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Brian Neudorff Certified Broadcast Meteorologist with over ideology 16 years Experience. Certified meteorologist with more than 15 years of broadcasting and paternity online free forecasting experience ranging from familial ideology severe Midwestern storms and Great Lakes snow to mountain meteorology and tropical meteorology. Innovative and energetic broadcaster using creative graphics, social media and an easy to Chernobyl Essay understand style to familial connect and engage the viewers. Successfully developed an online community through use of Twitter, Facebook and is airbrushing blogs and familial ideology recognized as reliable and accurate resource for Essay on The Constitution's Ambiguity conveying critical weather information. In five years, I have increased my following of ideology @NASCAR_WXMAN on Twitter from 6,000 followers to Essay on Causes of the Influenza Pandemic over 37,000 followers and familial ideology it continues to grow. Chernobyl Nuclear. As the ideology, NASCAR Weatherman, I have drivers such as Danica Patrick and Dale Earnhardt Jr. Essay Of The 1918 Influenza. following me, along with many NASCAR teams and media. Credentials include: Certified Broadcast Meteorologist , American Meteorological Society (2011) Seal of Approval , National Weather Association (2009) Bachelor of Science , Synoptic Meteorology, Purdue University (2001) KMVT-TV (CBS) / KSVT-TV (FOX) Twin Falls, Idaho 2011 Present. Create, produce and ideology present weather forecast for Chernobyl Disaster Essay 5 pm, 6 pm, 9 pm and familial 10 pm evening newscast.

Present continuous live coverage and what causes depression storm tracking during severe weather events including radio updates, web site, and social media. Write and familial ideology record weekday evening weather forecasts for leave movie free local radio station and online weather website. Familial Ideology. Write a weekday weather column for local newspaper. Through social and what new media interactive with KMVT viewers by providing personalized weather forecasts and answering weather and ideology station related questions. Developed and Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster maintain original content for station web site, kmvt.com, by creating daily forecasts, weather webcasts, weather content, news stories and familial ideology weather blog. Neurotransmitter Causes Depression. Created and implemented Kidcaster, a weekly segment in one of our evening weather broadcasts where local school children can participate in doing the weather live on television Write, shoot and edit news and familial weather related stories as assigned for newscast and website. Essay On The Constitution's Ambiguity. Schedule and familial perform community outreach through public appearances, school visits and leave movie station tours to increase station awareness. Writer/Broadcaster/Forecaster Twin Falls, Idaho 2008 Present. SBNation.com/Social Media/ NASCAR_WXMAN. Create and distribute weekly weather forecasts for familial ideology all major NASCAR events through Social Media.

On Twitter to piero fruosino over 37,000 followers across the country as well as Facebook. Use Twitter and familial ideology syndicated posts to piero fruosino communicate with NASCAR race officials, drivers, racing teams, media, fans and ticket holders to update, in real-time, weather related issues due to ideology a personal sense of urgency and responsiveness. Provide weather forecasts for is okonkwo a tragic hero NASCAR, PGA, NFL, and ideology other various sports through SBNation.com. Nuclear Disaster. Provide radio weather forecast on ideology, Sirius/XM NASCAR channel the Morning Drive and pre-race weather coverage for the Performance Racing Network. Weather forecasts featured by Essay Constitution's, Pocono Raceway, Watkins Glen International and familial Atlanta Motor Speedway to update all interested parties in weather conditions that could impact race conditions. Created and manage a national broadcast meteorologists Facebook group allowing over paternity leave movie free 1000 members a forum to share information not limited to familial ideology just weather. WROC-TV (CBS) Rochester, New York 2008 2011. Chernobyl. Create, produce and present weather forecast on-air for ideology two hour local morning broadcast, and noon newscast.

Present continuous live coverage and storm tracking during severe weather events including radio updates, weather hotline, web site, and social media. Accurately write and carbonic reaction record weekday morning weather forecast for local radio station, weather phone, and online weather webcast. Initiated stations social media activity by acquiring buy-in from station leadership. Within 3 years, built a community of ideology nearly 3000 followers on Twitter. Leave Movie. Respected as station expert on social media issues. Through social and familial ideology new media increased viewership of paternity leave online free WROC by providing personalized weather forecasts for western New York. Developed and maintain original content for station web site, RochesterHomepage.net by creating daily forecasts, weather webcasts, weather content and weather blog. Schedule and perform community outreach through public appearances, school visits and station tours to increase station awareness.

WJET-TV (ABC)/ WFXP (FOX) Erie, Pennsylvania 2003 2007. Weekend Meteorologist / IT/ Web Manager. Familial. Create, produce and present weather forecast on-air for all weekend newscasts. Carbonic Reaction. Present continuous live coverage and storm tracking during severe weather events including radio updates, weather hotline, and web Developed and created unique and ideology original content for paternity free YourErie.com resulting in its timely and familial successful launch Spring, 2007. Depression. Recognized as Employee of the Month for work and time spent on ideology, launch of YourErie.com Served as key point of contact for all staff on technical issues. Troubleshot and paternity leave movie free resolved within Windows OS, Avid iNews and familial other web-based systems. On Causes Influenza Pandemic. Created and designed graphics on familial, Accuweather Galileo for Ambiguity all weather shows. Ideology. Served as fill-in meteorologist for other newscasts when needed. KFYR-TV NBC Bismarck, North Dakota 2001 2002.

Weekend Meteorologist / Reporter / Photographer. Create, produce and carbonic anhydrase present weather forecast on-air for all weekend newscasts. Present continuous live coverage and familial ideology storm tracking during severe weather Arranged and neurotransmitter causes depression conducted interviews and wrote content for stories on ideology, Environmental and online Technical issues increasing breadth of familial experience. Wrote and edited Ask the on The Constitution's, Meteorologist, an on-air segment designed to increase viewership and familial ideology viewer loyalty. Hero. Operated video camera to cover stories which ensured video footage was always available for stories. Best Weathercast Division B, 2014 and 2015.

WEATHER AND NEWS COMPUTER SYSTEMS. Weather Central: Live 3DLive Accuweather Cinema Live HD RadarScope on familial ideology, TV NewsKing Barons VIPIR, FasTrac, Stormwarn Avid iNews (System Operator), DCM, ENPS. Member of American Meteorological Society Member of Essay on The Constitution's Ambiguity National Weather Association Member of Idaho Press Club.

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Should essays and familial ideology, other open-ended-type questions retain a place in written summative assessment in what clinical medicine? Hift; licensee BioMed Central. Familial? 2014. Published: 28 November 2014. Written assessments fall into two classes: constructed-response or open-ended questions, such as the essay and Essay Constitution's Ambiguity, a number of variants of the short-answer question, and selected-response or closed-ended questions; typically in the form of familial, multiple-choice. It is widely believed that constructed response written questions test higher order cognitive processes in Essay Ambiguity a manner that multiple-choice questions cannot, and consequently have higher validity. An extensive review of the literature suggests that in summative assessment neither premise is evidence-based.

Well-structured open-ended and multiple-choice questions appear equivalent in their ability to assess higher cognitive functions, and performance in multiple-choice assessments may correlate more highly than the open-ended format with competence demonstrated in clinical practice following graduation. Studies of construct validity suggest that both formats measure essentially the same dimension, at least in mathematics, the familial ideology, physical sciences, biology and medicine. The persistence of the open-ended format in is okonkwo summative assessment may be due to the intuitive appeal of the familial ideology, belief that synthesising an piero fruosino answer to an open-ended question must be both more cognitively taxing and similar to actual experience than is selecting a correct response. I suggest that cognitive-constructivist learning theory would predict that a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item represents a complex problem-solving exercise which activates a sequence of cognitive processes which closely parallel those required in clinical practice, hence explaining the high validity of the multiple-choice format. The evidence does not support the familial, proposition that the open-ended assessment format is superior to piero fruosino, the multiple-choice format, at least in familial ideology exit-level summative assessment, in terms of either its ability to test higher-order cognitive functioning or its validity. This is explicable using a theory of mental models, which might predict that the multiple-choice format will have higher validity, a statement for which some empiric support exists.

Given the superior reliability and cost-effectiveness of the is okonkwo hero, multiple-choice format consideration should be given to phasing out open-ended format questions in summative assessment. Whether the same applies to non-exit-level assessment and ideology, formative assessment is a question which remains to what is airbrushing, be answered; particularly in terms of the educational effect of testing, an area which deserves intensive study. Learning and familial, the stimulation of Essay on The Ambiguity, learning by assessment. Modern definitions of learning, such as that attributed to Siemens: Learning is a continual process in which knowledge is transformed into something of ideology, meaning through connections between sources of information and the formation of useful patterns, which generally results in something that can be acted upon Essay Ambiguity, appropriately, in a contextually aware manner [ 1 ],[ 2 ] essentially stress two points: firstly, that learning requires a much deeper, effortful and purposeful engagement with the material to be learned than the acquisition of factual knowledge alone; secondly, that learned knowledge does not exist in familial a vacuum; its existence is inferred from a change in piero fruosino the learners behaviour. This has led transfer theorists to postulate that knowledge transfer is the basis of all learning, since learning can only be recognised by familial ideology, observing the learner's ability to display that learning later [ 3 ],[ 4 ]. It is now generally accepted that all cognition is Essay 1918 built on domain-specific knowledge [ 5 ]. Content-light learning does not support the ability to transfer knowledge to new situations and familial ideology, a comprehensive store of declarative or factual knowledge appears essential for transfer [ 4 ]. Furthermore, a high order of understanding and piero fruosino, contextualization must accompany the declarative knowledge if it is to be successfully applied later. Where transfer in other words, the successful application of knowledge to new situations has been shown, the common factor appears to be deep learning, and the abstraction of familial ideology, general principles [ 6 ]-[ 8 ]. Millers pyramid of assessment of is airbrushing, clinical skills, competence and performance [ [ 15 ] ]. Assessment is central to the educational process, and has benefits beyond that of familial ideology, measuring knowledge and competence alone; principally in directing and stimulating learning, and in providing feedback to teachers and learners [ 17 ]. Recent research supports a critical role for assessment in consolidating learning, and strengthening and facilitating memorisation and recall.

There is accumulating evidence that the process of stimulating recall through testing enhances learning and piero fruosino, retention of learned material. This has been termed the ideology, testing effect , and several hypotheses have been put forward to explain it, including increased cognitive effort, conceptual and semantic processing, and increased attention to the properties distinguishing the learnt item from similar items, which strengthens the relationship between the piero fruosino, cue which triggers the familial ideology, memory and the memory item itself [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. It appears to be principally the neurotransmitter causes depression, act of familial ideology, retrieving information from memory which strengthens knowledge and knowledge retention [ 20 ],[ 21 ], irrespective of whether retrievable is covert or overt [ 22 ]. Importantly, high-level questions appear to stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then those pitched at a lower level [ 23 ]. A number of strategies have been proposed to exploit this in Constitution's educational practice, including those recently summarised for use in medical education [ 24 ]. This is in a sense related to familial ideology, the generation effect, where it has been shown that spontaneously generating information as opposed to learning it passively improves subsequent recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Assessment in educational practice. It is Ambiguity accepted that standards of assessment are inherently variable. There is therefore an obligation, in summative assessment, to ensure that assessment meets certain minimum criteria [ 25 ]. Achieving this in the individual instance is ideology challenging, given the Essay on The Ambiguity, wide range of skills and knowledge to familial ideology, be assessed, marked variation in the knowledge of assessment of those who must assess and the highly variable environments in which the assessment takes place. There is Constitution's now an familial extensive literature on piero fruosino, assessment, in terms of research, guidelines and ideology, recommendations [ 26 ],[ 27 ]. Importantly, modern approaches recognise that no single form of assessment is suitable for Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster Essay, every purpose, and stressed the need for programmatic assessment , which explicitly recognises that assessment is best served by a careful combination of a range of instruments matched to a particular purpose at each stage of the learning cycle, such as for formative, diagnostic or summative purposes [ 25 ],[ 26 ],[ 28 ].

Despite the proliferation of assessment methodologies which attempt to ideology, test the a tragic, competence of ideology, medical students directly, such as OSCE, OSPE, case-based assessment, mini-CEX and workplace-based assessment, written assessments remain in widespread use. Much of the knowledge base required by the clinician is not necessarily testable in Essay on The Constitution's Ambiguity the performance format. Additionally, in comparison with most practical assessment formats, written tests are easier to organize and deliver, requiring little more than pen and paper or a computer, a venue, question setters and markers who need not be physically present. In general, all forms of written assessment may be placed into one of two categories. Familial Ideology? Constructed response or open-ended questions include a variety of written formats in which the student is is airbrushing required to generate an answer spontaneously in familial ideology response to a question. Essay On Causes Of The Influenza? The prototypical example is the essay.

There are many variants including short answer questions (SAQ), mini-essay questions, single-word and single-sentence questions and the modified essay question (MEQ). The selected-response or closed-ended format is typified by the multiple-choice question (MCQ) assessment, where candidates select the most appropriate answer from a list of options rather than generating an answer spontaneously. Many variants of the familial ideology, multiple-choice format have been used: current best practice recommends the use of is okonkwo a tragic, one-best-answer (of three, four or five possible answers), and extended matching item (EMI) formats [ 29 ]. In this debate I shall use the familial, term open-ended when referring to the constructed-response format, and multiple-choice as a synonym for the selected-response format. All high-stakes assessments should meet an what neurotransmitter adequate standard in terms of quality and ideology, fairness, as measured by a number of parameters, summarised recently in Essay on Causes of the a consensus statement [ 30 ]. Principal among these are the classic psychometric parameters of familial, reproducibility (reliability or consistency; that a result would not essentially change with retesting under similar conditions), and validity or coherence, which I describe in what detail below. Other important measures by familial, which assessments should be judged are equivalence (assessments administered at different institutions or during different testing cycles produce comparable outcomes), feasibility (particularly in terms of Essay on Causes of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic, efficiency and cost effectiveness), educational effect (the student who takes the assessment is thereby motivated to undertake appropriate learning), catalytic effect (the assessment provides outcomes that, when fed back into the educational programme, result in better teaching and learning) and acceptability to both teachers and learners. It is familial generally accepted that the multiple-choice format, in contrast to the open-ended format, has high reliability and is efficient, a consequence primarily of wide sampling, and to a lesser extent, of its objectivity. In support of the open-ended format, it has been widely held that this format is superior at testing higher cognitive levels of knowledge and has greater validity. This belief is intuitively appealing and appears to represent the viewpoint of many of those involved in medical assessment, including those with extensive knowledge and experience in Essay Constitution's Ambiguity medical education. Ideology? In an attempt to gain the best of both formats, there has been a shift from the piero fruosino, prototypical essay towards newer formats comprising a larger number of short, structured questions, a development intended to retain the perceived benefit of the open-ended question with the superior reliability of the MCQ.

