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In the sociology research paper product section, provide detailed information on each separate product or service you will sell, including batched items such as a spa day or basket of hair care products. Price is what you will charge for each item or service, with an explanation of Term, how you arrived at those costs. Place is sociology research your physical location as well as any online presence you have. The Story Of An Hour! Promotion is research paper how you will lure customers to spend money with you. Customer retention, or how you will convince purchasers to Term Effects of Parkinson’s Essay return, is research also an ad hominem, important part of marketing. While the previous sections of sociology paper, your business plan focused on your vision, the passage conditions operations plan delineates how you will reach your goals. The everyday short-term processes include every step involved in serving a customer, from sociology research scheduling appointments through washing, blow drying, cutting, and the necklace full text styling hair, and sociology research settling the examples bill at the end. Paper! The long-term processes are business related, such as hitting sales goals, introducing a new product line, or opening additional salons. The Necklace Full! While much of research paper, your business plan talks about the specifics of define genetics, running a beauty salon, the sociology paper management team section highlights the the necklace skills needed to build and maintain a strong company.

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31 Physician Assistant Personal Statement Examples Below, are 31 PA school application essays and personal. Get 60 days of PANCE and PANRE Board Certified Review Questions and sociology paper Answers delivered directly to your inbox. A new question is delivered daily with full explanations and on The Lifestyle answers. Sign up below and get started today. Really helpful! Makes me feel confident. I cant begin to explain how thrilled I am to have stumbled on this service. Research Paper? Like many other PA applicants, I was unsure of full, whether I was on the right track with my personal narrative.

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Im not sure if you remember me but you helped me a couple of months ago on my PA personal statement. Just wanted to let you know I got accepted into University of Pacifics PA program! Im overjoyed! Thank you so much for all your help and encouragement! I really appreciate it. This was the most amazing experience! I felt so confident about my topic and essay after our meeting. Duke got back to sociology research, me quickly and worked around my crazy schedule. The editing of the essay was professional and gave me insight I could not have received any other way. I only applied to one school because it is really the one I would like to go to Hour Essay, the most and sociology paper I got an interview.

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I wanted to let you know I have been accepted to PA school. I will be attending the Franklin Pierce Physician Assistant Program, Class of 2019 in West Lebanon, NH. I cannot thank you enough for being part of my journey. If you are reading this you might have been like me skeptical and Effects trying to find a way to write a stellar essay for your PA application. I want to share with you my exceptional experience using this service.

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For the research paper, 2014-2015 cycle, I applied to one school. I was selected for an interview and yesterday I received an offer of Essay on Kubla of Rare, admission which I quickly accepted. I know my Personal Statement played a huge role in my success. I highly recommend this service. Duke helped me with my essay and he was great! He really helped me fine tune my essay so its ready for submission and answered all of the question I had about small details in my essay. He was also great about sociology research responding to emails in a timely manner. I definitely recommend this personal statement review service to anyone whos applying to Essay on Kubla A Miracle of Rare Device, PA schooleven if its just as a final read-through before submitting it on sociology their application. I was so glad that I chose to have Duke look over my essay, he turned it from long, rambling, and scattered to conditions, a much more concise, well written essay. I really feel as though it represents me well!

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Exit Strategy: In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. 41 Min read time. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. President and research paper, Mrs.

Kennedy arrive at of an Hour Essay Love Field, Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963. Research Paper. Photograph by Cecil Stoughton, White House, in the John F. Essay Hip Hop. Kennedy Presidential Library and paper, Museum, Boston. Forty years have passed since November 22, 1963, yet painful mysteries remain. What, at the moment of dissertation his death, was John F. Kennedy’s policy toward Vietnam? It’s one of the big questions, alternately evaded and disputed over four decades of historical writing. Sociology Research Paper. It bears on Kennedy’s reputation, of Essay course, though not in an unambiguous way.

And today, larger issues are at stake as the sociology, United States faces another indefinite military commitment that might have been avoided and that, perhaps, also cannot be won. The story of the middle passage Vietnam in sociology 1963 illustrates for us the struggle with policy failure. More deeply, appreciating those distant events tests our capacity as a country to look the poster examples, reality of our own history in research paper the eye. One may usefully introduce the issue by recalling the furor over the necklace Robert McNamara’s 1995 memoir In Retrospect. Reaction then focused mainly on McNamara’s assumption of personal responsibility for the war, notably his declaration that his own actions as the sociology research, Secretary of Defense responsible for it were “terribly, terribly wrong.” Reviewers paid little attention to the book’s contribution to history. In an editorial on April 12, 1995, the New York Times delivered a harsh judgment: “Perhaps the only value of “In Retrospect” is to remind us never to forget that these were men who in the full hubristic glow of Essay on Kubla Khan: A Miracle of Rare Device their power would not listen to logical warning or ethical appeal.” And in the New York Times Book Review four days later, Max Frankel wrote that.

David Halberstam, who applied that ironic phrase [The Best and the Brightest] to sociology his rendering of the tale 23 years ago, told it better in many ways than Mr. McNamara does now. The Story Of An Essay. So too, did the Pentagon Papers, that huge trove of documents assembled at paper Mr. McNamara’s behest when he first recognized a debt to on The history. In view of sociology these criticisms, readers who actually pick up McNamara’s book may experience a shock when they scan the table of contents and Khan: A Miracle, sees this summary of Chapter 3, titled “The Fateful Fall of 1963: August 24November 22, 1963”: A pivotal period of paper U.S. involvement in Vietnam, punctuated by three important events: the overthrow and assassination of South Vietnam’s president Ngo Dinh Diem; President Kennedy’s decision on October 2 to of an Essay begin the sociology research paper, withdrawal of the middle passage conditions U.S. forces ; and his assassination fifty days later. (Emphasis added.) Kennedy’s decision on October 2, 1963, to sociology begin the withdrawal of U.S. Essay Of Rare Device. forces from South Vietnam? Contrary to sociology paper Frankel, this is not something you will find in passage conditions Halberstam. You will not find it in Leslie Gelb’s editorial summary in the Gravel edition of The Pentagon Papers, even though several documents that are important to establishing the case for sociology research a Kennedy decision to withdraw were published in that edition. Nor, with just three exceptions prior to last spring’s publication of Howard Jones’s Death of a Generationa milestone in the middle passage the search for difficult, ferociously hidden truthwill you find it elsewhere in paper 30 years of historical writing on examples, Vietnam. Did John F. Kennedy give the research, order to withdraw from Vietnam?

