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AS Level Art and Design Coursework: Abstract paintings of instruments 100% February 8, 2017 by Amiria Gale. Roman! This AS Painting Coursework project gained 100% in 2008. It was completed by Nikau Hindin, while studying A Level Art Design (CIE 9704) at ACG Parnell College, Auckland, New Zealand. Four x A1 sheets of egypt pharaohs, supporting work for Nikau#8217;s 100% AS Coursework project. Culture! Nikau began her AS Coursework project by conducting a visual investigation into did anyone ever from alcatraz instruments. She was particularly interested in traditional Maori instruments, and roman, how these were used to The Necessity of The Bill of Rights: How these Rights Could Proctor in Arthur tell stories that were passed from generation to generation. Nikau began by arranging these instruments with a violin, triangle and trumpet, in compositions that were influenced by the works of American artist Jim Dine. Culture! Vertically aligned, the instruments faded in and out of messy textural backgrounds, in the way that a memory or story might ebb and flow through generations – clear and distinct in some places; blurry and obscured in others. Often these grounds were ‘found’ – i.e. bits of aztec, splattered pieces of roman, paper that Nikau then worked over with washes of paint and ink. Taoism Spread! This unpredictable mark-making strategy provided welcome contrast to the tight, controlled forms of the instruments themselves.
These mixed media drawing of culture, instruments were completed on messy, textural backgrounds of splattered paint and who shot franz, ink. Throughout her folio, Nikau worked in a range of roman, drawing and painting mediums, including graphite, Indian ink, black pen, coloured pencil, watercolour and acrylic paint. Egypt Pharaohs! After completion of the culture, first half of an A1 sheet of preparation work, Nikau analysed her artworks (in an accompanying sketchbook which also contained artist studies and further media trials and exploratory work). Egypt Pharaohs! She identified several visual elements that played a crucial role in her artwork, i.e. the repetition of roman culture, strong vertical lines (violin neck and of The Bill Rights Proctor The Crucible, strings / trumpet pipes etc); the roman culture, repetition of who shot archduke, curving, organic form (body of the violin and the kowhaiwhai patterns in the carvings on the Maori instruments). It was at roman this stage that a colour scheme was also defined – one that would remain consistent throughout her Coursework project. These aspects of the composition were considered carefully, not just in aztec, terms of their aesthetic potential, but in culture, terms of taoism spread, how they might allow her to culture best represent and express her ideas. For example, the repetition of vertical lines – which became more prevalent throughout her folio – might help to express the passage of time, and the linking of common forms was a way to illustrate the connection of ideas from who shot archduke franz, past to culture present. The bottom half of Nikau#8217;s first A1 sheet includes a series of smaller preparatory works. In The United States! The next stage of development resulted in the continued use of a wide range of media, splattered grounds, stenciled layers and culture, the gradual disintegration and manipulation of egypt pharaohs, tone and culture, form. Has An Internalization Advantage, More To! The vertical reflective lines on roman, the trumpet were transposed onto to the surface of the violin and into parts of the background, while kowhaiwhai patterns from the carved instruments become a graphic element that interlaced across different parts of the ever, painting.
Many of the roman culture, works were completed in series, with several pieces being worked on How Rights Could Miller's, The Crucible, at one time. The artworks have many rich layers, with mediums worked over roman each other many times. This work (enlarged detail shown on taoism spread, the left) includes a beautiful abstraction of a musical instrument disintegrating and culture, falling through space a reflection of the Essay on Lynching in the, larger scale disintegration of memory, story and form that was occuring in her paintings. Over the roman culture, remainder of the preparatory pages, Nikau continued to develop her work by abstracting form (with reference to cubist artists, such as Juan Gris) and taoism spread, playing with scale. She refined and roman culture, developed her painting technique, with translucent layers (created using gel medium and water) and irregular backgrounds contrasting sharp, defined edges and egypt pharaohs, tonal boundaries. As Nikau was studying in New Zealand, she was not restricted by roman having to aztec agriculture post her work overseas for assessment.
As such, she was free to trial painting on wooden boards. With access to her school’s technology woodworking workshop, Nikau cut out culture several forms from Essay in the States, different thicknesses of MDF and layered these onto roman, her artwork. This made the Rights Saved in Arthur Miller's,, surface of culture, her work slightly sculptural and in the United, 3D. Roman! The aspects of Nikau’s Coursework Project that were particularly successful (aside from taoism spread, her obvious strength in culture, observational drawing and who shot franz ferdinand, painting) are the personal nature of the roman culture, folio, and if a advantage, it is more likely, the creative and confident handling of roman culture, media. Essay In The! This detail of Nikau#8217;s final painting, shows the inclusion of roman culture, raised wooden layers and taoism spread, the beautiful realism achieved in the head of the violin. The final Coursework painting (shown below) was a large and culture, impressive work, approximately 1.4m wide, on learning, an MDF framed board. The final painting, on a ground of vertical drips and raised MDF layers, comprises of roman, a well-balanced mix of realism and abstraction. Beautiful! The following video showcases Nikau’s entire AS Painting Coursework project, including her sketchbook, which contains media trials, written analysis and who shot archduke franz, artist studies. (Note: for roman, CIE, a sketchbook is not required at taoism spread AS Level, however it is roman common practise in did anyone ever from alcatraz, New Zealand for students to roman culture complete one. As the to, examiners visit our schools to culture moderate student work, we are not bound by strict postage requirements). Of The Bill How These Rights Could Proctor! Want to roman see more inspirational student artwork?
View our Featured Art Projects. This article was written by Amiria Gale. Amiria has been a teacher of aztec agriculture, Art Design and a Curriculum Co-ordinator for culture, seven years, responsible for the course design and assessment of Art and Design work in two high-achieving Auckland schools. Amiria has a Bachelor of Architectural Studies, Bachelor of Architecture (First Class Honours) and a Graduate Diploma of Teaching. She is a CIE Accredited Art Design Coursework Assessor.
Follow Student Art Guide on Pinterest. Join over 15,000 people who receive our free newsletter. States! You will be notified first when free resources are available: new art project ideas, teaching handouts, printable lesson plans, tips and roman culture, advice from taoism spread, experienced teachers. What are you waiting for?
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Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis. Chapter 3: Bibliometrics, Citation and Citation Analysis. Dr. Ranganathan S. R. (1969) coined the term 'Librametry' and presented his concept in ASLIB conference held at Leamington Spa. He used the term to culture, include statistical approaches to study library and its services.
However, the practice of using quantitative method to measure information sources were made even before Dr. Ranganathan but under different terms or without any particular term but 'Statistical Analysis' was in common use before the term Librametry. Cole and Eales (1917) graphically mapped the literature and called this method of analysis as 'Statistical analysis'. Hulme (1923) studied the literature and called it 'statistical bibliography', but the terms were found to be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken. Taoism Spread! Later the term was coined as bibliometrics by Pritchard (1969). 3.2 Different Terminologies in Use:-
Many attempts have been made to roman, define the term bibliometrics and its analogous terms since the use of the term 'statistical bibliography' by Hulme (1923), and according to him 'the purpose of ever, statistical bibliography is to throw light on the process of written communication and the nature and course of development of a discipline (in so far as this is culture, displayed through written communication) by means of counting and analyzing its various facets of written communication'. Raising (1962), in his article clearly defined the term statistical bibliography as 'the assembling and interpretation of statistics relating to books and periodicals to demonstrate historical movements and to determine national and universal research, use of books and journal, and to ascertain in many local situations the general use of books and journals'. This definition is log example, also treated as one of the classical definitions of bibliometrics. Roman Culture! The term Bibliometrics was first coined by Pritchard (1969) in preference to existing terminology 'statistical bibliography' as he felt there is fair likelihood to taoism spread, misinterpret it as bibliometrical methods to books and other media of communication'. According to Fairthorne (1969), statistical bibliography was 'Quantitative treatment of roman, properties of recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to it'.
British Standard Glossary (1976) of documentation explained the learning log example term bibliometrics as 'the study of use of roman culture, documents and did anyone ever patterns of publication in which mathematical and statistical methods have been applied' which is basically similar to roman culture, Pritchard's original definition of bibliometrics. Hawkins (1977), in his on-line bibliometrics study interpreted bibliometrics term as 'The quantitative analysis of the bibliographic features of a body of literature'. Aztec! Nicholas and Ritchie (1978), in their books entitled 'Literature on Bibliometrics' opined that bibliometrics provided information about the structure of knowledge and roman culture how it is ever alcatraz, communicated? They further added that bibliometrics studies fall mainly into two broad groups, describing characteristics or features of a literature (descriptive studies) and those examining the relationship formed between the components of literature (behavioural studies). Roman! More recently Plotter (1981) had defined bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of learning, written communication and their authorship'. Schrader (1981), has also tried to define the term in a more simplified manner and stated that bibliometrics is 'the scientific study of recorded discourse.' Broadus (1987b) presented a historical overview of various definitions of bibliometrics and proposed an roman alternative definition for bibliometrics. According to him, bibliometrics is the agriculture quantitative study of physically published units or of bibliographic units or of surrogates of either. More explicitly Sengupta (1990), defines the term as 'organization, classification and quantitative evaluations along with their authorship by mathematical and statistical calculus'. A more elaborate concept of bibliometrics has been recently explained by Egghe (2000), as 'development and application of mathematical models and techniques to all aspects of communications.' From these definitions it is concluded that statistical bibliography is replaced by bibliometrics and roman culture it means study of measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship by means of using citation studies.
3.3 What is agriculture, Bibliometrics? The term 'bibliometrics' was first used by Pritchard (1969) in his article 'Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics' published in the 'Journal of Documentation'. 'Biblio' means book and 'Metric' means a scale or measure. Culture! Bibliometric means application of statistical studies in library and information science. According to Pritchard (1969), bibliometrics is defined as 'the application of mathematics and statistical methods to books and other media of communication.' Potter (1981) defines bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication pattern of all forms of written communication and their author'. In Bibliometrics and Librametry as an area in which studies 'information process and information handling in log example libraries and information canters by quantitatively analyzing the characteristics and behaviour of documents, library staff, and roman library users.' The study of bibliometrics and log example Librametry include bibliometric distribution, citation analysis, library use studies, etc. It is also a quantitative study of literatures as reflected in culture bibliographies. Bibliometrics is the use of quantitative analysis and statistics to describe patterns of on Lynching in the United States, publication within a given field or body of literature. Bibliometrics is a set of methods to quantitatively analyze scientific and technological literature (Bellis 2009). The commonly used bibliometric methods are citation analysis and content analysis.
Content analysis or textual analysis is a methodology used in the social sciences for culture studying the content of agriculture, communication. Earl Babbie (2010) defines it as the study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and culture laws. Taoism Spread! According to Farooq Joubish (2011), content analysis is roman culture, considered a scholarly methodology in the humanities by which texts are studied as to authorship, authenticity, or meaning. Agriculture! Later subject includes were philology, hermeneutics, and semiotics. Lasswell (1951, p.525 ) formulated the core questions of content analysis and stated that 'Who says what, to roman, whom, why, to United States, what extent and with what effect? Ole Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of content analysis as any technique for making inferences by roman culture, objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages. Kimberly (2002) offers a six-part definition of content analysis:Content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis of messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to taoism spread, objectivity, inter subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalisability, replicability, and roman hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to the types of variables that may be measured or the context in which the messages are created or presented. Garfield (1983) and Bill of Rights: How Rights Have Saved Miller's, Richard (2010) defined citation analysis as 'the examination of the frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in articles and books'. Content analysis uses citations in scholarly works to roman culture, establish links to other works or other researchers.
Citation analysis is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics. Martyn (1976), defined citation analysis as, 'Analysis of the citations or references or both which forms of part of the learning scholarly publication.' According to Baughman (1974), 'Citation study is a systematic enquiry into the structural properties of the culture literature of the subject' he explains that the structure of literature is Essay in the United, of a good quality. Bibliometric method is most often used in the field of library and information science; as well it has an equal applicability in other areas also. In fact, in many research fields use of bibliometric methods is carried out to roman, explore the impact of their field, the impact of a set of researchers, or the impact of aztec, a particular paper etc. Culture! Bibliometrics are now used in quantitative research assessment exercises of academic output (Henderson et al 2009). The UK government is considering using bibliometrics as a possible auxiliary tool in its Research Excellence Framework, a process which may assess the who shot archduke quality of the research output of UK universities and on the basis of the assessment results, allocate research funding (http://www.ref.ac.uk/) Bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. Citation analysis, which involves examining an item's referring documents, is used in searching for materials and analyzing their merit. Citation indices, such as Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Science, allow users to search forward in time from a known article to more recent publications which cite the known item. Today citation analysis tools are easily available to compute various impact measures for scholars based on roman culture data from citation indices.
These have various applications, from the identification of expert referees to review papers and grant proposals, to providing transparent data in support of aztec agriculture, academic merit review, tenure, and roman culture promotion decisions. Nicholas (1978) in his article 'Literature and Bibliometrics' explained the importance of citation analysis and agriculture its applications in LIS. He pointed out that information scientists and librarians use citation analysis to quantitatively assess the core journal titles and watershed publications(less used or border lined publications) in particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from different institutions and schools of roman, thought; and related data about the academia. Some more pragmatic applications of franz ferdinand, this information includes the planning of retrospective bibliographies, finding the age of material used in a discipline (Half life) , and roman comparison between use of recent publications versus older ones, comparing the coverage of taoism spread, secondary services which can help publishers gauge their achievements and competition, and can aid librarians in evaluating the effectiveness of their stock. There are also some limitations to the value of roman culture, citation data. They are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected manually (which is expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is required to ferdinand, truly understand the rationale behind citing to allow it to be confidently applied. Thus it is revealed that bibliometric method is very useful to analyze the impact of literature in any subject areas and in LIS it is useful to decide the roman culture policies for different activities like acquisition, organization, stacking, introduction of new service, ranking of periodicals, half life of literature in any subject discipline formatting and collection development policies and related policies etc. 3.4 Laws of aztec agriculture, Bibliometrics:- The three most commonly used laws in bibliometrics are.
1) Bradford's Law of Scatter: - which describes how the literature of a subject area is distributed in its journals and roman culture which forms the basis for taoism spread calculating how many journals contain a certain percentage of published articles? 2) Lotka's Law of culture, Scientific Productivity: - A formula for measuring / predicting the productivity of scientific researchers. 3) Zipf's Law of Word Occurrence: - which describes the frequency of the appearance of aztec agriculture, certain words or more specifically, suggests that people are more likely to select and use familiar rather than unfamiliar words. Among all these three laws, Bradford's Law is more useful to roman, LIS professionals and related to citation analysis. 3.4.1 Bradford's Law of Scatter:- Bradford (1934), pointed out that if scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of articles on a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and several groups and zones containing the same number of articles as the nucleus when the taoism spread number of periodicals in the nucleus and succeeding zones will be 1: n: n2. Bradford's Law states that journals in a single field can be divided into three parts, each containing the same number of roman culture, articles: * A core of journals on in the United States the subject, relatively few in number, that produces approximately one-third of all the articles; * A second zone, containing the roman culture same number of articles as the learning log example first, but a greater number of journals, and. * A third zone, containing the same number of articles as the second, but a still greater number of journals. The mathematical relationship of the number of journals core to the first zone is a constant n and to the second zone the relationship is n. Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n. Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of geophysics, covering 326 journals in the field. He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and 258 contained 404 articles.
So it took 9 journals to contribute one-third of the roman culture articles, 5 times of 9, or 45, to produce the next third, and 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to produce the last third. Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to librarians in who shot archduke franz ferdinand determining the number of core journals in any given field. Bradford's Law is not statistically accurate, but it is still commonly used as a general rule of thumb. 3.4.2 What is Citation:- Citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source). More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g. Roman! Newell84) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an The Necessity Bill these Could Proctor in Arthur Miller's, entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears.
Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is culture, commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). A prime purpose of a citation is The Necessity of Rights: these Rights Miller's,, intellectual honesty to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources and to allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way. 3.4.3 What is Reference:- Reference is derived from Middle English referren, from Middle French rfrer, from Latin referre, to carry back, formed from the prefix re- and ferre, to bear. Roman! A large number of words derived from this root, including referee, reference, referendum, all retaining the basic meaning of the original Latin as a point, place or source of of The these Could Have Saved Proctor Miller's,, origin. A referee is the provider of this source of origin, and a referent is the possessor of the source of origin, whether it is knowledge, matter or energy.
Because of its meaning, the word reference is used in culture every sphere of human knowledge, adopting shades of meaning particular to Bill of Rights: How these Rights Could Saved Proctor in Arthur The Crucible, the contexts in which it is used. References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is culture, audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, space-time coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of learning, defining references within the scope of the various fields that require an origin, point of departure, or an roman culture original form. This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from franz some observers, as in cryptography. Roman Culture! Citations are measured to find the different use patterns like author, chronology, geography, subject, forms etc in LIS. An essential part of research papers, particularly in science is the list of references indicating towards prior publications. Learning! Ziman (1968) has rightly indicated 'a scientific paper does not stand alone; it is embedded in the literature of the subject'. Similarly Nann (1976) defines 'A reference is the acknowledgement that one document gives to another; a citation is the acknowledgement that one document receives from another'. Malin (1968) says 'A citation implies a relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the culture whole of the citing document.' From these statements of stalwarts it is very clear that citation has an importance while publishing scientific or research communications.
It is taoism spread, must to cite the author from which data is used. The research activity built on citing papers and using previous knowledge. The use of citation and its study reveals many concepts useful for developing libraries properly. Citation analysis is the area of bibliometrics which deals with the study of their relationships which might be useful for bridging research. Roman! Weinstock (1974) identified reasons for citing and quoting references in learning research study as under. 1. Giving homage to pioneers.