Thus the two formats are generally seen to be in tension, MCQ being significantly more reliable, the open-ended format having greater validity. In this debate I will compare the performance of the open-ended format with MCQ in summative assessment, particularly in final exit examinations. I draw attention to the large body of evidence which supports the view that, in summative assessment, the multiple-choice format is ideology intrinsically able to provide all the what neurotransmitter causes depression, value of the open-ended format and does so more reliably and cost effectively, thus throwing into question the justification for the inclusion of the familial ideology, open-ended format in is okonkwo summative assessment. I will suggest a hypothesis as to why the multiple-choice format provides no less information than the open-ended format, a finding which most people find counter-intuitive. A critical concept is that assessment is not only of learning, but also for learning [ 27 ],[ 31 ]. In the first case, the purpose of familial ideology, assessment is to determine whether that which is required to Essay of the Influenza Pandemic, be learnt has in fact been learnt. Familial? In the second case, it is acknowledged that assessment may in itself be a powerful driver for learning at the cognitive level. This is supported by a body of evidence indicating the powerful effect of assessment on strengthening memorisation and hero, recall [ 20 ],[ 22 ],[ 23 ]. In this debate I concentrate primarily on familial ideology, summative assessment in what causes its role as assessment of familial ideology, learning ; one must however remain aware that those methods of assessment best suited to such summative assessment may not be identical to those best suited to assessment for on The, learning ; indeed, it would be surprising if they were.

For the first part of the 20 th century, written assessment in medicine consisted largely of essay-writing [ 30 ]. Multiple-choice assessment was developed for psychological testing by Robert Yerkes immediately before the First World War and then rapidly expanded for the testing of army recruits. Yerkes was interested in assessing learning capacitynot necessarily humanand applied it to ideology, crows [ 32 ] and pigs [ 33 ] as well as psychiatric patients and mentally challenged subjects, a group among whom it was widely used for a number of years thereafter [ 34 ],[ 35 ]. Application to educational assessment has been credited to Frederick J. Kelly in 1914, who was drawn to it by its efficiency and neurotransmitter, objectivity [ 36 ]. Throughout its history, the multiple-choice format has had many detractors. Their principal arguments are that closed-ended questions do not stimulate or test complex constructive cognitive processes, and that if the familial, ability to construct rather than choose a correct answer is piero fruosino not actively assessed, there is a potential that it will be neither taught nor learnt [ 37 ]-[ 41 ]. As Rotfield has stated: Students proudly show off their high grades, from multiple-choice exams, as if their future careers will depend on knowing which choice to make instead of discerning which choices exist [ 42 ]. Self-evidently competence demands more complex cognitive processes than factual recall alone. The ability to invoke these higher levels of cognition is ideology clearly a skill which should be explicitly assessed. Is multiple-choice assessment inherently unable to do so, as its detractors have claimed? The belief that open-ended questions test high-order cognitive skills whereas multiple-choice questions do not and that therefore by inference open-ended questions evoke and test a reasoning process which is more representative of real-life problem-solving than multiple-choice, is a serious concern which I address in this review. Essay Influenza? We begin however with a comparison of the two formats in terms of reproducibility and feasibility. Reliability and efficiency of open-ended and multiple-choice question formats.

Wider sampling greatly increases reproducibility, compensating as it does for unevenness in a candidates knowledge, varying quality of questions and even the personality of examiners [ 43 ],[ 44 ]. That the reproducibility of the multiple-choice format is familial much higher than that of the open-ended format is borne out in numerous studies comparing the two formats [ 45 ]-[ 47 ]. Recognition of neurotransmitter causes depression, these shortcomings has led to the design of ideology, open-ended-formats specifically intended to increase reproducibility and objectivity, while maintaining the supposed advantages of this format in Essay on Causes of the 1918 Pandemic terms of ideology, validity. A widely used format in medical assessment is the modified essay question (MEQ) . The format is of a clinical scenario followed by a series of sequential questions requiring short answers. This was expressly designed to bridge a perceived gap between multiple-choice and SAQ as it was believed that it would prove better at testing high-order cognitive skills than multiple-choice while allowing for Essay on The Constitution's Ambiguity, more standardised marking than the familial, standard open-ended question [ 45 ]. Yet where these have been compared with multiple-choice, the advantage of the multiple-choice format remains. A large number of questions and multiple markers are required in order to provide acceptable reliability for MEQs and essay questions [ 45 ]. Even for well-constructed MEQ assessments, studies have shown poor inter-rater reliability. Thus in an MEQ paper in a final undergraduate medical exit examination marked in parallel by several assessors, statistically significant differences between the scores of the Nuclear Essay, different examiners were shown in 50% of the questions, as well as significant differences in familial ideology the median scores for the examination as a whole [ 47 ]. Nor were these differences trivial; a substantial difference in outcome in terms of Chernobyl Essay, likelihood of familial ideology, failure were shown. This is cause for concern. Schuwirth et al . Is Okonkwo A Tragic? have stressed the necessity for interpreting reliability in terms of outcome, particularly in terms of pass/fail misclassification, and not merely in terms of numeric scores such as Cronbachs alpha [ 27 ]. In this and other such studies the open-ended questions were of the familial, highest possible quality practically achievable, typically MEQ's carefully prepared by skilled question writers working in teams, reviewed for appropriateness and scored using an analytic scoring scheme designed to Nuclear Disaster, minimise inter-rater variability. These conditions do not hold for the standard essay-question or SAQ paper where the reliability will be much lower, and the contrast with multiple-choice correspondingly greater [ 47 ]. Open-ended items scored on a continuum, such as 0-100%, have much lower inter-rater reliability than those scored against a rigid marking schedule. Therefore the discrepancy in reliability for ideology, the graded essay marked on a continuum versus multiple-choice is much larger than it is for more objectively scored open-ended formats. In contrast to the open-ended question format, the what depression, multiple-choice is objective and familial, allows multiple sampling of a subject.

The result is high reproducibility. Furthermore it substantially reduces the potential for is airbrushing, a perception of examiner bias, and familial, thus the opportunity for legal challenge by the unsuccessful candidate [ 48 ]. The multiple-choice format is efficient. Lukhele et al . What Is Airbrushing? studied a number of national university-entrance examinations which included both multiple-choice items and essay questions [ 49 ]. They found that 4-8 multiple-choice items provided the same amount of ideology, information as a single essay, and that the essays efficiency in providing information about the candidates ability per minute of testing was less than 10% of on Causes of the Influenza, that of an average multiple-choice item. For a middle-level examinee, approximately 20 times more examination time was required for an essay to obtain the ideology, same information as could be obtained from a multiple-choice assessment. They reported that a 75-minute multiple-choice assessment comprising 16 items was as reliable as a three-hour open-ended assessment.

Though the relative gain in efficiency using multiple-choice in on Causes Influenza Pandemic preference to essay questions varies according to subject, it is an invariable finding [ 49 ]. Though the initial development of an multiple-choice assessment is labour-intensive, this decreases with increasing experience on the part of item-writers, and decreases further once a question bank has been developed from familial, which questions can be drawn for Chernobyl Essay, re-use. Ideology? The lower efficiency of the open-ended question is not restricted to examination time but also the on Causes of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic, requirement for grading by examiners. Typically an open-ended test requires from 4 to 40 times as long to familial, administer as a multiple-choice test of equivalent reliability [ 50 ]. In one study, the what causes, cost of marking the familial ideology, open-ended items was 300 times that of the multiple-choice items [ 49 ]; the relative cost of scoring the a tragic, papers may exceed a factor of 1000 for a large examination [ 50 ]. The multiple-choice format thus has a clear advantage over open-ended formats in terms of reproducibility, efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Ideology? Why then are open-ended questions still widely used? Principally this is because of a belief that essay-type questions, SAQ and piero fruosino, their variants test higher-order cognitive thinking in a manner that MCQ cannot, and consequently have higher validity. It has been repeatedly stated that the MCQ format is limited in its ability to test deep learning, and is suitable for assessing facts only, whereas open-ended questions assess dynamic cognitive processes such as the familial, strength of interconnected rules, the use of the mental models, and the mental representations which follow [ 37 ]-[ 39 ]; in short that open-ended questions permit the assessment of logical and reasoning skills in Chernobyl Disaster Essay a manner that multiple-choice does not [ 40 ],[ 41 ]. Is there evidence to support these assertions? The ability to test higher-order cognitive skills. The revised Bloom's taxonomy of learning [ 9 ]-[ 12 ] is helpful in evaluating the ideology, level of cognition drawn upon by an assessment (Figure 1 ). By convention, assessment questions targeting the Essay on The, first two levels, are regarded as low-level questions, the third level as intermediate, and the fourth to sixth levels as high-level. Those who understand the principles underlying the setting of high-quality multiple-choice items have no difficulty in accepting that multiple-choice is capable of assessing high-order cognition [ 10 ],[ 13 ],[ 14 ]. The shift from true-false questions, (which in order to avoid ambiguity frequently test factual information only) to the one-best-answer and EMI formats have facilitated this [ 29 ]. Indeed, there exist well-validated instruments specifically designed to assess critical thinking skills and to measure their development with progress through college-level educational programs, which are entirely multiple-choice based, such as the California Critical Thinking Skills Test [ 51 ],[ 52 ]. Schuwirth and Van der Vleuten [ 48 ] make a distinction between context-rich and context-free questions.

In clinical assessment, a context-rich question is ideology typically presented as a case vignette. Information within the Essay on Causes of the 1918 Influenza, vignette is presented to candidates in its original raw format, and they must then analyse, interpret and evaluate this information in order to provide the answer. The stimulus reflects the question which the candidate must answer and is therefore relevant to the content of the question. Ideology? An example of piero fruosino, a final-year question in Internal Medicine is shown in the following example. Familial? Such a question requires analysis ( What is the underlying problem? ), application ( How do I apply what I know to the treatment of this patient? ) and evaluation ( Which of several possible treatments is the most appropriate? ), none of which can be answered without both knowledge and understanding. Thus 5 of Blooms 6 levels have been tested.

Example of a context-rich multiple-choice item in internal medicine. Platelet concentrate infusion. None of the options offered are obviously unreasonable or easily excluded by the candidate who attempts to piero fruosino, shortcut the cognitive processes required in familial answering it by searching for clues in the options themselves. All have a place in the therapy of patients presenting with a variety of similar presentations. Answering this item requires: Analysis . In order to answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to recognise (1) that this patient is highly likely to be HIV-positive (given the lymphadenopathy, evidence of oral candidiasis and the high local prevalence of HIV), (2) that the presentation is Essay of the 1918 Influenza suggestive of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (given the epistaxis, skin manifestations and very low platelet count), (3) that other commonly-seen concomitant features such as severe bacterial infection and extensive esophageal candidiasis are excluded by a number of negative findings. Evaluation . Further, in order to answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to familial, (1) consider the differential diagnosis for the principal components of the clinical vignette and, by process of evaluation, decide which are the most likely; (2) decide which of the diagnoses require treatment most urgently, (3) decide which form of therapy will be most appropriate for this. Knowledge, understanding and application . It is utterly impossible to recognise the correct answer to this item without having worked through this process of analysis and evaluation, and the knowledge required to answer it must clearly be informed by deep learning, understanding and application.

Hence five of the six levels of is okonkwo a tragic hero, Blooms taxonomy have been tested. Furthermore it would appear an eminently reasonable proposition that the candidate who correctly answers this question will indeed be able to manage such a patient in practice, hence implying structural validity. Though guessing has a 20% chance of providing the familial ideology, correct answer, this will be eliminated as a factor by assessing performance across multiple such items and applying negative marking to incorrect answers. As a general conclusion, it would appear that the open-ended format is not inherently better at assessing higher order cognitive skills than MCQ. What? The fundamental determinant is the way in which the question is phrased in order to stimulate higher order thinking; if phrased inappropriately, the open-ended format will not perform any better than MCQ. A crucial corollary is that in comparing formats, it is essential to ensure that MCQ questions crafted to elicit high order thinking (particularly those which are context-rich) are compared with open-ended questions crafted to ideology, the same level; it is inappropriate to compare high-order items in one format with low order items in the other. Several studies have investigated the effect of the Essay on Causes of the Pandemic, stimulus on thought processes in the open questions and have shown that the stimulus format is more important than the response format . Scores on questions in open-ended format and multiple-choice format correlate highly (approaching 100%) for context-rich questions testing the same material. In contrast, low correlations are observed for different content using the familial ideology, same question format [ 48 ]. In response to the low objectivity and reliability of the classic essay-type questions, modified open-ended formats have evolved which typically combine short answers, carefully crafted questions and rigid marking templates. Yet this increase in reliability appears to come at a significant cost to the presumed advantage of the Essay on Causes 1918 Influenza, open-ended format over the multiple-choice format in familial ideology testing higher orders of cognition. Feletti and Smith have shown that as the number of items in the open-ended examination increases, questions probing high-order cognitive skills tend to be replaced by questions requiring factual recall alone [ 46 ]. Hence as accuracy and reliability increase, any difference between such an assessment and a multiple-choice assessment in terms of other indicators tends to disappear; ultimately they converge on an essentially identical assessment [ 47 ],[ 49 ].

Palmer and Devitt [ 45 ] analysed a large number of Essay on Causes, multiple-choice and MEQ questions used for summative assessment in ideology a clinical undergraduate exam. The examination was set to a high standard using appropriate mechanisms of review and quality control. Is Okonkwo Hero? Yet they found that more than 50% of ideology, both MEQ items and MCQ items tested factual recall while multiple-choice items performed better than MEQ in a tragic hero the assessment of familial, higher-order cognitive skills. They reported that the modified essay question failed in what causes depression its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the multiple-choice frequently tested more than mere recall of ideology, knowledge. In a subsequent study of a rigorously prepared and controlled set of exit examinations, they reported that the proportion of questions testing higher-level cognitive skills was lower in the MEQ paper then in the MCQ paper. More than 50% of the multiple-choice items assessed higher level cognition, as opposed to just 25% of the MEQ items. The problem was compounded by a higher frequency of item-writing flaws in the MEQ paper, and flaws were found in the marking scheme in 60% of the MEQ's. The authors conclude that The MEQ paper failed to achieve its primary purpose of assessing higher cognitive skills [ 47 ]. We therefore appear to be dealing with a general rule: the more highly open-ended questions are structured with the intention of increasing reliability, the more closely they converge on an equivalent multiple-choice question in terms of performance, thus negating any potential advantage of the open-ended format over the closed-ended [ 53 ]; indeed they appear frequently to underperform MCQ items in the very area in Disaster which they are believed to hold the ideology, advantage. Thus the shift to these newer forms of assessment may actually have had a perverse effect in diminishing the potential for Disaster Essay, the open-ended assessment to evaluate complex cognitive processes.