Certainly, most Vietnam historians have said “no”or would have if they considered the question worth posing. They have asserted continuity between Kennedy’s policy and Lyndon Johnson’s, while usually claiming that neither president liked the war and also that Kennedy especially had expressed to friends his desire to get out text, sometime after the 1964 election. The view that Kennedy would have done what Johnson didstay in Vietnam and gradually escalate the war in 1964 and 1965is held by research left, center, and right, from full Noam Chomsky to Kai Bird to William Gibbons. It was promoted forcefully over the years by the late Walt Rostow, beginning in sociology research paper 1967 with a thick compilation for Johnson himself of Kennedy’s public statements on Vietnam policy and continuing into the 1990s. Essay Lifestyle. Gibbons’s three-volume study states it this way: “On November 26 [1963], Johnson approved NSAM [National Security Action Memorandum] 273, reaffirming the U.S. commitment to research paper Vietnam and the continuation of of an Vietnam programs and paper, policies of the Kennedy administration.” Equally, Stanley Karnow writes in his Vietnam: A History (1983) that Johnson’s pledge “essentially signaled a continuation of A Miracle Device Kennedy’s policy.” Patrick Lloyd Hatcher, while writing extensively on sociology research paper, the Saigon coup, makes no mention at The Story of an Essay all of the Washington discussions following Johnson’s accession three weeks later. Sociology Research. Gary Hess offers summary judgment on the policy that Johnson inherited: “To Kennedy and the necklace full text, his fellow New Frontiersmen, it was a doctrine of faith that the problems of Vietnam lent themselves to an American solution.” Kai Bird’s 1998 biography of McGeorge and William Bundy briefly reviews the paper, discussions of withdrawal reported to have occurred in late 1963 but accepts the general verdict that Kennedy did not intend to quit. So does Fredrik Logevall, whose substantial 1999 book steadfastly insists that the choices Kennedy faced were either escalation or negotiation and did not include withdrawal without negotiation.

All this (and more) is in spite of evidence to The Story Hour Essay the contrary, advanced over the years by a tiny handful of authors. In 1972 Peter Dale Scott first made the case that Johnson’s NSAM 273the document that Gibbons relied on in making the case for continuitywas in fact a departure from Kennedy’s policy; his essay appeared in Gravel’s edition of The Pentagon Papers. Arthur M. Schlesinger’s Robert Kennedy and His Times tells in a few tantalizing pages of the research, “first application” in October 1963 “of Kennedy’s phased withdrawal plan.” A more thorough treatment appeared in of Rare Device 1992, with the publication of John M. Newman’s JFK and Vietnam.1 Until his retirement in 1994 Newman was a major in the U.S. Army, an sociology, intelligence officer last stationed at Fort Meade, headquarters of the National Security Agency. As an historian, his specialty is deciphering declassified recordsa talent he later applied to the CIA’s long-hidden archives on Lee Harvey Oswald. Newman’s argument was not a case of “counterfactual historical reasoning,” as Larry Berman described it in Hip Hop Lifestyle an early response.2 It was not about what might have happened had Kennedy lived.

Newman’s argument was stronger: Kennedy, he claims, had decided to begin a phased withdrawal from Vietnam, that he had ordered this withdrawal to begin. Here is the chronology, according to Newman: (1) On October 2, 1963, Kennedy received the report of a mission to Saigon by sociology McNamara and Maxwell Taylor, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Essay Staff (JCS). The main recommendations, which appear in Section I(B) of the McNamara-Taylor report, were that a phased withdrawal be completed by the end of 1965 and that the sociology research, “Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to withdraw 1,000 out of 17,000 U.S. The Necklace Full Text. military personnel stationed in Vietnam by the end of 1963.” At Kennedy’s instruction, Press Secretary Pierre Salinger made a public announcement that evening of McNamara’s recommended timetable for research withdrawal. (2) On October 5, Kennedy made his formal decision. Disease Essay. Newman quotes the minutes of the meeting that day: The President also said that our decision to remove 1,000 U.S. Research. advisors by December of this year should not be raised formally with Diem. Instead the action should be carried out Long Disease, routinely as part of our general posture of withdrawing people when they are no longer needed. (Emphasis added.) The passage illustrates two points: (a) that a decision was in fact made on paper, that day, and (b) that despite the earlier announcement of McNamara’s recommendation, the on Kubla A Miracle of Rare, October 5 decision was not a ruse or pressure tactic to win reforms from Diem (as Richard Reeves, among others, has contended3) but a decision to begin withdrawal irrespective of Diem or his reactions.

(3) On October 11, the White House issued NSAM 263, which states: The President approved the military recommendations contained in section I B (1-3) of the report, but directed that no formal announcement be made of the implementation of plans to sociology research paper withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by The Story of an the end of 1963. In other words, the withdrawal recommended by McNamara on October 2 was embraced in secret by Kennedy on October 5 and implemented by sociology research his order on October 11, also in secret. Newman argues that the secrecy after October 2 can be explained by a diplomatic reason. Kennedy did not want Diem or anyone else to interpret the withdrawal as part of any pressure tactic (other steps that were pressure tactics had also been approved).

There was also a political reason: JFK had not decided whether he could get away with claiming that the withdrawal was a result of progress toward the goal of a self-sufficient South Vietnam. The alternative would have been to withdraw the poster examples, troops while acknowledging failure. And this, Newman argues, Kennedy was prepared to sociology research paper do if it became necessary. He saw no reason, however, to take this step before it became necessary. If the troops could be pulled while the South Vietnamese were still standing, so much the better.4 But from October 11 onward the the middle passage conditions, CIA’s reporting changed drastically. Official optimism was replaced by a searching and comparatively realistic pessimism. Newman believes this pessimism, which involved rewriting assessments as far back as the previous July, was a response to NSAM 263. It represented an effort by the CIA to undermine the ostensible rationale of withdrawal with success, and therefore to obstruct implementation of the sociology research, plan for withdrawal. Kennedy, needless to say, did not share his full reasoning with the CIA. (4) On November 1 there came the coup in Saigon and the assassination of Diem and Nhu.

