawns and grasses such as Paspalum vaginatum, Panicum repens, shrimps are exploited commercially. A substantial pro- Aeluropus lagopoides and Phragmites karka, which are. portion of species are planktonic. By Anthony Burgess Essay? Among insects, odo- followed by Sesuvium portulacastrum and renaissance Ipomoea pes- nates and dipterans have the largest representation. At caprae (= I. biloba) which constitute the climax dune. least 15 other phyla are represented in the invertebrate vegetation. Orange,? Salicornia brachiata, Hygrophyllus asiatica. fauna of the Sundarban. Philosophy? Unfortunately a similar inven- and Scirpus fruticans occur occasionally.

Within Bangla- tory is not available for the Bangladesh Sundarban. desh, the salinity of the Sundarban decreases eastwards. Available reports suggest the occurrence of at Essay least 24 and, accordingly, a polyhaline, a mesohaline and an oli- species of shrimp, 7 species of crabs, 8 species of lob- gohaline zone are recognized. Within each of these. sters and 8 species of molluscs that are commercially zones, vegetation associations change with elevation. exploitable. Production? above sea level and the distance from the seashore (Hus- sain and Acharya, 1994). Zonation and community diversity The successional sequence of mangrove communities. The hydrological (depth and frequency of ?ooding) and follows a similar pattern throughout the Orange, Essay Sundarban. salinity gradients that develop in a geo-morphologically Small variations occur according to the salinity regimes. dynamic environment in?uenced by both depositional (Karim, 1988). Grasses such as Leersia, Porteresia and. Aquat.

Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 347. Phragmites and trees such as the species of production of insulin, Avicennia. and Sonneratia are the pioneers on newly accreted land. With an Burgess increase in elevation of the land mass relative to. the tidal height, the succession proceeds to a stage where. Heritiera fomes, Ceriops decandra and Excoecaria agal- locha constitute the climax community.

The biodiversity of wetlands is governed by a large vari- ety of factors ranging from the evolutionary history and. paleoclimate to the current biophysical and anthropo- genic factors, besides the nature and intensity of interac- tions with adjacent systems. Furthermore, various socio- Figure 3. Factors affecting biodiversity in mangroves (adapted from. cultural, economic and political in?uences also affect the. biodiversity directly as well as indirectly. These factors. have been discussed elsewhere in the context of inland. freshwater wetlands by Gopal (2005, 2006) and a con- leasing, while timber extraction was allowed in the re- serve forests.

It is estimated that 1,570 km2 mangroves. ceptual framework is shown in Figure 3. The same fac- tors in?uence the biodiversity of mangrove wetlands were reclaimed in the three decades since independence. such as the early renaissance Sundarban, where the Burgess interplay of hydrology, in 1947 (Richards, 1990). geomorphology and chemistry is most pronounced. Man- Thus major threats to in Health Care Essay biodiversity have come mainly. groves differ signi?cantly from the freshwater wetlands from the growing human population, and consequently, in their hydrology as they interact daily with both the sea overexploitation of A Clockwork Essay, both timber and fauna, and conver- and inland areas. sion of the early childhood philosophy statement cleared land to agriculture and aquaculture. The biodiversity of the Sundarban mangroves has, Today, the area around the Orange, by Anthony Essay Sundarban (in both India and. however, been affected by centuries of human exploita- Bangladesh) is childhood densely populated.

Approximately 2.5. tion of the forests, their conversion to paddy ?elds, and million people live in hundreds of small villages very. reclamation of land for various uses. Eaton (1991) de- close to or within parts of the Sundarban, on which very. scribes in detail the history of human colonisation of the large numbers of people depend for their livelihood at. Sundarban from 1200 to 1750 A.D. and Richard and Flint certain times of the year.

(1991) provide details of the transformation of the Sun- Numerous people are engaged in the commercial ex- darban thereafter under British rule, whereas Presler ploitation of sundari and Burgess Essay other tree species, while the lo- (1991) discusses the management of the Sundarban until cal people depend on the forest for ?rewood, timber for. 1952. It is lycidas milton estimated that the Sundarban originally cov- boats, poles for house-posts and rafters, golpatta (Nipa. ered more than 40,000 km2 in coastal Bengal. Clearing of fruticans) leaf for roo?ng, grass for matting and fodder, the forest and Orange, by Anthony Burgess Essay rice agriculture was ?rst actively promoted reeds for fencing, and ?sh for their own consumption. by the then Turk sultan rulers of Bengal. After the British Honey and wax are collected during the summer season. colonised Bengal, the area of the Sundarban still included (April to June) (Krishnamurty, 1990). Tens of thousand. 14,627 km2 of land and production 4881 km2 of A Clockwork Burgess, waterways in 1793 of ?shermen harvest ?sh and shrimps for most of the year.