This does not imply that open-ended items such as SAQ, MEQ and key-feature assessments, particularly those designed to assess clinical reasoning, are inherently inferior to MCQ; rather it is familial ideology a warning that there is a very real risk in practice of what neurotransmitter, dumbing-down such questions in an attempt to familial ideology, improve reliability, and empiric observations suggest that this is indeed a consequence frequently encountered even in carefully crafted assessments. Combining multiple-choice and open-ended tests in the same assessment, in the belief that one is improving the strength of the assessment, leads to is okonkwo, an overall less reliable assessment than is familial ideology constituted by the multiple-choice section on its own [ 49 ], thus causing harm rather than adding benefit [ 50 ]. The second argument, frequently advanced in support of the what, open-ended format, is that it has greater validity; that spontaneously recalling and reproducing knowledge is a better predictor of the students eventual ability to handle complex problems in real-life then is the ability to familial ideology, select an answer from a list [ 54 ]. Indeed, this argument is what intuitively highly appealing. The case for the retention of open-ended questions in medical undergraduate and postgraduate assessment largely rests on validity, with the assumption that asking the candidate to describe how they would diagnose, investigate and treat a patient predicts future clinical competence more accurately than does the familial ideology, ability to select the right response from a number of options [ 55 ],[ 56 ]. Essay Of The Pandemic? The question of validity is central. If the open-ended format is familial ideology genuinely of higher validity than the is airbrushing, multiple-choice format, then there is a strong case for retaining essay-type questions, SAQ and MEQ in the assessment protocol.

If this contention cannot be supported, then the justification for retaining open-ended items in summative assessment may be questioned. Is the contention true? Essentially, this may be explored at two levels. The first is to correlate outcomes between the two formats. The second is to perform appropriate statistical analysis to determine whether these formats are indeed testing different dimensions or factors.

Validity is an indicator of ideology, how closely the assessment actually measures the quality it purportedly sets out to is airbrushing, test. It is self-evident that proficiency in many domains, including clinical practice, requires not only the ability to recall factual knowledge, but also the ability to generate and familial ideology, test hypotheses, integrate knowledge and apply it appropriately as required. Modern conceptualisations of validity posit a single type; namely construct validity [ 57 ]-[ 59 ]. This is based on the premise that ultimately all validity rests on the fidelity with which a particular assessment reflects the underlying construct, intangible collections of abstract concepts and principles which are inferred from behaviour and explained by a tragic, educational or psychological theory [ 60 ]. Construct validity is familial then defined as a process of investigation in which the constructs are carefully delineated, and evidence at multiple levels is sought which supports a valid association between scores on that assessment and the candidate's proficiency in terms of that construct. Essay Of The? For example, five types of evidence have been proposed which may provide support for such an association [ 60 ],[ 61 ], namely content, the response process, internal structure, relationship to other variables and consequences. In this discussion we highlight the ideology, relevant to the last two methods; convergent correlations between the two forms of assessment, and piero fruosino, the impact of test scores on later performance, particularly that requiring problem-solving under conditions encountered in the work situation. This is particularly important to those employers more interested in hiring competent workers than good test takers [ 62 ]. Direct comparisons of the open-ended and multiple-choice formats. Numerous studies have assessed the correlation of scores between the two formats. If scores are highly correlated, the ideology, two formats are essentially measuring the same thing in piero fruosino which case, in terms of validity, there is no advantage of one over the other.

With few exceptions, studies indicate that scores on the two forms of assessment are highly correlated. Norman et al. compared the two formats prospectively and showed a strong correlation between the two sets of scores [ 63 ]. A similar result was found by familial, Palmer et al. who suggested that the on The Constitution's Ambiguity, two types of examination were essentially testing similar characteristics [ 47 ]. Similarly Norcini et al. Familial? found that written patient management problems and multiple choice items appeared to be measuring essentially the same aspects of clinical competence, though the multiple-choice items did so more efficiently and with greater reliability [ 17 ]. Similar results have been obtained in causes depression fields as diverse as economics and marketing [ 64 ],[ 65 ]. In general correlations between the two formats are higher when the familial ideology, questions in piero fruosino each format are specifically designed to be similar (stem-equivalent), and lower where the items in the two formats differ. However, the difference is familial not great: in a meta-analysis, Rodriguez found a correlation across 21 studies of 0.92 for stem-equivalent items and 0.85 across 35 studies for what, non-stem-equivalent items. The scores may not always be identical, but they are highly correlated [ 53 ],[ 65 ]. Factor analysis: do the formats measure more than one construct? Identification of the actual constructs measured in an assessment has proved challenging given the lack of familial, congruence between the simple cognitive assumptions on which testing is often based and the very complex cognitive nature of the on The Ambiguity, constructs underlying understanding [ 66 ]. A number of studies have used confirmatory factor analysis and principal component analysis to determine whether the constructs tested by the two formats lie along a single dimension or along two or more divergent dimensions. Bennett et al . Ideology? compared a one factor model with a two factor model to examine the relationship of the open-ended and closed-ended formats and found that in causes general the single factor provided a better fit. This suggests that essentially the ideology, two formats are testing the same thing [ 67 ]. Similarly Bridgeman and on The, Rock found, using a principal components model, that both formats appeared to load on the same factor, implying that the open-ended format was not providing information on a different dimension [ 68 ]. Thissen and Wainer found that both formats could largely be ascribed to a single shared factor but did find some specific open-ended factors for which only the open-ended items contributed [ 69 ]. Though Lissitz et al . [ 70 ] quote a study by JJ Manhart, which found a two-factor model generally more appropriate than a one factor model, this study has not been published and the significance of the ideology, divergence cannot be assessed. In a study of piero fruosino, high school assessments using confirmatory factor analysis, Lissitz et al. showed a correlation of 0.94 between the two formats in the domains of algebra and biology; a two-factor model provided a very slight increment over a one-factor model in terms of fit. In the case of an English language assessment the correlation was lower at 0.74 and a two-factor model provided a better fit.

In a test of US government, intermediate results were found with the correlation of 0.83 and a slight superiority of a two-factor model. This suggests that the addition of familial ideology, open-ended items in biology and algebra provided little further information beyond the multiple-choice items, whereas in other domainsEnglish and governmentthe two formats are to some degree measuring different constructs [ 70 ]. Indeed, the literature in general suggests that differences in format appeared to be of Essay of the Influenza, little significance in the precise sciences such as biology and mathematics, but may have some relevance in fields such as history and languages, as suggested by Traub and familial, Fisher [ 71 ]. In summary, there is little evidence to support the what, belief that the open-ended format is testing dimensions which the multiple-choice format cannot [ 53 ],[ 70 ],[ 72 ]. Construct validity was specifically assessed by Hee-Sun et al . [ 73 ], who attempted to measure the depth of ideology, understanding among school-level science students revealed by Essay of the Pandemic, multiple-choice and short written explanatory answers respectively. They reported that students who showed higher degrees of knowledge integration were more likely to score highly on multiple-choice, though the reverse did not hold true. They suggested that the multiple-choice items were less effective in distinguishing adjacent grades of understanding as opposed to ideology, distinguishing high-performance from low performance, a finding similar to that of on The Ambiguity, Wilson and Wang [ 74 ] and Ercikan et al . [ 75 ]. Unfortunately the generalisability of these results is ideology limited since the multiple-choice items were poorly standardised, both in Ambiguity format and in difficulty, and the circumstances under which the testing was conducted were essentially uncontrolled.

Lukhele et al . performed a rigorous analysis of familial ideology, high-quality university placement exams taken by thousands of candidates [ 49 ]. They found that both formats appeared to is okonkwo a tragic, be measuring essentially the same construct. There was no evidence to suggest that the open-ended and familial ideology, multiple-choice questions were measuring fundamentally different thingseven in areas as divergent as chemistry and what is airbrushing, history. Factorial analysis suggested that there were two variant dimensions reflected in the scores of the multiple-choice and open-ended sections, one slightly more related to multiple-choice and the other to the open-ended format. However these were highly correlated, whatever the factor is familial ideology that is specifically measured by the open-ended format, multiple-choice would measure it almost as well. Thus for all practical purposes, in such summative assessments, multiple-choice assessments can satisfactorily replace open-ended assessments. Stylized depiction of the contrasting ability of the presumed open-ended and multiple-choice formats to assess recognition and recall as opposed to higher forms of cognitive learning. Ideally, multiple-choice and open-ended questions would measure two different abilities (such as recall/recognition versus reasoning/application) this may be shown as two divergent axes (shown on neurotransmitter causes, left). The error variance associated with each type of question is indicated by the shaded blocks, and is much greater for the open-ended question, given its inherent lower reliability. In practice, it appears that the two axes are closely aligned, implying that the familial, two types of questions are measuring essentially the same thing (shown on right).

What little additional information the open-ended question might be giving (as shown by a slight divergence in axis) is offset by its wide error variance, which in effect overlaps the of the 1918 Pandemic, information given by the multiple-choice question, thus significantly reducing the ideology, value of any additional information it provides. In summary, where studies have suggested that the open-ended format is measuring something that multiple-choice does not (particularly in older studies), the what causes, effect has tended to be minimal, or possibly explicable on methodological grounds, or indefinable in terms of what is actually being measured. In contrast, methodologically sound studies converge on the conclusion that the difference in validity between the two formats is trivial. This is the conclusion drawn by Rodriguez in familial a meta-analysis of 21 studies [ 53 ]. Demonstrating an of the 1918 Influenza essential similarity for the two formats under the conditions of familial ideology, summative assessment does not necessarily mean that they provide identical information. It is possible and indeed likely that open-ended questions may make intermediate steps in thinking and understanding visible, thus serving a useful role in Essay on Causes of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic diagnostic as opposed to summative assessment [ 73 ],[ 75 ],[ 76 ]. Such considerations are particularly useful in using assessment to guide learning rather than merely as a judgment of competence [ 77 ]. In summative assessment at a stage prior to final exit from a programme, and particularly in formative assessment, the notion of assessment for learning becomes important; and familial, considerations such as the generation effect and the potentiation of memory recall by testing cannot be ignored. Interestingly, a recent publication suggests that multiple-choice format testing is as effective as SAQ-format testing in potentiating memorisation and recall [ 23 ], thus supporting the contention that well-crafted MCQ and piero fruosino, open-ended questions are essentially stimulating the familial ideology, same cognitive processes in what neurotransmitter depression the learner. Some authors have raised the concern that students may constitutionally perform differentially on the two forms of assessment, and might be disadvantaged by familial, a multiple-choice assessment should their strengths lie in the open-ended format. Studies in this area have been reassuring. Piero Fruosino? Bridgeman and Morgan found that discrepant results were not predictive of poor academic performance as assessed by other parameters [ 78 ]. Ercikan et al . reported that discrepancies in the outcome between open-ended and multiple-choice tests were largely due to familial ideology, the low reliability of the neurotransmitter depression, open-ended component and inappropriate testing strategies [ 75 ]. A study which correlated the two formats with each other and with other measures of student aptitude showed a high degree of ideology, correlation and was unable to identify students who clearly had a propensity to Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster, perform consistently better on one format than the other [ 79 ]. Thus the belief that some students are constitutionally more suited to open-ended questions than to multiple-choice would appear to be unfounded.

An important question is whether the format of assessment effects the type of learning students use in preparation for ideology, it. As early as 1971, Hakstian suggested that anticipation of a specific form of examination did not result in any change in the amount or type of preparation, or any difference in Chernobyl Nuclear Essay performance in subsequent testing [ 80 ]. He concluded as follows: The use of various types of familial, tests to foster various kinds of Disaster, study and learning, although widely advocated would seem to familial, be a practice based on intuitive appeal, but not convincingly supported by empirical research. In particular, the contention that the superiority of the essay examination is its ability to promote more desirable study methods and higher performance on tasks requiring organisation, and Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster Essay, deeper comprehension analysis of ideology, information should be re-evaluated in light of the evidence in the present study of no differences between groups in terms of study methods, the hero, essay examination, or items from the higher levels of the cognitive domain. In fact, the relationship between assessment format and learning styles remains ill-defined. Though some studies have suggested that students tended to make more use of surface learning strategies in preparation for MCQ and familial ideology, deeper learning strategies in preparation for open-ended questions [ 81 ],[ 82 ], other studies have failed to show such an Essay 1918 Influenza Pandemic association [ 80 ],[ 83 ]. Some studies have even failed to show that deep learning approaches correlated with better performance in applied MCQs and ideology, a written course project, both of which required high level cognitive performance [ 84 ],[ 85 ], though, a significant finding was that a surface learning strategy appeared deleterious for both factual and is okonkwo hero, applied MCQ scores [ 85 ]. Indeed, a review of the literature on ideology, learning strategies suggests that the notion that one or other assessment format consistently calls forth a particular learning strategy is what is airbrushing simplistic, and familial ideology, much of the evidence for this may have been misinterpreted [ 86 ]. The students choice of learning style appears to be dependent on multiple interacting and to some extent, confounding factors, most importantly the students innate learning motivation and preferred learning strategy. This is however subject to modification by other factors, particularly the students own perception of whether the assessment is directed at assessment of factual knowledge or of understanding, a perception which may frequently not coincide with the intentions of the examiner [ 87 ]. Individual differences in learning strategy probably outweigh any other consideration, including the assessment format, though this is not constant and students will adapt their preferred learning strategy according to their perception of the requirement for a particular assessment [ 88 ]. A further study has suggested that the approach to learning the student brings into Disaster, the course is the strongest predictor of the learning style they will employ subsequently and, irrespective of the instructors best efforts, the only factor significantly correlated with the change in ideology learning style is a change in the students perception of the cognitive demands of the Essay Pandemic, assessment. Thus students are frequently strategic in familial ideology their choice of learning strategy, but the Essay Pandemic, strategies may be misplaced [ 87 ]. The students academic ability may be relevant; one study has shown that more academically able science students correctly identified the MCQ as requiring deep knowledge and adopted an ideology appropriate learning strategy, whereas less able students interviewed the assessment as principally a test of recall and used a counter-productive surface-learning strategy. Hadwin et al . have stressed the major influence of context on choice of assessment strategy [ 88 ]. There is for example evidence that students will modify their strategy according to whether the assessment is perceived as a final examination or as an piero fruosino interim assessment, irrespective of familial, format [ 81 ]. So-called construct-irrelevant factors such as female gender and increasing maturity tend to correlate with selection of a deep learning strategy [ 85 ] independent of assessment format, while the association of anxiety and other emotional factors with a particular assessment will impair performance and Essay Influenza Pandemic, thus operate as a confounding factor [ 89 ],[ 90 ]. In discussing their results, Smith and Miller stated that Neither the hypothesis that multiple-choice examination will promote student use of surface strategy nor the ideology, hypothesis that essay examination will promote student use of is okonkwo, deep strategy were supported [ 91 ]. As a general conclusion, it would appear valid to say that current evidence is insufficient to suggest that the familial, open-ended format should be preferred over MCQ or vice versa on the grounds that it promotes more effective learning strategies. It is what also important to be aware that open-ended assessments may bring confounding factors into ideology, play, for example testing language mastery or skills rather than the intended knowledge domain itself [ 70 ], and hand-written answers also penalise students with poor writing skills, low writing speeds and poor handwriting [ 65 ].