At a press conference on November 12, Kennedy publicly restated his Vietnam goals. They were “to intensify the struggle” and “to bring Americans out of text there.” Victory, which had figured prominently in a similar statement on September 12, was no longer on the list. (5) The Honolulu Conference of senior cabinet and military officials on November 2021 was called to review plans in the wake of the Saigon coup. The military and the CIA, however, planned to use that meeting to pull the rug from under the false optimism which some had used to rationalize NSAM 263. However, Kennedy did not himself believe that we were withdrawing with victory.

It follows that the changing image of the military situation would not have changed JFK’s decision. (6) In Honolulu, McGeorge Bundy prepared a draft of what would eventually be NSAM 273. The plan was to present it to sociology Kennedy after the meeting ended. Dated November 21, this draft reflected the change in passage conditions military reporting. It speaks, for example, of sociology research paper a need to “turn the tide not only of battle but of belief.” Plans to intensify the struggle, however, do not go beyond what Kennedy would have approved: A paragraph calling for actions against the North underscores the role of Vietnamese forces: 7. With respect to action against North Vietnam, there should be a detailed plan for the development of conditions additional Government of Vietnam resources , especially for sea-going activity, and such planning should indicate the sociology research, time and investment necessary to achieve a wholly new level of effectiveness in this field of action. Essay A Miracle. (Emphasis added.) (7) At Honolulu, a preliminary plan, known as CINCPAC OPLAN 34-63 and later implemented as OPLAN 34A, was prepared for presentation. Sociology Paper. This plan called for intensified sabotage raids against the North, employing Vietnamese commandos under U.S. controla significant escalation.5 While JCS chief Taylor had approved preparation of this plan, it had not been shown to McNamara. Tab E of the meeting’s briefing book, also approved by Taylor and also not sent in advance to McNamara, showed that the on Kubla A Miracle of Rare, withdrawal ordered by Kennedy in paper October was already being gutted, by poster examples the device of substituting for the withdrawal of full units that of individual soldiers who were being rotated out of Vietnam in any event. (8) The final version of NSAM 273, signed by Johnson on research paper, November 26, differs from the draft in several respects. Most are minor changes of wording.

The main change is that the draft paragraph 7 has been struck in its entirety (there are two pencil slashes on the November 21 draft), and replaced with the text, following: Planning should include different levels of possible increased activity, and in each instance there be estimates such factors as: A. Resulting damage to North Vietnam; B. The plausibility denial; C. Vietnamese retaliation; D. Other international reaction. Research Paper. Plans submitted promptly for approval by authority. The new language is incomplete. It does not begin by declaring outright that the subject is attacks on the North. But the thrust is unmistakable, and the restrictive reference to Hour “Government of Vietnam resources” is now missing. Newman concludes that this change effectively provided new authority for U.S.directed combat actions against North Vietnam. Planning for these actions began therewith, and we now know that an OPLAN 34A raid in August 1964 provoked the North Vietnamese retaliation against the destroyer Maddox, which became the first Gulf of Tonkin incident. And this in turn led to the confused incident a few nights later aboard the Turner Joy, to research paper reports that it too had been attacked, and to Johnson’s overnight decision to seek congressional support for “retaliation” against North Vietnam.

From this, of course, the larger war then flowed. A reply to Newman’s book appeared very quickly. It came from Noam Chomsky, hardly an apologist for Lyndon Johnson or the war. Chomsky despises the Kennedy apologists: equally the old insiders and the antiwar nostalgicsArthur Schlesinger and the necklace, Oliver Stoneand the research paper, historical memory of “the fallen leader who had escalated the dissertation examples, attack against Vietnam from terror to research aggression.” He reviles efforts to portray Kennedy’s foreign policy views as different from Johnson’s. Of Rare Device. On this point he may well be fundamentally correct, though for reasons quite different from those that he offers. Chomsky’s Rethinking Camelot challenges Newman’s main points. First, did Kennedy plan to withdraw without victory? Or, were the plans of NSAM 263 contingent on research, a continued perception of success in battle?

Second, did the change in of an Essay NSAM 273 between the draft (which was prepared for Kennedy but never seen by him) and the final version (signed by Johnson) represent a change in policy? Chomsky is research categorical on both issues: “Two weeks before Kennedy’s assassination, there is not a phrase in the voluminous internal record that even hints at Essay on The Hip Hop Lifestyle withdrawal without victory.” Elsewhere he notes that “[t]he withdrawal-without-victory thesis rests on the assumption that Kennedy realized that the optimistic military reports were incorrect. . Paper. . . Not a trace of supporting evidence appears in Essay on The Hip Hop the internal record, or is suggested [by Newman].” And, as for the changes to NSAM 273: “There is no relevant difference between the sociology, two documents [draft and final], except that the LBJ version is weaker and more evasive.” Chomsky denies Newman’s claim that the new version of A Miracle paragraph 7 in the final draft of NSAM 273 signed by Johnson on November 26 opened the way for OPLAN 34A and the use of U.S.directed forces in covert operations against North Vietnam. Rather, he reads the Johnson version as applying only to Government of Vietnam forces, even though the language restricting action to those forces is sociology research paper no longer there. Peter Dale Scott, the former diplomat, professor of English at Hip Hop Lifestyle the University of California, Berkeley, and author of part of the sociology paper, Pentagon Papers, replied to Chomsky on both points almost immediately.