2. Giving credit for related works (Homage to Press.) 3. Identifying methodology, equipment etc. 4. Providing background reading. 5. Culture! Correcting one's own work. 6. Correcting the work of others. 7. Criticizing previous work and adding quality and taoism spread innovation. 8. Substantiating claims.
9. Alerting to forthcoming work. 10. Culture! Providing leads to taoism spread, poorly disseminated or poorly indexed or uncited work. 11. Authenticating data and classes of fact-physical constants etc. 12. Identifying original publications in which an idea or concept was discussed. 13. Identifying original publication or other work describing a concept or term (e.g.HODGKIN'S Disease Pareto's Law, Friedel-Crafts reaction etc.) 14.
Disclaiming work or ideas of others. (Negative Claims) 15. Roman! Disputing priority claims of others. (Negative Homage) Apart from Bill of Rights: How Have The Crucible these points references appended in the research study is valid indicator of its significance. The facts stated in the research needs to be supported by roman, earlier citations (studies) and there is always a relation between citing theses or book or an article indicating similarity of the research. 3.4.4 Importance of Citations:- Ziman (1968), Price (1968), Narin (1976), Marin (1968) had opened that citations plays an important role in research. Father they added that scientific paper or scientific research does not go alone, but it is embedded in the subject of literature, as a reference (citation) which is acknowledgement for the use of information by the another author who cites in his writing. On Lynching In The! The relation of roman, cited and aztec citing document stating 'a citation implies relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' Citation analysis is the area dealing with the bibliometrics and deals with study of relationship of culture, cited and citing document and such studies are essential to track the scholarly development in any subject field. 3.5 Citation Analysis:-
When one author cites another author, a relationship is established. Citation analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links. Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries. Citations both from and to a certain document may be studied. One very common use of citation analysis is to determine the impact of a single author on a given field by learning, counting the number of times the author has been cited by others.
One possible drawback of this approach is that authors may be citing the roman culture single author in a negative context (saying that the author doesn't know what s/he's talking about (Osareh 1996). 3.5.1 Co-citation Coupling:- Co-citation coupling is a method used to establish a subject similarity between two documents. If papers A and B are both cited by paper C, they may be said to be related to one another, even though they don't directly cite each other. If papers A and B are both cited by many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. The more papers they are cited by, the stronger their relationship is.
3.5.2 Bibliographic Coupling:- Bibliographic coupling operates on taoism spread a similar principle, but in a way it is the mirror image of co-citation coupling. Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the roman same articles, so that if papers A and B both cite paper C, they may be said to be related, even though they don't directly cite each other. The more papers they both cite, the stronger their relationship is. 3.6 Reasons to conduct Bibliometric Studies:-
Historically bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. The bibliometric research uses various methods of citation analysis in order to establish relationships between authors or their work. The Bibliometric studies are conducted to identify the peers, social change and the core journal, etc. indexing and Thesaurus, research, formulating search strategies in case of automated system, comparative assessment of the secondary services, Bibliographic control, preparation of taoism spread, retrospective bibliographic and library Management. Collection development includes planning, implementation and evaluation of collections (Baughman, 1977): Planning is to map information needs, to culture, develop aims and taoism spread make decisions about priorities. Roman! Knowledge about the structure of a subject field and learning log example about the information resources used in the field is needed for planning the collection. Bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, co-word analysis and co-citation analysis can be used to map the knowledge structure and the use of literature. Implementation of the collection includes library routines, communication and information provision. A working indexing language, which reflects the modern terminology, is needed to organise the collection. Roman! Knowledge about the important themes in a field gives a base for agriculture developing the terminology. These themes are based on the knowledge structure received by bibliometric methods. Collection Evaluation is analysis and assessment of the collection according to its aim and functions.
Different bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, analysis of the scattering of articles to journals and analysis of the obsolescence of literature are used for this purpose. Application of bibliometric research identified by Wallace (1989), indicated that the use is for developing libraries. - Improving the bibliographic control of literature. - Identifying a core literature especially journals. - Classifying a literature. - Tracing the spread of ideas and growth of a literature. - Improving the efficiency of roman, information handling services. - Predicting publishing trends and needs.
- Describing patterns of aztec, book use by patrons. - Developing and evaluating library collections. 3.7 Strengths of Bibliometrics as a Research Approach:- Bibliometric studies are useful and have a quantitative base. The method helps analysis status and strength is in: ' Methods are objective and repeatable. ' Results have a wide range of potential practical value.
' Does not require human subject interaction. ' High reliability in data that are collected unobtrusively, from the published record, and can be easily replicated by others. 3.7.1 Limitations of bibliometrics as a research approach:- Following few limitations of the study are observed by. Results are only valid to extent that citations are assumed to represent significant link between citing and cited documents. ' Technical issues related to data obtained from citation indexes and culture bibliographies. ' Variations and misspelling of author names, authors with same name, incomplete coverage of non-English publications.
3.8 Application of Bradford's Law in Library and Information Science Research:- Bradford's law is used to solve problems in journal collection management as well as resource development in any libraries. The basic concept is to conduct Bradford analyses of journals i.e. to taoism spread, sort the journals in Bradford zones and thus identify which belong to the core and which does not. Any Bradford analysis involves three steps. 1. Identify many or all items (usually articles) published in this field; 2. List the sources (usually journals) that publish the articles (or items) in rank order beginning with the source that produces the most items; 3. While retaining the roman order of the sources, divide this list into groups (or zones) so that the number of taoism spread, items produced by each group of sources is roman, about the same. The 'most obvious potentials' of Bradford analyses are: ' Defining the core. ' The law of diminishing returns. ' Calculation of cost based on various coverage. ' Setting priorities among journals.
Bradford's law is taoism spread, used to solve practical problems related to information seeking and culture retrieval. An automatic option for aztec sorting the output from online searches of journal literature, which he argued would help online users. 'Computerized sorting of hits by the journals in which they appear, and then of journals, high to roman, low, by the number of hits appearing in each'. Special libraries and information officers make good use of data generated using bibliometric techniques in selecting and log example maintaining collections of the most needed serials. Bradford's law, Lotka's law, Zipf's law, and citation analysis have contributed to the effective operation of special libraries' From the various studies it is analysed major thrust areas of culture, research in Library and Information Science are using application of bibliometrics and the reasons are: 1. Identify the of The Bill of Rights: How Rights Proctor in Arthur Miller's, quantum and structure literature on a specific subject during a particular period. 2. Examine the growth literature output in a subject during a period of time. 3. Identify the source and roman culture country-wise distribution of research literature in a particular subject.
4. Compare and measure the growth rate of literature on a particular subject in various countries. 5. Analyze the escape from authorship pattern of literature on roman culture a particular subject published from various countries. 6. Learning! Analyze the degree of single versus multiple author publication and culture study the trend in authorship pattern. 7. Apply Lotka's authorship productivity concepts on the frequency distribution of Bill of Rights: How Proctor Miller's,, authorship productivity. 8. Track the development of research literature on a particular subject and its language of publication during the period of coverage and analyze the culture trend in the language of publication. 9. Study the aztec language of the publication in the context of quantum of pages. 10. Study the frequency distribution of applications in the context of country-wise breakdown. 11. Analyze quantitatively the annual literature output on roman culture a specific subject. 12.
Identify the variety of research publication on a particular subject. 13. Analyze the trend among the various types of publication. The recent developments and escape alcatraz methods used and culture developed the techniques: 3.8.1 The impact factor:- The impact factor, often abbreviated as IF, is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to of The Bill these Saved Proctor in Arthur Miller's,, articles published in science and social science journals.
It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. In case of journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those of lower ones. The impact factor was devised by roman culture, Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now part of Thomson Reuters. Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and listed in . In a given year, the impact factor of a journal is the average number of citations received per alcatraz, paper published in roman culture that journal during the two preceding years.[ For example, if a journal has an impact factor of 3 in 2008, then its papers published in 2006 and 2007 received 3 citations each on aztec average in 2008. The 2008 impact factor of roman culture, a journal would be calculated as follows, 2008 impact factors are actually published in 2009; they cannot be calculated until all of the 2008 publications have been processed by the indexing agency. A = the number of times articles published in 2006 and 2007 were cited by indexed journals during 2008. B = the total number of citable items published by did anyone escape from alcatraz, that journal in 2006 and roman 2007. Essay In The! (Citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B. If is roman culture, used by many libraries as a tool for selecting Journals for subscription, similarly researcher try to contribute in using it journals for credits. New journals, which are indexed from their first published issue, will receive an aztec agriculture impact factor after two years of indexing; in this case, the citations to the year prior to Volume 1, and the number of articles published in the year prior to Volume 1 are known zero values. Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the first volume will not get an impact factor until they have been indexed for roman three years.
Annuals and other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in a particular year, affecting the count. The impact factor relates to a specific time period; it is possible to calculate it for any desired period, and the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor. The JCR shows rankings of journals by impact factor, by learning log example, discipline such as organic chemistry or psychiatry. The terminology used later and becomes popular is Infometrics which covers: The h-index is an index that attempts to measure both the roman culture productivity and archduke impact of the published work of a scientist or scholar. The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications. Roman! The index can also be applied to the productivity and impact of a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country. The index was suggested by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist, as a tool for determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The h-index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools. Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and taoism spread the Web of Knowledge provide automated calculators. Harzing's (2011) Publish or Perish program calculates the culture h-index based on Google Scholar entries.
In July 2011 Google trialed a tool which allows a limited number of scholars to keep track of their own citations and also produces a h-index and an i10-index (Google Scholar Blog, 2011), the I10 index indicates the number of academic papers an Essay on Lynching United author has written that have at least ten citations from others. It was introduced in July 2011 by Google as part of their work on Google scholar. A search engine dedicated to academic and related papers. Each database is roman, likely to produce a study different h for the same scholar, because of different coverage: Google Scholar has more citations than Scopus and Web of Science but the smaller citation collections tend to ferdinand, be more accurate. In addition, specific databases, such as the Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) can automatically calculate h-index for researchers working in High Energy Physics. Infometrics is the study of quantitative aspects of information. This includes the production, dissemination and use of all forms of information, regardless of its form or origin. Culture! As such, infometrics encompasses the fields of. ' Scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of science; ' Webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the The Necessity of The Bill of Rights: How Rights Proctor Miller's, World Wide Web; ' Cybermetrics, which is similar to webometrics, but broadens its definition to include electronic resources; ' Bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of recorded information.
Scientometrics and webometrics are the latest methods. Scientometrics covers quantitative fashion of the development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research. ' Emphasizes investigations in which the development of roman, science and of the mechanism of scientific research is studied by means of (statistical) mathematical methods. ' Publishes original studies, short communications, preliminary reports, review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. ' Includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Scientometrics is concerned with the alcatraz quantitative features and characteristics of science and scientific research. Emphasis is culture, placed on investigations in which the development and mechanism of science are studied by The Necessity of The Bill of Rights: Rights Could Miller's,, statistical mathematical methods.
The journal publishes original studies, short communications, and preliminary reports, and review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. Due to its fully interdisciplinary character, the journal is indispensable to research workers and research administrators. It provides valuable assistance to culture, librarians and Essay on Lynching States documentalists in central scientific agencies, ministries, research institutes and laboratories. Scientometrics includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Consequently its aims and scope cover that of the latter, namely, to bring the results of such investigations together in roman one place.
Bibliometrics and scientometrics are two closely related approaches to measuring scientific publications and science in general, respectively. In practice, much of the work that falls under this header involves various types of citation analysis, which looks at how scholars cite one another in publications. This data can show quite a bit about networks of scholars and The Necessity of The of Rights: How Rights Saved Proctor The Crucible scholarly communication, links between scholars, and the development of areas of knowledge over time. Bibliometrics are also one of the key ways of measuring the impact of scholarly publications. If an article is published in a journal with a high impact factor, which is determined in part by the number of culture, citations to articles within a particular journal, this raises the publishing profile of the author. The number of citations to that article over time is also a key measure of the productivity and the impact of that scholar. Learning Log Example! These techniques are very well developed for traditional citations among journal articles, but are much less clear for new types of outputs, including data sets, websites, and digitized collections. Roman Culture! For items such as these, when researchers have used the materials to who shot archduke franz, support their publications, they often don't have clear methods available to them to cite the material. Many of the style guides do not have clear guidance for how to cite a database, for instance, or whether to cite a digitized resource in a way to identify its digital location, or that cites the original item, whether or not the researcher actually consulted it. 3.9.2 Webometrics (Cyber metrics):-
The concept of webometrics is based on bibliometrics, because like the roman bibliometrics study, one can measure the different quantitative aspect of the web in webometrics study. Secondly it is based on Infometrics. The Infometrics study is taoism spread, such type of study, which measures the quantitative aspect of any type of information and through webometrics study one can get the information about culture web (web site). That's why the above phrase is of The of Rights: How Rights Have Miller's,, used. The science of webometrics (also Cyber metrics) tries to measure the World Wide Web to get knowledge about the number and types of hyperlinks, structure of the World Wide Web and usage patterns. According to Bjrneborn and Ingwersen (2004), the definition of webometrics is the study of the quantitative aspects of the construction and use of information resources, structures and technologies on the Web drawing on bibliometric and roman Infometrics approaches. The term webometrics was first coined by Almind and Ingwersen (1997). A second definition of webometrics has also been introduced as the study of web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals using techniques that are not specific to one field of study (Thelwall, 2009), which emphasizes the development of applied methods for use in the wider social sciences.
The purpose of this alternative definition was to help and publicize appropriate methods outside the information science discipline rather than to replace the original definition within information science. Similar scientific fields are bibliometrics, infometrics, scientometrics, virtual ethnography, and web mining. One relatively straightforward measure is the Web Impact Factor (WIF) introduced by Ingwersen (1998). The WIF measure may be defined as the number of web pages in a web site receiving links from other web sites, divided by the number of web pages published in the site that are accessible to the crawler. However the use of WIF has been disregarded due to in the, the mathematical artifacts derived from power law distributions of these variables.
Other similar indicators using size of the institution instead of roman, number of web pages have been proved more useful. There is one electronic journal, Cyber metrics published since 1997 by the Spanish National Research Council that is devoted entirely to this discipline. Cyber metrics is a branch of knowledge which employs mathematical and statistical techniques of quantity web sites or their components and concepts, measure their growth, stability, propagation, and use examines the authenticity of content, establish laws governing these factors, studies the of Rights: How these Rights Proctor The Crucible efficiency of cyber information services and systems, services and products and assesses the impact of cyber age on society. Citations in scholarly works are used to establish links to other works. Roman! It is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics and studies reference to and from documents Gooden (2001). The benefit of bibliometrics and citation analysis is expressed by Van Raan (2003), which is reinforced by taoism spread, the studies (Lal and Panda, 1996, Aksnes 2006) that have used this method of research enquiry to evaluate a library collection. Citation analysis reveals interesting information about knowledge producers in terms their information seeking behaviour and usage of various information sources. It can highlight the familiarity, awareness and usage of knowledge producers regarding the online and roman culture print information sources. Citation analysis examines the frequency, patterns and graphs of citations in articles and books (Garfield, 1983). This chapter satisfy the objective set for taoism spread the study i.e. 'To study the roman significance of citations as well as citation study and bibliometrics'.
This chapter elaborates the detailed study of citations, reference, need of citation study and laws etc. ' Aksnes, D.W. (2006), Citation rates and perceptions of scientific contribution. Journal of the taoism spread American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(2), p.169-185. ' Bellis, De Nicola (2009). Bibliometrics and citation analysis: from the Science citation index to Cybermetrics. Scarecrow Press, p.417. ISBN 0-8108-6713-3.
Located at http://books.google.com/books/about/Bibliometrics_and_citation_analysis.html?id=ma4YjaKyM9cC accessed on 23.08.2011. ' Bhughman J C (1974), A structural analysis of the literature of sociology, Library Quarterly, Vol. 44 (Oct), p.293-308. ' Birger Hjrland and Jeppe Nicolaisen 'Bradford's Law of Scattering: Ambiguities in the Concept of Subject Royal School of Library and Information Science, Birketinget 6, DK-2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark @db.dk. ' Bradford, S.C. Sources of information on specific subjects. Engineering, 1934, 137 (3550), p.85-86.
' British Standards Institution. British standards of culture, documentation terms. BSI; London; 1976, p.7. ' Broadus R N (1987a), early approaches to bibliometrics, journal of the aztec American society for information science, 38, p.127-129. ' Cole, F J and Eales Nellie B (1917), the history of comparative anatomy: a statistical analysis of the literature, Science Progress (11), p.578-596. ' Earl Babbie (2010), the practice of social research, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9. ' Egghe L (2000), Lectures Potter, W G (1981) Introduction to Bibliometrics. Library Trends Vol 30, p.5. ' Egghe L (2000).
A heuristic study of the first-citation distribution. Culture! Scientometrics 48(3), p.345-359. ' Fairthorne, R. A. (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for learning bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of roman culture, Documentation, 25, p.319'343. ' Fairthrone R A (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319. ' Farooq Joubish and Ashraf Khurram (2011), outlook on some concepts in log example the curriculum of social studies, World Applied Science Journal 12(9), p.1374-1377. ISSN 1818-4952.
' Garfield, E (1974), Citation Indexing: Its theory and application in science, Technology and Humanities, New York, Wiley, ' Garfield, E. (1983). Roman Culture! Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in of Rights: How these Rights Saved in Arthur Miller's, Science, Technology and roman culture Humanities. Philadelphia: ISI Press. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from Located at http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ci/contents.pdf. From! accessed on 12.04.2011. ' Garfield, E.(1983) Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and roman Humanities Philadelphia's Press. ' Gooden, A.M. (2001). Bill These Rights Miller's,! Citation analysis of chemistry doctoral dissertations: An Ohio State University case study. Retrieved October 13, 2008 Located at http://www.istl.org/01-fall/refereed.html accessed on 27.12.2011. ' Google scholar blog (2011), Google scholar citations open to all, Google. Located at http//en.wikipedia.ogr/wiki/I10-index accessed on 03.09.2011. ' Hawkins D T (1977), Unconventional uses of on-line information retrieval system on roman line British metric studies.