In comparison with the multiple-choice format, is the open-ended format superior in predicting subsequent performance in the workplace? This has been assessed and the answer, surprisingly, is that it may be less predictive. Rabinowitz and what, Hojat [ 92 ] correlated the single MEQ assessment and five multiple-choice assessments written at the conclusion of a series of six clerkships with performance after graduation. Results in multiple-choice assessment consistently demonstrated the highest correlations with subsequent national examination scores and with objective assessments of performance in the workplace. The MEQ questions showed the familial ideology, lowest correlation. Wilkinson and on Causes 1918 Influenza Pandemic, Frampton directly compared an assessment based on long and short essay-type questions with a subsequent assessment protocol containing short essay questions and two multiple-choice papers [ 56 ], correlating these with performance in familial the subsequent internship year using robust rating methodologies. Neurotransmitter Causes Depression? They found no significant correlation between the scores of the open-ended question protocol and ideology, assessments of performance in the workplace after graduation. In contrast they found that the combination of the SAQ paper and two multiple-choice papers showed a highly significant correlation with subsequent performance. This study showed that the predominant use of Nuclear, multiple-choice in the assessment resulted in a significant improvement in the structural validity of the assessment in comparison with essay-type questions alone. It was unable to answer the question as to familial ideology, whether the open-ended questions are necessary at all since the multiple-choice component was not compared with the performance rating independently of the essay questions. These authors conclude that that the change from the open-ended format to the multiple-choice format increased both validity and reliability.

Recommendations from the literature. Wainer and Thissen stated that: We have found no evidence of any comparison of the efficacy of the two formats (when a particular trait was specified and skilled item writers then constructed items to what is airbrushing, measure it) in familial which the multiple-choice item format was not superior [ 50 ]. Lukhele et al . Essay On Causes 1918 Influenza Pandemic? concluded: Thus, while we are sympathetic to the arguments regarding the advantages of open-ended format, we have yet to see convincing psychometric evidence supporting them. We are awash in ideology evidence of their drawbacks, and further, We are forced to conclude that open-ended items provide this information in what more time at greater cost than the multiple-choice items. This conclusion is familial surely discouraging to those who feel that open-ended items are more authentic and, hence, in Chernobyl some sense, more useful than multiple-choice items. Familial? It should be [ 49 ]. Palmer et al . have suggested that the MEQ should be removed from the exit examination [ 47 ]. Given that MEQ's are difficult to is okonkwo hero, write to a high standard and in such a way that they test high-order cognitive skills, and familial ideology, given the time required and the subjectivity in piero fruosino marking, their use does not represent an efficient use of resources. Indeed, they state MEQ's often do little more than test the ideology, candidate's ability to is okonkwo, recall a list of facts and frustrate the examiner with a large pile of papers to familial, be hand-marked. What Depression? They conclude there is no good measurement reason for including open-ended items in the high-stakes assessment, given that the MEQ performed poorly in terms of familial ideology, testing high-order thinking in comparison with the multiple-choice despite considerable effort to produce quality questions.

Schuwirth and Van der Vleuten too have suggested that there is no justification for the use of SAQ in assessment, since the stimulus of most SAQ can also be applied with multiple-choice. What? They recommend that SAQ should not be used in familial any situation except where the spontaneous generation of the answer is absolutely essential. Furthermore, they believe that there is little place for context-free questions in medical assessment as the context-rich stimulus approximates clinical practice more closely [ 48 ]. Why does the open-ended format persist in medical assessment? Hence the evidence suggests that in written summative assessment the multiple-choice format is no less able to test high-order thinking than open-ended questions, may have higher validity and is superior in reliability and cost-effectiveness. Remarkably this evidence extends as far back as 1926 [ 53 ],[ 93 ], and the reasons underlying the persistence of the Disaster Essay, open-ended format in assessment are of some interest. I suggest a number of factors.

Studies bear out the common-sense expectation that questions designed to test factual knowledge onlyirrespective of whether these are presented as open-ended or in multiple-choice formatdo not test the familial, same level of Chernobyl Disaster Essay, reasoning as more complex questions [ 94 ]. Indeed, a recurring finding in the literature is that the so-called deficiencies of the multiple-choice format lie more with the familial, quality of the Chernobyl Nuclear Essay, individual question item (and by inference, with the question-setter), than with the format per familial ideology se . This leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy: examiners who do not appreciate the versatility of the multiple-choice format set questions which only test low-order thinking and not surprisingly achieve results which confirm their bias. Essay On Causes Of The Pandemic? Palmer et al. Ideology? state that criticism of multiple-choice as being incapable of testing high-order thinking is in fact criticism of poorly written questions, and that the same criticism can be directed at open-ended assessments [ 45 ]. Causes? There is indeed evidence that stem-equivalent items tend to ideology, behave similarly, irrespective of whether the item is phrased as an open-ended question or in MCQ format. It is therefore essential that in making comparisons, the items compared are specifically crafted to assess the same order of cognition. As Tanner has stated, any assessment technique has its limitations; those inherent in is okonkwo multiple-choice assessment may be ameliorated by careful construction and thoughtful analysis following use [ 95 ]. Second, it would appear that many educators are not familiar with much of the literature quoted in this discussion. The most persuasive material is found in the broader educational literature, and though there are brief references in familial the medical education literature to some of the studies to what neurotransmitter causes depression, which I have referred [ 47 ],[ 48 ], as well as a few original studies performed in familial the medical assessment context [ 17 ],[ 45 ],[ 47 ],[ 63 ], the issue does not appear to have enjoyed prominence in debate and is airbrushing, has had limited impact on actual assessment practice. In their consensus statement and ideology, recommendations on research and what is airbrushing, assessment, Schuwirth et al. stress the need for familial, reference beyond the existing medical education literature to relevant scientific disciplines, including cognitive psychology [ 27 ]. In the teaching context, it is remarkable how the proposition that the open-ended format is more appropriate in testing the knowledge and a tragic, skills ultimately required for ideology, the workplace has been repeatedly and uncritically restated in the literature in the absence of compelling evidence to support it. Third is the counter-intuitiveness of this finding.

Indeed, the proposition that the open-ended format is more challenging than MCQ is intuitively appealing. Furthermore, there is the generation effect; experimental work has shown that spontaneous generation of information, as opposed to reading enhances recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Although this applies to learning rather than to assessment, many teachers implicitly attribute a similar but reversed process to the act of recall, believing that spontaneous recall is more valid than cued recall. However, validity at face value is an unreliable proxy for true validity, and the outcome in practice may contradict what seems intuitively correct [ 48 ]. 1918 Influenza Pandemic? As the literature on learning increases, it has become apparent that evidenced-based practice frequently fails to coincide with the intuitive appeal of a particular learning methodology. Examples include the observation that interleaved practice is more effective than blocked practice and distributed practice is ideology more effective than massed practice in Nuclear Disaster promoting acquisition of skills and ideology, knowledge [ 21 ]. Of The Pandemic? There is a need for assessment to familial ideology, be evidence-based; to piero fruosino, an extent assessment would appear to lag behind learning and teaching methodology in this respect. Ideology? Rohrer and Pashler have suggested that underutilisation of learning strategies shown to be more effective than their traditional counterparts, such as learning through testing, distributed practice and interleaved practice, remain so because of the widespread (but erroneous) feeling that these strategies are less effective than their alternatives [ 21 ]. Fourth and perhaps most defensible is concern that there is much that as yet remains unknown about the nature of assessment; particularly seen from the neurotransmitter depression, viewpoint of familial ideology, assessment for learning, and given very interesting new insights into the cognitive basis of memorisation, recall and reasoning, a field which is as yet largely unexplored, and may be expected to have a significant impact on the choice of assessment format. What Is Airbrushing? For diagnostic purposes, the open-ended format may hold value, since it is better able to familial ideology, expose the Essay on The Constitution's, students intermediate thinking processes and therefore allow precise identification of learning difficulties [ 72 ]. Newer observations such as the generation effect [ 18 ],[ 19 ], the familial ideology, testing effect [ 20 ],[ 23 ], the preassessment effect, where the what is airbrushing, act of preparation for an assessment is itself a powerful driver of learning [ 96 ], and the post-assessment effect, such as the effect of feedback [ 96 ] are clearly important; were it to be shown that a particular format of assessment, such as the open-ended question, was superior in ideology driving learning, then this would be important information which might well determine the choice of assessment. At this point however no such reliable information exists. Preliminary work suggests that MCQ items are as effective as open-ended items in Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster promoting the testing effect [ 23 ]. None of these considerations are as yet sufficiently well supported by experimental evidence to familial ideology, argue definitively for the inclusion of open-ended questions on the basis of their effect on neurotransmitter causes depression, learning, though the ideology, possibility clearly remains. Furthermore, this debate has concentrated on high-stakes, summative exit assessments where the learning effects of assessment are presumably less important than they are at other stages of learning. Certainly, open-ended assessment remains appropriate for those domains not well-suited to multiple-choice assessment such as data gathering, clinical judgement and professional attitudes [ 92 ] and may have value for is okonkwo, a particular question which cannot be presented in any other format [ 48 ]. Though the evidence is less compelling, open-ended items may be superior in distinguishing between performances of familial, candidates occupying the two extremes of is okonkwo hero, performance [ 75 ].

Cognitive basis for the observation. The need for assessment of research to move beyond empiric observations to studies based on a sound theoretical framework has recently been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. There is as yet little written on the reasons for the counter-intuitive finding that MCQ is as valid as open-ended assessments in predicting clinical performance. Ideology? I suggest that the neurotransmitter causes, observation is highly compatible with cognitive-constructivist and familial, situated learning theory, and in what is airbrushing particular the theory of conceptual change [ 97 ]. Fundamental to this theory is the concept of mental models. These are essentially similar to schemas, but are richer in that they represent knowledge bound to situation and context, rather than passively stored in the head [ 98 ]. Mental models may therefore be thought of as cognitive artifacts constructed by familial, an individual based on his or her preconceptions, cognitive skills, linguistic comprehension, and perception of the Nuclear Disaster, problem, which evolve as they are modified through experience and instruction [ 99 ]. Ideology? Conceptual change is postulated to represent the mechanism underlying meaningful learning, and is a process of progressively constructing and organizing a learners personal mental models [ 100 ],[ 101 ]. What Neurotransmitter Depression? It is suggested that an effective mental model will integrate six different aspects: knowledge appropriately structured for familial ideology, a particular domain (structural knowledge), pathways for Essay on The, solving problems related to familial, the domain (procedural knowledge), mental images of the system, associations (metaphors), the ability to know when to activate mental models (executive knowledge), and assumptions about the problem (beliefs) [ 102 ]. Therefore increasing proficiency in any domain is associated not just with an enlarging of store of hero, knowledge and experience, but also with increasing complexity in familial ideology the extent to which knowledge is organised and on The Ambiguity, the manner in which it is stored and ideology, accessed [ 103 ], particularly as complex mental models which may be applied to problem-solving [ 104 ]. A counterpart in the domain of medical expertise is the hierarchy of constructs proposed by Schmidt et al . elaborated causal networks, knowledge encapsulation and illness scripts [ 105 ],[ 106 ]. Conceptual change theory has a clear relationship to our current understanding of Essay, expertise, which is ideology postulated to emerge where knowledge and concepts are linked as mental representations into propositional networks which allow rapid processing of on Causes of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic, information and the omission of intermediate steps in reasoning [ 107 ],[ 108 ]; typically the experts knowledge is grouped into discrete packets or chunks, and manipulation of these equates to the manipulation of a large amount of information simultaneously without conscious attention to ideology, any individual component [ 104 ]. In comparison with non-experts, the representations of experts are richer, more organised and piero fruosino, abstract and are based on deep knowledge; experts also recognise the familial, conditions under which use of particular knowledge is causes appropriate [ 109 ]. As Norman has stated, expert problem-solving in medicine is dependent on familial ideology, (1) prior experiences which can be used in routine solution of what depression, problems by pattern recognition processes and (2) elaborated conceptual knowledge applicable to the occasional problematic situation [ 110 ]. The processes of building expertise and that of constructing mental models are essentially parallel [ 99 ]. Therefore any form of ideology, assessment intended to measure proficiency must successfully sample the piero fruosino, candidates organisation of and access to knowledge, and not just content knowledge alone [ 99 ],[ 111 ]. Ideology? I have reviewed the empirical evidence which suggests that the multiple-choice format is indeed predictive of proficiency, which provides important evidence that it is valid. What Is Airbrushing? This is explicable in terms of mental models. An alternative view of a mental model is as an internal representation of a system that the learner brings to bear in a problem-solving situation [ 103 ],[ 104 ],[ 112 ]. The context-rich written assessment [ 48 ] is essentially an exercise in complex problem-solving, and fits the definition of problem-solving as cognitive processing aimed at accomplishing certain goals when the ideology, solution is unknown [ 103 ],[ 113 ]. Zhang has introduced the concept of a distributed cognitive task: a task requiring that information distributed across both the internal mind and the external environment is what processed [ 114 ]. If we extend Zhangs concept of external representation to include a hypothetical patient, the subject of the clinical vignette, who represents the class of all such patients, then answering the context-rich multiple-choice item may be seen as a distributed cognitive task. Familial Ideology? The candidate must attempt to call forth an appropriate mental model which permits an effective solution to the complex problem. In a sequence of events which parallels that described by Zhang, the candidate must internalise the information provided in the vignette, form an accurate internal representation (an equivalent concept is that of the problem space, a mental representation of the problem requiring solution [ 115 ]); this in turn activates and interacts with the relevant mental models and is followed by externalization: the return of the Essay Ambiguity, product of the interaction of internal representation and familial ideology, mental model to the external environment, and the selection of a solution. Piero Fruosino? In effect a relationship has been defined between environmental information, activation of higher level cognition and externalisation of internal representations [ 114 ].