On the first point, withdrawal without victory, Scott writes: Following [Leslie] Gelb, Chomsky alleges that Kennedy’s withdrawal planning was in response to dissertation examples an “optimistic mid-1962 assessment.” . . . But in fact the planning was first ordered by McNamara in May 1962. This was one month after ambassador Kenneth Galbraith, disenchanted after a presidentially ordered visit to Vietnam, had proposed a “political solution” based in part on a proposal to the Soviets entertaining “phased American withdrawal.” Scott goes on to point out research, that it cannot be proven that Galbraith’s recommendation was responsible for Essay on The Hip Hop McNamara’s order. But there is good reason to believe they were linked, that both reflected Kennedy’s long-term strategy on sociology, Vietnam.6 As for the proposition that no evidence hinting at Essay on Kubla Khan: A Miracle Device withdrawal without victory exists, Scott argues that Chomsky’s “internal planning record”for the most part the Pentagon Papers“is in fact an edited version of the primary documents.” Moreover, “the documentary record is paper conspicuously defective” for November 1963. “[I]n all three editions of the Pentagon Papers there are no complete documents between the five [coup] cables of October 30 and McNamara’s memorandum of December 21; the 600 pages of documents from the Kennedy Administration end on October 30.”

On the second point, concerning NSAM 273, Scott writes that Chomsky reads “Johnson’s NSAM as if it were as contextless as a Dead Sea Scroll,” dismissing its importance and ignoring “early accounts of it as a ‘major decision,’ a ‘pledge’ that determined ‘all that would follow,’ from journalists as diverse as Tom Wicker, Marvin Kalb, and I. F. Stone.” Scott writes that Chomsky also ignores Taylor’s memo to President Johnson of January 22, 1964, which cites NSAM 273 as authority to “prepare to escalate operations against North Vietnam.” In the course of dissertation poster examples this controversy, the ground had narrowed sharply. After Newman’s book, no one seriously disputed that Kennedy was contemplating withdrawal from sociology research paper Vietnam. Instead, the disagreements focused on four questions: Did the withdrawal plans depend on the perception of victory? Did Kennedy act on his plans? Were actions he may have taken noisy but cosmetic, a pressure tactic aimed at the necklace Diem or a ploy for the American public, or were they for real? And were the OPLAN 34A operations that got under way following Kennedy’s death a sharp departure from previous U.S. policy or merely a “Government of Vietnam” activity consonant with intensifying the war in the South? The publication of paper McNamara’s In Retrospect sharpened the terms of debate. Some key source materials, including the texts of the McNamara-Taylor report and those of NSAM 263 and 273, have been in the public domain for years.

McNamara’s 1995 account of his September 1963 mission to Vietnam makes substantial use of the McNamara-Taylor report and the quotations presented are a study in of an ambiguity. He quotes General Maxwell Taylor’s apparent conviction that the war could be won by research paper the end of 1965, but then he acknowledges that there were “conflicting reports about military progress and political stability” and describes the impressive doubts of those he spoke with that the South Vietnamese government was capable of the effective actions that military victory required: The military campaign has made great progress and the necklace full text, continues to progress. . . Sociology Research Paper. . There are serious political tensions in Saigon. . . . Further repressive actions by examples Diem and Nhu could change the present favorable military trends. . . . It is not clear that pressures exerted by the U.S. Research Paper. will move Diem and on The Hip Hop Lifestyle, Nhu toward moderation. . . . The prospects that a replacement regime would be an improvement appear to be about 50-50. The drift seems clear enough: the Diem government is failing and there is no reason to think a replacement would be better. But the references to research “great progress” leave room for doubt. Withdrawal with victory or without it? McNamara then reproduces the Essay on Kubla of Rare Device, precise wording of the military recommendations from Section I(B) of the report:

We recommend that: [1] General Harkins review with Diem the military changes necessary to complete the military campaign in the Northern and sociology, Central areas by the end of 1964, and in Term of Parkinson’s Disease Essay the Delta by the end of paper 1965. [2] A program be established to Long Effects train Vietnamese so that essential functions now performed by U.S. military personnel can be carried out by research Vietnamese by the end of Essay 1965. Paper. It should be possible to withdraw the dissertation examples, bulk of U.S. personnel by that time. [3] In accordance with the program to train progressively Vietnamese to research take over military functions, the Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to withdraw 1000 U.S. The Middle. military personnel by the end of 1963. The report then went on to make a number of recommendations to “impress upon Diem our disapproval of his political program.” These matters dealt with the repression of the Buddhists and research, related issues; the recommendation to announce plans to withdraw 1,000 soldiers is not listed under this heading. The reason for the ambiguity over Long Term of Parkinson’s Essay the military situation, as well as the vague “it should be possible” wording of the second recommendation, becomes clearer when McNamara describes the National Security Council meeting of sociology research paper October 2, 1963, which revealed a “total lack of consensus” over Essay Hip Hop Lifestyle the battlefield situation: One faction believed military progress had been good and sociology research paper, training had progressed to the point where we could begin to withdraw. A second faction did not see the war as progressing well and did not see the South Vietnamese showing evidence of successful training. On The. But they, too, agreed that we should begin to withdraw. . Research Paper. . Dissertation Poster Examples. . The third faction, representing the majority, considered the South Vietnamese trainable but believed our training had not been in place long enough to achieve results and, therefore, should continue at current levels. As McNamara’s 1986 oral history, on deposit at the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library, makes clear (but his book does not), he was himself in the second group, who favored withdrawal without victorynot necessarily admitting or even predicting defeat, but accepting uncertainty as to sociology paper what would follow. The denouement came shortly thereafter: After much debate, the president endorsed our recommendation to withdraw 1,000 men by poster examples December 31, 1963.

He did so, I recall, without indicating his reasoning. In any event, because objections had been so intense and because I suspected others might try to get him to reverse the decision, I urged him to announce it publicly. Paper. That would set it in of an Hour concrete. Paper. . . . The president finally agreed, and The Story of an, the announcement was released by Pierre Salinger after the paper, meeting. Before a large audience at the LBJ Library on May 1, 1995, McNamara restated his account of on Kubla of Rare Device this meeting and stressed its importance. He confirmed that President Kennedy’s action had three elements: (1) complete withdrawal “by December 31, 1965,” (2) the first 1,000 out by the end of 1963, and (3) a public announcement, to set these decisions “in concrete,” which was made. McNamara also added the critical information that there exists a tape of this meeting, in the John F. Kennedy Library in Boston, to which he had access and on which his account is based. The existence of a taping system in JFK’s oval office had become known over sociology paper the years, particularly through the release of Essay partial transcripts of the historic meeting of the “ExComm” during the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962. But the full extent of sociology paper Kennedy’s taping was not known. And, according to McNamara, access to particular tapes was tightly controlled by representatives of the Kennedy family. When McNamara spoke in Austin, only he and the middle passage, his coauthor, Brian VanDeMark, had been granted the privilege of listening to the actual tape recordings of Kennedy’s White House meetings on sociology, Vietnam.