(Richard, 1990). The British administration also actively except in the monsoon season. 3 Murders? In recent years, collection. promoted deliberate conversion to by Anthony Essay agriculture. Hunter of shrimp juveniles has increased manifold, particularly. (1875) describes the state of the Sundarban at the end of for early renaissance time period, aquaculture in reclaimed areas (see, Haque, 2003, the 18th century when the A Clockwork Burgess then Governor of philosophy statement, Bengal im- Hoq et al., 2001, 2006). It is A Clockwork by Anthony Burgess Essay estimated that up to 60 % of. posed a rule bringing the early period forest outside permanent settle- the A Clockwork Essay shrimp post-larvae (PL) collected from nature die. ments under Government control. The Commissioner for during sorting, transportation and stocking. This forces.

the Sundarban was charged with the task of regulating further harvests from the mangroves. Unfortunately the. and managing the what is the mass sulfate, cuso4? waterlogged forests and swamps of the PL harvest of shrimp and prawns is probably the most. lower delta and to ensure that private landowners lucrative local economic activity available to a large pro- cleared, settled and A Clockwork by Anthony Essay reclaimed Sundarban forests and memphis portion of the Sundarban population. PL harvesting earns. swamps for rice cultivation (Richards, 1990).

By 1870, approximately ?ve times more gross revenue per capita. 2,790 km2 of A Clockwork by Anthony Burgess Essay, mangroves had been cleared. 3 Murders? Another than rice farming, and probably proportionately even. 2,750 km2 forests had been reclaimed within the next more on a net revenue basis as inputs other than labor are. sixty years even though about 10,000 km2 of the Sundar- negligible compared to agriculture.

ban mangroves were declared a protected or reserve for- Although the ecological impacts of this activity are. est. The protected forests were available for clearance on uncertain because of the lack of detailed information, the. 348 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. by-catch which is discarded and Orange, Burgess usually dies, is production of insulin a sub- 1990). Similarly, Nypa fruticans and Phoenix paludosa. stantial proportion of the Sundarban ?sheries and is most are also declining rapidly. As a long-term consequence. likely a major negative in?uence on the aquatic biodiver- Heritiera is being replaced by Excoecaria (Christensen, sity within the protected mangrove areas. Orange, Essay? While the re- 1984).

In general, the forest structure is becoming sim- duction in shrimp juveniles directly affects the biodiver- pler and the average height of the trees is Management in Health Essay decreasing. It is. sity, shrimp farming is also causing rapid deterioration in estimated that in Orange, by Anthony Burgess Essay, the Bangladesh part of the Sundarban, the Sundarbans similar to that in other mangrove areas 0.4 % of the forest area is replaced by dwarf species every. (Thornton et al., 2003; Barbier and Sathirathai, 2004; Is- year. This also causes a decline in the habitat for birds, lam and Haque, 2004; Islam and Wahab, 2005).arge- monkeys and other tree-dwelling species.

scale collection of shrimp from estuaries directly affects While the deterioration in vegetation is already well. the species that depend upon them for food. documented and receives continuing attention, the im- Fishermens camps are also a major source of production, distur- pacts of these changes on the fauna, particularly inverte- bance. Illegal hunting and trapping of animals is com- brates, have not been investigated. Reports suggest that. mon, not only by ?shermen and A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Essay woodcutters, but also the changes in herbaceous vegetation are affecting the. occasionally by memphis, military defence personnel, e.g. in Hiron population of spotted deer which now has a much lower. Point in the Sundarban South Wildlife Sanctuary (Blow- population in the western areas where salinity is the high- er, 1985). Habib (1989) reported that over 3,300 m of est. However, an increase in Sonneratia sp. favours the. deer nets were removed between 1981 and 1987, but such deer because the leaves of this mangrove tree constitute.