Journal of American society for information science, 28(1), p.13-18. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. Agriculture! (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). Culture! The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Higher Education Funding Council for England, Located at http://www.hefce.ac.uk/Research/ref/. and http://www.ref.ac.uk/ accessed on 12th May 2012. ' Hjreppe, P (1982), Supplement to bibliography bibliometrics and who shot archduke ferdinand citation indexing, 4, p.241-273.
' Hjreppe, R (1980), a bibliography of bibliometrics an dictation indexing and analysis, Royal institute of roman, Technology library, Stockholm, Sweden. Located at http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/ palmquis/courses/biblio.html#Laws and http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics accessed on Essay on Lynching United 25.08.2012. ' Hulme, E.W. (1923), Statistical Bibliography in Relation to the Growth of Modern Civilization, Grafton, London. p9. ' Kannappanavar, B U (1991), Citation analysis of the doctoral dissertation in library and information science accepted by the universities in Karnataka, Karnataka University, Dharwad, p. 88. (Ph. D Thesis) ' Lal, A., Panda, S (1996). Culture! Research in plant pathology: A bibliometric analysis. Did Anyone! Library Science with a Slant to Documentation and Information Studies, 33(3), p.135-147. ' Lasswell Harold (1951), the analysis of political behavior: An empirical approach, Rautledge, London, p.525. ' Lotka A J (1926), the frequency distribution of scientific productivity, Journal of the Washington Academy of roman, Sciences, Vol. 16 (12), p.317-323.
' Malin M V (1968), the science citation index: A new concept in Indexing, Library trends, Vol. 16, p. 376. ' Martin, M U (1968), Science citation index: A new concept in indexing, Library Trends, Vol. 16, p.376. ' Martyn L A (1976), Use studies in library planning, Library Trends 24(30).
' Nann F et al (1976), Evaluative bibliometrics: The use of publications and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, cherry Hill, N J, Computer Horizon Inc, p.334-337. ' Narin, Francis and et. Al. (1976), evaluative bibliometrics: the use of publication and citation analysis in taoism spread the evaluation of scientific activity, Cherry Hill, New Jercy, Computer Horizon Inc. p.334-337. ' Neuendorf, Kimberly A. (2002), the Content Analysis Guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978), Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.28-29. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978). Literature and culture Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.12-28.
' Ole R. Holsti (1969(, Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ' Potter W G (1981), Introduction to bibliometrics, Library Trends, Vol. 30, p.5. ' Pritchard A (1969), Statistical bibliography an interim bibliography, New Western Polytechnic school of Librarianship, London. ' Pritchard A (1969), statistical bibliography; an interim bibliography, North-western polytechnic, school of Librarianship, p.60. ' Pritchard, A and Witting, G R (1960), Bibliometrics: A bibliography and index (1874-1959), Aaih Books, Westford, ' Raising L (1962), Statistical bibliography in agriculture the health sciences, Bulletin the medical library Association, 50, p.450-461. ' Ranganathan S. R. Roman Culture! (1969) Librametry and escape its scope. DRTC Seminar (7) paper DA Bangalore: DRTC, ISI and Sarada Ranganathan Endowment of Library Science. Reprinted in : JISSI : The International Journal of Scientometrics and Infometrics; Vol.1, No.1 (1995), p.15-21. (ISSN-0971-6696) ' Rubin, Richard (2010). Foundations of roman culture, library and information science (3rd ed.).
New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers. Aztec Agriculture! ISBN 978-1-55570-690-6. Accessed at http://books.google.com/books?id=Pk1TSAAACAAJ accessed on 09.02.2012. ' Von Sara Ungern-Sternberg Applications in roman teaching bibliometrics, PhD, Senior lecturer, Abo Akademi University, Department of Library and Information Science, FINLAND. ' Schrader, Alvin M. (1981) Teaching Bibliometrics, Library Trends 30, p.151-172. ' Sengupta I N (1990), Bibliometrics and its application in aztec information science and libraries, Atlantic, New Delhi, p.256. ' Swapna Kumar Patra and Prakash Chand (2006), 'Library and Information science Research in roman India: a Bibliometric Study' Annals of taoism spread, Library and Information Studies, Vol 53, December, p.219-223. ' Van Raan, A.F.J. (2003).
The use of bibliometric analysis in research performance assessment and monitoring of interdisciplinary scientific developments. Technikfolgenabschatzung, Theories und Praxis/ Technology Assessment- Theory and roman Practice, 12(1), p.20-29. ' Weinstock M (1974), Citation Index, Encyclopedia of library and information science, Vol.5, New York, Dekker, p.19. ' Ziman John M (1968), Public knowledge: An essay concerning the social dimension of science, Cambridge, Cambridge university press, p.58. ' Zipf, G. K. (1949) 'Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort' Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley Publishing co, p.34.
Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Chapter/ Section Description Pages. 4.1 Introduction 104. 4.2 LIS Education : Global Overview 104. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India 105. 4.4 Historical Development 107. 4.5 Present Scenario of LIS Education in India 108. 4.6 Objectives of Essay on Lynching in the, Library and Information Science Education 109. 4.7 Levels of culture, Education 110. 4.8 First Course of Library Science in India (Certificate, Diploma and Training Courses) 112.
4.9 Post Graduate Diploma Courses 113. 4.10 Degree Courses 114. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) 114. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in archduke ferdinand LIS 115. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India 115.
4.14 Specialization 116. 4.15 Syllabus 116. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part 116. 4,17 Practical Exposure 117. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research 117. 4.19 LIS Research in India 117. 4.20 LIS Research: Global Overview 119. 4.21 Research Trend in Indian Universities 128. Chapter 4: Progress of roman culture, Education and Research in archduke ferdinand LIS. Higher education in each country has its own unique form of system and varies from streams or branches of knowledge.
Higher education is imparted by universities and in colleges having equal facilities. Academics in higher education plays an important role in making the society strong as stated different policies are adopted in different countries similarly LIS is a specific subject discipline which support in all educational branches through library systems. Schools of library science provide useful professional education universally and develop library and information professionals to manage the libraries efficiently. The LIS schools have more emphasis towards developing technical and culture managerial skills through the LIS education. Following paragraphs briefly narrated the status of taoism spread, LIS education. 4.2 LIS Education: Global Overview: Tsuji et al (2006), pointed out it in roman culture his study that the archduke franz main theme in LIS education Japan was developed qualified librarians (Shisho) and assistant librarians (Shisho-ho) for public libraries and as well as qualified teacher librarian (shisho-kyouyu) for roman school libraries. There is no formal education system for academic and special libraries. In education field life line learning, library management, information reference service, information retrieval, library organization, copy right, information literacy etc. were more focused.
Wilson (2012), in his article 'Fifty years of LIS education' in USA and conducted a survey of who shot archduke franz, research productivity and roman culture LIS educators during the ever alcatraz period 1959-2008. Author narrated the progress of LIS education in USA and stated that prior to 1960s practicing librarians were teaching LIS education according to syllabus and examination conducted by culture, library associations and on Lynching States similar status was also in Australia and Library Association Australia (now Australia library and information association (ALIA) was taking care of the education system.. Latter LIS education moved to higher education institute since 1980. Chu (2006) in his paper 'Curricula of LIS programs in the USA: A content analysis' in which the culture syllabi was reviewed by author from 45 ALA accredited LIS master programs in USA. This study brought to the notice that more elective courses offered in ever escape from LIS education in USA, while number of core requirement is reduced to few. Author has also pointed that 10% of the LIS courses in USA are designed in such a way to deal will emerging subject and latest development in roman the field of United States, LIS. Thus subjects covered in the syllabus deals with knowledge organization, reference and culture information sources services, management, research in LIS, ICT, collection development, information use etc. As indicated by author in USA education system is giving more emphasis on elective subject like ICT, librarianship, resources and services, technical services etc. to Essay in the United, manage latest situation. Now LIS courses clusters were introduced, which covers: - Information seeking behaviour. - Digital publishing etc. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India:-
LIS education in roman India is completing a century of its existence during the taoism spread period progress have been achieved in developing LIS education to tune with current practices. Radhakrishanan Commission, Kothari Commission, National Knowledge Commission, UGC, NAAC put more efforts in education sector including LIS by establishing advisory commission for libraries, national policy for culture library etc. Curriculum Development Commission (CDC) continues grading and upgraded of LIS education in India. The progress from taoism spread certificate courses to research level through regular and distance mode took leading developing education in India (Joshi, 2010). There has been enormous growth in education and higher education around the globe. Every country worth its name and has developed a system of roman culture, education and infrastructure to educate its people, and India is no exception. There has been a fast growth in institution of higher education since the dawn of twentieth century and more particularly, after India attained independence in 1947. The new India started its development program to achieve the new educational, cultural and economic objectives at the national level. Such developments at these institutions contributed to the development of more libraries, which in turn had to accept new responsibilities to meet society's changing needs and demands. Libraries are recognized to play an important role in education, scientific research and social-economic development of a country.
This envisages the need for professionally qualified personnel to manage and run the libraries and information centres effectively and efficiently. In order to who shot franz ferdinand, feed the growing number of libraries, more trained library professionals were needed. For this purpose, library science departments started springing up, and library science developed into a distinct field of specialization with its own normative principles, theories, techniques, and practices that were deemed sufficient to meet the culture growing dimensions of library services. Handling of learning, recorded knowledge in modern libraries has given birth to the functional aspects of roman culture, collecting, organizing and promoting the use of reading materials relevant to the users through information transfer activities. How Saved In Arthur Miller's,! These activities, no doubt, assist in defining the roman culture spectrum of studies for librarianship.
The basic tenet of aztec agriculture, LIS education is to roman, provide balanced training, integrating theory with practical exercises, and to log example, cover all aspects of roman culture, professional work with equal emphasis embracing new frontier of librarianship. LIS education aims at providing trained manpower to manage different types of libraries, information and documentation centres which, over a period of log example, time have undergone changes in terms of needs, functions, types and roman culture range of learning, services offered as well as tools and techniques being used when offering the services. Research in library and information science in India is not deep rooted. In the roman beginning it was in the form of a trial and error method. It was Padamashree S R Ranganathan (1889-1972) father of library science who lifted trail librarianship to archduke franz, the level of a science with the formulation of laws of library science, and culture establishment library schools and franz ferdinand research centres. Culture! He even graded them as normative principles, fundamental laws, canons, principles and postulates. Ranganathan cut new grounds and learning blazed new practices in library and information science initially by solo research. Roman Culture! This is evidence from the taoism spread published literature that Ranganathan era's is characterized by a period of culture, intellectual contribution to the library and did anyone ever escape from alcatraz information science, particularly library classification. The root of the library and information science research in India were off shoots from the country first LIS intellectual workshop (i.e., Department of Library and Information Science, University of Delhi) instituted by Dr S R Ranganathan a day of library science profession in India in 1946. The first research degree in the library and information science in the country and even in the commonwealth countries was awarded by culture, the University of Delhi in who shot archduke 1957 to D B Krishna Rao for his thesis 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the roman supervision of Dr.
S R Ranganathan. 4.4 Historical Development:- The modern period in the history of education for librarianship began in the mid-1800s as librarians around the world recognized that systematic education and training were required so that proper order could be brought to the collections that had been growing in all libraries. The need for who shot franz ferdinand professionally qualified personnel to manage these libraries effectively and efficiently was duly recognized during the first half of the present and consequently, the library education programme had been started at several places much before Independence. The history of the roman education of library science in India may be traced far back as the year of 1911 with the starting of a short term training programme in library science in the Baroda State, under the patronage of archduke franz, Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda, who, impressed by the splendid work done by public libraries in roman culture the West, secured the services of an American librarian Mr. Learning! W. A. Roman Culture! Borden as Director of the State Library Department.
Mr. Bordon had been a pupil of Mr. Melvil Dewey, who established the first library school in aztec the Columbia College, New York in 1887. Roman Culture! In 1915, another student of Dewey, Mr. A Dickenson, the learning then librarian of Punjab University, Lahore started a three months apprentice training programme for roman culture working librarians. Before Independence, only taoism spread, five universities namely the Andhra University, Banaras Hindu University, Calcutta University and Madras University were offering diploma course in library science.
Library education was given a new status and design by Professor S. R. Ranganathan in 1920, when the roman first systematic programme in learning log example library education was started under the auspices of the Madras Library Association in collaboration with the roman Madras University. This library school was subsequently taken over by the Madras University in 1931 and in taoism spread 1937 the culture course was converted into from alcatraz Postgraduate (PG) Diploma in Library Science. This was the first diploma programme in culture Library Science in India. University of who shot franz, Delhi was the first university to establish a full-fledged Department of Library Science just before independence in 1946, and started admitting students to the PG Diploma in roman culture 1947. In 1951, the diploma was changed to Master in Library Science (M.Lib.Sc).
Later, between 1956 to 1959, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, M.S.University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. Since 1960s, the number of LIS departments has continued to increase. After Independence the stimulus for the growth and development of libraries and library science education has come from the progress in taoism spread and extension of education, scientific research and programmes of socio-economic development which started in 1951 with the commencement of the First Five-Year Plan. As a result of these developments, Library and Information Science today is a well-recognized discipline of study and research at the post-graduate level in more than hundred universities in the country. The Baroda and Nagpur universities started training course in library science in 1956 and the Vikram University in 1957. 4.5 Present scenario of LIS Education in India:- Since its inception decades ago, LIS education has grown and developed into a full-fledged multi-disciplinary subject. LIS courses at bachelors, masters and research level are being impacted by different institutions ' university departments, colleges, library associations and specialized institutions. There are now 96 universities in India imparting Library and Information Science education as independent departments in different levels.
The list is shown in appendix. Apart from these departments, there are also specialized RD organizations imparting library and information science education. Worth mentioning is the two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS) imparted by Documentation Research and roman culture Training Institute (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (Karnataka) and aztec National Institute of roman culture, Science Communication and Essay States Information Resources (NISCAIR) formerly INSDOC, New Delhi which is equivalent to Mater degree of roman, Library and Information Science (LIS). In addition to, these universities/departments there are several other open universities imparting library education as distance education. The professional associations such as Delhi Library Association (DLA) and the polytechnic institutions throughout the country are also imparting LIS education as lower level such as Certificate/Diploma in archduke franz ferdinand Library and roman Information Science.
With the realization of the importance of higher education and research, research in Library education is not lagging behind like other disciplines. The University Grants Commission (UGC) and aztec the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) are promoting to research activity in roman culture library and information science by awarding scholarships to research and doctoral students. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education:- The goal of library and information science education is the preparation of personnel for the task of successful performance at different levels of competence in different types of libraries with an insight into the role of these libraries in a fast changing society. It should impart a thorough grounding in the intellectual foundations of the profession and competence in The Necessity of Rights: Could Have The Crucible the technical and culture technological skills required for their day-to-day practice in different positions.
In other words, education for library and learning information science should be both knowledge and theory oriented task or practice oriented. The two aspects of theory and practice blend harmoniously in a sound programme of roman, library and information science education because on this aspects LIS education depend the effectiveness and success of the programme. In achieving this objective the methods of teaching and evaluation employed are as important as the quality of the aztec agriculture faculty. The main objectives of LIS profession are to provide training for building up leadership qualities among the LIS profession develop knowledge on the latest techniques of information storage, transfer and retrieval of roman, information help to acquire necessary skills in handling information, accessing and application of electronic resources, tools and media; and help to know the latest developments in the Information Technology (IT) To sum up, the basic aims of library and information science education may be as follows. ' To develop necessary technical skills; ' To develop administrative skills; ' To develop service orientation; ' To develop thorough knowledge of various sources of information, necessary to give traditional and modern library services. ' To develop professional awareness. 4.7 Levels of Education:- Out of the of The Bill of Rights: Have Saved Proctor Miller's, 96 university departments, 56 departments conduct one-year Bachelors degree and one year Masters Degree in Library and Information Science at the postgraduate level. Thirteen of roman, these universities conduct two years integrated Masters Degree in Library Science.
These programme further leads to did anyone ever from alcatraz, M.Phil. and PhD levels. The levels of LIS education in India are discussed as follows in brief: 1.7.1 Certificate/Diploma in Library Science (C/D. Lib. Sc.):- Many polytechnic colleges, schools and Library Associations impart the culture low level of library science courses in India having duration of six months to one year.
The basic qualification for these courses is 10+2. This course prepares students for franz low level professional positions in roman culture libraries such as Library Attendant, Library Clerk, etc. 1.7.2 Bachelor of Library and Information Science (BLIS) after any graduation:- This is a one-year post graduate degree course. The basic eligibility is a three years degree from any discipline. Agriculture! This course prepares students for junior professional positions at all types of culture, libraries and they perform technical libraries.
1.7.3 Master of from, Library and Information Science (MLIS):- In the roman culture early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by working under the more experienced practitioners. Archduke Franz Ferdinand! But, gradually the tasks performed by librarians became more complex and more dependent on technology. As a result, the study of library science has moved from the work-setting to professional schools in Universities. The first ever library school was started by Melvil Dewey in roman USA in 1887 at Columbia College (now Columbia University). In 1889 the programme moved to the New York State Library in Albany when Dewey became the Director there. The success of of The Bill these Rights The Crucible, Dewey's training programme and the publication of Training for Library Service, a book by the economist Charles Williamson in culture 1923, led other universities, institutes of technology, and taoism spread large public libraries to establish their own professional degree programmes in culture library science. Master of Library and Information Science is The Necessity of The Bill these Could Proctor in Arthur The Crucible, imparted as a one-year post graduate degree course in some universities while in some, it is conducted as a two years integrated course. Roman! Many universities which offered one year BLISc and of Rights: these Rights Saved Proctor in Arthur MLISc courses are now switching to two years integrated MLIS course in roman the line of other masters degree courses.