In 1997, however, this situation changed. The Assassination Records Review Board (ARRB), an independent civilian body established under the 1992 JFK Records Act that has already been responsible for the release of millions of pages of official records deemed relevant to Kennedy’s assassination, ruled that his tapes relating to Vietnam decision-making should be released. In July the JFK Library began releasing key tapes, including those of the withdrawal meetings on October 2 and poster, 5, 1963.7. A careful review of the October 2 meeting makes clear that McNamara’s account is essentially accurate and even to some degree understated. One can hear McNamarathe voice is unmistakablearguing for sociology a firm timetable to withdraw all U.S. forces from Vietnam, whether the war can be won in 1964, which he doubts, or not. McNamara is emphatic: “We need a way to get out of poster Vietnam, and this is a way of doing it.” In Retrospect’s discussion of Kennedy’s decision to withdraw ends at paper this point. McNamara makes no mention of NSAM 263.

However, on the tape of the meeting of October 5, 1963, one can clearly hear a voiceit may be Robert McNamara or McGeorge Bundyasking President John F. Kennedy for “formal approval” of passage conditions “items one, two, and three” on a paper evidently in front of them. It is clear that one of research paper these items is the recommendation to on Kubla Khan: Device withdraw 1,000 men by the end of 1963, the rationale being that they are no longer needed. This short exchange is thus unmistakably a request for a formal presidential decision concerning the McNamara-Taylor recommendations. After a short discussion of the possible political effect in sociology Vietnam of announcing this decision, the voice of JFK can be clearly heard: “Let’s go on ahead and do it,” followed by a few words deciphered by historian George Eliades as “without making a public statement about it.” Unfortunately, the last White House tape from the Kennedy administration is dated November 7, 1963. Essay On The Hip Hop. The archivists at the JFK Library have no information on why the tapings either ended or are unavailable for later dates. Sociology Research Paper. McNamara states that he has “no specific memory” of the Honolulu Conference that he was sent to chair on dissertation poster examples, November 20, 1963. The President of the United States does not make decisions in a vacuum.

Agencies have to be notified, plans have to be made, actions have to be taken. Research. Part of the enduring doubt over Kennedy’s decision to withdraw U.S. forces from Vietnam surely stems from the failure of conditions this decision to cast a shadow in the primary record, and particularly in the Pentagon Papers, on which so many historians have relied for so many years. Furthermore, a persistent skeptic can still point to the “it should be possible” language of the sociology paper, McNamara-Taylor Report with respect to the final date of 1965 as leaving an “out” for the case where the military situation might turn sour. In two years and two months, much can happen, as events would prove. But as Scott already pointed out to Chomsky in the necklace full text 1993, the primary record available to date has been heavily edited. Documents from research November 1, 1963, through early December are conspicuously missing. So, we now learn, are many others. In January 1998, again under the Essay on Kubla A Miracle of Rare, supervision of the ARRB, about 900 pages of new materials were declassified and released from the JCS archives. These include important records from May 1963, from October, and from the period immediately following Kennedy’s death; many had been reviewed for declassification in 1989 but were not declassified at that time. They clarify considerably the sociology research, nature of the “presently prepared plans” referred to in the Long of Parkinson’s Disease, McNamara-Taylor third recommendation, and they give the military leadership’s interpretation of the research paper, direction they were getting from JFK. Since it is well known that the the middle conditions, Pentagon did not favor withdrawal, it is fair to assume that if wiggle room existed in the President’s instructions it would surface in these documents.

Many of the new documents relate to the Eighth Secretary of Defense Conference, held in Honolulu on May 6, 1963. Here one gets a taste of McNamara’s skepticism and the replies of the brass. Research Paper. For instance, at one point the secretary extracts a concession that “50-60 percent of VC weapons were of U.S. origin.” A bit later, we read: “GEN HARKINS stated that for effective control the border should be defined, marked and cleared similar to the Greek boundary with Albania and Bulgaria. However, this cannot be done in the foreseeable future.” Turning to the development of a “comprehensive plan,” the documents immediately reflect discussions of a phase-down in the U.S. presence. For instance: “SEC MCNAMARA stated that our efforts should be directed toward turning over dissertation poster equipment now in U.S. Sociology. units supporting the Vietnamese as rapidly as possible.

He added that we must avoid creating a situation that now obtains in Korea where we are presently spending almost half a billion dollars per Long year in foreign aid.” A little later, we find a decision noted: “1. Draw up training plans for the RVNAF that will permit us to start an earlier withdrawal of sociology research paper U.S. Khan: A Miracle. personnel than proposed under the plans presented.” And: “d. Plan to withdraw 1000 U.S. military personnel from RVN by December 1963.” Further discussion of the 1,000 man withdrawal is recorded shortly: GEN HARKINS emphasized that he did not want to gather up 1,000 U.S. personnel and have them depart with bands playing, flags flying etc.

This would have a bad effect on the Vietnamese, to be pulling out sociology research paper, just when it appears they are winning. SEC MCNAMARA stated that this would have to on The Hip Hop Lifestyle be handled carefully due to the psychological impact. However, there should be an sociology research, intensive training program of examples RVNAF to allow removal of paper U.S. units rather than individuals. There follows considerable discussion of proposals to The Story Hour Essay launch raids on North Vietnam. For Geneva convention reasons, it is agreed that these must be covert. Use of Laos is not feasible; there are no land entries through the demilitarized zone. As for sea entry, available boats are susceptible to weather and too slow. Sea is the only means of exfiltration.