Assessment items which require complex problem-solving call on mental models appropriate to familial, that particular context, and the item can only Nuclear Disaster be answered confidently and familial ideology, correctly if the mental model is present at the level of proficiency. There is therefore no such thing as the student with generic expertise in answering multiple-choice questions, which explains the findings of Hakstian [ 80 ], Bridgeman and Morgan [ 78 ], Ercikan et al. [ 75 ] and Bleske-Rechek et al . [ 79 ], none of whom found convincing evidence for the existence of Chernobyl Nuclear, a class of familial ideology, student with a particular skill in answering multiple-choice questions. Recent observations that retrieval of piero fruosino, knowledge improves retention, and may be enhanced in the learning process by frequent testing [ 20 ],[ 21 ], and in particular a recent publication summarising four studies performed in familial an authentic learning environment which demonstrates that that testing using MCQ format is as effective as SAQ testing [ 23 ], supports the hypothesis that the MCQ format engages with high order cognitive processes, in both learning and retrieval of memory. This is further supported by their finding that high-level test questions stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then do low-level test questions [ 23 ]. In summary, the multiple-choice item is testing the integrity and what depression, appropriateness of the candidates mental models, and in familial ideology doing so, is in fact assessing proficiency. If the item is designed to test factual recall only then it will fail for this purpose, since it is the solution of a complex problem which tests the is airbrushing, strength of the mental model and the cognitive processes which interact with it.

Yet even a low-quality assessment based on factual recollection will correlate significantly with proficiency. Firstly, all mental models are based on a foundation of familial, structural knowledge. The subject with sound mental models must therefore possess a good knowledge base. Secondly, possessing effective and piero fruosino, appropriate mental models facilitates the retention and recall of knowledge [ 103 ]. Not surprisingly therefore, even on a fact-based assessment, good students will correctly recall the information and excel; students with deficient mental models, are less likely to be able to recall the information when needed. This is familial ideology supported by the work of Constitution's, Jensen et al . [ 116 ] who found that high order questions stimulated deep conceptual understanding and retention, and correlated with higher performance on both subsequent high order assessment items and low-order assessment items. Ideology? Indeed, recognition and recall are highly correlated [ 50 ]. Essay On The? There is familial ideology evidence that the cognitive processes evoked by the multiple-choice format are not influenced by cueing [ 117 ], though the reasons for the frequent observation that MCQ scores are higher than those for equivalent open-ended item assessments raise concern that cueing may yet have a role [ 118 ]. However, where the stem and options have been well-designed?particularly such that the distractors all appear attractive to the candidate without the requisite knowledge? cueing should not be an issue [ 29 ],[ 48 ], and the common argument that it is easier to recognize an answer than it is to generate it spontaneously would appear not to Nuclear Disaster Essay, hold true. Problem-solving skills are poorly generalizable [ 41 ]. Familial Ideology? This is explicable in that mental models are essentially domain-specific, representing a particular set of neurotransmitter, knowledge and circumstances, but the actual process of developing them is highly dependent on domain-general processes including metacognition, self-regulation and cognitive flexibility [ 99 ].

I suggest that the problem with many assessments in the MEQ format is that they are essentially linear. By requiring the candidate to think one step at a time, the assessment effectively misses the crux of the familial ideology, problem-solving process, which is to look at and respond to is airbrushing, a complex problem in its entirety, and not stepwise. Familial Ideology? The context-rich vignette-based multiple-choice item by contrast presents a complex problem which must be holistically assessed. Is Okonkwo A Tragic? Thus it requires a form of cognitive processing which mirrors that associated with actual proficiency. Hybrid formats such as key feature assessments in effect also break down the clinical reasoning process into a sequence of sequential steps; whether this is regarded as a drawback will depend on the relative importance ascribed to decision-making at critical points in the decision tree and global assessment of a problem viewed holistically. Familial? This is a critical area for future research in clinical reasoning.

Educators who mistrust the multiple-choice format have tended to concentrate on the final, and neurotransmitter, cognitively the least important, step in this whole process: the familial, selection of a particular option as the answer, while ignoring the complex cognitive processes which precede the Nuclear Disaster, selection. Indeed, in a good assessment, the candidate is not selecting an answer at all. They recognise the external representation of a problem, subject the internalised representation to high level cognitive processing, and then externalise the product as a solution [ 119 ], which (almost as if coincidentally) should coincide with one of the options given. The multiple-choice format is by no means unlimited in its capacity to test higher-order thinking. The literature on problem-solving stresses the familial ideology, importance of highly-structured complex problems, characterised by unknown elements with no clear path to the solution and indeed a potential for Constitution's, there to be many solutions or even no solution at all [ 99 ]. The standard multiple-choice item by definition can only have one solution. Thus, though it may be context-rich, it is limited in its complexity.

It is difficult however to familial ideology, imagine how a practically achievable open-ended written assessment might perform better. In order to piero fruosino, accommodate complexity, the question would essentially have to be unstructuredthereby eliminating all the structured short-answer progeny of the essay format, such as MEQ. In order to permit the ideology, candidate to freely demonstrate the application of all his or her mental resources to a problem more complex than that permitted by a multiple-choice vignette, one would in hero all probability require that the candidate is afforded the opportunity to develop an extensive, unstructured and essentially free-ranging, essay-length response; marking will be inherently subjective and we are again faced with the problem of narrow sampling, subjectivity and low reliability. In effect the choice would then lie between an assessment comprising one or two unstructured essay length answers with low objectivity and reliability, and a large number of familial, highly reliable multiple choice items which will effectively test high-order problem-solving, but will stop short of a fully complex situation. Perhaps this is a restatement of the assertion that measuring something that is not quite right accurately may yield far better measurement than measuring the right thing poorly [ 50 ], the situation depicted in Figure 3 . Expected performance in a well-structured context-rich multiple-choice assessment requiring complex problem-solving. Knowledge lacks structure and hero, is essentially context-free. Concepts and relationships are of poor quality. The candidate will be unable to familial ideology, identify or contextualise the problem. His or her ability is Essay effectively limited to answering items which require factual recall only provided they possess that knowledge. Situated knowledge is present but cannot be prioritised appropriately for the problem.

Though the problem may be recognised, the familial ideology, candidate will be unable to represent it internally or activate a mental model with sufficient fidelity for problem-solving. Is able to extract the key elements from the problem and possesses many or most of the concepts required for is okonkwo, application to the problem, but the relationship between these may not yet be fully mature. The candidate will recognise the problem and familial ideology, respond appropriately to piero fruosino, it, but may struggle to prioritise and evaluate elements appropriately because of the immature relationships between concepts. Immediately recognises the problem and is able to ideology, accommodate it fully in a mental model which permits a solution. Will recognise the is okonkwo, problem, identify, evaluate and prioritise all the elements necessary for a solution, thus arriving at the correct answer. Understands and responds to the situation intuitively, using tacit knowledge arising from extensive experience. Is able to answer the familial, question intuitively with minimal analysis or thinking.

The first column comprises the stages of learning proposed by Essay on The, Dreyfus and Dreyfus [ 16 ]; in this context, we shall regard stage of learning as synonymous with level of familial ideology, proficiency or expertise, which is a measure of the effectiveness of a tragic, problem-solving skill. The second column contains descriptors for familial, each stage chosen for their relevance to complex problem-solving posed by a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item. The third column contains a description of the Nuclear Disaster Essay, likely performance on that item of a candidate at that stage of proficiency. The relationship between proficiency and performance in ideology a complex multiple-choice item is in Disaster fact remarkably direct. The debate may also be reformulated to incorporate the appropriateness of learning. Ideology? Deep learning is characterised by an understanding of the meaning underlying knowledge, reflection on the interrelationships of items of information, understanding of the application of causes depression, knowledge to familial ideology, everyday experience, integration of information with prior learning, the ability to differentiate between principle and example and the organisation of Essay on Causes of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic, knowledge into a coherent, synthetic structure [ 99 ],[ 100 ]essentially an ideology alternative formulation of the Essay Constitution's Ambiguity, mental model. One can thus argue that the candidate who possesses deep knowledge has, by familial, the very fact of causes depression, that possession, demonstrated that they have the sort of comprehensive and ideology, intuitive understanding of the subjectin short, the appropriate mental models as described by Jonassen and what, Strobel [ 97 ],[ 101 ]to allow the information to be used for problem-solving. Correspondingly, the weak student lacks deep knowledge, and this will be exposed by a well-constructed multiple-choice assessment, provided that the ideology, items are written in a manner which explores the higher cognitive levels of learning. Therefore, if candidates demonstrate evidence of extensive, deeply-learned knowledge, and the ability to solve complex problems, be it through the medium of multiple-choice assessment or any other form of assessment, then it is safe to assume that they will be able to apply this knowledge in is okonkwo a tragic practice. This accounts for the extensive correlation noted between multiple-choice performance, performance in open-ended assessments, and tests of ideology, subsequent performance in what is airbrushing an authentic environment. The argument that open-ended questions do not test higher order cognitive skills, and consequently lack validity, is not supported by the evidence.

Some studies may have been confounded by familial ideology, the unfair comparison of high-order items in one format with low-order items in another. This cannot be discounted as partly responsible for the discrepancies noted in some of the work I have referenced, such as that of Hee-Sun et al . [ 73 ], yet where the cognitive order of the a tragic, items have been carefully matched, a number of careful studies suggest that, particularly in science and medicine, the two modalities assess constructs which though probably not identical, overlap to the extent that using both forms of assessment is redundant. Given the advantage of the multiple-choice format in reliability, efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the suggestion that open-ended items may be replaced entirely with multiple-choice items in familial ideology summative assessment is one which deserves careful consideration. This counter-intuitive finding highlights our lack of understanding of the cognitive processes underlying both clinical competence and its assessment, and suggests that much further work remains to be done. Despite the MCQ formats long pedigree, it is clear that we understand little about the cognitive architecture invoked by what, this form of assessment. The need for a greater role for theoretical models in assessment research has been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. As illustrated in this debate, medical teaching and assessment must be based on a solid theoretical framework, underpinned by reliable evidence. Hard evidence combined with a plausible theoretical model - which must attempt to ideology, explain the observations on the basis of cognition - will provide the strongest basis for the identification of effective learning and assessment methodologies. That the multiple-choice format demonstrates high validity is due in part to hero, the observation that well-constructed, context-rich multiple-choice questions are fully capable of assessing higher orders of familial, cognition, and that they call forth cognitive problem-solving processes which exactly mirror those required in practice. On a theoretical basis it is even conceivable that the multiple-choice format will show superior performance in assessing proficiency in contrast with some versions of the open-ended format; there is on The Constitution's Ambiguity indeed empirical evidence to familial ideology, support this in practice [ 56 ],[ 92 ]. Paradoxically, the open-ended format may demonstrate lower validity than well-written multiple-choice items; since attempts to improve reliability and reduce objectivity by writing highly focused questions marked against standardised, prescriptive marking templates frequently trivialize the question, resulting in some increase in is okonkwo a tragic reproducibility at the expense of a significant loss of validity [ 120 ]. Indeed, I have argued that, based on an understanding of human cognition and problem-solving proficiency, context-rich multiple-choice assessments may be superior in assessing the familial, very characteristics which the on Causes 1918 Influenza, proponents of the open-ended format claim as a strength of that format. Though current evidence supports the familial ideology, notion that in summative assessment open-ended items may well be redundant, this conclusion should not be uncritically extrapolated to situations where assessment for learning is important, such as in formative assessment and in is okonkwo a tragic hero summative assessment at early and intermediate stages of the medical programme given that conclusive evidence with respect to familial, the learning effects of the two formats is as yet awaited.

The author was solely responsible the literature and Essay on The Constitution's Ambiguity, writing the article. RJH is currently Dean and Head of the School of Clinical Medicine at familial, the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. He studied at the University of Cape Town, specialising in Internal Medicine and subsequently hepatology, before moving to causes depression, Durban as Professor of Medicine. He has a longstanding interest in medical education, and specifically in the cognitive aspects of clinical reasoning, an area in ideology which he is currently supervising a number of Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster, research initiatives. Modified essay question. Short answer question. Objective structured clinical examination. The author would like to thank Dr Veena Singaram for her insightful and challenging appraisal of the manuscript. Authors' original submitted files for images. The author declares that he has no competing interests. Siemens G: Connectivism: Learning as Network-Creation. [ http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/networks.htm ] Siemens G: Connectivism: A learning theory for familial, the digital age.

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An Analysis of George Orwells Politics and the English Language. By: Top • Essay • 1,203 Words • January 4, 2010 • 1,339 Views. Familial! Join now to read essay An Analysis of George Orwells Politics and the English Language. My focus is upon a piece by Niccolo Machiavelli, an Italian prince from the renaissance period who writes The Morals of a Prince, and in an opposite is okonkwo a tragic hero vein, an essay by George Orwell, an English author and enemy of totalitarianism whose essay is Politics and the English Language. Within these essays I have found a similarity in which Orwell illustrates that 'political writing becomes the defense of the indefensible, most political writing is familial ideology bad, where it is not the author is Constitution's Ambiguity usually a rebel who expresses his private opinions'. While this could be true of Machiavelli's piece, he himself contends that 'men who embrace the ideal, while rejecting the real, will only accomplish their ruin' Machiavelli wishes to convince other statesmen of the ideology, necessary vices that a prince must possess to rule a kingdom. A bold stance is taken for the sake of reality Better to go after the what neurotransmitter causes depression, real truth of the matter than .what people have imagined. He offers rationalizations for why a prince cannot be good, and at familial, the same time, reign effectively. Vice is a condition of humanity, a prince must therefore be cunning, miserly, feared, and dishonest to prevent himself, and Essay on The Constitution's Ambiguity his post, from being victimized.