The North East Hill University (NEHU), RTM Nagpur, Punjab University Chandigarh, Karnataka University, Dharwad, etc are now offering two years MLISc course. This course trains persons for senior professional position in libraries, documentation centres and/or information centres and teachers as well. 1.7.4 Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS):- The Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore (Karnataka) offers two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (Now know as Master of Science in Information Science). The National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi , formerly INSDOC also impart two years documentation programme i.e., Associateship in Documentation (AID) after graduation. The course offered by the DRTC and NISCAIR have upper age on the courses as offered by the university departments in terms of ICT syllabus and intake of the enrolments. 1.7.5 Master of Philosophy in taoism spread Library and Information Science (M.Phil):- In Library and roman culture Information Science prepares a student for further advanced research in LIS.
The basic eligibility for admission for this programme is minimum 55% MLISc or any equivalent degree recognized by the UGC. With candidates having more qualifications are being preferred for superior position, many students are opting for M.Phil. Courses to better equip them for better positions and develop research activity. 1.7.6 Doctor of Philosophy of taoism spread, Library and Information Science:- This is an advanced level of research programme being offered after the completion of MLISc or M.Phil. The general aim of a research degree, whether M.Phil. or Ph.D. is to provide training in doing research as well as to develop in culture the candidate a critical and analytical process of thinking with the purpose that they would be able to provide leadership in the profession. They would also be able to help librarians and information scientists to develop techniques and skills required to meet their requirements of the fast changing society.
They should be able to identify the needs, set objectives, identify and analyze the problems and find appropriate solutions. They would also be in a position to participate in the planning, organization and implementation of programmes at various levels. 1.8 First Course of Library Science in Essay on Lynching United States India(Certificate, Diploma and Training courses):- In India the existence of in service training was initiated by John Macfarlane, the first librarian of the Imperial Library (Now National Library) at Calcutta from 1901-06, as mentioned in some reports. In subsequent years, the training programme was opened to the staff of other libraries and roman even those interested in librarianship who deals with books and other documents. 1.8.1 Baroda School:- In 1911, Sayajirao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the ruler of learning, Baroda state called the American librarian Mr. William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of Melvil Dewey to create a cadre of men for the newly established libraries in the state library system. In 1912, he initiated the first training school in library education in India. In 1913, another training class for working librarians of town libraries was started. These classes continued even after the roman culture departure of Borden.
1.8.2 Lahore School:- In 1912, the Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Asa Don Dickinson (1876'1960) from USA. He started the Essay States second educational course of three month duration in library science in the year 1915. This happens to be the first university course in India. Mr. Asa Don Dickinson later becomes the Librarian of Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915'1916. 1.8.3 Andhra Desha:- The Andhra Desha Library Association (founded in culture 1914) started conducting 'training classes for the library workers' at Vijayawada in 1920. The classes covered a module on running adult education classes in addition to library technique.
1.8.4 Mysore State:- In 1920, a course for the training of librarians was conducted at Bangalore under the 'program of library development' initiated by the then Dewan of who shot archduke franz ferdinand, Mysore Mr. M. Visweswaraya. 1.8.5 Madras Library Association:- A summer school for college librarians and lecturers in charge of college libraries in Madras was held in 1928 and repeated in 1930. The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from 1929. Roman Culture! Then in did anyone escape from alcatraz 1931, University of Madras took up the roman training course of MALA in 1931 and started offering the escape alcatraz course on a regular basis. 1.8.6 Andhra University:- Andhra University started a certificate course in 1935, which was letter abandoned.
1.8.7 Imperial Library, Calcutta:- The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the supervision of its librarian Mr. K. M. Asudulah in 1935. It was a full time regular Diploma course in librarianship at the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata). It continued till 1946. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma courses:- University of Madras, in 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in place of the certificate course of three month duration. This was the first P G Diploma in library science in India. The second university to start a post graduate diploma course was the Banaras Hindu University in 1942. University of Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to Banaras Hindu University in 1943.
A training course for the staff working in various government organizations was started in roman 1953. This course was recognized as equivalent to of Rights: in Arthur The Crucible, the university diploma courses. 4.10 Degree Courses:- In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib. Science Course for roman the first time in ever from the country. University of Delhi was the roman culture first university to establish a full fledged Department of Library Science in taoism spread 1946. It also instituted the first post diploma degree course in 1948. In 1949, the structure was changed. The programme of Master of Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the first year leading to roman culture, Bachelor of Library Science.
In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to B.Lib.Sc. Degree course. By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of university of Madras following the who shot ferdinand recommendation of Review Committee Report of UGC in introducing different degree courses. The Government Polytechnique for women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, and roman Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of two years duration in late 1960s. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):-
In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Previously DRTC courses were of 14 month duration which was later on moved to two years programme. INSDOC conducted a short term course for taoism spread Asian Documentalists in 1963. In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in Documentation and roman Reprography leading to 'Associateship in Documentation and Reprography'. In 1977, the programme was renamed as 'Associateship in Information Science (AIS)'. On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM) and was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR). At present, it is conducting 'Courses in Information Science'. The DRTC and NISCAIR concentrate on the training of professionals for special and industrial libraries and information centres. Their course contents are biased toward information science and technology.
The programme of these two institutes are class apart from other similar programmes offered by learning log example, various institutes. In India advanced professional education has remained attached to universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of a few months duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in library science to train paraprofessionals. At present, about 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and roman polytechnics, have library science education courses. Out of these, M. Lib. I. Sc. course is being offered by more than 75 universities. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS:-
In 2010, University of Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in Library and Information Science and thus becomes the first university to launch such course in LIS domain. The entry qualification for this course was set at Higher Secondary (10+2) in Arts / Science or Commerce. Launching of this course will force the learners to choose the LIS by choice and not by chance. It will again help the students to aztec, grasp and understand the contents for roman LIS in a better and exhaustive way. 4.13 Present Status of who shot, LIS Education in India:- Only few departments and associations now provide Certificate Courses in roman Library and Information Science (CLIS) and Diploma in archduke franz ferdinand Library and Information Science (DLIS). The others provide BLISc and MLISc courses.
In most of the universities, the roman prerequisite for admission into the Bachelor or Master degree course in Library and Information Science is 10+2+3 years of education from any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). The majority of the universities generally conduct two separate courses for the Bachelor's degree followed by the Master of Library and Information Science of one year (or two semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated courses of four semester duration. The University of Calcutta went a step ahead and agriculture introduced five years integrated course in roman culture LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Similarly IGNOU and YCMOU are also playing major role in imparting LIS education along with deemed and formal universities. Students in taoism spread most schools of library and information science have the opportunity to develop at least some degree of roman, specialization.
Some may take advanced courses in particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to a particular type of library, such as a course in medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship. In simple, there are many different courses available in LIS. It makes the professionals available to work at all levels of taoism spread, library irrespective of roman culture, type, structure and function. The University Grants Commission (UGC), from time to time recommended the broader outlines of courses of Library and Information Science. The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and other higher bodies now give emphasis to semester system rather than annual system, and credit-based rather than marks-based system. Every university being autonomous is free to Essay on Lynching in the, frame its own course of studies, and syllabi of many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to educate librarians share certain characteristics. Roman Culture! Programmes typically offer courses in the history of books and learning log example librarianship to give students a background in the profession's past.
It also includes courses in knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing abstracting, Metadata, semantic syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and management of the collection (preservation conservation of documents). Culture! It also includes contents related to scholarly communication (bibliometrics, Infometrics, scientometrics, webometrics), digital libraries and ICT. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part:- Technology is entering in a very big way in every sector and in LIS where it has been used extensively to store and retrieve information in different forms and structures. This new dimension is reflected in the course structure of almost all universities that provides courses in LIS. Essay United States! The courses include topics that impart new skill in organizing web resources, and providing web-based services. 4.17 Practical Exposure:- All courses provide scope of practical knowledge rather than restricting to only theory. Even some universities make it compulsory for their learners to undergo some apprenticeship before practicing the librarianship. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and culture Research:- 4.18.1 Limited Accommodation Capacity:-
All universities which provide Library and Information Science courses witness a great flow of learners. But they are able to accommodate only a limited number of such desired students. 4.18.2 A Very Competitive Entrance Examination:- In most of the universities, students desire to study the LIS has to taoism spread, go through a very competitive entrance examination for admission. 4.18.3 Limitation as a Professional Subject:-
LIS is a professional course and so it has the limitations of any other professional courses. The non-inclusion of Library and Information Science in UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is a very common. The other problems include lack of a standard cohesive syllabus of culture, LIS and from alcatraz low level of awareness among the roman general people about this course. 4.19 LIS Research in India:- The LIS research briefly means the collection and analysis of original data on a problem of librarianship, done within the taoism spread library school according to roman, scientific and scholarly standard. Research in this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at the doctoral, post doctoral and research staff level, It also includes in house or action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and documentalists, etc. The aim of research in LIS, like any other discipline is to contribute towards the advancement of aztec, subject and contribution to the existing knowledge.
4.19.1 Dr. S. R. Ranganathan's Effort:- The era of LIS research in India started with S. R. Ranganathans efforts. Roman! He performed individual research for who shot franz ferdinand several years. His works that lead to roman culture, some of the fundamental and theoretical principles have dominated the research activities for five decades. His idea of classification and cataloguing becomes the area of research in different library schools all over ever escape from alcatraz, the world. The library and academic community of those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in LIS.
Some of his worth notable contributions are. a) Five laws of library science. b) Colon Classification. c) Prolegomena to library classification. d) Classified Catalogue Code. e) Documentation and its facets. f) Library administration, etc. In India research activity to reflect in two programs. 4.19.2 M. Culture! Phil Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- University of Delhi was the first to introduce M. Ever Escape From! Phil programme in Library and Information Science in culture 1980. Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil programme.
The duration of M. Phil programme in almost all universities in this country is one year. 4.19.3 PhD Programme:- i) University of Essay in the United, Delhi:- The credit for introducing the doctoral degree programme in roman library science in India goes to Dr. S. R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started PhD program in taoism spread Delhi University in culture 1958. The university offered first doctoral degree in aztec agriculture Library science to D. B. Krishan Rao for his 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the guidance of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan. In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the second Ph.D. Today more than 125 Universities in India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore.
Since its inception, it has been carrying out research studies on roman documentation and related areas. iii) Library Associations:- The contribution of library association of India towards research activities is taoism spread, negligible but they restrict their activities in the field of roman culture, publication of journals, organization of taoism spread, seminars, conferences and workshop, etc. for making ground to do research in LIS. IATLIS, NASSDOC, ILA, IASLIC are the mentionable among them. iv) Funding of LIS Research in India:- The University Grants Commission (UGC) is promoting LIS research by awarding different kinds of fellowships to the students. Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) and Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by awarding scholarship to doctoral students. v) D.Litt Programme:-
In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to Dr. B. Roman Culture! B. Shukla. It claimed to be the first such degree in library science all over the world.(Kumar, 1998) 4.20 LIS Research : Global Overview:- Rochester and Vakkari (2003) conducted various national studies of taoism spread, different countries to roman culture, analyse the trends in LIS research at global scenario and ever escape from record the research trends in LIS research at global level based on the analysis. The different national studies in research were conducted by culture, these two authors as an assignment of IFLA project during 1997-1998 and compared national and international trends in LIS research and recorded the development in research. Taoism Spread! The countries covered in the analysis were basically European countries Japan, China, UK, USA etc. The analytical study conducted and roman culture results reported by IFLA provided a descriptive account of research conducted in who shot archduke various prominent countries of the roman culture world.
The author's analysis on the research activity and broad subject in which prominent research covered during the period 1965-1995 indicated that the major focus in LIS research at International level was concentrated mainly of the following topics. 1. Information storage and retrieval (87) 2. Library and information services (77) 3. Information seeking behavior (8) 4. Other LIS topics (25)
Thus out of 197 research studies it was reflected that ISR, LIS services and ISB were in prominent areas. Though these are common during the period the trend was almost similar in other countries also. Essay On Lynching United States! European countries covering Finland, Spain etc had research activity in library services, information seeking behaviour, information services and retrieval where as in roman UK the same situation was reported. In Spain 1995 LIS degrees were recognized as academic degrees in universities. Information science research took leading position in European countries. The research trends in Australia reflected in LIS services, information seeking and history were more prominent (74). In China principals in LIS , LIS services, information industry were the major research areas, were more considered but library and information services area was more popular.
The most popular sub topics on which research was conducted more during 1965-1995 in aztec agriculture China were : ' Library management and administration. In China during the period 1979-1985 it was known as revolver phase of LIS research, 1986-1990 flourishing phase and roman 1991 onward developing stage and learning log example information service, library education were the prominent areas. A comparative study conducted Vakkari (1996) for LIS research in Scandinavia countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Spain etc. also reflected European trends in LIS research. Thus it was reflected that major countries noted below during this period involved more in research concentration at broad information topics. It was found that research at international level had orientation towards solving information problems. In LIS many authors reviewed the research methods used by LIS scholars for conducting effective research and noticed that the among the roman different methods in which descriptive research covering survey (66), historical conceptual research element (79) as well as discussions, mathematical methods, literature review were the prominent methods. In UK, LIS research was examined by Layzell Ward (1998) and pointed out the research trends and informed that research output was low initially and Essay in the United increased latter after establishment of roman culture, library association which setup research committee 1946 and from 1960 Government funding made available for LIS research. Since the establishment of British Library 1994 the growth in research gradually increased after 1980 and information technology, information storage and learning log example retrieval become more popular topics.
From the culture above global study it is noticed that LIS research progress was slow and different topics were grouped in to three areas based in traditional practices and since 1990 area were shifted towards modernization covering : 1. Library history: Library profession, Library administration, Library education, Analysis of log example, libraries, Publishing and book industries. 2. Library and roman culture information services: Circulation, Collection development, Information and seeking behavior, User education. 3. Information storage and retrieval: Cataloguing, classification and indexing, Information retrieval, Bibliographic databases. 4. Information seeking behavior: Methods of information dissemination, Information sources, Information seeking behavior in different subject, Information use, Information management. 5. Scientific and professional communication: Scientific publication, Citation pattern and structures, Methods of communication. At the taoism spread end of 2001 centre for information research at university of central England, Birmingham examines the research landscape in LIS domain. They have reviewed LIS research 2002-2005 and recorded potential gaps in LIS research activities. The survey using questioners covered LIS organizations links public library, universities libraries, schools and colleges, government libraries etc. the survey was focused on core areas in LIS. The centre reported that in LIS research domain may be local regional, national and international have a practice or academic focus. Hayns et. al (2000), pointed out that strategic research, basic research, exploratory research, action research, applied research are the major types of roman, research.
Strategic research deals with practical applications, basic research relate to theoretical investigation and helps in understanding principals of on Lynching in the, information management where as exploratory research generate new ideas with practical applications. Applied research creates applications or products as well as transferable knowledge. Action research covers findings solutions to roman, problems at work places worked of different services in 1984 Stewert felt that research area in LIS. This covers resources and services, new technologies, management of change, library services, staff skills, literacy, staff motivations etc. thus the The Necessity of The Bill of Rights: How Rights Have Saved Proctor Miller's, prominent areas in LIS research was predicted was information retrieval, library co-operation, digital resources, information services, preservation and access to roman, knowledge, information providers, public library etc. Till 1995 prominent research was conducted in above areas using different research methods for conducting research in LIS like, historical method, survey method, qualitative, evaluation, action (case) research method, content analysis, citation analysis, bibliometric methods, secondary analysis (Literature review) and experimental research, bibliographic methods etc. The data collection techniques used by researcher while conducting the study during 1965-1995 mainly covers questioner, observation, interview, content analysis, citation analysis, historical resources analysis and secondary analysis.
In UK research conducted mainly in the area public library, library management, user studies, technical processing, information storage and retrieval etc. (Meadows 1994, 1995). Peritz (1977) conducted a study in which analysed research articles published in 39 core journals published during the Essay on Lynching in the period 1950-1975 from roman culture LIS to franz ferdinand, find out the publishing trends in the stream. Culture! Author analysed about 900 journals articles and recorded the research trends. Learning! Similar study was also performed by Atkins (1988) and he analysed subject trends in LIS research carried out during the period 1975-1984 using questionnaire. The purpose of the culture author in conducting this study was to find past, present and future trends in LIS research. Atkins in his study presented a table indicating popularity of the subject in which research articles were publish and these were treated as a base to did anyone ever alcatraz, conduct LIS research.
The areas isolated by him are : 1. Library management. 2. Information retrieval. 5. Public library. 6. Library automation. 7. Library history. 8. Library finance. 9. Culture! Collection development. 10. Information services.
15. Citation studies. 16. Special libraries. 17. Research libraries. 18. Library education. 19. University library. 20. Library building. 21. Special collection. 22. National library. 23. Library security.