However, for any major operation the RVN naval craft are not qualified to tangle with DRV craft. . . . Build-up in CIA resources by end CY 1963 includes 40 teams in addition to 9 in sociology paper country. New high speed armed boats will be available for infiltration and exfiltration in September, providing a year-round, all-weather capability. Thus emerges an answer to one of the critical questions separating Newman and Scott from Chomsky. Essay On Kubla A Miracle. OPLAN 34A, when it emerged in November, would be a CIA operation. It could not be otherwise, for the Government of Vietnam did not possess the boats.8. Eventually, discussion turns to projected force structures, and a table titled “CPSVNFORECAST OF PHASE-OUT OF US FORCES” gives precise estimates, by major unit, of the sociology paper, projected American commitment through 1968. McNamara’s reaction to passage conditions this timetable is recorded clearly: In connection with this presentation, made by COMUSMACV (attached hereto), the Secretary of Defense stated that the phase-out appears too slow. He directed that training plans be developed for the GVN by CINCPAC which will permit a more rapid phase-out of U.S. forces, stating specifically that we should review our plans for research pilot training with the view to accelerating it materially. He made particular point of the desirability of speeding up training of helicopter pilots, so that we may give the Vietnamese our copters and thus be able to move our own forces out. ACTION: Joint Staff (J-3); message directive to CINCPAC, info COMUSMACV. Essay Lifestyle. (Emphasis added.)

The May conference thus fills in the primary record: plans were under development for the complete withdrawal of U.S. forces from Vietnam. On October 2, 1963, as we have previously seen, President Kennedy made clear his determination to implement those plansto withdraw 1,000 troops by the end of 1963, and to get almost all the rest out by the end of 1965. There followed, on October 4, a memorandum titled “South Vietnam Actions” from General Maxwell Taylor to his fellow Joint Chiefs of Staff, Generals May, Wheeler, Shoup, and Admiral McDonald, that reads: b. Paper. The program currently in of an Hour Essay progress to train Vietnamese forces will be reviewed and research, accelerated as necessary to insure that all essential functions visualized to be required for the projected operational environment, to include those now performed by U.S. military units and personnel, can be assumed properly by the Vietnamese by the end of calendar year 1965. All planning will be directed towards preparing RVN forces for the withdrawal of all U.S. special assistance units and personnel by the end of calendar year 1965. (Emphasis added.) “All planning” is an unconditional phrase. There is no contingency here, or elsewhere in this memorandum.

The next paragraph reads: c. Execute the plan to withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963 per your DTG 212201Z July, and as approved for planning by the necklace JCS DTG 062042Z September. Research Paper. Previous guidance on the public affairs annex is altered to the extent that the dissertation examples, action will now be treated in low key, as the initial increment of U.S. forces whose presence is no longer required because (a) Vietnamese forces have been trained to assume the function involved; or (b) the function for which they came to Vietnam has been completed. (Emphasis added.) This resolves the question of how the initial withdrawal was to be carried out. It was not to be a noisy or cosmetic affair, designed to paper please either U.S. opinion or to change policies in Essay on The Hip Hop Saigon. It was rather to be a low-key, matter-of-fact beginning to a process that would play out over the following two years. The final paragraph of Taylor’s memorandum underlines this point by directing that “specific checkpoints will be established now against which progress can be evaluated on a quarterly basis.” There is much more in the JCS documents to show that Kennedy was well aware of the evidence that South Vietnam was, in fact, losing the sociology paper, war. But it hardly matters. The withdrawal decided on was unconditional, and did not depend on military progress or lack of it. Four days after Kennedy was killed, NSAM 273 incorporated the new president’s directives into poster, policy. It made clear that the objectives of Johnson’s policy remained the same as Kennedy’s: “to assist the sociology paper, people and government of South Vietnam to win their contest against Essay on Kubla the externally directed and supported Communist conspiracy” through training support and without the application of overt U.S. Sociology Research. military force.

But Johnson had also approved intensified planning for covert action against The Story of an North Vietnam by CIA-supported South Vietnamese forces. With this, McNamara confirms one of Newman’s central claims: NSAM 273 changed policy. Paper. Yes, the “central objectives” remained the same: a Vietnamese war with no “overt U.S. military force.” But covert force is still “U.S. military force.” And that was introduced or at the necklace least first approved, as McNamara writes, by NSAM 273 within four days of sociology paper Kennedy’s assassination.Moreover, McNamara effectively supports Newman on Khan: of Rare, the meaning of NSAM 273’s seventh paragraph, which was inserted in the draft (as we have seen) sometime between November 21 and 26after the Honolulu meeting had adjourned and probably after Kennedy died. A final military document is research relevant here. Dated December 11, 1963, it is titled “Department of Defense Actions to Implement NSAM No. 273, 26 November 1963.” This document was prepared by Marine Lieutenant Colonel M. C. Dalby; it is from Essay on Kubla A Miracle of Rare CINCPAC files and is labeled “Group 1Excluded from Automatic Downgrading and Declassification.” The document begins coldly: “After reviewing the recent discussions of South Vietnam which occurred in sociology research Honolulu and full, after discussing the matter further with Ambassador Lodge, the President directed that certain guidance be issued to various Government Agencies. Sociology Research Paper. This was promulgated in the form of National Security Action Memorandum 273, 26 November 1963.” There is dissertation examples no reference to the change of commander in sociology research paper chief, which had occurred within the time frame indicated by the opening sentence. The particular importance of this document is its reference to paragraph 7 of NSAM 273. Planning for intensified action against North Vietnam was directed following the Honolulu Conference (JCS 3697, 26 Nov 1963) in the form of a 12-month program. Long Of Parkinson’s Disease. . . . A deadline of 20 Dec 63 has been set for completion of the plan. There are then notes that these requirements were communicated to CINCPAC and COMUSMACV on December 2, with a reply from paper COMUSMACV on December 3. CIA station guidance, however, happened even more rapidly than that:

CIA guidance to Saigon Station for intensified planning was dispatched following the Honolulu Conference (CAS 84972, 25 Nov 63). (Emphasis added.) In other words, the CIA began developing intensified plans to implement OPLAN 34A, the program of seaborne raids and sabotage against North Vietnam that would lead to of Rare the Gulf of Tonkin incident and research, eventually to the wider war, one day before President Johnson signed the on Kubla A Miracle Device, directive authorizing that action. How this happened, and sociology research, its precise significance, remains to be determined.9. John F. Passage Conditions. Kennedy had formally decided to paper withdraw from Vietnam, whether we were winning or not. Robert McNamara, who did not believe we were winning, supported this decision.10 The first stage of withdrawal had been ordered. The final date, two years later, had been specified. These decisions were taken, and even placed, in an oblique and carefully limited way, before the public. Howard Jones makes two large contributions to this tale. Hip Hop Lifestyle. One of sociology paper them is simply range, depth, and completeness.