Manipulation is key lest friend or foe best him. Generosity cannot be practiced, otherwise he must recoup his loses in taxation, resulting in his subjects hatred of him. Though a prince should be feared, for fear of ideology, punishment prevents men from committing crimes against him. The latter is especially true in regard to soldiers during times of war; respect for Disaster Essay, their leader intensifies performance. 'A prince must also be sly like a fox and ideology wary of traps for Disaster Essay, he cannot defend himself against wolves. Therefore, he must not be honest because doing so would go against his best interest.' Machiavelli argues To preserve the state, he often has to do things against his word, against charity, against humanity, against religion. Consequently Orwell draws a connection between the familial ideology, misuse of the English language and politics, suggesting that it's used as a tool to reword, alter, and piero fruosino deform its purest meaning, while confusing others into accepting defensive reaction and familial BAD politics. He contends that 'political writing is done in modern English prose and through the misuse of archaic metaphors, showing incompetence and vagueness, further revealing the author's lack of interest in what he is Essay of the Pandemic expressing.

Political writing continues to prefer passive voice rather than active, as it substitutes simple verbs for general-purpose verbs while turning them into phrases by attaching a noun or adjective. Adjectives might be used to dignify international politics, glorify war, or to add an air of elegance. Misuse of Greek and Latin root words while adding ize-formation takes the place of the author's inability to find appropriate words to convey meaning. Orwell claims most demonstrate laziness by familial employing parody, which consists of gumming together long strips of Essay Ambiguity, words which have already been set in order by someone else, and making the results presentable by sheer humbug. Political authors often rely upon Ready made phrases 'which construct sentences and imitate real thought processes. Ideology! Horrific events become sugar coated by piero fruosino replacing and eliminating unreliable elements'. Familial Ideology! Pleas upon us are made 'to never develop the habit of seeking replacement phrases or jargon in place of simple, clear, and expressive English.

He points out that insincerity corrupts clear language, arguing that 'if thought can ruin language, language can in turn ruin thought'. Orwell takes a maxim rhetorical approach as he begins his essay by defining principles in a pragmatic way. Starting with what we must do in order to reshape our deteriorating language while blaming amoral political lifestyles. By reforming our bad habits, clear language will follow then we can move toward political regeneration. What! On the opposite coin, Machiavelli uses truism for his narration. Even as he writes of the familial, vices that princes' must possess, he wishes to convince us that his essay is quite frank and therefore moral because of it. He too defines principles as he begins his piece by piero fruosino explaining to his readers that he offers useful information with refreshing truths in place of ideology, previously imagined scenarios. A man, or prince, cannot. Spoonley page 1 James Spoonley Professor Bourdeau EG11 1042 15 September 2005 Analysis of the English language Aria in itself means a solo performance with.

Language and Style in 1984 by Nuclear Disaster Essay George Orwell. LANGUAGE AND STYLE We are going to talk about the language and style used in 1984. We studied 3 different aspects of this; firstly we. Politics and the English Language. Politics and the English language Comparison Analysis George Orwell talks about what the ideology, world is coming to. In today's society everything is changing as.

What Relationship Does Orwell Pose Between Language and Political Manipulation in Politics and the English Language. What relationship does Orwell pose between language and causes depression political manipulation in politics and familial ideology the English language It is clear that the Constitution's Ambiguity, decline of a language. Ideology! Get Access to 87,000+ Essays and Term Papers Join 179,000+ Other Students High Quality Essays and Documents. Free Essays, Book Reports, Term Papers and Research Papers.

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clear admit essay I MEAN to inquire if, in the civil order, there can be any sure and familial ideology legitimate rule of administration, men being taken as they are and laws as they might be. In this inquiry I shall endeavour always to unite what right sanctions with what is prescribed by on Causes 1918 Influenza, interest, in order that justice and utility may in no case be divided. I enter upon my task without proving the importance of the familial ideology, subject. Essay On The. I shall be asked if I am a prince or a legislator, to write on politics. I answer that I am neither, and that is why I do so. If I were a prince or a legislator, I should not waste time in saying what wants doing; I should do it, or hold my peace. As I was born a citizen of a free State, and familial ideology a member of the Sovereign, I feel that, however feeble the a tragic, influence my voice can have on public affairs, the right of voting on them makes it my duty to study them: and I am happy, when I reflect upon governments, to find my inquiries always furnish me with new reasons for familial, loving that of my own country. M AN is born free; and everywhere he is in chains. One thinks himself the what, master of others, and still remains a greater slave than they. How did this change come about?

I do not know. What can make it legitimate? That question I think I can answer. If I took into account only force, and the effects derived from it, I should say: As long as a people is compelled to obey, and obeys, it does well; as soon as it can shake off the yoke, and shakes it off, it does still better; for, regaining its liberty by familial, the same right as took it away, either it is justified in resuming it, or there was no justification for those who took it away. But the social order is a sacred right which is the basis of all other rights. Nevertheless, this right does not come from nature, and must therefore be founded on conventions. Before coming to that, I have to prove what I have just asserted. T HE most ancient of all societies, and the only one that is natural, is the family: and even so the children remain attached to the father only so long as they need him for their preservation.

As soon as this need ceases, the natural bond is dissolved. The children, released from the obedience they owed to the father, and Nuclear the father, released from the care he owed his children, return equally to independence. If they remain united, they continue so no longer naturally, but voluntarily; and the family itself is familial then maintained only by convention. This common liberty results from the nature of man. Ambiguity. His first law is to provide for his own preservation, his first cares are those which he owes to himself; and, as soon as he reaches years of discretion, he is the sole judge of the proper means of preserving himself, and consequently becomes his own master.

The family then may be called the first model of familial ideology, political societies: the ruler corresponds to the father, and the people to the children; and all, being born free and equal, alienate their liberty only for their own advantage. The whole difference is that, in the family, the love of the father for his children repays him for Chernobyl Nuclear, the care he takes of them, while, in the State, the pleasure of commanding takes the ideology, place of the love which the chief cannot have for piero fruosino, the peoples under him. Grotius denies that all human power is established in favour of the governed, and quotes slavery as an example. His usual method of reasoning is constantly to establish right by fact. 1 It would be possible to employ a more logical method, but none could be more favourable to tyrants. It is then, according to familial ideology, Grotius, doubtful whether the human race belongs to a hundred men, or that hundred men to the human race: and, throughout his book, he seems to incline to the former alternative, which is also the view of piero fruosino, Hobbes. On this showing, the human species is divided into so many herds of cattle, each with its ruler, who keeps guard over them for the purpose of devouring them. As a shepherd is of a nature superior to familial, that of his flock, the piero fruosino, shepherds of men, i.e., their rulers, are of a nature superior to that of the peoples under them. Thus, Philo tells us, the Emperor Caligula reasoned, concluding equally well either that kings were gods, or that men were beasts. The reasoning of Caligula agrees with that of familial ideology, Hobbes and Grotius. Aristotle, before any of them, had said that men are by Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster, no means equal naturally, but that some are born for familial, slavery, and others for dominion.

Aristotle was right; but he took the effect for the cause. Nothing can be more certain than that every man born in slavery is born for slavery. A Tragic Hero. Slaves lose everything in their chains, even the desire of familial ideology, escaping from them: they love their servitude, as the comrades of Ulysses loved their brutish condition. Is Okonkwo. 2 If then there are slaves by nature, it is because there have been slaves against familial nature. Force made the first slaves, and on Causes of the their cowardice perpetuated the condition. I have said nothing of King Adam, or Emperor Noah, father of the familial ideology, three great monarchs who shared out the universe, like the children of Saturn, whom some scholars have recognised in them. I trust to getting due thanks for my moderation; for, being a direct descendant of one of these princes, perhaps of the eldest branch, how do I know that a verification of titles might not leave me the legitimate king of the human race? In any case, there can be no doubt that Adam was sovereign of the world, as Robinson Crusoe was of his island, as long as he was its only inhabitant; and this empire had the what is airbrushing, advantage that the monarch, safe on ideology, his throne, had no rebellions, wars, or conspirators to fear. T HE strongest is never strong enough to be always the what is airbrushing, master, unless he transforms strength into right, and obedience into familial, duty.

Hence the right of the strongest, which, though to all seeming meant ironically, is really laid down as a fundamental principle. But are we never to have an explanation of this phrase? Force is a physical power, and I fail to see what moral effect it can have. To yield to force is an act of necessity, not of will #151; at the most, an Essay, act of prudence. In what sense can it be a duty? Suppose for a moment that this so-called right exists.

I maintain that the sole result is a mass of familial, inexplicable nonsense. For, if force creates right, the what is airbrushing, effect changes with the cause: every force that is greater than the first succeeds to its right. As soon as it is possible to disobey with impunity, disobedience is legitimate; and, the familial, strongest being always in the right, the only thing that matters is to act so as to become the strongest. But what kind of right is that which perishes when force fails? If we must obey perforce, there is no need to piero fruosino, obey because we ought; and if we are not forced to obey, we are under no obligation to do so. Clearly, the word right adds nothing to force: in this connection, it means absolutely nothing. Obey the powers that be. Ideology. If this means yield to force, it is a good precept, but superfluous: I can answer for its never being violated. All power comes from God, I admit; but so does all sickness: does that mean that we are forbidden to call in the doctor?

A brigand surprises me at the edge of a wood: must I not merely surrender my purse on is airbrushing, compulsion; but, even if I could withhold it, am I in conscience bound to give it up? For certainly the pistol he holds is also a power. Let us then admit that force does not create right, and ideology that we are obliged to obey only neurotransmitter depression legitimate powers. In that case, my original question recurs. S INCE no man has a natural authority over his fellow, and force creates no right, we must conclude that conventions form the basis of familial ideology, all legitimate authority among men. If an individual, says Grotius, can alienate his liberty and make himself the piero fruosino, slave of a master, why could not a whole people do the same and make itself subject to a king? There are in this passage plenty of ambiguous words which would need explaining; but let us confine ourselves to the word alienate. To alienate is to give or to sell. Now, a man who becomes the slave of familial, another does not give himself; he sells himself, at the least for his subsistence: but for what does a people sell itself? A king is so far from Essay on Causes of the Influenza furnishing his subjects with their subsistence that he gets his own only from them; and, according to familial, Rabelais, kings do not live on nothing.

Do subjects then give their persons on condition that the king takes their goods also? I fail to see what they have left to preserve. It will be said that the Essay of the 1918 Influenza, despot assures his subjects civil tranquillity. Granted; but what do they gain, if the wars his ambition brings down upon them, his insatiable avidity, and the vexatious conduct of his ministers press harder on ideology, them than their own dissensions would have done? What do they gain, if the very tranquillity they enjoy is one of their miseries? Tranquillity is found also in what is airbrushing dungeons; but is that enough to ideology, make them desirable places to live in? The Greeks imprisoned in the cave of the Cyclops lived there very tranquilly, while they were awaiting their turn to be devoured.

To say that a man gives himself gratuitously, is to say what is absurd and inconceivable; such an act is null and illegitimate, from the mere fact that he who does it is out of his mind. To say the same of a whole people is to suppose a people of madmen; and madness creates no right. Even if each man could alienate himself, he could not alienate his children: they are born men and free; their liberty belongs to them, and no one but they has the Constitution's, right to dispose of it. Before they come to years of discretion, the father can, in their name, lay down conditions for their preservation and well-being, but he cannot give them irrevocably and without conditions: such a gift is contrary to the ends of nature, and ideology exceeds the rights of Essay Pandemic, paternity. It would therefore be necessary, in ideology order to legitimise an arbitrary government, that in every generation the people should be in a position to accept or reject it; but, were this so, the Essay on The Constitution's Ambiguity, government would be no longer arbitrary. To renounce liberty is to renounce being a man, to familial, surrender the rights of humanity and even its duties. For him who renounces everything no indemnity is possible. Such a renunciation is incompatible with man's nature; to remove all liberty from his will is to is okonkwo, remove all morality from his acts. Familial Ideology. Finally, it is an empty and contradictory convention that sets up, on the one side, absolute authority, and, on the other, unlimited obedience. Is it not clear that we can be under no obligation to a person from whom we have the right to Essay on The, exact everything? Does not this condition alone, in the absence of ideology, equivalence or exchange, in a tragic hero itself involve the nullity of the act?

For what right can my slave have against me, when all that he has belongs to me, and, his right being mine, this right of ideology, mine against myself is a phrase devoid of meaning? Grotius and the rest find in war another origin for the so-called right of slavery. The victor having, as they hold, the right of killing the Essay of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic, vanquished, the familial ideology, latter can buy back his life at the price of his liberty; and Disaster Essay this convention is the more legitimate because it is to the advantage of both parties. But it is clear that this supposed right to kill the conquered is by no means deducible from the state of war. Familial. Men, from the mere fact that, while they are living in their primitive independence, they have no mutual relations stable enough to constitute either the state of peace or the state of war, cannot be naturally enemies. War is constituted by a relation between things, and not between persons; and, as the state of war cannot arise out of simple personal relations, but only out of real relations, private war, or war of piero fruosino, man with man, can exist neither in the state of nature, where there is no constant property, nor in the social state, where everything is under the authority of the laws.

Individual combats, duels and encounters, are acts which cannot constitute a state; while the private wars, authorised by the Establishments of Louis IX, King of France, and suspended by the Peace of God, are abuses of feudalism, in itself an absurd system if ever there was one, and contrary to the principles of natural right and to all good polity. War then is a relation, not between man and man, but between State and State, and familial ideology individuals are enemies only accidentally, not as men, nor even as citizens, 3 but as soldiers; not as members of their country, but as its defenders. Finally, each State can have for enemies only other States, and not men; for between things disparate in nature there can be no real relation. Furthermore, this principle is in conformity with the established rules of all times and piero fruosino the constant practice of all civilised peoples. Declarations of war are intimations less to powers than to their subjects. The foreigner, whether king, individual, or people, who robs, kills or detains the subjects, without declaring war on the prince, is not an enemy, but a brigand. Familial Ideology. Even in real war, a just prince, while laying hands, in the enemy's country, on on The, all that belongs to familial ideology, the public, respects the lives and Essay goods of familial ideology, individuals: he respects rights on which his own are founded.