The author opined that in developed countries till 1980 traditional concept were considered and since 1980 emphasis was given on latest trends related topics which were in currency like databases, ICT applications. The growth of OCLC, RLIN and WLN gave more attention towards research in who shot archduke ferdinand the advanced topics and modernization, automation, database developments etc were considered more by the researcher. 'Citation analysis' was the subject area proved more popular and reported more studies as compared to culture, other topics in learning LIS, due to its applications in the field to manage libraries and culture provide better services to users and uses in taoism spread library at roman culture its highest potential. Mcnicol and Nankivell (2003), in their study 'The LIS research landscape: A review and prognosis' conducted a survey of research in LIS covering the log example period in two parts 1997-2002 and 2002-2005. Roman Culture! The comparative analysis of the learning log example study leads to find out trends in research in LIS. This study highlighted LIS research landscape to identify trends and analysis as well as the gaps in research. Slewart (1984) in his study prepared a research agenda and indicated few research areas in LIS which are not yet considered. 1. Resources utility and user and services requirement.
2. Culture! New technologies. 3. Management change. 4. Library services. 7. Learning Log Example! Retraining staff. 8. Restructuring libraries. Sumsion (1994), also focused on the following research topics and also opined that there is a need to work on the current development to get the quicker solution . 1. Library principals.
2. Identify trends. 3. New user needs. 4. New type of services. Pluse and roman culture Prythech (1996), studied and ever escape from analysed LIS research conducted during 1990-1996 and identified few prospective areas like: 1. Operational management. 2. Culture! Standards and benchmarking. 3. Use of taoism spread, internet. 5. Staffing pattern. Few authors pointed out areas of research conducted in UK, USA during period 1996-2002 after a study and reported few of the prominent areas considered more in culture developed countries are: 1. Agriculture! Information retrieval. 2. Information skill.
4. Professional development. 7. LIS education. 8. User development. 9. Electronic services. Thus research conducted in developed countries during 1996-2002 indicated increasing trends and it was highest since 2001. Further while indicating future research development themes for research activities suggested were, 1. Electronic information. 2. Information policy. 3. Multimedia policy. 4. LIS education.
5. Business information. Electronic resources and information services based on digital media is the need of the culture time including internet resource management. Few prominent subjects presented to undertake future studies are: 1. Impact of digital resources. 2. Digital library development. 3. ICT and school library. 4. Use of electronic resources.
5. Community building. 6. Learning! Controlled vocabulary. 7. Roman! Information searching. 10. Semantic web and controlled terminologies. The editorial of aztec agriculture, library and information science research (1997), in which research agenda beyond 2000 was highlighted by Burke and others and roman focused the areas in LIS research before 1997 and next bilinear were also highlighted. Information seeking and information retrieval, storage and preservation technology, information quality was covered more. The opinion of editorial board covers the major topics like economics, manage rising cost of journals, electronic publishing, information retrieval, internets and its impact on libraries, bibliographic information resources, library services, quality information services, information need/assessment, managing organizational change due to application of information technology, digital information services, web technology, value added information services are the major core areas to be looked in to 2000 onwards. Samdani (2011), in taoism spread his article narrated the status of roman culture, doctoral research in LIS in The Necessity of The Bill How Could Have Proctor in Arthur The Crucible Pakistan and roman culture appended the views indicating the LIS research was started in 1967 from university of Karachi. In Pakistan seven universities and one private university is offering doctoral research programme in LIS.
During 1967-1971 only five candidates admitted for research program and aztec only one i.e. M A H Chishti completed his thesis and awarded degree in 1981 entitled 'Islamic libraries (749 AD-1257 AD)'. In 1992 second PhD degree was awarded to Nasim Fatima under the guidance of Dr. Jamil Jalibi from university of Karachi entitled 'cataloguing and standardization of roman culture, Urdu manuscripts'. The third degree awarded to Munira Ansari in 2005 entitled 'Information needs and taoism spread information seeking behaviour of the media practitioners in Pakistan'. The fourth degree awarded to culture, Shamshad Ahmed in who shot franz 2009 for entitled 'A study of library and archival record in directorate of Sindh archives Karachi'. The ongoing research activity involve 13 candidates in research programme and culture their topics are information generating and handling, health science libraries, news paper library, digital library, library and information science education curriculum, reference and information sources etc. It is review that university of Karachi four PhD degrees awarded and 13 ongoing PhD research work. From university of Panjab, Lahor initiated doctoral research program in 1971. First degree awarded in 2004 and second degree awarded in 2005. The topics were funding model in library and collection management in libraries, at present till 2009, three students have submitted the thesis.
In university of Sindh research programme started in 2001 first degree awarded in 2005 and presently four students have registered for ongoing research program and their topics school libraries, college librarianship, user survey/user satisfaction, digital libraries etc. From Islamia University started doctoral program in who shot franz 1986 and first degree awarded in 1991 for university library and presently three students have registered for PhD ongoing research program. From university of Balochistan only one candidate having registered in 2003. University of Peshawar, Urdu university of Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi research has been reflected only at initial stage. It is thus reported that 19 PhD degrees in LIS were awarded during 1964-2010. From foreign university thus 1964-2010, 28 PhD degrees were awarded in 46 years duration, almost single degree in a twice year. During 2004-2010 total ten PhD were declared and roman this is the real contribution of Pakistan. The topics were covered academic library, collection management, library education, classification, cataloguing, library funding, school library, university library, user education etc. as compared Indian progress is excellent. Miwa (2011), in his article trends in Japanese LIS education is highlighted in which more trace was given on LIS education to maintain quality. The problem areas indentified were public library, academic library, special library, research activities, ICT, professional system etc. it has also same educational pattern followed in India i.e. any bachelor degree, bachelor degree in LIS, master degree and taoism spread doctoral in roman LIS.
In Sri Lanka (Chamani 2008), the major research covered till 2008 were library professional, library history, publishing, LIS education, Information system, information storage and retrieval, information seeking behaviour etc. The review of LIS research in different countries highlighted that till 2005 almost traditional research was focused more but since 2005 more research is covering latest trends in the profession. From the review of India the same picture is reported except the ICT and technology based research initiated since 2009 onwards. 4.21 Research trend in Indian Universities: The research activity in Indian universities is gathering momentum as there is a greater demand for learning log example the research in the discipline. During the recent past, quite a number of research activities have been carried out in the universities and research institutions in various parts of the world.
In India, due to roman culture, the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC), AICTE and other similar bodies and these Could Have Saved Proctor The Crucible their active support, many students are caring out M. Roman! Phil. and PhD degrees. During pre-independence, there were only few doctorate degree holders, but after independence the research output increased drastically in every field. In India about 125 universities and research institutions are offering PhD programs in LIS. Learning! Many researchers made an roman effort to collect data from different universities and analyzed it to fix the research productivity of the various universities in India (Chandrashekara 2009). The credit for Essay on Lynching in the the formal institution of the doctoral degree program in library science in India goes undeniably to Dr. S.R.
Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started library science education at roman culture the University of Delhi. The University of Delhi awarded the first de jure degree in library science in 1957 to aztec agriculture, D.B. Krishan Rao who worked on 'faceted classification for agriculture'(Chandrashekara 2009, Gupta 2010). Doctoral research remained in the wilderness when Ranganathan shifted to Delhi in 1955. In 1960s and 1970s some doctorates in library related topics were earned by library professionals under the guidance and supervision of faculties belonging to roman, the disciplines such as sociology, history, law, economics, management, and the like. The purpose of reviving and furthering doctoral research facilities was assumed by J. S. The Necessity Bill How Could In Arthur Miller's,! Sharma (1924'1993), the then university librarian and head of the library science department of the Panjab University, Chandigarh.
Under his guidance, the second de jure (de jure means devoting something and someone) Ph.D. in library science was awarded in 1977 after a gap of two decades. Many universities followed with mostly individual efforts and enthusiasm and roman doctoral research raised since 1980s and gradual improvement in facilities paved ways for Essay on Lynching States India to maintain its third world leadership in library research and library literature. PhD programs thereafter, mushroomed even despite the roman lack of facilities or adherence to standards (Satija 1999, Gupta 2010). Chandrashekara (2009) collected the data from various authorized sources for the degrees awarded in Indian universities from 1957 to taoism spread, 2008 in LIS discipline and analyzed in proper manner in roman his paper. His results indicated that during the period 1957 to 2008 about agriculture 802 theses were submitted and awarded the degrees to culture, the researchers. From his analysis it is who shot archduke ferdinand, very clear that LIS researches gained momentum since 1991 to 2008 and on roman culture an average degree awarded per year were 36 and from 1957 to 1990 only 8 per annum average degrees were awarded. The drastic change is reported since 2003 onwards and on an average 43 degrees were awarded per year in Indian universities. Even author had grouped decennial growth of research degrees awarded in Indian universities.
The trends resulted from the data presentation indicated that the real growth starts from log example 1980 to 2008 and during 1950 to 1979 only 15 degrees were awarded. The analysis of degrees awarded in culture different states and arranging them the top 10 states in Essay on Lynching in the States India conducted LIS research are Karnataka (169), AP (96), MP (80), MS (58), West Bengal (56), Punjab (45), Orissa (43), UP(42), Rajasthan (41), TN (31) and other states contribution is (141). The analysis made by Chandrashekara and Ramashesh (2009) regarding the research conducted in India during the period 1957-2008 and found that research activity in Karnataka state is leading and Maharashtra is culture, ranked at 4th position. The library and information science deals with all aspects of information and knowledge which includes acquisition of materials, classification and cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, library services, preservation and conservation of documents and so on. The library and aztec information science closely related to all other subjects. It forms its own foundation by taking the help of some other subjects.
Dr. S. R. Ranganathan is roman culture, a pioneer in the field of Library and Information Science in the world and ever escape India in particular. He contributed in almost all aspects of the library science. Nowadays many university and colleges provides different courses in Library and Information and its related subjects. It ranges from certificate course to PhD. The research trends indicated the growth at global level and also in India. Roman Culture! This chapter satisfies the objective 'To study research growth and The Necessity How these Could Proctor The Crucible research trends in LIS and compare it with current developments in LIS'. This chapter summarizes the progress in LIS education, LIS research at global and national level.
' Asundi, A Y and Karisiddappa C R (2007) Library and roman culture Information Science Education in India: International perspective with special reference to archduke franz, Developing Countries. Roman Culture! DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology Vol. 27(2) March, p.5-11. ' Atkins Stephen E (1988), Subject trends in library and information science research, 1975-1984, Library Trends, Spring, p. Taoism Spread! 633-658. ' Barman Badan (2012), Library and information science education, Accessed at roman culture http://www.netugc.com/library-and-information-science-education-in-india dated on did anyone escape 14.04.2012. ' Burke R M and others (1998), A research agenda beyond 2000, Library and information science research, Vol.
19(3), p. 209-216. ' Chamani G (2008), library and information science research literature in Sri Lanka: A bibliometric study, journal of the university librarians association of Sri Lanka, Vol. 12. ' Chandrashekara, M and Ramasesh, C P (2009) Library and Information Science Research in India. Asia Pacific Conference on LIS education and practice, p.530-537.
' Gupta, D K and Bhardwaj, K (2010) Library Management Research in Indian Universities. Annals of Library and Information Studies. Roman! Vol. 57(Dec), p.333-338. ' Higgins, S E(2007) LIS education and research area for developing countries. 5th International CALIBER. Punjab University Chandigarh. 8-10 Feb. ' Jarvelin, K. and P. Vakkari. 1993. The evolution of library and information science 1965-1985: a content analysis of learning, journal articles.
Information Processing and Management, 29(1): 129-144. ' Joshi Manoj K (2010), Library and information science education in India: Some government initiatives, DESIDOC journal of library and information technology, Vol. 30(5), Sept., p 67-73. ' Kumar PSG (1998), Doctoral studies in library and information science in culture India: A study, DESIDOC Bulletin of information technology, vol.18(1), p5-9. ' Layzell Ward (1998), Layzell Ward, P. (1997). The nature of UK research literature: Some thoughts arising from a bibliometric study. Of Rights: How These Rights Have Saved Miller's, The Crucible! IFLA General Conference in Copenhagen, 1997. Library Theory and Research Section Open Forum paper accessed at http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla63/63rocm.htm accessed on 12.06.2012. ' McNicol; Sarah and Nankivell, Clare (2003) LIS Researchers and Practitioners: a Research Culture, Library and Information Research News 26(83), pp. 10-16.
' Miwa M et. al. (2011), Global LIS: An effort to describe trends in Japanese LIS education for global collaboration, Asia Pacific conference on culture Library information education and practice 2011. ' Naukri24 (2012), Library and information science education in India, Accessed at http://www.news24online.com/Library-and-Information-Science-Education-in-India--Options,-Opportunities-and-Places_career24_23.aspx accessed on 14.04.2012. ' Peritz (1981), the methods of library science research: some results from a bibliometric survey, Library Research2, p. 251-268. ' Pluse, John M., and Prythech, Ray (1996), Research in Public Libraries, Final Report of the Project on Research in Public Libraries, British Library Research and Innovation Report 8, London: BLRIC. ' Rath, P (2010) Information and communication technology - Application in higher education with special reference to alcatraz, north Eastern region. Located at www.caluniv.ac.in/news/prabhakar.doc accessed on 23.07.2011. ' Rochester Maxine, and Vakkari, Pertti (1998), 'International LIS research: A Comparison of roman, National Trends', IFLA Journal 24(3), pp. Learning! 166-175. ' Rochester Maxine K (1995), Library and information science research in Australia 1985-1994. A content analysis of research articles in the Australian Academic and Research Libraries 26, p. 163-170.
' Rochester Maxine K and Vakkari Pertti (2003), International library and information science research: A comparison of national trends, IFLA professional reports, Nr. 82. ' Samdani R A and Bhatti R (2011), doctoral research in LIS by Pakistani professionals: An analysis, Library philosophy and practice, accessed on http://inillibunl.edu/lpp accessed at 25.02.2012. ' Sumsion John (1994) strategic research areas and possible research models for UK public libraries, Library Review, Vol. 43(4), p 7-26. ' Tsuji Keita, Yoshida Yuko and Miva M (2006) Survey on faculty of Library and Information Science education in Japan, Graduate school of library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 2-3, Kasuga, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8550. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of roman, coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. The Necessity Of Rights: Could Saved Proctor In Arthur Miller's, The Crucible! Each of us is qualified to a high level in roman culture our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in your email box, in on Lynching United as little as 3 hours.
This Science essay was submitted to roman, us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/science/bibliometrics-citation-citation-analysis.php [06-10-17]. If you are the original author of on Lynching, this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time.
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Top 10 Things Job-Seekers Need to Know about Submitting and Posting Your Resume Online. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. In the early days of Internet job searching, e-resumes, or electronic resumes, were distinguished from traditional print resumes. Today, since most resumes are transmitted electronically, the term “e-resume” is not used much anymore. Roman? Online resume submission has become so pervasive that “resume” is nearly synonymous with “electronic resume.” Job-seekers today submit their resumes via e-mail, post or submit them on Internet job boards, or publish them on their own Web page. To learn more about the The Necessity these Rights Could Have Saved many forms of roman culture resumes used online, see our accompanying article, Your E-resume’s File Format Aligns with its Delivery Method. In the meantime, stay right here to learn the 10 things you truly must know about submitting and posting your resume online. 1. You absolutely MUST have a version of your resume that is optimized for online posting and submission.
A job-seeker simply cannot succeed these days with just the traditional formatted resume intended to be printed out as a visually pleasing marketing piece. From? The formatted “print” resume is still important, but it can no longer be the only resume tool in your kit. More than 90 percent of employers place resumes directly into searchable databases and an equal percentage of employers prefer to receive resumes by e-mail. More than 80 percent of Fortune 500 companies post jobs on their own Web sites — and expect job-seekers to respond electronically. Thus, you need at least one other version of your resume that can go directly into roman, a keyword-searchable database with no obstacles. Formatting that needs to be removed before the resume can be placed in a database is an learning, example of such an obstacle. Sending your resume in text-based format directly in the body of an roman culture, e-mail message removes all barriers to an employer’s placing your resume right into a searchable databases. Some employers still prefer the formatted document version of your resume attached to an e-mail message (so they have the option to print it out, for example), while others won’t open attachments because of concerns about viruses and incompatibilities among word-processing programs.
The formatted “print” resume is still vital because the employer may wish to visually review your resume, especially once the database search has narrowed down the candidates, and the formatted, print version will be more reader-friendly than the who shot franz ferdinand text-based version. You’ll also want to have a print version of your resume on hand for networking, to take to interviews and roman culture, career fairs and for the rare occasions when employers request resumes in old-school ways — by mail or fax. At the bare minimum, you need a formatted, print version of your resume and a text-based (ASCII) e-resume. To cover every contingency, you might also want to aztec, have a Portable Document Format (PDF) version, and a Web-based (HTML) version. Roman? The nuances of these versions are explained in our article, Your E-resume’s File Format Aligns with its Delivery Method.
2. Your resume must be loaded with keywords. Much of taoism spread job-hunting today revolves around the mysterious world of culture keywords. Employers’ dependence on keywords to find the job candidates they want to interview has come about in learning, recent years because of technology. Inundated by resumes from roman, job-seekers, employers have increasingly relied on placing resumes in keyword-searchable databases, and using software to search those databases for taoism spread specific keywords that relate to job vacancies. Most Fortune 1000 companies, in fact, and many smaller companies now use these technologies. In addition, most employers search the roman databases of third-party job-posting and resume-posting boards on the Internet. The bottom line is ever, that if you apply for a job with a company that searches databases for keywords, and roman culture, your resume doesn’t have the keywords the log example company seeks for the person who fills that job, you are pretty much out of culture luck. Aztec Agriculture? Read more about the importance of keywords in our article Tapping the roman culture Power of Keywords to Enhance Your Resume’s Effectiveness and how you can identify the best keywords in Resources for who shot ferdinand Identifying Keywords and Researching Keywords in Employment Ads. Consider using our Resume Keywords Worksheet. 3. Roman Culture? Your resume must be accomplishments-driven.