His recent book Death of a Generation is a full history of how the assassinations of Diem and then of on Kubla of Rare Device JFK prolonged a war that otherwise might have ended quietly within a few years. Where this essay has presented the story-within-a-story of just a few Washington weeks, Jones goes back to the start of the 1960s, chronicling the struggle for power and policy that marked the whole of Kennedy’s thousand days. And he presents a reasonably complete account of the archival record surrounding the withdrawal decisions of October 1963. Equally important, Jones’s reach extends to Saigon. In a long and fascinating section he outlines the intrigues that led to the murders of Diem and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu on November 1, 1963. Here, Kennedy’s White House appears at its worst. It was fractious, disorganized, preoccupied with American politics, ignorant of the sociology paper, forces it faced in Vietnam.

Diem’s mistreatment of the Buddhists, which provoked the monk Quang Duc to burn himself on a Saigon street in June 1963, traumatized the White House. Lifestyle. And following that incident, Madame Nhu and her remarks about “barbecued bonzes” were an irritant out of proportion to their importance. Thus, in part, the decision to sociology research paper dissociate from Diem. In August 1963 it was a faction of subordinates (Averell Harriman, Roger Hilsman, Michael Forrestal) who seized the opportunity to foment a Saigon coup, taking advantage of the absence of the Essay on The Hip Hop Lifestyle, most senior officials over a Washington weekend. Sociology Research. Then, having set events in motion, the White House became preoccupied with a deniability that was wholly implausible. Partly as a result it had limited contact with the conspirators and was unable to protect Diem and Nhu when the coup came.

Diem was indefensible in many ways. But the coup went forward with no alternative in view; and as the French ambassador to Saigon put it at the time: “any other government will be even more dependent on the Americans, will be obedient to them in all things, and so there will be no chance for peace.” Meanwhile, there are tantalizing undercurrents of what might have been. Was Nhu in discussions with intermediaries for Ho Chi Minh, with the possibility that there might have been a deal between North and South to boot the Americans from Vietnam? It appears that he was. And had he succeeded, it would have saved infinite trouble. U.S. policy over the necklace full Vietnam changed again in late November1963. The main change was a decision to authorize OPLAN 34-Aminor but fateful commando raids against sociology targets in the North. The decision to launch covert attacks on North Vietnam does not by itself establish that Lyndon Johnson wanted a larger war. As tapes recently released from the LBJ Library establish, Johnson also knew that Vietnam was a trap, a tragedy in the making. He feared that a catastrophe would follow.

In this respect, Johnson and Kennedy were similar. And yet, Johnson could not muster Kennedy’s determination, one might say blind determination, to avoid the disaster. He acceded to on Kubla of Rare proposals for covert action, and he promised the military, on November 24, that they could have what they wanted. And so the sequence of events that led to the Tonkin Gulf, to our retaliation, to paper the North Vietnamese decision to introduce their own main forces in the South, and to our decision to introduce main forces, played out. The days from Honolulu to NSAM 273, November 20 to 26, 1963, simply marked the first turning point.

It is not difficult to understand why Johnson felt obliged to dissertation poster examples assert his commitment to Vietnam in November 1963. Sociology Research Paper. To continue with Kennedy’s withdrawal, after his death, would have been difficult, since the American public had not been told that the war was being lost. Nor had they been told that Kennedy had actually ordered our withdrawal. To maintain our commitment, therefore, was to maintain the illusion of continuity, and Term of Parkinson’s, thisin the moment of trauma that followed the assassinationwas Johnson’s paramount political objective. Sociology. Moreover, delay in the resolution of the Vietnam problem in late 1963 did not necessarily entail the war that followed. Our commitment then was still small. Tonkin Gulf and Essay on Kubla A Miracle, its aftermath lay almost a year into the future. Notwithstanding the commando raids, a diplomatic solution might have been found later on. Left in charge, Lyndon Johnson temporized, agonized, and cursed the fates.

But ultimately he committed us to war that he knew in advance would be practically impossible to win. Nothing can erase this. And yet meanwhile, alongside McNamara, he too prevented any steps that might lead to an invasion of the North, direct conflict with China, and nuclear confrontation. Sociology Research. He bided his time, until the trauma of Tet in January of 1968 and his own departure from politics in March liberated him to do what Kennedy had done over Laos in 1961: send Harriman to end it at the negotiating table. Why did Johnson do it? He was not misinformed about the prospects for sucess. He was not crazy. His political fate in 1964 did not depend on a show of toughness. Term Disease Essay. But one possibility is that the alternatives, as he saw them, were worse.

To appreciate this possibility, one needs to grasp not one but two exceptionally thorny nettles: that of the strategic balance in the early 1960s on the one hand, and that of the sociology research paper, assassination of John F. Kennedy on the other. The Necklace. In contemplating Johnson’s dilemma we find ourselves poised between the two black holes of the modern history of the United States.11. Kennedy’s decision to withdraw from Vietnam was, as Jones writes, “unconditional, for he approved a calendar of events that did not necessitate a victory.” It was also part of a larger strategy, of a sequence that included the Laos and Berlin settlements in 1961, the non-invasion of Cuba in 1962, the Test Ban Treaty in 1963. Kennedy subordinated the timing of these events to politics: he was quite prepared to leave soldiers in harm’s way until after his own reelection. His larger goal after that was to settle the sociology research, Cold War, without either victory or defeata strategic vision laid out in JFK’s commencement speech at American University on June 10, 1963.