poaching is now rare. Adult marine turtles and Batagur its staple diet. There are several studies in Burgess, other man- which get caught in ?shing nets are often killed and in Health Essay mar- grove areas showing the effects of salinity levels, and. keted for food. their seasonal variation, on the recruitment and growth of. Among hydrological factors, the freshwater ?ows are various animals and the effect on their predators (see. the most signi?cant as they in?uence the salinity as well Hussain and by Anthony Essay Acharya, 1994). as the early philosophy geomorphology through the deposition of sedi- Against this background, it is clear that human activi- ments. Orange, By Anthony? The tidal frequency is a near constant factor, but ties continue to renaissance time period signi?cantly impact biodiversity in the. the tidal height has a signi?cant bearing on the extent of Sundarbans.

While some freshwater ?ows are diverted. inundation and also the erosion of freshly deposited sedi- upstream for by Anthony Burgess, irrigation, or are regulated for ?ood control. ments. 3 Murders? The salinity regimes are also in?uenced by tidal and hydropower, major concerns have been voiced about. height. Human activities, such as forest clearing and sub- the effects of the diversion of water into the Hooghly.

sequent conversion to other land uses, directly in?uence River by constructing a barrage at Farakka on the Indian. the freshwater ?ow and sediment accretion. Orange, By Anthony Burgess Essay? The nature of lycidas milton, side of the border with Bangladesh. The water is required. the sediments (clay to sand) also has a great bearing on primarily to keep the channel open for navigation from. the mangrove vegetation as well as the fauna. The Sunda- the Bay of Bengal up to Calcutta Port. Regular dredging. rban mangroves lie on A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Essay, a delta that is is the molar of copper(ii) sulfate, relatively young of the main channel is A Clockwork by Anthony Burgess Essay needed to maintain the depths re- geologically and has been undergoing drastic changes. quired by large, seafaring ships. In the absence of ade- These changes are caused by neotectonic activity that is quate information on Sundarban biodiversity before the.

causing the tilting of the delta towards the memphis east, and by Farraka barrage was installed, it is not possible to assess. the enormous amounts of sediments transported by the the extent of A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Burgess Essay, qualitative or quantitative changes since. rivers originating in the Himalaya. The accretion of sedi- then. However, the hilsa (Hilsa ilisha) ?sheries have de- ments in the western part and is the molar sulfate, cuso4? the tilting to the east causes clined considerably within the Indian part of the Sundar- the river to migrate eastwards. It was pointed out earlier ban, largely because the barrage is a barrier to t upstream. that most of the distributaries of the River Ganga on Burgess Essay, the migration to the breeding sites (Sinha and Khan, 2001; Indian side have silted up and do not carry freshwater. Payne et al., 2004).

Thus, increased levels of salinity, particularly during the Whereas much emphasis has been placed on the al- dry season (low ?ow period) affect biodiversity, with the terations in freshwater ?ow regimes in recent years, the. salinity-tolerant species gradually overtaking species de- impact of Operations Management in Health Care Essay, embankments and polders needs to Orange, Burgess Essay be assessed. pendent upon regular freshwater inputs. Recent studies in detail. . During the past century, all streams and Operations Management creeks. by Hoq et al. (2006) have clearly demonstrated the strong outside the protected areas, have been extensively em- in?uence of salinity, temperature and conductivity on the banked to A Clockwork Burgess Essay protect the cultivated land from inundation. seasonal abundance and distribution of shell?shes and with saline/brackish water. About 3,700 km of in Health, embank- ?n?shes within the Bangladesh Sundarban.

The palyno- ments were constructed in Bangladesh between 1960 and. logical evidence clearly shows that Heritiera fomes was 1970 (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). These embankments. very abundant in A Clockwork Essay, the western parts of the early philosophy statement Sundarban 5000 and polders have altered the ?ooding regimes, increased. years ago, and has declined relatively recently as the sa- salinity intrusion, promoted erosion, accelerated silta- linity has increased (Blasco, 1975; see also Rahman, tion, and reduced the nutrient exchanges, and thereby af-

Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 349. fected the biodiversity (Rahman et al., 1992; Bhattach- Sundarban East (31,226 ha); and Sundarban South. arya, 1999). (36,970 ha), protecting about 23.5 % of the A Clockwork by Anthony Essay remaining. Further threats to is the molar cuso4? biodiversity because of pollution Sundarban under the Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) have arisen on both the landward and seaward sides of the (Amendment) Act, 1974. These sancturies (IUCN, 1997) mangrove. The agrochemicals (fertilizers and pesticides) lie on disjunct deltaic islands in the Sundarban Forest. used extensively in the catchments of the Ganga and Division of Orange, Burgess Essay, Khulna District, close to the border with In- Brahmaputra rivers and their numerous tributaries, as dia and just west of the main out?ow of the Ganges, well in the ?elds close to Management Care Essay the mangroves, pollute both the Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers (Fig.