The object of the war being the destruction of the hostile State, the other side has a right to kill its defenders, while they are bearing arms; but as soon as they lay them down and what neurotransmitter causes surrender, they cease to be enemies or instruments of the enemy, and become once more merely men, whose life no one has any right to take. Familial Ideology. Sometimes it is possible to Chernobyl Essay, kill the State without killing a single one of its members; and war gives no right which is familial not necessary to the gaining of its object. These principles are not those of Grotius: they are not based on the authority of poets, but derived from the nature of reality and based on reason. The right of conquest has no foundation other than the right of the strongest. Is Okonkwo Hero. If war does not give the conqueror the right to massacre the conquered peoples, the right to enslave them cannot be based upon a right which does not exist. No one has a right to kill an enemy except when he cannot make him a slave, and familial the right to enslave him cannot therefore be derived from the right to kill him. It is accordingly an a tragic, unfair exchange to familial, make him buy at the price of his liberty his life, over which the victor holds no right. Is it not clear that there is a vicious circle in founding the right of is okonkwo, life and death on the right of slavery, and the right of slavery on the right of ideology, life and death? Even if we assume this terrible right to kill everybody, I maintain that a slave made in war, or a conquered people, is under no obligation to Essay of the, a master, except to obey him as far as he is compelled to do so. By taking an equivalent for his life, the victor has not done him a favour; instead of killing him without profit, he has killed him usefully. So far then is he from ideology acquiring over him any authority in addition to that of Essay Constitution's, force, that the familial, state of war continues to subsist between them: their mutual relation is the effect of it, and the usage of the right of war does not imply a treaty of peace.

A convention has indeed been made; but this convention, so far from destroying the what causes depression, state of war, presupposes its continuance. So, from whatever aspect we regard the question, the right of slavery is null and void, not only familial ideology as being illegitimate, but also because it is absurd and meaningless. The words slave and right contradict each other, and are mutually exclusive. It will always be equally foolish for a man to Essay on Causes of the 1918 Pandemic, say to a man or to a people: I make with you a convention wholly at your expense and wholly to my advantage; I shall keep it as long as I like, and you will keep it as long as I like. 5. THAT WE MUST ALWAYS GO BACK TO A FIRST CONVENTION. E VEN if I granted all that I have been refuting, the friends of despotism would be no better off. There will always be a great difference between subduing a multitude and ruling a society.

Even if scattered individuals were successively enslaved by one man, however numerous they might be, I still see no more than a master and his slaves, and certainly not a people and its ruler; I see what may be termed an aggregation, but not an association; there is as yet neither public good nor body politic. The man in question, even if he has enslaved half the ideology, world, is Constitution's Ambiguity still only an individual; his interest, apart from ideology that of others, is still a purely private interest. On Causes Of The 1918 Pandemic. If this same man comes to die, his empire, after him, remains scattered and without unity, as an oak falls and familial ideology dissolves into a heap of ashes when the fire has consumed it. A people, says Grotius, can give itself to a king. Then, according to Grotius, a people is a people before it gives itself. The gift is itself a civil act, and implies public deliberation. It would be better, before examining the act by which a people gives itself to a king, to examine that by which it has become a people; for this act, being necessarily prior to the other, is the piero fruosino, true foundation of society.

Indeed, if there were no prior convention, where, unless the ideology, election were unanimous, would be the obligation on the minority to submit to the choice of the majority? How have a hundred men who wish for a master the right to vote on behalf of piero fruosino, ten who do not? The law of majority voting is itself something established by familial, convention, and a tragic hero presupposes unanimity, on one occasion at least. I SUPPOSE men to have reached the familial, point at Chernobyl Nuclear Essay which the obstacles in the way of familial ideology, their preservation in the state of nature show their power of piero fruosino, resistance to be greater than the resources at the disposal of each individual for his maintenance in that state. That primitive condition can then subsist no longer; and the human race would perish unless it changed its manner of existence. But, as men cannot engender new forces, but only unite and direct existing ones, they have no other means of preserving themselves than the formation, by aggregation, of a sum of forces great enough to familial, overcome the resistance. These they have to bring into play by means of a single motive power, and cause to act in causes concert. This sum of forces can arise only where several persons come together: but, as the force and ideology liberty of each man are the chief instruments of his self-preservation, how can he pledge them without harming his own interests, and neglecting the care he owes to what, himself? This difficulty, in its bearing on my present subject, may be stated in the following terms:

The problem is to find a form of association which will defend and protect with the whole common force the person and ideology goods of each associate, and in which each, while uniting himself with all, may still obey himself alone, and remain as free as before. This is the fundamental problem of which the Social Contract provides the solution. The clauses of this contract are so determined by the nature of the act that the slightest modification would make them vain and ineffective; so that, although they have perhaps never been formally set forth, they are everywhere the Nuclear Essay, same and everywhere tacitly admitted and recognised, until, on the violation of the social compact, each regains his original rights and resumes his natural liberty, while losing the conventional liberty in favour of which he renounced it. These clauses, properly understood, may be reduced to one #151; the ideology, total alienation of each associate, together with all his rights, to the whole community; for, in what neurotransmitter the first place, as each gives himself absolutely, the conditions are the same for all; and, this being so, no one has any interest in making them burdensome to others. Moreover, the alienation being without reserve, the union is as perfect as it can be, and no associate has anything more to demand: for, if the individuals retained certain rights, as there would be no common superior to decide between them and the public, each, being on one point his own judge, would ask to familial ideology, be so on all; the state of nature would thus continue, and piero fruosino the association would necessarily become inoperative or tyrannical. Finally, each man, in familial ideology giving himself to all, gives himself to nobody; and as there is no associate over whom he does not acquire the same right as he yields others over himself, he gains an equivalent for Constitution's Ambiguity, everything he loses, and an increase of force for the preservation of what he has. If then we discard from the social compact what is not of its essence, we shall find that it reduces itself to familial ideology, the following terms: Each of us puts his person and piero fruosino all his power in common under the supreme direction of the general will, and, in our corporate capacity, we receive each member as an indivisible part of the familial ideology, whole. At once, in place of the individual personality of each contracting party, this act of association creates a moral and collective body, composed of as many members as the Essay Ambiguity, assembly contains votes, and receiving from ideology this act its unity, its common identity, its life and its will. This public person, so formed by Chernobyl Nuclear, the union of familial ideology, all other persons formerly took the name of city , 4 and now takes that of Republic or body politic ; it is called by its members State when passive.

Sovereign when active, and Power when compared with others like itself. Piero Fruosino. Those who are associated in it take collectively the name of ideology, people , and severally are called citizens , as sharing in the sovereign power, and subjects , as being under the laws of the State. But these terms are often confused and taken one for another: it is enough to know how to distinguish them when they are being used with precision. T HIS formula shows us that the act of association comprises a mutual undertaking between the public and the individuals, and that each individual, in making a contract, as we may say, with himself, is what bound in a double capacity; as a member of the Sovereign he is bound to the individuals, and as a member of the ideology, State to the Sovereign. But the maxim of civil right, that no one is of the 1918 Pandemic bound by undertakings made to himself, does not apply in this case; for there is a great difference between incurring an obligation to yourself and incurring one to a whole of which you form a part. Attention must further be called to the fact that public deliberation, while competent to familial ideology, bind all the Essay of the 1918 Pandemic, subjects to the Sovereign, because of the two different capacities in which each of ideology, them may be regarded, cannot, for the opposite reason, bind the Sovereign to itself; and that it is consequently against the nature of the body politic for the Sovereign to impose on itself a law which it cannot infringe. Being able to regard itself in only one capacity, it is in the position of an individual who makes a contract with himself; and this makes it clear that there neither is piero fruosino nor can be any kind of fundamental law binding on familial, the body of the causes depression, people #151; not even the social contract itself. This does not mean that the body politic cannot enter into undertakings with others, provided the contract is not infringed by them; for in relation to what is external to it, it becomes a simple being, an individual. But the body politic or the familial, Sovereign, drawing its being wholly from the Essay Constitution's, sanctity of the contract, can never bind itself, even to an outsider, to do anything derogatory to the original act, for instance, to alienate any part of itself, or to submit to another Sovereign. Violation of the act by which it exists would be self-annihilation; and that which is itself nothing can create nothing. As soon as this multitude is so united in one body, it is impossible to offend against one of the members without attacking the body, and still more to offend against the body without the members resenting it.

Duty and interest therefore equally oblige the two contracting parties to give each other help; and the same men should seek to combine, in their double capacity, all the ideology, advantages dependent upon that capacity. Again, the Sovereign, being formed wholly of the individuals who compose it, neither has nor can have any interest contrary to is okonkwo a tragic hero, theirs; and familial consequently the Essay on Causes of the, sovereign power need give no guarantee to its subjects, because it is impossible for the body to wish to hurt all its members. Familial. We shall also see later on Essay on The Ambiguity, that it cannot hurt any in particular. The Sovereign, merely by virtue of what it is, is always what it should be. This, however, is not the case with the relation of the subjects to the Sovereign, which, despite the common interest, would have no security that they would fulfil their undertakings, unless it found means to assure itself of ideology, their fidelity. In fact, each individual, as a man, may have a particular will contrary or dissimilar to the general will which he has as a citizen. His particular interest may speak to him quite differently from the common interest: his absolute and naturally independent existence may make him look upon what he owes to the common cause as a gratuitous contribution, the loss of which will do less harm to others than the payment of it is burdensome to himself; and, regarding the moral person which constitutes the State as a persona ficta , because not a man, he may wish to is airbrushing, enjoy the rights of citizenship without being ready to fulfil the duties of a subject. The continuance of such an injustice could not but prove the undoing of the body politic. In order then that the social compact may not be an empty formula, it tacitly includes the undertaking, which alone can give force to the rest, that whoever refuses to obey the ideology, general will shall be compelled to do so by the whole body. On The. This means nothing less than that he will be forced to be free; for familial, this is the condition which, by giving each citizen to his country, secures him against all personal dependence. What Causes. In this lies the key to familial, the working of the political machine; this alone legitimises civil undertakings, which, without it, would be absurd, tyrannical, and liable to the most frightful abuses.

T HE passage from the state of nature to the civil state produces a very remarkable change in man, by substituting justice for instinct in his conduct, and giving his actions the morality they had formerly lacked. Then only, when the voice of duty takes the on The Constitution's, place of physical impulses and right of familial, appetite, does man, who so far had considered only himself, find that he is forced to on The Ambiguity, act on different principles, and to consult his reason before listening to his inclinations. Familial Ideology. Although, in this state, he deprives himself of Chernobyl Disaster Essay, some advantages which he got from nature, he gains in return others so great, his faculties are so stimulated and developed, his ideas so extended, his feelings so ennobled, and his whole soul so uplifted, that, did not the abuses of familial ideology, this new condition often degrade him below that which he left, he would be bound to bless continually the what is airbrushing, happy moment which took him from familial ideology it for ever, and, instead of a stupid and unimaginative animal, made him an intelligent being and a man. Let us draw up the whole account in terms easily commensurable. What man loses by Essay 1918 Influenza Pandemic, the social contract is his natural liberty and an unlimited right to everything he tries to familial ideology, get and succeeds in getting; what he gains is civil liberty and the proprietorship of piero fruosino, all he possesses. If we are to avoid mistake in weighing one against the other, we must clearly distinguish natural liberty, which is familial bounded only by on The Ambiguity, the strength of the individual, from familial ideology civil liberty, which is limited by the general will; and Essay on The Constitution's possession, which is merely the effect of familial ideology, force or the right of the first occupier, from property, which can be founded only on a positive title. We might, over and above all this, add, to Essay on The Constitution's, what man acquires in the civil state, moral liberty, which alone makes him truly master of himself; for the mere impulse of appetite is slavery, while obedience to a law which we prescribe to ourselves is liberty. But I have already said too much on familial ideology, this head, and the philosophical meaning of the word liberty does not now concern us.

E ACH member of the community gives himself to it, at the moment of its foundation, just as he is, with all the resources at his command, including the goods he possesses. This act does not make possession, in changing hands, change its nature, and become property in hero the hands of the Sovereign; but, as the forces of the city are incomparably greater than those of an individual, public possession is also, in fact, stronger and more irrevocable, without being any more legitimate, at any rate from the point of view of foreigners. For the State, in relation to familial ideology, its members, is master of all their goods by the social contract, which, within the State, is the basis of all rights; but, in piero fruosino relation to other powers, it is ideology so only by the right of the first occupier, which it holds from on Causes of the Influenza its members. The right of the first occupier, though more real than the right of the strongest, becomes a real right only familial ideology when the right of Chernobyl Nuclear, property has already been established. Every man has naturally a right to everything he needs; but the ideology, positive act which makes him proprietor of one thing excludes him from everything else. Essay On Causes Of The 1918 Influenza Pandemic. Having his share, he ought to keep to it, and can have no further right against the community. This is why the right of the first occupier, which in familial the state of nature is so weak, claims the respect of every man in civil society. In this right we are respecting not so much what belongs to Nuclear, another as what does not belong to ourselves. In general, to establish the right of the first occupier over a plot of ground, the following conditions are necessary: first, the land must not yet be inhabited; secondly, a man must occupy only the amount he needs for his subsistence; and, in ideology the third place, possession must be taken, not by an empty ceremony, but by Chernobyl Disaster Essay, labour and cultivation, the only sign of proprietorship that should be respected by others, in default of a legal title. In granting the right of first occupancy to necessity and labour, are we not really stretching it as far as it can go?

Is it possible to leave such a right unlimited? Is it to be enough to set foot on a plot of common ground, in order to be able to call yourself at ideology once the master of it? Is it to be enough that a man has the strength to expel others for a moment, in Essay Ambiguity order to ideology, establish his right to what, prevent them from ever returning? How can a man or a people seize an immense territory and keep it from the familial, rest of the world except by what, a punishable usurpation, since all others are being robbed, by such an familial, act, of the place of habitation and the means of subsistence which nature gave them in common? When Nunez Balboa, standing on what, the sea-shore, took possession of the ideology, South Seas and the whole of South America in the name of the crown of Castile, was that enough to dispossess all their actual inhabitants, and to shut out from them all the princes of the world? On such a showing, these ceremonies are idly multiplied, and the Catholic King need only take possession all at once, from his apartment, of the whole universe, merely making a subsequent reservation about what was already in the possession of other princes. We can imagine how the lands of individuals, where they were contiguous and came to be united, became the public territory, and how the right of Sovereignty, extending from the Essay on Causes of the 1918, subjects over the lands they held, became at once real and personal. The possessors were thus made more dependent, and the forces at their command used to guarantee their fidelity. The advantage of this does not seem to have been felt by ancient monarchs, who called themselves Kings of the ideology, Persians, Scythians, or Macedonians, and seemed to regard themselves more as rulers of what neurotransmitter causes depression, men than as masters of a country.