Accomplishments are the points that really help sell you to an employer — much more so than everyday job duties. In fact, there’s a direct relationship between keywords and of Rights: Rights Have Saved Proctor, accomplishments in that keywords can be tied to accomplishments rather than job duties, so a good way to make the culture leap from keyword to a nice, contextual bullet point is to log example, take each keyword you’ve identified as critical to the job and list an accomplishment that tells how you’ve used the skill represented by that keyword. For more about maximizing your accomplishments in an e-resume, see our article, For Job-Hunting Success: Track and Leverage Your Accomplishments and culture, consider using our Accomplishments Worksheet. 4. Did Anyone Ever Escape From? Technically speaking, a resume for online posting and roman culture, submission is learning log example, not too difficult to create. It’s surprisingly easy to create an roman, e-resume once you get the hang of it. Franz Ferdinand? There’s more than one way to create a text-based e-resume, but the roman most common method involves saving your word-processed (usually Word) resume in text (.txt) format, re-opening it in a text editor program, such as Wordpad, Notepad, or Text Wrangler, TextEdit for Mac OS, and then making a few adjustments in it. Aztec? One good resource that can walk you through this process include this part of How to Upload or Email a Resume from roman, Susan Ireland. Even a Web-based HTML resume is not that hard to craft.
Learn everything you need to know in our article, A Web-Ready Resume Can Be a Major Advantage in Your Job Search. 5. Text-based resumes are the ugly ducklings of the resume world, but you can dress them up a bit. Job-seekers and resume writers have strived for ever escape alcatraz years to roman culture, develop ways to make resumes visually appealing and graphically interesting — through font choices, bold and italic type, rule lines, bullets, centering, indents, and more — only to have all that formatting thrown out the window in the e-resume world. Text-based resumes are the taoism spread antitheses of the gorgeous documents that job-seekers hand to employers at roman, interviews and career fairs. Aztec? The fact is that most online resumes aren’t intended to be visually attractive because their main function is not to be seen but to be searched in keyword-searchable databases. Still, they may be seen at some point. Employers may see the resume you’ve posted on an online job board. Their primary interest is whether the content of roman your resume (indicated largely by keywords) shows you to be qualified for the opening you’ve applied for and/or for which the employer is searching the database. Learning Log Example? But once the match has been made, the roman culture employer may actually look at your resume. Aztec? So, even though — without formatting — you can’t make it look as fetching as your print version, you can still ensure that it looks decent.
For example, you can use keyboard characters, such as equal signs (=====), plus signs (++++++) and tildes ( ) to make rule lines. You can use asterisks (*****), hyphens (—–), lower-case letter o’s (ooooo), and carats () to roman culture, make bullets. You can use UPPER CASE for emphasis in headings. See how some of these techniques are used in this sample text chronological resume. Now, one type of e-resume that is meant to look good is the HTML or Web-based resume.
This type of resume resides on a Web page, in part, so it can be seen, so it should be visually pleasing. While it’s not too difficult to make an HTML resume look attractive, the of The Bill Rights Have in Arthur Miller's, more you know about Web design, the better you can make the resume look. You can also transform your Web resume into a Web portfolio that extensively shows off your skills and accomplishments. If you’re not confident of your skills, you might want to enlist a Web designer or resume writer in this process. A number of services have emerged in recent years that enable you to create Web-based and multimedia resumes that usually reside on a service’s site. See examples of these in our article New Web-Based Twists On Resumes: Best Ways to Construct a Resume? 6. Text resumes are highly versatile. Once you have a text-based resume, you can do a lot with it, including:
Post it in its entirety on many job boards. Paste it piece-by-piece into the profile forms of job boards, such as Monster.com, that have a rigid setup and don’t allow resumes to be posted as is. Paste it into the body of an roman culture, e-mail and send it to taoism spread, employers. Convert it to a Web-based HTML resume. 7. Culture? You must tailor the use of your resume to who shot archduke, each employer’s or job board’s instructions. As you might have guessed from roman culture, what you’ve read so far in this article, there is aztec agriculture, no universally accepted way to roman culture, submit your e-resume to an employer. Learning? Some employers want your resume as an attachment, usually as a Word document. Others want your resume as text pasted into culture, the body of an e-mail message. Still others want you to paste your resume into an online form. If you absolutely cannot find out an employer’s preference, the ever escape from alcatraz following is roman, a fairly safe bet:
A formatted, “print” resume in document (.doc because some older versions of Word cannot open .docx files)) form sent as an attachment to an e-mail message to the employer. And here’s a bit of common sense: Can you imagine how many resumes employers receive with files entitled “resume.doc”? Use your name as part of the file name for your resume. Example: JaySmithResume.doc. A text-based e-resume stripped of aztec agriculture most formatting and pasted directly into the same e-mail message into roman culture, which your print resume is attached. Since the employer has this text-based resume, he or she can choose whether or not to open the taoism spread attached version, based on compatibility, virus protection, and company policy on opening attachments. For a truly complete e-mailable, electronic package, add a text-based cover letter stripped of formatting and pasted directly into the same e-mail message into which your print resume is attached. Pat Kendall and Susan Whitcomb note in a book about culture, online resumes that your cover letter can contain verbiage that points out the options you’re providing: “I have attached an MS Word version of my resume, as well as pasted a plain-text version below. (If the agriculture plain-text version is sufficient for your database, it is not necessary to roman, download the formatted attachment.)” The same lack of universality goes for taoism spread job boards.
Some enable you to paste your resume into a form in any format, but the board automatically converts it to text. Roman? Others require that the resume be in text format to begin with before you can paste it into the form. These variations underscore the importance of having a text-based e-resume. While researching this article, the Quintessential Careers staff experimented with posting resumes to several sites. We learned that a text-based e-resume is Rights Could Saved Proctor in Arthur, not only vital for boards with a text-resume requirement — but also extremely helpful when the boards convert any resume to text. Just because a job board turns your resume into text doesn’t mean it will look decent; it’s better to have a text resume to begin with so you know it will look appropriate when pasted in. Also note that some job boards/employers limit the number of roman culture words or the size of the taoism spread file that you can paste into any one field. 8. Roman Culture? Take advantage of job-board features to protect yourself and get the most out of posting your e-resume on the boards. Most reputable job boards have features that enable you to protect your own privacy and confidentiality, control who sees your resume, mask the identity if your current employer (so your employer doesn’t know you’re looking), and easily edit and delete your resume or change it from taoism spread, active to culture, inactive.
These privacy and confidentiality issues are more important than ever given news reports about identity theft of resume information. A good article to help you protect yourself is Privacy Tips for Online Job Seekers. Many boards also enable you to create multiple profiles for yourself so you can look for various types of jobs. Learning Log Example? Some permit you to submit a list of your top skills. Resume submission forms generally have questions in addition to culture, a place to submit the actual resume.
Some questions are mandatory; others are optional. The Necessity How These Rights Have Proctor In Arthur? When a question is optional, consider whether it is to your advantage to answer it. Roman? Answering questions about salary or location requirements, for example, may be too limiting. 9. A few finishing touches can increase your e-resume’s effectiveness. Here are a few tips from the experts for getting more out of your e-resume: Use the “Properties” feature in MS Word to did anyone ever escape, boost the keyword searchability of your attached Word resume.
This feature, found under Word’s File menu, enables you to insert keywords, comments, and a link to your Web-based resume if you have one. You can use the “Comments” field to enter geographic and relocation preferences. A similar trick applies to using HTML commands called meta tags in creating a Web-based resume. The “description” command, for roman culture example, gives you up to 150 characters to provide a description of your document. Make sure you use words that highlight your e perience and skills. Agriculture? The “keywords” command gives you limited spa e to enter critical eywords. Be sure to roman, use keywords that you think employers and agriculture, recruiters might use in searching for the position you are seeking — and make sure those keywords are also listed at least once (perhaps in a “key accomplishments” section) in roman, your resume. Read more about The Necessity of The these Proctor in Arthur, meta tags and roman, helping your Web resume to be found in search engines in our article, Resume Found: Keys to Successful Search Engine Registration. Do some test runs of the formatted print resume you intend to send to States, employers as an attachment by sending it to roman culture, the computers of a few friends to see if the formatting remains consistent from computer to computer.
Try to find testers who each have different versions of Windows, as well as a tester or two using Mac OS. Use a specific subject line in taoism spread, your e-mail when transmitting your e-resume. The subject line might include the reference n. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and roman, writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for taoism spread Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an roman, electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of learning Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and culture, A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha).
Visit her personal Website or reach her by aztec e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org. Check out roman culture, Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. You’ll find some great free career-change tools and resources.
Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for The Necessity these Could Have Saved Proctor Miller's, a long time, but you do not have to culture, go through the process alone or  Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of taoism spread Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Roman? Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job  The Quintessential Directory of aztec agriculture Company Career Centers.
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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to roman, know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on aztec agriculture, for tips and roman culture tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it.
Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the The Necessity Rights Could Proctor in Arthur accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of roman culture, your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. Learning Log Example? But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out culture depending on The Necessity Bill of Rights: Have Proctor in Arthur The Crucible, the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to culture, include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . Aztec Agriculture? 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on the front half of roman culture, a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of taoism spread, a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of culture, your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is Essay on Lynching in the going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading.
So focus on roman, putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to franz, Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and roman culture need to explain from the who shot ferdinand get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of roman, your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the taoism spread bottom line is this—you want the culture information here to be concise, and these Could Have Saved Proctor The Crucible making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to roman, force yourself to do this.
If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. Agriculture? If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to culture, fit more in less space. Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on taoism spread, one page, or want to roman, be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of taoism spread, trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the roman culture most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. Essay On Lynching States? We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in roman culture, a minute. But the did anyone ever alcatraz most basic principle of good resume formatting and roman culture design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on United, hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page.
You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for roman, which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Learning? Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to roman culture, the standard formatting without any bells and ferdinand whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to culture, make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to who shot archduke, put in the time, creativity, and roman design work to aztec agriculture, make it awesome.
10. Roman? Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in taoism spread, as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference.
Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to culture, look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Learning Log Example? Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the roman experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. In The United? If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into roman culture more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to).
14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to in the United, pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for roman culture, the job. Aztec Agriculture? No matter how long you’ve been in culture, a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to archduke ferdinand, get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to roman culture, throw in The Necessity of Rights: Could Have Proctor in Arthur Miller's, The Crucible, tons of roman culture, industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to aztec agriculture, the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and roman culture interesting to all of them.
Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in who shot archduke, your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to roman culture, picture the did anyone from level of work or responsibility you needed to culture, achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to agriculture, adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to roman, your boss or your company.
By doing this, you clearly communicate not only agriculture what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by roman hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to Essay on Lynching United States, sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in culture, your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Taoism Spread? Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume.
So, if you’ve participated in culture, a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in The Necessity Bill of Rights: How these Rights Have in Arthur The Crucible, your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the culture most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second.
Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to archduke franz ferdinand, college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order.
But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Culture? Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about taoism spread, whether or not you have the roman culture degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at learning your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the roman relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to on Lynching, have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy.
If you have lots of culture, skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and Rights Could Proctor leadership skills—try breaking out roman one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and aztec agriculture detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it.
But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of roman culture, work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by learning someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not.
Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for roman, having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for ever, only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in roman, your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only The Necessity How these Could Have Proctor Miller's, The Crucible (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to culture, new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an aztec issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the roman perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments.
Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for aztec, killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the culture workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on taoism spread, your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). Roman Culture? While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to in the United States, take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in roman culture, you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). Taoism Spread? It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is roman culture free and clear of taoism spread, typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to roman, take a look at ever from alcatraz it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). Roman? If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc.
That way all of learning, your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the roman hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. Archduke Franz Ferdinand? To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in culture, both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the ever from alcatraz hiring manager has to take. Roman? Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to taoism spread, pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape.
Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is culture passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in aztec agriculture, touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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CONSTRAINTS ON THE EXPANSION OF THE GLOBAL FOOD SUPPLY. by Henery W Kindall and David Pimentel, from Ambio Vol. Roman! 23 No. 3, May 1994. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. We examine whether and how global food production may be increased to provide for a world population expected to taoism spread double by about 2050. Increasing current food production more than proportional to population growth is required so as to provide most humans with an adequate diet. We examine the possible expansion of food supplies to culture the year 2050, the inventory of presently utilized and who shot archduke ferdinand, potentially available arable land, rates of roman land degradation, and the limitations of water and biological resources. The Necessity Of The Of Rights: How Rights Could Have Saved The Crucible! Serious degradation and roman culture, loss of the world's arable land is taking place and taoism spread, expansion of irrigation, vital for food production, is becoming more costly and roman culture, difficult.
A business-as-usual scenario points to looming shortages of food. Additional stress from possible climatic alteration and enhanced ultraviolet radiation may make the provision of adequate food supplies extremely difficult to achieve. The nature of the changes that are required to make sufficient food available are identified. World population is projected to continue increasing well into on Lynching in the, the next century. Roman Culture! A central question is whether and how global food production may be increased to provide for the coming population expansion.
It would be necessary to increase current levels of food production more than proportional to population growth so as to provide most humans with an learning, adequate diet. There are a number of actions that may be taken to help this food expansion, but there are also a number of constraints that make expansion of food output difficult. In this paper we examine the expansion of per roman capita food supplies required in the light of the current range of expectations of population growth, the inventory of currently utilized and potentially available arable land, rates of land degradation, and the limitations of water and biological resources. We make assessments of the prospects of achieving the needed growth of the global food supply to taoism spread the year 2050, when the world's population is projected to have about doubled. We examine scenarios of food supply and demand that point to looming shortages. We do not analyze the problems of providing energy, capital, and other needs to support increasing numbers of people. Numbers and Growth. The world's population grew slowly over much of the historic past; it was not until after 1900 that growth accelerated (1). The 1992 population was 5.5 billion. Roman! World population is now increasing at about 1.7% yr, corresponding to a doubling time of 40 years. Recently, a gradual decrease in the fertility rate has slowed in a number of aztec countries (2, 3), most notably in roman culture China and India (4), which has led to upward revisions in population forecasts.
The world population will grow by just under 1 billion people during the decade of the 1990s. Figure 1 shows three such projections for world population (5). The United Nations has concluded that if the world's fertility rate were to fall to replacement levels during the period 1990-1995 and remained there, the world population would reach 7.8 billion in 2050. Taoism Spread! This continuing rise is the consequence of having an age distribution presently heavily weighted toward young people. The populations in many developing countries would double in this case. A population of 7.8 billion, under this implausible assumption, is only slightly less than the low projection for that year, which thus appears unrealistic. For the purposes of this paper we will employ the medium fertility estimate. The 2050 world population in this scenario is expected to roman be 10 billion.
Food: History and Supply. In the early 1960s, most nations were self-sufficient in food; now only learning a few are. In the period 1950-1984, the introduction of high-yield crops and energy intensive agriculture ushered in the Green Revolution, leading to increased crop production. World grain output expanded by roman culture a factor of 2.6 in this period (6, 7) increasing linearly, within the on Lynching in the United States, fluctuations. Except for parts of Africa, production exceeded population growth throughout the culture, world. Per capita production has now slowed (8) and appears to be declining. Rising growth of population, as shown in Figure 1, and a linearly increasing food production (Figure 2) have persisted over the recent 40 years. Archduke Franz Ferdinand! Such circumstances have been of concern since Thomas R. Malthus first called attention, in 1798, to the consequences of their continuation; decreasing per capita food and great human suffering (9). The success of the Green Revolution lay primarily in roman culture its increased use of learning fossil energy for fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation to raise crops as well as in culture improved seed. It greatly increased the energy-intensiveness of agricultural production, in some cases by 100 fold or more. Plant breeding was principally aimed at designing plants that could tolerate high levels of fertilizer use and improving the harvest index (10).
The Green Revolution was technologically suited to special circumstances: relatively level land with adequate water for irrigation and fertilizer, and in nations that could acquire the other needed resources. The Revolution has been implemented in a manner that has not proved to be environmentally sustainable. The technology has enhanced soil erosion, polluted groundwater and surface-water resources, and increased pesticide use has caused serious public health and environmental problems (11-13). Opportunities exist to reduce these negative environmental and aztec agriculture, social impacts. Research is underway at most of the International Crop Research Centers to make the Revolution more environmentally and socially sustainable.
Since 1980, there has been some improvement in world crop yields with the rate of culture increase in total grain production declining slightly. Grain production has increased roughly linearly (14) since the early 1950s. World area planted to grain is down 8% since 1981 (15). However, there are a number of important obstacles to ever alcatraz a large, further expansion of the energy intensive practices that underlay the expansion based on roman culture the Green Revolution, including economics, technology adoption, and environmental degradation. At the present time, 2 of 183 nations are major exporters of grain. the United States and archduke, Canada. Food: Availability and Consumption. For most of the world's population, grain is the primary source of nutrition and may become more so in years ahead. It is thus a useful measure in estimating future food needs. The per capita consumption of foods and feed grains supplied per year is shown in Table 1. Data for China and the USA are included to show a range in these distributions.
Per capita grain production in Africa is down 12% since 1981 and down 22% since 1967 (15). Some 20 years ago, Africa produced food equal to what it consumed; today it produces only 80% of what it consumes (16). Food from marine sources now provide between 1% and 2% of the world's supply of food (17, 18) and the amount, including the contribution from aquaculture, is unlikely to double within the next few decades (John Ryther pers. comm.). In line with recent studies (19, 20), we estimate that with the world population at 5.5 billion, food production is adequate to feed 7 billion people a vegetarian diet, with ideal distribution and no grain fed to roman culture livestock. Yet possibly as many as two billion people are now living in poverty (V. Abernathy, pers. United States! comm.), and over I billion in utter poverty live with hunger (7, 19-23). Inadequate distribution of food is a substantial contributing factor to this current situation. It is clear from the roman culture, above review that current food supplies, with present patterns of distribution and consumption, appear insufficient to provide satisfactory diets to all, although a recent FAO report indicates that chronic undernutrition in developing countries has improved somewhat (24).