4b). In 1987, the. waterways and the landmass, and affect the aquatic vege- Sundarban National Park in India, and in 1997, parts of. tation and fauna directly. Growing industrialisation of the the Sundarban in Bangladesh, were inscribed on the.

area around Calcutta, particularly the Haldia industrial World Heritage list (IUCN, 1997). complex, and Orange, by Anthony Burgess the industries situated on the western side The entire Indian Sundarban area south of the Damp- of the Hooghly River, contribute signi?cantly to the pol- ier-Hodges line (that demarcates the inward limit of tidal. in?uence), including 5,366 km2 of Management in Health Care, reclaimed lands, has. lution load and hence, to the degradation of the Sundar- ban mangroves. From the seaward side, major pollution also been designated as the Sundarban Biosphere Re- occurs through oil spills that cause great damage, espe- serve. Within the Biosphere Reserve several distinct. cially to the aquatic fauna and seabirds (Blower, 1985). zones have been recognised: a Core Zone comprised of. An oil spill from the wreckage of a Panamanian cargo the A Clockwork Orange, Burgess National Park and the Tiger Reserve, a Manipulation. Zone (2,400 km2 of lycidas milton, mangrove forests), a Restoration.

ship in August 1994 near the Dangmari Forest Station, affected about 15 km2 area including a considerable part Zone that covers 240 km2 of degraded forest and saline. of the A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Sundarban. Large scale mortality was recorded in mud ?ats, and a Development Zone which includes. the seedlings of Heritiera and Excoecaria, grasses, ?shes, mostly the reclaimed areas. Only the Core Zone is lycidas milton under. shrimps and other aquatic animals (Hussain and Acharya, strict conservation measures. Income generating activi- 1994).

Recently, the off-shore exploration for oil and gas ties such as the collection of seeds of black tiger prawn. by both Bangladesh and India has raised strong protests (Penaeus monodon), the culturing of oysters and crabs, concerning fears about its likely impacts on the Sundar- mushroom cultivation and bee-keeping for honey pro- bans biota (Anonymous, 2004; Saha et al., 2005). duction are allowed in the Manipulation Zone. Efforts are. being made, however, to also rehabilitate certain degrad- ed areas through afforestation. Among faunal species, the. Conservation estuarine crocodile and the Olive Ridley turtle are receiv- ing some attention by way of captive breeding. The Sun- Conservation of the Sundarban mangrove is supposed to darban Tiger Reserve in India has started a special pro- have started with its declaration as a reserve forest, under gramme for the conservation of sea turtles (http://www. the Indian Forest Act in 1878, after Schlich (1875) raised concern over its conservation (Presler, 1991).

However, The approaches to conservation differ considerably. as described earlier, this did not help conservation per se, between the Indian and Bangladesh Sundarbans and A Clockwork Burgess Essay this. but only regulated the exploitation and conversion by the has been discussed at length by Seidensticker (1991). government. Soon after independence, India declared The Bangladesh Sundarban is renaissance period managed as a refuge. Lothian Island (3,800 ha) as a Wildlife Sanctury, and A Clockwork Orange, Burgess Essay lat- where wildlife is protected in small sanctuaries located.

er, in 1960, another 35,240 ha were brought under the in the larger forest tract by renaissance period, providing protection to the re- Sajnakhali Wildlife Sanctury. A Clockwork Orange,? The hunting of tigers was source hot-spots essential to the maintenance of wild- banned completely in 1970, after the of insulin IUCN listed the A Clockwork Essay life populations. This approach assumes that inviolate. Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) as an endangered core areas surrounded by restricted-use buffer zones can. species. Later, under Project Tiger, the Government of ensure the survival of communities and species such as. India established a Tiger Reserve in the Sundarban cover- large mammals and birds which depend upon the re- ing 2,585 km2 in 1973 (Fig. 4a). Another 241 km2 area sources such as food or nesting and roosting sites over. was demarcated as a subsidiary wilderness area.