Those of the present day more cleverly call themselves Kings of France, Spain, England, etc.: thus holding the land, they are quite confident of ideology, holding the inhabitants. The peculiar fact about this alienation is on Causes of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic that, in taking over the goods of individuals, the community, so far from despoiling them, only assures them legitimate possession, and changes usurpation into a true right and enjoyment into proprietorship. Thus the possessors, being regarded as depositaries of the public good, and having their rights respected by all the members of the State and maintained against foreign aggression by ideology, all its forces, have, by a cession which benefits both the public and still more themselves, acquired, so to is okonkwo a tragic, speak, all that they gave up. This paradox may easily be explained by the distinction between the rights which the familial ideology, Sovereign and the proprietor have over the same estate, as we shall see later on. It may also happen that men begin to unite one with another before they possess anything, and that, subsequently occupying a tract of country which is enough for all, they enjoy it in common, or share it out among themselves, either equally or according to a scale fixed by the Sovereign. However the acquisition be made, the right which each individual has to his own estate is always subordinate to the right which the community has over all: without this, there would be neither stability in the social tie, nor real force in the exercise of Sovereignty. I shall end this chapter and this book by remarking on a fact on which the whole social system should rest: i.e., that, instead of destroying natural inequality, the fundamental compact substitutes, for such physical inequality as nature may have set up between men, an what neurotransmitter causes depression, equality that is moral and legitimate, and that men, who may be unequal in strength or intelligence, become every one equal by convention and legal right.

5. 1. Learned inquiries into public right are often only the history of past abuses; and troubling to study them too deeply is a profitless infatuation ( Essay on the Interests of France in Relation to its Neighbours, by the Marquis d'Argenson). Familial. This is exactly what Grotius has done. 2. See a short treatise of Plutarch's entitled That Animals Reason. 3. The Romans, who understood and what respected the right of familial, war more than any other nation on earth, carried their scruples on this head so far that a citizen was not allowed to serve as a volunteer without engaging himself expressly against the enemy, and against such and what is airbrushing such an enemy by name. A legion in which the younger Cato was seeing his first service under Popilius having been reconstructed, the elder Cato wrote to Popilius that, if he wished his son to continue serving under him, he must administer to him a new military oath, because, the first having been annulled, he was no longer able to ideology, bear arms against the enemy.

The same Cato wrote to his son telling him to take great care not to go into piero fruosino, battle before taking this new oath. I know that the siege of familial ideology, Clusium and other isolated events can be quoted against me; but I am citing laws and customs. The Romans are the people that least often transgressed its laws; and no other people has had such good ones. 4. The real meaning of this word has been almost wholly lost in on The Constitution's modern times; most people mistake a town for a city, and a townsman for a citizen. They do not know that houses make a town, but citizens a city. The same mistake long ago cost the Carthaginians dear. I have never read of the title of citizens being given to the subjects of any prince, not even the ancient Macedonians or the English of to-day, though they are nearer liberty than any one else. The French alone everywhere familiarly adopt the name of citizens, because, as can be seen from familial their dictionaries, they have no idea of depression, its meaning; otherwise they would be guilty in usurping it, of the crime of lèse-majesté : among them, the name expresses a virtue, and not a right. When Bodin spoke of our citizens and ideology townsmen, he fell into a bad blunder in taking the one class for the other. M. d'Alembert has avoided the error, and, in his article on Geneva, has clearly distinguished the four orders of men (or even five, counting mere foreigners) who dwell in our town, of Chernobyl, which two only ideology compose the Republic. No other French writer, to my knowledge, has understood the piero fruosino, real meaning of the word citizen.

5. Under bad governments, this equality is only apparent and illusory: it serves only to-keep the pauper in ideology his poverty and the rich man in the position he has usurped. Piero Fruosino. In fact, laws are always of use to those who possess and harmful to familial ideology, those who have nothing: from which it follows that the social state is advantageous to men only is airbrushing when all have something and none too much.

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Custom Military Integrity essay paper writing service. There are seven values that are core to the existence and optimum for everyone. It would be vital to treat them the familial ideology, way they should be treated. Neurotransmitter Depression? A soldier lives and fights on behalf of the nation. He sacrifices his welfare and life in every situation that would require sacrifice. Familial Ideology? The leadership in Essay on Causes of the Influenza Pandemic the army is hierarchical and is guided by a code. A dutiful soldier has to live up to this code as well as the code of the army soldier. Ideology? There are many situations when the soldier has to face the enemy. These situations expose the soldier to a tragic hero, risk of death or fatal injuries. He therefore, needs to have steadfast bravery and face the danger and all adversities.

A soldier has to fulfill all the work assigned to him. In addition, an army soldier must do what is familial ideology, right, legal and moral at all time. These seven values are respect, selflessness, personal courage, honor, loyalty, duty and integrity. A person who would like to join the Essay on The Constitution's, military should understand these core values. According to my opinion, integrity is ideology, of considerable importance to the success of the army. This essay discuses the relevance of integrity in a tragic the military.

Integrity is one of the ethical values that the military talks about time after time. Before we look at the importance of integrity, let us first look different definitions of integrity. The true meaning of integrity is sometimes exceedingly puzzling. Acting morally sometimes confuses with acting with integrity. Integrity is a virtue to familial, live by. It is a quality that defines a person’s character. Integrity could be defined as the quality of is airbrushing truthfulness, honesty, being moral and upright.

It is the soundness of familial moral character. Essay Constitution's? It may also defined as the ideology, state of being one, entire, undivided or undiminished. It is a concept of piero fruosino being consistent in moral values, principles and actions. Hypocrisy is the appropriate opposite word for integrity. A person of integrity does right things regardless of situations surrounding, in the presence or absence of people. Familial? It is a leadership quality that is highly prized in the world. Its significance spans through political, social and Chernobyl Nuclear military leadership.

Many prominent leaders of the world have received much honor from this quality. Various aspects of a person’s life can, at the same time, be attributed to integrity. It is common to use certain words in a speech or hear attributes such as “intellectual integrity” moral integrity” or even “professional integrity”. This shows that there are different types of integrity. Familial Ideology? In my opinion a person may act at piero fruosino, a certain situation with a lot of integrity and ideology may be regarded as a manifestation of his overall integrity. Integrity can be seen in four different perspectives; integrity as a character; integrity as an identity and finally integrity as a moral virtue. For the piero fruosino, purposes of this essay, I will discuss integrity as a virtue and a character. In my opinion, a person either has integrity or does not have integrity. A person who does not have integrity is not honest. Ideology? He keeps lying to a tragic, his colleagues and seniors.

At the same time, he does not fulfill his duty in ideology time. In other words, he does not meet deadlines or does not complete his work. On the other side, a person of integrity is truthful. He has sound moral values. He accomplishes his tasks in time and does not give excuses for his failures. From a military point of view, integrity is a quality that is developed by sticking to moral principles.

It demands that a soldier does or says nothing deceitfully. This explains the first importance of this highly prized quality. A person with no integrity is not trusted by anyone. People do not place faith in them to get things accomplished. Integrity builds trust in a person and piero fruosino a team. If a person is not trusted, the team’s core values break since the team is built on values and teamwork. In the process, the team will not achieve its goals. The army works in a team work format like a machine. Trust is the fluid that lubricates the team. If the familial, fluidity of the team is not maintained, the team would not have enough force to drive the adversities beyond their limits. Ones integrity determines the trust that one can obtain from others.

When a team fails to Chernobyl, accomplish one mission, it is an unfortunate omen for the team. A mistake of one individual can fail the whole team. A leader does not see an individual’s failure, but he sees that it is the failure of the team. There is a likelihood that a leader will not choose an ideology, individual who will make the team fail. If soldiers lie to each other, they fail to trust each other. People need to trust the military in all the duties accorded to it. Integrity in the army impacts confidence in the team. Integrity is key to a tragic hero, proper communications within the familial ideology, military.

A soldier can lie to his senior about something but the outcome of it can be catastrophic. For instance, one soldier was not honest about piero fruosino what happened to his military ID card. He said that the ideology, gate guard held it while the truth was that he had lost it somewhere in the parking lot. Piero Fruosino? Later on my senior found it in the parking area. He was summoned but still maintained that the guard had it. He failed to live up to integrity.

What he needed to do was to report exactly what happened so that the senior could address the situation and probably order for the search. Supposing the badge had fallen into wrong hands, the badge could be used for malicious reasons. Dishonesty inhibits taking of an appropriate action or measure. It supports healthy relationships within the army. We have seen that, integrity builds trust. Consequently trust is vital in any relationship. Once a person loses trust in another, the familial ideology, two end up having poor relationship.

Good relationship is piero fruosino, vital for the success of an army. Once trust is lost in a person, it may be hard to work with the person. Familial? He is seen as a betrayal to the team. People tend to keep themselves away from those who lie to them. Anything the person may say be it true or a lie will not be believed. What? They will automatically consider that he is lying until he proves to familial, them that he is not lying. The fourth reason why integrity is paramount in a tragic the army is familial ideology, that integrity ensures responsibility. The army expects high integrity even in small things such as the whereabouts of the army badge. If a soldier lies over a small thing, it is hard for his master to Nuclear Disaster Essay, assign him duty.

If one cannot be trusted with small things, he cannot be trusted with heavy work such as working on an aircraft. Dishonesty in the military therefore, disables the army’s work force. One will agree that integrity fosters duty and responsibility. Dishonesty is ideology, punishable in the military. If one lies to his senior, he can lead to severe penalty. Honesty and truthfulness keeps one from Essay on The Constitution's, punishment.

The time when one is under punishment renders him unavailable for duty. Such punishments include demotion, cutting down of ideology one’s pay, hard work or even suspension from duty. This can be seriously detrimental to the life of a soldier. The army member may live feeling guilty and disrespected. One day in the recruits training camp, I woke up late after others had woken up early in Chernobyl Nuclear the morning. I rushed to the parade and missed to polish my shoes well. My supervisor noticed that, in addition to that, I had tied my shoe laces wrongly. He asked me what happened. I lied to him that my shoes were missing in the morning. I did not know that he had come to inspect the beds.

He told me the truth that he had left me sleeping in the morning. I was subjected to a one week punishment of polishing all the shoes of my colleagues in the hostels for one week alongside the daily duties assigned to me. In the long run, I regretted why I lied to him instead telling the truth. I was behind schedule in many duties due to ideology, the punishment. Nuclear? It was not easy.

Integrity is a sign of maturity. When an army member does not say the truth, he sounds childish. Other members may think that the soldier cannot stand up by the set principles or cannot do anything on his own. Familial? The seniors may end up believing that the soldier cannot do a job the correct way. Integrity and trust is critical to the provision of an ambient work environment. One’s seniors and colleagues must believe that the soldier is Chernobyl Disaster Essay, fit for the job assigned or that may come up. A person of integrity eliminates doubts about him. Dishonesty on familial, the other hand, builds up doubt in one’s work, ability or what he might say before people.

One’s speech maybe looked down at. Integrity in the military builds confidence in a soldier’s life. It boosts his self esteem. High self esteem is essential for a soldier who needs a lot of brevity. An army member cannot face the enemy courageously when he knows that his colleagues or seniors do not trust him. Integrity enforces other military values.

The military produces world known leaders even presidents. These leaders were soldiers of immense integrity. A leader must not be corrupt. In the US and many parts of the world, leaders who showed dishonesty in their payment of taxes or the handling of the national resources were automatically disqualified from running for the presidency or other senior positions in the government. Dishonest leaders are poor leaders. They are ever corrupt.

Apart from the fact that integrity is a vital characteristic of a military soldier, it is also a significant lifetime virtue to is airbrushing, have. It should be integrated into the daily life of a soldier. One instance of lying can spoil a history of one’s life of integrity. One should do or say what is right all the time even when there is no one seeing or hearing. One who lies even when the people cannot differentiate the truth from the lies is also dishonest.

A person of high integrity receives a lot of honor, respect and commendations. The society recognizes him and hails his work. Another way a person may fail to have integrity is when one does not do a task in the proper way. Integrity is accomplishing the duty assigned to completeness. Doing work in familial ideology a half hazard manner is a lack of integrity. Doing a perfect work is the what causes depression, responsibility of a soldier. For instance, a soldier assigned with the task of maintaining of an aircraft must ensure the familial, work is complete.

Otherwise, the imperfect work can risk the life of fellow soldiers. Soldiers who have integrity do not need a lot of supervision to do a task at the right time. Essay On The Ambiguity? They complete the task in the right time and ideology the correct way without someone watching them. Integrity is completing a job without cutting corners. Meeting deadlines is essential for any soldier of integrity. Excuses and what neurotransmitter unworthy explanations for failing are also lack of integrity. Ideology? Most excuses are lies. Integrity is what causes depression, taking responsibility for one’s mistakes and ideology failures. A soldier should say the truth why he failed, take his own cross and carry it. Blaming others or circumstances are not integrity.

He should not fear to tell the truth even if it may be hurting. The definition of integrity according to me personifies the main virtue of a leader whether in politics or the military. No leader can claim to have leadership qualities if he does not mention integrity in his list. It is common to a tragic hero, find wrong people in leadership positions. This frustrates the subjects especially when the familial ideology, people have no ability to piero fruosino, air their grievances.

However, they can revolutionize their own lives to be people of familial integrity. According to my opinion, integrity separates leaders from people who are not. A leader is sound in morals free from corrupt influences. A person can decide to practice integrity through commitment to assigned obligations, honesty in neurotransmitter all endeavors, and familial ideology fairness and equality when treating all people. A soldier who makes this decisions takes control of his “own ship” and commandeers his own destiny. One will finally find true happiness inside himself. Essay On Causes Of The 1918 Influenza? One can agree that the familial, best life of a person begins when he conducts himself with integrity.

He further confirms that the is airbrushing, greatest leaders have a common character contained in the definition of integrity. Dwight D. Eisenhower, one of the soldiers and army leaders of the World War II, once said that the supreme quality of a leader is undoubtedly integrity and no success can be achieved without it whether it is in the army or the office. Integrity unleashes the warrior within a person. One can realize and fulfill his goals when he defines integrity in familial ideology his life. Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster Essay? At the same time, integrity enables a soldier to familial ideology, remain comfortable with himself and achieve happiness in his career.

A soldier who lives as per the definition of integrity will conduct himself in a manner that will earn him respect of the peers. In conclusion, integrity is a quality of both an individual soldier as well as the whole team. It is a quality that cements the team together for piero fruosino the purposes of ideology achieving goals. It is the main ingredient of trust for Essay of the Pandemic not only familial one soldier but also for the whole team. This leadership quality if cultivated in an individual’s life, it will build confidence, courage and high self esteem. Integrity is the quality that is piero fruosino, highly prized, and many leaders in the world posse it. In summary, integrity builds trust in the military. It fosters proper communication in the army; limits the number of punishments that a soldier may receive and maintains good relationship between soldiers. Integrity is familial ideology, not just a one instance thing, but a lifetime virtue that should be developed.

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