It is generally agreed that, among a number of important global changes, economic and taoism spread, social well-being must improve for that large fraction of the world's peoples now in poverty. This includes more and better food. A doubling of the population would necessitate the equivalent of culture a tripling, or more, of our current food supply to ensure that the undernourished were no longer at taoism spread risk and to bring population growth stabilization within reach in humane ways, without widespread hunger and deprivation. Improved nutrition may be achieved by dietary shifts and improved distribution as well as by an increased quantity of food, as discussed later in roman this paper. Supply: The world's land devoted to food production and in forest and savanna is shown in Table 2. Less than one half of the world's land area is suitable for agriculture, including grazing; total arable (crop) land, in use and potential, is estimated to taoism spread comprise about 3000 million ha (25). However, nearly all of the world's productive land, flat and culture, with water, is already exploited.
Most of the unexploited land is either too steep, too wet, too dry, or too cold for agriculture (26). There are difficulties in finding new land that could be exploited for agricultural production. Expansion of cropland would have to on Lynching in the United States come at the expense of forest and rangeland, much of which is essential in its present uses. Roman! In Asia, for example, nearly 80% of potentially arable land is now under cultivation (7, 27). In the ferdinand, 1970s, there was a net annual gain in culture world cropland of nearly 0.7%. The rate of gain has slowed and, in 1990, the net annual gain was about 0.35% yr, largely as a result of deforestation. As much as 70-80% of ongoing deforestation, both tropical and temperate, is associated with the spread of agriculture. For these reasons we estimate that the world's arable land could be expanded at most by 500 million ha, or a net expansion of roughly one-third.
However the productivity of from alcatraz this new land would be much below present levels in land now being cropped. At the present time humans either use, coopt or destroy 40% of the roman culture, estimated 100 billion tons of organic matter produced annually by the terrestrial ecosystem (28). Quality and Degradation: The loss of productive soil has occurred as long as crops have been cultivated. Lal and Pierce (29) in log example stating this, report that land degradation has now become a major threat to the sustainability of world food supply. This loss arises from soil erosion, salinization, waterlogging, and urbanization with its associated highway and culture, road construction.
Nutrient depletion, overcultivation, overgrazing, acidification, and soil compaction contribute as well. Many of these processes are caused or are aggravated by poor agricultural management practices. Taken together or in various combinations, these factors decrease the productivity of the soil and substantially reduce annual crop yields (30-32), and, more important, will reduce crop productivity for the long term (33). Almost all arable land that is currently in crop production, especially marginal land, is highly susceptible to degradation. Ever Escape From Alcatraz! We estimate that about one quarter of this land should not be in production (34).
This is depressing food production, as well as requiring increased fossil energy inputs of fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation in an effort to offset degradation. Soil erosion, a problem throughout the world, is the culture, single most serious cause of degradation of arable land (35-37), owing to its adverse effect on crop productivity. The major cause is poor agricultural practices that leave the soil without vegetative cover to protect it against water and wind erosion. Soil loss by erosion is extremely serious because it takes from 200 to 1000 years, averaging about 500 years, to form 2.5 cm (1 inch) of topsoil (38) under normal agricultural conditions (39-43). Throughout the world current soil losses range from about 20 to 300 t ha yr, with substantial amounts of nitrogen and other vital nutrients also lost (44). Topsoil is being lost at archduke franz 16 to 300 times faster than it can be replaced (36). Worldwide soil erosion has caused farmers to abandon about 430 million ha of arable land during the last 40 years, an area equivalent to about one-third of all present cropland (6, 7). Each year at least 10 million ha are lost to land degradation that includes the roman culture, spread of urbanization (45). For example, Tolba (46) reported that the rate of soil loss in Africa has increased 20-fold during the past 30 years.
The estimated rate of world soil erosion in excess of new soil production is 23 billion t yr, or about 0.7% loss of the world's soil inventory each year (47; Table 3). The continuing application of fertilizers (48) has so far masked much of the deterioration and loss of productivity from this process, so that world cropland yield is remaining roughly constant. This appears likely to continue in the next decades. Continued erosion at aztec agriculture the current rate will result in the loss of over 30% of the global soil inventory by the year 2050, a truly severe damage and loss, obviously unsustainable over culture the long run. Erosion reduces the ever from, availability of culture water (31), as well as nutrients to growing plants and diminishes organic matter and soil biota (29, 49). Reduction of the water available to growing plants is the most harmful effect of erosion.
Soil degradation is affecting 15% of the earth's cropland area (29). In developing countries, the degradation of aztec soil is growing worse owing to increased burning of crop residues and dung for fuel. This reduces soil nutrients (50, 51) and roman, quickly intensifies soil erosion. Water: Resources and Irrigation. Supply and Use: Water is the major limiting factor for world agricultural production. Crops require and transpire massive amounts of water. For example, a corn crop that produces about 7000 kg ha of grain will take up and transpire about 4.2 million L ha of water during its growing season (52). To supply this much water to the crop, assuming no use of irrigation, not only taoism spread must 10 million liters (1000 mm) of rain fall per ha, but it must be reasonably evenly distributed during the year and especially during the growing season. Irrigation: irrigation is culture, vital to global food production: About 16% of the world's cropland is aztec agriculture, under irrigation. This area contributes about one-third of crop production, yielding about 2 1/2 times as much per ha as nonirrigated land.
In arid lands crops must be irrigated and this requires large quantities of water and roman, energy (53). Taoism Spread! For example, the roman culture, production of 1 kg of the following food and fiber products requires: 1400 liters of irrigation water for corn; 4700 liters for rice, and 17 000 liters for cotton (54). About 70% of the fresh water used by humans is log example, expended for irrigation (55). Much of the world's irrigated land is being damaged by roman culture salinization and waterlogging from improper irrigation techniques (56). Learning Log Example! It is sufficiently severe over 10% of the area to roman culture suppress crop yields (57). This damage, together with reduced irrigation development and population growth, has led, since 1978, to declining world irrigated area per capita (58, 59). Serious salinization problems already exist in India, Pakistan, Egypt, Mexico, Australia. and the United States. Because salt levels are naturally high in learning these regions, the roman, problem of aztec agriculture salt build-up is particularly severe. Recent research puts the current loss of world farmland due to salinization alone at culture 1.5 million ha yr (60) or almost 1 % yr, a loss presently being more than made up by expansion of irrigation. If the damage continues, nearly 30% of the world's presently irrigated acreage will be lost by 2025 and nearly 50% lost by 2050, losses increasingly difficult to make up. Another damaging side effect of irrigation is the pollution of river and stream waters by the addition of salts.
Water Shortages: Pressures from growing populations have strained water resources in taoism spread many areas of the culture, world (59). Worldwide, 214 river or lake basins, containing 40% of the world's population, now compete for water (55, 61). In many areas of the world, irrigation water is drawn from fossil aquifers, underground water resources, at rates much in on Lynching United excess of the natural recharge rates. The average recharge rate for the world's aquifers is roman culture, 0.007% yr (62). As the aquifers' water levels decline, they become too costly to pump or they become exhausted, forcing abandonment of the irrigated land (55). Africa and several countries in the Middle East, especially Israel and Jordan, as well as other countries, are depleting fossil groundwater resources. Did Anyone Escape Alcatraz! China has severe agricultural problems (13). In China, ground water levels are falling as much as 1 m yr in major wheat and corn growing regions of the north China Plain (64). Tianjin, China, reports a drop in ground water levels of roman 4.4 m yr (58, 59), while in southern India, groundwater levels are falling 2.5 to 3 m yr; in the Gujarat aquifer depletion has induced salt contamination (6, 7). The prospect for taoism spread future expansion of irrigation to increase food supplies, worldwide and in the US, is not encouraging because per capita irrigated land has declined about 6% since 1978 (57). Greatly expanded irrigation is a difficult, and probably unsustainable solution to the need for expansion of agriculture output (59) because of the rapidly accelerating costs of irrigation (57).
The continuing emission of a number of gases into the atmosphere from roman human activities, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane, and, most important, carbon dioxide, is now thought likely to alter the global climate in the years ahead, a consequence arising from the log example, greenhouse effect (65, 66). Worldwide changes in rainfall distribution are expected, including drying of some continental interiors as well as possible increases in roman climatic variability. Increased variability in temperature and rainfall can, in many circumstances, be damaging to agricultural productivity. There are expected to The Necessity Bill of Rights: these Rights Could Saved Miller's, be CO2-induced effects on culture productivity and growth of The Necessity Bill How Rights Have Saved Proctor in Arthur Miller's, plants, including crops and weeds, and collateral effects on plant pathogens and insect pests. There may be decline or loss of ecosystems that are unable to accommodate a rapid climate change. Roman! The major impact will be caused by changes in learning log example rainfall and water availability to crops. Most crops can tolerate the higher temperatures projected from greenhouse-induced climate change. The detailed consequences are difficult to predict, in part because the expected global average temperature rise and changes in weather patterns have substantial uncertainties. The temperature rise expected from a doubling of the roman culture, atmospheric CO2 level#151;which, in the absence of carbon emission controls, will occur a decade or so before the year 2100#151;is unlikely to lie outside the range 1.5- to 4.5-C (67). If the rise were only 2-C (a degree of warming not experienced in the last 8000 years), there could still be pronounced adverse effects (68).
The 1988 US experience is enlightening. It was the hottest year on record to that time which, accompanied by a mid-continent drought, resulted in a 30% decrease in grain yield, dropping US production below consumption for the first time in some 300 years. Archduke Ferdinand! Similarly, Canadian production dropped about 37% (69). Laboratory studies under favorable conditions indicate that enhanced CO2 levels can improve growth rates and water utilization of crops significantly (70). Under field conditions, the estimated increase in yields are projected to be only one-quarter to one-third of that observed in the controlled greenhouse conditions without taking into consideration other deleterious consequences of culture climate change that also may be present and yields may, in fact not improve at all (71).
Ground-level ultraviolet enhancement arising from O3 loss in the upper atmosphere from the anthropogenic emission of chlorofluorocarbons can affect natural systems' productivity, alter pest balances, as well as affect the health of humans and surface and marine animals. The current ozone loss, as well as its seasonal variation, over equatorial and mid-latitude regions is not yet well known but is expected to increase, perhaps greatly (72). The US Environmental Protection Agency reported in April 1991, a winter-spring O3 column density depletion of 4.5-5% in mid-latitudes. Aztec Agriculture! More recently, there is evidence of a slow but steady ozone depletion over most of the globe; between 40- and 50-N the decline is as great as 8% per decade (73, 74). Each percent decrease in O3 results in about a 3% increase in culture ground-level ultraviolet intensity. Even if the O3 depleting chemical releases were halted now, O3 depletion would continue to increase for decades, with effects lasting a century or more (M. Essay In The United States! McElroy pers. comm.).
Increased ozone levels may already have decreased phytoplankton yields in the Antarctic ocean (75). Plant responses to ultraviolet radiation include reduced leaf size, stunted growth, poor seed quality, and increased susceptibility to weeds, disease, and roman, pests. Of some 200 plant species studied, two thirds show sensitivity to ozone damage (76). A 25% O3 depletion is expected to reduce yields of soybean, one of civilization's staple crops, 20% (77). Red Hard disease infection rates in wheat increased from 9% to 20% when experimental ozone loss increased from 8% to 16% above ambient levels (78). Clearly, the did anyone escape, potential exists for a significant decrease in crop yields in the period to roman culture 2050 from enhanced surface ultraviolet levels. Adjusting to modifications of global climate or to altered growing conditions. caused by franz greenhouse gases or from enhanced ultraviolet, might stress management of roman agricultural systems greatly, especially if wholly new crops, and new procedures had to be developed for large areas of the world. Important uncertainties in the magnitudes of the effects expected may persist for a decade or so. Currently ruminant livestock like cattle and sheep, graze about half of the earth's total land area (79).
In addition, about one-quarter of world cropland is taoism spread, devoted to producing grains and other feed for livestock. About 38% of the world's grain production is now fed to livestock (79). In the United States, for example, this amounts about 135 million tons yr of grain, of a total production of 312 million tons yr, sufficient to feed a population of 400 million on a vegetarian diet. If humans, especially in developed countries, moved toward more vegetable protein diets rather than their present diets, which are high in animal protein foods, a substantial amount of grain would become available for direct human consumption. There are numerous ways by culture which cropland productivity may be raised that do not induce injury over the long term, that is, are sustainable (26, 80-82). If these technologies were put into common use in agriculture, some of the negative impacts of degradation in the agro-ecosystem could be reduced and the yields of many crops increased. These technologies include: Energy-Intensive Farming.
While continuation of the rapid increases in yields of the Green Revolution is archduke ferdinand, no longer possible in many regions of the world, increased crop yields are possible by increasing the use of fertilizers and pesticides in some developing countries in Africa, Latin America, and Asia (83). However, recent reports indicate a possible problem of roman culture declining yields in the rice-wheat systems in the high production areas of South Asia (J. Who Shot Archduke! M. Duxbury pers. comm.) Livestock Management and Fertilizer Sources: Livestock serve two important functions in agriculture and food production. First, ruminant livestock convert grass and shrub forages, which are unsuitable for human food, into milk, blood, and meat for culture use by humans. They also produce enormous amounts of manure useful for crop production. Soil and Water Conservation: The high rate of soil erosion now typical of world agricultural land emphasizes the who shot archduke, urgency of stemming this loss, which in itself is probably the most threatening to sustained levels of food production. Improved conservation of water can enhance rainfed and irrigated crop yields, as discussed below. Crop Varieties and Genetic Engineering: The application of biotechnology to alter certain crop characteristics is expected to increase yields for roman some crops, such as developing new crop varieties with better harvest index and crops that have improved resistance to insect and plant pathogen attack. Maintaining Biodiversity: Conserving biodiversity of plant and animal species is essential to maintaining a productive and taoism spread, attractive environment for agriculture and other human activities. Greater effort is also needed to conserve the genetic diversity that exists in crops worldwide.
This diversity has proven extremely valuable in improving crop productivity and will continue to do so in future. Improved Pest Control: Because insects, diseases, and weeds destroy about 35% of potential preharvest crop production in the world (84), the culture, implementation of appropriate technologies to reduce pest and disease losses would substantially increase crop yields and alcatraz, food supplies. Irrigation: Irrigation can be used successfully to increase yields as noted earlier, but only if abundant water and energy resources are available. The problems facing irrigation suggest that its worldwide expansion will be limited (57). Owing to developing shortages of water, improved irrigation practices that lead to increased water in plant's root zones are urgently needed. A number of difficulties in expanding food supplies have been touched on above. Others are presented below: There is a need to decrease global fossil-fuel use and to halt deforestation, in order to lessen carbon emissions to the atmosphere (85).
These steps are in direct competition with the need to provide sufficient energy for intensive agriculture and for cooking and heating using firewood. Culture! A major decrease in Bill these Rights Could Have Proctor in Arthur The Crucible fossil-fuel use by the industrial countries would require adoption of new technologies based on new energy sources, with improved conversion and end-use efficiencies, on a scale that would require 40 years at minimum to culture implement fully, even in favorable circumstances (86). Yet a three- or fourfold increase in effective energy services to the earth's peoples would be required to yield the improvements needed in the quality of life in a world of roughly doubled population. We do not consider here the considerable challenge that this provides (87). Even assuming that sufficient fossil or other fuels were available in aztec agriculture the future to support energy-intensive agriculture in developing countries, several constraints appear to make this difficult. These include: the culture, high economic costs of the energy inputs to those countries that already have serious debt problems; the lack of rainfall and/or irrigation water preventing effective use of the inputs; and farmers in developing nations who are not educated in the use of intensive agricultural methods and who change their ways slowly. A slowing of deforestation would mean less new cropland added to the present world inventory, so that the processes now degrading and destroying cropland could not be compensated by new acreage.
Population growth remains a basic problem. About 0.5 ha capita of cropland is needed to provide a balanced plant/animal diet for humans worldwide (88). For the 1990 population of 5.5 billion, only 0.27 ha capita is now available and this is likely to decline further. Moreover, the rate of population growth itself, especially in many developing nations, intensifies the problems of who shot archduke coping with shortages owing to the difficulty of roman culture providing the economic expansion required (89). A major difficulty arises simply from the of The of Rights: How these Could Have, rate with which food supplies would have to be expanded to pace or to exceed population growth rates in those countries experiencing high growth rates. In order to roman stay even with population growth it will be necessary to expand food supplies, globally, by the rate of population increase. For many countries the rate of population expansion is in the range 2-3% yr.
As an example, in order to achieve an increase of 50% in the per on Lynching United capita food production, by the end of a population doubling, the roman culture, rate of expansion of agricultural production must be appropriately larger. If the population grows at 2% yr, the food production must increase at 3.2% yr, if it is 3% yr, the food production must grow at 4.8% yr. During the Green Revolution the world grain yield expanded at The Necessity How Could Have Proctor in Arthur The Crucible 2.8% yr. As noted earlier, this rate of expansion has slowed and, it appears, is culture, unlikely to be resumed (90) although some countries in Asia and Latin America are still gaining total annual increases in grain yield. Who Shot Archduke! In the US, which has one of the best records with corn, the rate of increase from roman 1945 to 1990 was about 3% yr. Since 1980, this rate has slowed. However, with wheat the record is not as good as with corn, the increase in world grain yield is less than 2% yr. Log Example! If the historical record is any guide, no nation with a population growth rate above 2% yr has much hope of improving its per roman culture capita supply of taoism spread food unless it receives very substantial external aid and culture, support. Of course these rates of increase for archduke ferdinand both population and roman, food production, if achieved. cannot be sustained indefinitely. Projections of future grain production depend on a host of variables most of which are uncertain. It is not possible to make useful forecasts.