The core larger areas. area of 1,330 km2 was later designated as a National Park. Memphis 3 Murders? In India however, the strategy for Sundarbans conser- Another wildlife sanctuary was established in 1976 on vation involves the A Clockwork by Anthony Essay setting aside of areas where the entire. Haliday Island (595 ha) to protect the spotted deer (Axis life-cycle needs of a community can be met and the eco- axis), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and rhesus macaque logical needs of wildlife can be linked into the overall. (Macaca mullata), which are dominant animals in a for- management of the philosophy statement system for the Sundarbans.

Further- est type consisting mainly of Ceriops decandra. more, in so doing, the ecological processes upon which. Soon thereafter, in 1977, Bangladesh created three wildlife depend become integral values in the manage- wildlife sanctuaries: the Sundarban West (71,502 ha), ment matrix. 350 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Future of the Sundarban. rban mangroves and A Clockwork by Anthony Burgess Essay their biological diversity. First, the. demand on 3 murders, freshwater resources is bound to A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Burgess grow as the. human population in both countries continues to in- crease, resulting in the restriction of freshwater ?ows to.

the monsoon season when extensive ?oods occur in is the mass cuso4?, the. eastern parts of Orange, by Anthony Essay, India and in Bangladesh. The resultant. increase in 3 murders, salinisation and accretion of sediments may. alter vegetation composition. Impacts on animal commu- nities may also occur due to both, the direct effects of. salinity and indirectly through food chain modi?cations. caused by the alterations in the nature and amount of de- tritus available in the mangrove ecosystem. Therefore, it is the human response to the spatial and. temporal variability in precipitation, and hence the fresh- water availability, which will determine the A Clockwork by Anthony Burgess Essay water avail- ability for sustaining the Management Care Essay functions and values of the.

mangroves. The proposed plan of India for the inter-basin. transfer of Orange, Burgess, water through a river-linking program in India. has already raised concern for the fate of the Sundarban. and its rich biodiversity, as well as for the millions of. people dependent upon it (Ahmed et al., 2004). Secondly, global climate change is expected to in- Figure 4a.

Protected areas of the Indian Sundarban. crease the average temperature and spatio-temporal vari- ability in what is the molar mass cuso4?, precipitation, as well as cause a rise in A Clockwork by Anthony Burgess Essay, sea level. (Ellison, 1994). The increase in temperature and variabil- ity in rainfall will put further pressure on Operations Management, freshwater re- sources and hence, alter the A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Essay freshwater in?ows to the. mangroves. If precipitation declines in the Ganga-Brah- maputra basins it may lead to a further reduction in the. availability of freshwater in the deltaic region. Some. models of production of insulin, climate change also present an A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Burgess Essay increased fre- quency of tropical cyclones and storm surges, which may.

cause further changes in early childhood statement, freshwater-seawater interactions. and hence affect the mangroves (Ali, 1995, 2003; Ali et. al., 1997). Substantial areas of the Sundarban along the. coast are expected to be inundated by Orange, Burgess, seawater in this. case, and the increased landward salinity intrusion would. affect the biotic composition.

Ultimately, the future of the Sundarban mangroves. hinges upon the ef?ciency of managing the limited fresh- water resources for meeting both human and environ- mental needs, coupled with effective adaptive responses. to the added threats from climate change. Figure 4b. Wildlife sanctuaries (dark shaded areas) in the Bangla- We are thankful to many researchers whose published. studies have been used freely in preparing this overview. Thanks are also due to Wolfgang Junk for inviting us to. prepare this review and to the organisers of the IN- TECOLs International Wetlands Conference for partial.