And that was, partly, a question of atomic survivala subject that can only be said to have obsessed America’s civilian leadership in those days, and for very good reason. The Soviet Union, which had at that time only four intercontinental rockets capable of hitting the U.S. mainland, was not the The Story Essay, danger that rational men most feared. The United States held an overwhelming nuclear advantage in paper late 1963. Accordingly, our nuclear plans were not actually about Essay Lifestyle deterrence. Rather, then as evidently again now, they envisioned preventive war fought over sociology paper a pretext.12 There were those who were dedicated to carrying out those plans at the appropriate moment. In July 1961, the full, nuclear planners had specified that the optimal moment for such an attack would come at the end of paper 1963. And yet, standing against them (as Daniel Ellsberg was told at the time), the civilian leaders of the United States were determined never, under any circumstances, to allow U.S. nuclear weapons to be used firstnot in Khan: A Miracle of Rare Laos or Vietnam, nor against China, not over paper Cuba or Berlin, nor against the Soviet Union. For political reasons, at a moment when Americans had been propagandized into thinking of the Hip Hop, atomic bomb as their best defense, this was the deepest secret of the time. Was it also a deadly secret?

Did LBJ have reason to fear, on the day he took office, that he was facing a nuclear coup d’etat?13 Similar questions have engendered scorn for 40 years. Sociology. But they are not illegitimateno more so, let me venture, than the idea that Kennedy really had decided to quit Vietnam. Passage Conditions. Perhaps someday a historian will answer them as well as Howard Jones has now resolved the sociology, Vietnam puzzle. Meanwhile, let us hope that we might learn something about the need to recognize and the middle passage, cope with policy failure. And as for the truth behind the darkest state secrets, let us also hope that the victims of sociology paper September 11, 2001, don’t have to examples wait as long. James K. Galbraith, a 2003 Carnegie Scholar, holds the Lloyd M. Bentsen, Jr., Chair of Government/Business Relations at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, University of Texas at Austin. 1 JFK and Vietnam has an odd story, in which I should acknowledge a small role. Paper. On release, it received a front-page review by Arthur Schlesinger Jr. in the New York Times Book Review. But of some 32,000 copies printed (in two printings, according to Newman) only about 10,000 were sold before Warner Books abruptly ceased selling the hardcovera fact I discovered on my own in the fall of 1993, when I attempted to assign it to poster examples a graduate class. I met Newman in November 1993, partly through the sociology research paper, good offices of the LBJ Library. I carried his grievance personally to of an Hour Essay an honorable high official of Time Warner, whose intervention secured the research paper, return of Essay Hip Hop Lifestyle his rights.

Still, the research, hardback was never reissued, and no paperback has appeared. 2 “Counterfactual Historical Reasoning: NSAM 263 and NSAM 273,” mimeo for a conference at the LBJ Library, 1415 October 1993, published as “NSAM 263 and 273: Manipulating History” in Lloyd C. Gardner and Ted Gittinger, eds., Vietnam: The Early Decisions (University of Texas Press, 1997). 3 Reeves, author of President Kennedy: Profile of Power, made this argument in a televised lecture at the LBJ Library in early 1995. 4 In a contribution to full Vietnam: The Early Decisions, Newman adds a further reason: Kennedy had, on October 2, allowed McNamara and Taylor to announce, as their recommended target date, that the withdrawal be completed by 1965. Sociology Paper. It would have been awkward to follow just three days later with a presidential decision making clear that the timetable was, in fact, a firm one. 5 The fate of these commandos surfaced in the New York Times of 14 April 1995, where it was reported that after 30 years in prison, many were denied immigration to the necklace full the United States because of a lack of service records. 6 My father has said many times that Kennedy sent him to Vietnam “because he knew I did not have an open mind.” 7 I requested release of the tapes in research paper a letter to the ARRB in November 1996.

8 CINCPAC was developing these plans, but they had not been shown to JFK, according to Newman. 9 According to Newman, LBJ took a belligerent tone at Essay A Miracle his first Vietnam meeting as President on November 24, and McGeorge Bundy attributed the escalatory language in NSAM 273 to this. Research Paper. However, by any standard the CIA moved quickly, and by Khan: of Rare this account it relied on the discussions at Honoluluwhich occurred while JFK was still alive. 10 I have in this narrative deliberately underplayed the role of my own father, who was repeatedly called upon by Kennedy to deliver arguments in favor of disengagement from sociology research Vietnam, and whose 1962 recommendation for Essay on Kubla Khan: of Rare phased withdrawal was probably the basis of the 1963 orders. Research. My father did not know that the actual decision was taken in October 1963, but he is in no doubt as to Kennedy’s determination: he recalls Kennedy in 1962 saying to him privately and A Miracle, unmistakably that withdrawal from Vietnam, as that from Laos and the detachment from Cuba, was a matter of political timing. 11 My father retains a distinct, chilling recollection of LBJ’s words to him, in research paper private, on Long Term Effects Disease, one of their last meetings before the Vietnam War finally drove them apart: “You may not like what I’m doing in sociology research paper Vietnam, Ken, but you would not believe what would happen if I were not here.” 12 Heather Purcell and I documented these nightmares in an article published in 1994 entitled “Did the U.S.

Military Plan a Nuclear First Strike for 1963?” It is still available on the website of the American Prospect. Long Term Effects. When once I asked the late Walt Rostow if he knew anything about the National Security Council meeting of July 20, 1961 (at which these plans were presented), he responded with no hesitation: “Do you mean the research paper, one where they wanted to blow up the world?” 13 There is no doubt that the danger of nuclear war was on Johnson’s mind. It also explains important points about his behavior in those days, including his orders to the middle passage conditions Earl Warren and Richard Russell (the latter in a phone call, a recording of which has long been available on the C-SPAN website) as to how they would conduct their commission. The point to appreciate is that there is only one way a war could have started at that time: by preemptive attack by the United States against the Soviet Union. 19972003 by James K. Galbraith. Paper. All rights reserved. Originally published in the October/November 2003 issue of Boston Review. September 01, 2003. 41 Min read time. Vital reading on on Kubla of Rare Device, politics, literature, and more in your inbox.

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