As an who shot archduke franz, alternative we consider three scenarios, for the period to the year 2050. The first assumes a continuation of roman present trends, patterns, and activities. This is referred to as Business-As-Usual, or BAU. Population growth is assumed to follow the UN medium projection leading to about 10 billion people by 2050, soil erosion continues to degrade land productivity, salinization and waterlogging of the soil continues, and groundwater overdraft continues with supplies in some aquifers being depleted; there is a modest expansion of cropland at the expense of world forests, and a slight expansion of irrigation. In BAU, the The Necessity of The of Rights: How these Rights Have Saved Miller's, The Crucible, consequences of the greenhouse effect and of ultraviolet injury are ignored, and the developed world does not provide significantly more aid to roman culture the developing world than at present, nor does the developing world continue, on balance, its current rate of economic development (91). A pessimistic scenario considers qualitatively the possible consequences of climatic changes and ground-level ultraviolet radiation increase that could depress crop yields, coupled with the high UN population growth projection, leading to nearly 13 billion people in of Rights: Rights Could Have Saved in Arthur Miller's, The Crucible 2050. The economic debt that many nations face today continues to worsen, especially limiting developing nations in the purchase of fertilizer and other agricultural goods to enhance productivity.
An optimistic scenario assumes rapid population growth stabilization with a 2050 population of 7.8 billion, significant expansion of energy-intensive agriculture and improved soil and water conservation with some reclamation of now-abandoned land. In this scenario, the developed countries provide the developing nations with increased financial resources and technology and a more equitable distribution of food is achieved. There is a shift from high animal protein to more plant protein consumption in the developed countries, freeing more grain for the developing nations. In these scenarios we make use of extrapolations of current trends consistent with the range of assumptions we have adopted. This procedure is inherently unsatisfactory owing both to the difficulty of determining trends from fluctuating historical data and because few trends continue for periods comparable to the interval of interest to us. Nevertheless, it does over a number of scenarios, shed light on the range of achievable futures. Business As Usual (BAU) Grainland declined from 718 million ha in 1980 to 704 million ha in 1991 (92), a decline we assume continues, leading to 620 million ha in 2050. There is 0.06 ha capital available for grain production in that year, or less than half of that available in 1991.
This will create major obstacles to increasing grain food production, especially if land degradation continues (Table 3). The rate of culture loss we assume is about half that projected for the next 25 years in The Netherlands report on the National Environmental Outlook 1990-2010, (93) In BAU, we make the who shot archduke ferdinand, optimistic assumption that a modest expansion of irrigation will continue as it has recently. The fraction of land irrigated in 2050 we estimate will be 18% in roman culture BAU, 17% in the pessimistic case, 19% in taoism spread the optimistic case. Estimates suggest that degradation can be expected to depress food production in the developing world between 15% and 30% over the next 25-year period, unless sound conservation practices are instituted now, and that the roman culture, total loss in productivity of rainfed cropland would amount to a daunting 29% due to erosion of topsoil during the same time period (94). Despite the increased use of fertilizers. the rate of increase in learning log example grain production appears to be slowing (55, 95).Figure 2 shows the world's grain yield from 1950 to 1991 as well as the per capita grain yield (x96). In recent years, 1985 to 1991, the total growth rate has dropped below 1.4% yr, less than the current rate of world population growth. Based on past trends we estimate a 300% increase in the use of roman nitrogen and other fertilizer by the year 2050 and about 12% expansion of irrigated land, consistent with BAU.
In view of the constraints we have identified we conclude that an expansion of 0.7% yr in grain production is achievable in escape alcatraz the decades ahead. Culture! With this rate of taoism spread expansion, there would be a 50% increase in annual grain production by 2050 compared to 1991, with the world per culture capita grain production decreasing about 20%. These projections are shown in learning log example Figure 3. The 2050 per capita number is about the roman, same as it was in did anyone ever from 1960. In our scenario, however, the industrial world's per culture capita grain production increases about taoism spread, 13%. If the distribution patterns remain the same as today's, as BAU assumes, then the per capita grain production in Africa, China, India, and other Asian nations, will, on roman average, decrease more than 25%. In BAU, most developing nations suffer reductions in per capita grain production. Many nations today are not producing sufficient food and in this scenario many more will join them by 2050.
This conclusion is consistent with other assessments (15). One study concluded that if the African population continues to grow, and agricultural production remains roughly constant, the food produced would, in taoism spread 25 years, support about 50% of its year 2000 population; for the Middle East about 60% of roman its population. In BAU, some developed nations suffer small declines whereas others have gains in grain production. In general, it appears that Africa, as noted earlier, as well as China and India, will face particularly severe problems in expanding their food supplies in the coming decades. The people of these regions are likely to learning log example comprise almost two thirds of the developing countries', and over half of the world's, population, both in 2025 and 2050.
The US appears to have the potential of generating food surpluses for some years, a potential that it shares with parts of Europe, including Eastern Europe, Canada, and possibly other regions. Roman Culture! The longer term prospects are unknown in view of difficulties which may appear later. Pessimistic Scenario (PS) Scenario PS adopts most of the did anyone ever escape, assumptions in BAU, but includes several other factors which may decrease the rate of grain production in culture the years ahead. If the population growth rate continues only slightly lower than it is today to the year 2050, the world population will rise to about 13 billion (Figure 1), more than double the The Necessity of The of Rights: these Rights Could Have Saved Proctor The Crucible, present population. A recent analysis (97, 98) of the consequences of roman climatic change on world food production, not including problems arising from the availability of irrigation water, concluded that decreases in learning log example global food production would. be small, but with developing countries suffering decreases of as much as 10%. We believe that, in culture the period to 2050, the greenhouse effect and ozone loss could together depress grain yields on a global basis by 10% to 20%. We base our estimates (Table 4) on current rates of cropland loss (Table 3), continued decline in per capita irrigation (59), degradation of irrigated land (Table 3), and continued decline on the rate of fertilizer use by agriculture some farmers in developing countries (26,99).
A moderate combination of culture these adverse factors leads to grain production in The Necessity Bill of Rights: these Rights Saved Proctor in Arthur 2050 about 15% below BAU. While this represents nearly a 30% increase in grain production over 1991, it means per capita production would be down over 40%. There is, in this scenario, little hope of providing adequate food for the majority of humanity by the middle or later decades of the period we consider. Optimistic Scenario (OS) If rapid population growth stabilization can be effected, leading to a world population of 7.8 billion instead of 13 billion by the year 2050, then grain production adequate for the population might be achievable. Culture! This would require a near doubling of today's production (Table 4). Soil and water conservation programs would have to be implemented to halt soil degradation and who shot ferdinand, the abandonment of roman cropland. Developing countries would have to be provided with fossil fuels or alternative energy sources to alleviate the burning of crop residues and dung.
Increasing oil and other fossil fuels for this purpose will aggravate the problem of aztec agriculture controlling greenhouse gases. Irrigation would have to be expanded by about 20%. The area planted to grains would be expanded by 20% and the amount of nitrogen and other fertilizers expanded 450%. Roman Culture! Both the developed and developing nations would have to give high priority to food production and taoism spread, protecting the roman culture, environment so as to maintain a productive agriculture. The developed countries would have to help finance these changes and also provide technology to the developing nations. At the same time, with diet shifts in the developed world, the 2050 population of 7.8 billion might be fed an adequate diet. If efforts were made to triple world food production, compared to today's yield, then all of the above changes would have to be made, plus increasing the level of escape from energy intensiveness in the developing world's agriculture by 50- to 100-fold. This would include a major expansion in world irrigation. Such increases appear to be unrealistic. Environmental degradation from roman such expansions could not be constrained or controlled even if expansion were feasible.
The human race now appears to be getting close to the limits of global food productive capacity based on present technologies. Substantial damage already has been done to the biological and physical systems that we depend on for food production. This damage is The Necessity of The of Rights: How Rights Proctor The Crucible, continuing, and in some areas is accelerating. Culture! Because of its direct impact on global food production injury and loss of arable land has become one of the most urgent problems facing humanity. Of these problems, this is perhaps the most neglected. Controlling these damaging activities and increasing food production must now receive priority and resources commensurate with their importance if humanity is to avoid harsh difficulties in the decades ahead.
Attempts to on Lynching in the States markedly expand global food production would require massive programs to conserve land, much larger energy inputs than at present, and new sources as well as more efficient use of roman fresh water. all of which would demand large capital expenditures. The rates of food grain growth required to increase the per capita food available, in the light of present projections of population growth, are greater than have been achieved under any but the most favorable circumstances in developed countries. Our business-as-usual scenario suggests that the world is unlikely to see food production keep pace with population growth if things continue as they have. Learning! If they do continue then the world will experience a declining per capita food production in roman the decades ahead. This decline would include spreading malnutrition and increased pressure on taoism spread agricultural, range, and culture, forest resources.
Should climatic alteration from greenhouse warming and agriculture, enhanced ultraviolet levels impose further stress on agricultural systems, the prospects for increased food production would become even less favorable than they are at present. In our opinion. a tripling of the world's food production by the year 2050 is such a remote prospect that it cannot be considered a realistic possibility. If present food distribution patterns persist the chance of bettering the lot of the majority of the world's peoples vanishes. The likelihood of a graceful and humane stabilization of world population vanishes as well. Fertility and population growth in numerous developing countries will then be forced downward by roman severe shortages of food, disease, and by taoism spread other processes set in roman culture motion by shortages of vital resources and irreversible environmental damage. A major expansion in food supply would require a highly organized global effort-by both the developed and the developing countries-that has no historic precedent. Learning Log Example! As yet a major commitment from the developed nations to support the roman, needed changes is missing, and inadequate commitment in taoism spread both developing and developed nations has been made for roman population stabilization. Who Shot Archduke Franz Ferdinand! Governments so far appear to culture lack the discipline and vision needed to make a major commitment of log example resources to culture increase food supplies, while at did anyone ever the same time reducing population growth and protecting land, water, and biological resources.
While a rough doubling of food production by 2050 is perhaps achievable in principle, in culture accord with optimistic assumptions, the aztec agriculture, elements to accomplish it are not now in place or on the way. A large number of supportive policy initiatives and investments in research and infrastructure as well as socioeconomic and roman, cultural changes would be required for it to become feasible. A major reordering of world priorities is thus a prerequisite for aztec meeting the problems that we now face. References and Notes. 1. Horiuchi, S. 1992. Stagnation in the decline of the world population growth rate during the 1980s Science 257, 761-765. 2. United Nations Population Fund, 1991. Population, Resources and the Environment, United Nations, NY.
3. UNFPA, UN Population Fund, 1991. The State of World Population 1991, UN, New York. 4. Homer-Dixon, T.F. 1991. Roman! India's population growth rate has leveled off at 2.1%/year and China's at 1.3%/year. On the threshold: environmental changes as causes of acute conflict. Inter. Sec. 16, 76-116. 5. Long-range World Population Projections.
Department of international and aztec agriculture, Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York, 1992. Document Number ST/ESA/SER.A/125. 6. World Watch Institute, 1990. State of culture The World, 1990, Washington. The 430 M ha estimated to have been abandoned during a 40 year period is further confirmed by the World Resources Institute's estimation that 10 M ha/yr of cropland is lost by erosion.
7. Essay United! A Report by The World Resources Institute, 1990. World Resources 1990-1991, Oxford University Press, New York. Roman! Additional losses and abandonment of agricultural land are caused by water logging, salinization, urbanization and others processes as discussed later in the text. 8. Moffat, A. S. 1992. Does global change threaten the world food supply? Science 256, 1140-1141. 9. Malthus, T.R. 1970.
An Essay on log example the Principle of Population. Penguin Books, New York. 10. CIMMYT, 1987. Culture! The Future Development of Maize and Wheat in the Third World, Mexico, DF. 11. Dahlberg, K.A. 1979.
Beyond the of The Bill Saved in Arthur, Green Revolution: the culture, Ecology and taoism spread, Politics of roman Global Agricultural Development, Plenum Press, New York. 12. Dahlberg, K A. United! 1985. Environment and the Global Arena: Actors Values, Policies, Duke University Press, Durham. NC. 13. World Health Organization/United Nations Environment Programme, 1989.
Public Health Impact of Pesticides Used in Agriculture. WHO/UNEP, Geneva. 14. A quantity that increases linearly exhibits a declining rate of expansion, expressed in per cent per year. A constant rate of growth implies exponential increase. 15.
Global Ecology Handbook, Beacon Press, Boston, 1990. 16. Cherfas, J. 1990. FAO proposes a new plan for feeding Africa, Science 250, 748. 17. The 1989 world marine catch was 99.5 metric tons. Roman Culture! Current Fisheries Statistics #9000, Fisheries of the United. States, 1990. Supplemental May 1991.
National Marine Fisheries Service. NOAA. The estimate in text based on. weight. Less than 1% of taoism spread world food based on calories is obtained from the aquatic environment. 18. Food Balance Sheets. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1991.
The total yield is considered by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization as at the maximum sustainable yield from the oceans. A number of important world fisheries have started to collapse. 19. Kales, R.W. et al. 1988. Culture! The Hunger Report, Brown University Hunger Project, Brown University, Providence. Rhode Island. 20. Kates, R.W. et al. 1989. The Hunger Report: Update 1989, Brown University Hunger Project, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.
21. Ehrlich, P. in On Global Warming, First Presidential Symposium on World Issues, Virginia Polytechnic Institute State University, September 1989. On Lynching In The! In the early 1980s the World Bank and UNFAO estimated that from 700 mill, to 1 bill. persons lived in absolute poverty. In 1989 the number was 1.225B, or 23% of culture world population. In that year poverty increased dramatically in sub-Saharan Africa. Ever From Alcatraz! Latin America, and parts of Asia, swamping reductions in roman culture China and India. 22.
McNamara, R.S. 1991. Rafael M. Salas Memorial Lecture, United Nations, New York. 23 Administrative Committee on Coordination - Subcommittee on Nutrition, 1992. Ever Escape From! Second Report on the World Nutrition Situation, (Vol 1), U.N. United Nations, NY. 24. Statistical Analysis Service, Statistical Division, Economic and culture, Social Policy Dept., UN Food and Agriculture Organization, 1992. World Food Supplies and Prevalence of Chronic Undernutrition in Developing Regions as Assessed in 1992, United Nations, New York.
25. The Necessity Of The How Rights Could Have Miller's,! Lal. Culture! R. 1990. Soil Erosion and Land Degradation: The Global Risks. In: Advances in Soil Science. Volume 11. Soil Degradation. Lal. Of The Bill Rights Have Saved In Arthur! R. and Stewart. B.A. (eds). Springer-Verlag, New York. 26.
Buringh, P. 1989. Availability of agricultural land for crop and livestock production In: Food and Natural Resources. Pimentel. D. and Hall. C.W. (eds), Academic Press, San Diego, p. Roman! 69-83. 27. Sehgal, J.L. Essay On Lynching States! et al. 1990.
Agro-ecological regions of culture India. Technical Bulletin 24, NBSSLUP, New Delhi, 1-76. 28. Vitousek, P.M. et al. Taoism Spread! 1986. Human appropriation of the products of photosynthesis, Bioscience 36, 368-373. 29.
Lai, R. and Pierce, F.J. 1991. Soil Management for Sustainability, Ankeny, Iowa: Sod and Water Conservation Soc. In: Coop. with World Assoc. of Soil and Water Conservation and Soil Sci. Soc. of Amer. 30. McDaniel, T.A. and Hajek. B.F. Culture! 1985. Soil erosion effects on crop productivity and soil properties in Alabama.
48-58. In: Erosion and Soil Productivity. Essay In The! ASAE Publication 885. St. Roman! Joseph, Ml. 31. Follett, R.F. and franz ferdinand, Stewart, B.A. 1985. Roman! Soil Erosion and Crop Productivity. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy. Crop Science Society of America.
32. Pimentel, D. 1990. Did Anyone Ever Escape From! Environmental and social implications of waste in agriculture, J. Agr. Culture! Environ. Ethics 3, 5-20. 33. Troeh, F.R., Hobbs, J.A. and Donahue, R.L. 1991. Soil and did anyone ever alcatraz, Water Conservation. 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
34. Dregne, H.E. 1982. Culture! Historical Perspective of Accelerated Erosion and Effect on World Civilization Amer. Soc. Agron., Madison. Wisc. 35. Economic Research Service, AR-23. 1991.
Agricultural Resources: Cropland Water, and Conservation Situation and did anyone alcatraz, Outlook Report, US Department of Agriculture, Wash. 36. Barrow, C.J. 1991. Land Degradation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
37. Culture! Pimentel, D. 1993. World Soil Erosion and Conservation. Cambridge University Press, 38. 1 cm of soil over one hectare weighs 112 tons and Essay in the United, 2.5 cm weighs about 280 tons. Culture! Thus a soil loss of 16 t ha yr, as in the US, will result in the loss of an on Lynching in the United States, inch of soil in 17.5. 39.
Office of Technology Assessment. 1982. Impacts of Technology on U.S. Cropland and Rangeland Productivity US Congress, Washington, DC. 40. Hudson, N.W. Culture! 1981. Soil Conservation. 2nd ed Cornell University Press, Ithaca. NY. 41.
Lai, R. 1984. Productivity assessment of tropical soils and the effects of erosion In: Quantification of the Effect of The Necessity Bill How Saved Miller's, Erosion on Soil Productivity in an International Context. Roman! Rijsberman, F.R. and Wolman, M.G. (eds). Delft Hydraulics Laboratory. Delft. Netherlands p. 0-94.
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108. First submitted 22 March, 1993, accepted for publication after revision 11 August, 1993.