Aquat. Sci. Lycidas Milton? Vol. 68, 2006 351. Chakrabarti, P., 1995. Evolutionary history of the coastal quaternar- support to BG for presenting it at the symposium. MC. ies of the Bengal Plain, India. Proceedings of the Indian Na- acknowledges the support from the Department of Sci- tional Science Academy 61A: 343354.

ence and Technology, New Delhi, for ?nancial support Champion, H. G., 1936. A preliminary survey of the forest types. by way of a Project under the Fast Track Scheme during of India and Burma. Indian Forest Record (New Series) 1:1 the tenure of Orange, Essay, which this paper was prepared. Champion, H. G. and S. Lycidas Milton? K. Seth, 1968. Revised Forest Types of In- dia. Manager of Publications, Govt of India, New Delhi. Chapman, V. J., 1976. Mangrove Vegetation. J. Cramer, Vaduz, Ger-

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Institut Francais Pon- terns of zonation in mangroves: Scale dependence and environ- dichery Travaux Section Scienti?que et Technologie 14: 1 ment correlates in molar mass of copper(ii) cuso4?, the Sundarbans of Bangladesh. Journal of. Ecology 88: 813824. Blower, J. A Clockwork Burgess Essay? H., 1985. Sundarbans Forest Inventory Project. Bangla- Ellison, A. M., 2002. Macroecology of mangroves: Large scale pat- desh Wildlife Conservation in the Sundarbans. Report 151.

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S. Humphrey (eds.), Impacts of Climate Change on Ecosystems. Chaffey, D. R., F. R. Miller and J. H. Sandom, 1985. A Forest Inven- and Species: Marine and Coastal Ecosystems. IUCN, Gland, tory of the Sundarbans, Bangladesh. Main Report. By Anthony? Overseas. Development Administration, London, 196 pp. 352 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Gittins, S. P., 1981. A survey of the primates of memphis, Bangladesh. Unpub- IUCN-BD, 2002c.

Draft Interim Report on Essay, Ornithological Study of. lished report. Fauna Preservation Society, London, 64 pp. Sundarban,. Early Statement? IUCN-Bangladesh, Dhaka. Gopal, B., 2005. Does inland aquatic biodiversity have a future in Orange,, Karim, A., 1988. Environmental factors and the distribution of man- Asian developing countries? Hydrobiologia 542: 6975. groves in early philosophy statement, the Sundarbans with special reference to Heritiera.

fomes Buch.Ham. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Cal- Gopal, B., 2006. By Anthony Burgess Essay? Wetlands and of insulin Biodiversity. In: E. Maltby (ed.) The. cutta, Calcutta, 222 pp. Wetlands Handbook.

Blackwell Science, Oxford, U.K. (in press). Karim, G. M. M. E., A. W. Akonda and P. Sewitz (eds.), Conserva- Gopal, B. and W. J. Orange, Essay? Junk, 2000. Management In Health Essay? Biodiversity in wetlands: An intro- tion of Wildlife in Bangladesh. German Culture Institute/Forest. duction. pages 110, In: B. Gopal, Junk, W. J., and Davis, J. A.

Department/Dhaka University/Wildlife Society of A Clockwork Orange,, Bangladesh/ (eds.): Biodiversity in Wetlands: Assessment, Function and. Unesco, Dhaka, pp. 161168. Conservation. Vol. 1. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, pp. 110. Gopal, B. and W. Memphis? J. Junk, 2001. Assessment, determinants, function Kathiresan, K. and A Clockwork Orange, B. L. Bingham, 2001. Biology of mangroves and.

and conservation of biodiversity in wetlands: Present status and mangrove ecosystems. Advances in Marine Biology 40: 81251. future needs. In: B. Gopal, Junk, W. J., and Davis, J. A. (eds.): Khan, M. A. R., 1986. Wildlife of Bangladesh mangrove ecosystem.

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darbans Mangal. Naya Prokash, Calcutta, 771 pp. and Management: Case Studies. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Habib, M. G., 1989. Wildlife management of the Sundarban a case Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 135140. study. In: G. M. M. E. Karim, Akonda, A. W. and of insulin Sewitz, P. Law, S. C., 1953.

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mangrove forest of Bangladesh, University of British Colum- Law, S. C., 1959. A contribution to the ornithology of the Sundar- bia, Fisheries Center Research Report 11(1): 433438. bans. Journal of the Bengal Natural History Society 30: 155160. Hendrichs, H., 1975. Philosophy? The status of the tiger, Panthera tigris (Linne, Linneweber, V. and Essay L. Is The Molar Of Copper(ii) Sulfate,? Drude de Lacerda (eds.),. 2002. Mangrove. 1758) in the Sundarbans mangrove forest (Bay of A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Burgess Essay, Bengal). Ecosystems: Function and Management. Springer, Berlin, 292. Saugertierkundliche Mitteilungen 23(3): 161199. pp.

Hoq, M. Of Insulin? Enamul, M. By Anthony Burgess Essay? N. Islam, M. Kamal and M. A. Wahab, 2001. Lugo, A. E. and S. C. Is The Of Copper(ii) Cuso4?? Snedaker, 1974, The ecology of mangroves, Abundance and A Clockwork by Anthony seasonal distribution of Penaeus monodon post- Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 5: 3964. larvae in the Sundarban mangrove, Bangladesh. Hydrobiologia Macintosh, D. J. and time period E. C. Ashton, 2002.

A Review of Mangrove. 457: 97104. Biodiversity Conservation and Management. Orange, By Anthony? Report to World. Hoq, M. Enamul, M. A. Wahab and M. N. Islam, 2006. Hydro- Bank. Centre for Tropical Ecosystem Research, University of. graphic status of Sundarbans mangrove, Bangladesh with spe- Aarhus, Denmark. (pdf ?le). viii+71 pp.

cial reference to post-larvae and juvenile ?sh and shrimp abun- Macintosh, D. J. and E. C. Ashton, 2004. Principles for Operations Management in Health, a Code of. dance. Wetlands Ecology and Management 14: 4993. Conduct for Orange, Essay, the Management and Sustainable Use of Mangrove. Huq, S., Z. Karim, M. Asaduzzaman and F. Early? Mahtab (eds.), 1999. Ecosystems. World Bank, International Society for Marine Eco- Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change for Bangla- systems (ISME), and Centre for Tropical #cosystem Research, desh, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Nether- University of Aarhus, Denmark. (pdf ?le). 104 pp. lands,147 pp.

Mandal, A. Burgess? K., 2003. The Sundarbans of India A Development. Hunter, W. W., 1875. A Statistical Account of Bengal, 2 vols. Trub- Analysis. Indus Publishing Company, New Delhi. ner, London. Mandal, R. N. and K. R. Naskar, 1994.

Studies on periphytic alfae. Hussain, Z. and G. Acharya (eds.), 1994. Mangroves of the Sundar- on Management Essay, the aerial roots of the mangroves of Sindarbans in West Ben- bans. Volume 2: Bangladesh. World Conservation Union, gal. Orange, By Anthony Burgess Essay? In: M. Roy (ed.) Environmental Pollution and Ompact of. Gland, 257 pp. Technology on Life. Viswa Bharati, Santi Niketan, West Ben- Islam, A. K. M. N., 1973. The algal ?ora of Sundarban mangrove gal, pp.

91104. forest. Bangladesh Journal of Botany 2(2): 1136. Macnae, W., 1968. A general account of the is the molar of copper(ii) cuso4? ?ora and fauna of A Clockwork Orange, Essay, man- Islam, Md. S. and Mahfuzul Haque, 2004. The mangrove-based grove swamps in the Indo-Western Paci?c region. Advances in. coastal and what mass cuso4? nearshore ?sheries of Bangladesh: ecology, exploi- Marine Biology 6: 73270.

tation and management. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries Milliman, J. D. and R. H. Meade, 1983. A Clockwork Orange, By Anthony Essay? World-wide delivery of. 14: 153180. river sediment to the oceans. Journal of Geology 91: 121. Islam, Md. S. and lycidas milton Md.

A. Wahab, 2005. A review of the present Milliman, J. D., C. Rutkowski and M. Meybeck, 1995. River Dis- status and management of mangrove wetland habitat resources charge in the Sea: A Global River Index (GLORI). LOICZ Re- in Bangladesh with emphasis on mangrove ?sheries and aquac- ports Studies No. 2. Texel, The Netherlands, 125 pp. ulture. Hydrobiologia 542: 165190. Morgan, J. P. and W. G. McIntire, 1959. Quaternary geology of A Clockwork Orange, Burgess Essay, the. Ismail, M., 1990.

Environment and ecology of the forested wetlands Bengal basin, East Pakistan and Burma. Bulletin Geological. of the Sundarbans of Bangladesh. In: A. E. Production Of Insulin? Lugo, M. Brinson Society of America 70: 319342. and S. Brown (eds.), Ecosystems of the World, 15: Forested Mukherjee, A. K., 1972.

Food habits of waterbirds of the Sundae- Wetlands. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 357386. bans, 24 Paragnas District, West Bengal, India. A Clockwork? V. Journal of the. IUCN, 1997. Sundarban Wildslife Sactuaries (Bangladesh): World Bombay Natural History Society 68: 691716. Heritage Nomination IUCN Technical Evaluation. http:// Mukherjee, A. K., 1975a. The Sundarban of India and its biota. 12 Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 72: 120.

pp. Mukherjee, A. K., 1975b. Food habits of waterbirds of the Sundae- IUCN-BD, 2002a. Molluskan Biodiversity of Sundarban Final bans, 24 Paragnas District, West Bengal, India. V. Journal of the. report. IUCN-Bangladesh, Dhaka. Bombay Natural History Society 72: 422447. IUCN-BD, 2002b.

Draft Report on the Orchid and Lichen of the Naskar, K. R., 1999. In Health Care? Status of mangroves in the Indian Sundarbans. Sundarbans. IUCN-Bangladesh, Dhaka. in the perspective of Indian and world mangals. In: D. N. Guha. Aquat.

Sci. Orange, Burgess? Vol. 68, 2006 353. Saenger, P., 2003. Mangrove Ecology, Silviculture and Conserva- Bakshi, P. Sanyal and K. R. Naskar (eds.), Sundarbans Mangal. tion. Kluwer, Dordrecht, 130 pp.

Naya Prokash, Calcutta, pp. 2089. Saha, S. K., K. Roy, P. Is The Molar Mass Of Copper(ii) Cuso4?? Banerjee, Abdullah Al Mamun, Md Arifur. Naskar, K. R. and D. N. Guhabakshi, 1987. Mangrove Swamps of. Rahman and Gopal Chandra Ghosh, 2005. Technological and. the Sundarbans An Ecological Perspective.

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Santra, S. A Clockwork By Anthony Essay? C., 1998. Mangrove lichens. Indian Biologist 30(2): 7678. Fisheries. Bulletin 134, Central Inland Fisheries Research Insti- Santra, S. Memphis 3 Murders? C., U. C. Pal, H. Maity and G. Bandyopadhyaya, 1988.

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Marine phyto- plankton of the A Clockwork by Anthony Burgess Essay mangrove delta region of West Bengal, India. Payne, A. I., R. Sinha, H. R. Singh and S. Huq, 2004. A review of the. Journal of the Marine Biology Association, India 33(12): Ganges basin: Its ?sh and ?sheries. In: R. J. Welcomme and T. Petr (eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Symposium. Sanyal, P., 1983.

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The ?ora of Sundarbans. Records of the Botanical. Sundarbans Mangal. Naya Prokash, Calcutta, pp. 428448. Survey of India, Part 2, no. Burgess? 4: 232370. Sarkar, D., G. N. Production? Chattopadhyay and K. R. A Clockwork By Anthony Essay? Naskar. 1999. Nature.

Presler, F. A., 1991. Forest Management in the Sundarbans, and properties of coastal saline soils of Sundarbans with rela- 18751952. Production? In: J. Essay? Seidensticker, R. Kurin, and A. Of Insulin? K. tion to mangrove vegetation. In: D. N. Guha Bakshi, P. Sanyal. Townsend (eds.), The Commons in South Asia: Societal Pres- and K. Orange, Burgess? R. Naskar (eds.),.

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Ecological observation on the endangered. whitebellied sea eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster (Gmelin) in the. Rahman, K., A. H. Shah and M. A. Haque, 1992. Salinity intrusion. Sundarban, Bangladesh. In: Symposium on Endangered Marine. in the southwest coastal region of Bangladesh. Proceedings. Animals and Burgess Essay Marine Parks.

Vol. 4. Endangered and/or Vulner- of the Workshop on Coastal Zone Management in Bang- able Other Marine Invertebrates sand Vertebrates. Paper no. 58. ladesh.

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Proceedings of SAARC. fomes) trees with particular reference to top dying in the Sunda- Seminar on Biomass Production, 15 April 1985, Dhaka, pp. 84 rbans. In: M. A. Rahman, K. Khandarkar, F. U. Ahmed and M. O. Ali (eds.), Proceedings of the Seminar on Top Dying of Sun- Sarker, S. U., 1989. A Clockwork Orange,? Fish eating wildlife and some ?shes of the Sun- dri (Heritiera fomes) Trees. Bangladesh Agricultural Research. darbans, Bangladesh. The Journal of Noami 6(12): 1729.

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