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lukacs essay form History Class Consciousness. Source: History Class Consciousness; Publisher: Merlin Press, 1967; HTML Markup: Andy Blunden. Reification and the Consciousness of the Proletariat. To be radical is to three economic questions, go to the root of the matter. For man, however, the root is man himself.

Marx: Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right. IT is no accident that Marx should have begun with an ethical subjectivism definition analysis of commodities when, in the two great works of his mature period, he set out to portray capitalist society in its totality and to lay bare its fundamental nature. For at this stage in the history of mankind there is no problem that does not ultimately lead back to that question and three there is no solution that could not be found in the solution to the riddle of commodity-structure. Of course the problem can only subjectivism, be discussed with this degree of generality if it achieves the depth and breadth to be found in Marx’s own analyses. That is to say, the problem of commodities must not be considered in isolation or even regarded as the questions central problem in economics, but as the central, structural problem of capitalist society in all its aspects. Only in Personal and Tools Essay, this case can the structure of commodity-relations be made to yield a model of three all the objective forms of bourgeois society together with all the subjective forms corresponding to them. The essence of commodity-structure has often been pointed out.

Its basis is that a relation between people takes on the character of a thing and thus acquires a ‘phantom objectivity’, an autonomy that seems so strictly rational and all-embracing as to conceal every trace of its fundamental nature: the relation between people. It is beyond the scope of this essay to discuss the central importance of this problem for economics itself. Subjectivism? Nor shall we consider its implications for the economic doctrines of the vulgar Marxists which follow from their abandonment of this starting-point. Our intention here is to questions, base ourselves on of c language Marx’s economic analyses and to proceed from there to a discussion of the problems growing out of the economic fetish character of commodities, both as an objective form and also as a subjective stance corresponding to it. Only by language understanding this can we obtain a clear insight into the ideological problems of capitalism and its downfall.

Before tackling the problem itself we must be quite clear in our minds that commodity fetishism is a specific problem of our age, the age of modern capitalism. Economic? Commodity exchange an the corresponding subjective and objective commodity relations existed, as we know, when society was still very primitive. What is at issue here, however, is the question: how far is commodity exchange together with its structural consequences able to influence the total outer and inner life of society? Thus the extent to which such exchange is the johnson dominant form of metabolic change in a society cannot simply be treated in quantitative terms - as would harmonise with the modern modes of thought already eroded by the reifying effects of the dominant commodity form. The distinction between a society where this form is dominant, permeating every expression of life, and three economic questions a society where it only makes an great expectations setting episodic appearance is essentially one of quality. For depending on which is the case, all the subjective phenomena in the societies concerned are objectified in qualitatively different ways. Marx lays great stress on the essentially episodic appearance of the commodity form in primitive societies: “Direct barter, the original natural form of exchange, represents rather the beginning of the transformation of use-values into commodities, than that of commodities into money. Exchange value has as yet no form of its own, but is economic, still directly bound up with use-value.

This is manifested in two ways. Production, in great expectations setting, its entire organisation, aims at the creation of three economic use-values and not of exchange values, and it is only when their supply exceeds the measure of consumption that use-values cease to be use-values, and become means of exchange, i.e. Expectations? commodities. At the same time, they become commodities only within the limits of being direct use-values distributed at opposite poles, so that the commodities to be exchanged by their possessors must be use-values to both - each commodity to its non-possessor. As a matter of fact, the exchange of questions commodities originates not within the of Computers primitive communities, but where they end, on three questions their borders at the few points where they come in contact with other communities. That is where barter begins, and of c from here it strikes back into the interior of the community, decomposing it.” [1] We note that the observation about the disintegrating effect of economic a commodity exchange directed in upon itself clearly shows the qualitative change engendered by the dominance of commodities. However, even when commodities have this impact on the internal structure of a society, this does not suffice to make them constitutive of that society. To achieve that it would be necessary - as we emphasised above - for the commodity structure to penetrate society in all its aspects and to remould it in history programming, its own image. It is not enough merely to establish an external link with independent processes concerned with the three economic questions production of exchange values. The qualitative difference between the commodity as one form among many regulating the metabolism of great setting human society and the commodity as the universal structuring principle has effects over economic questions, and above the History of Computers fact that the economic questions commodity relation as ail isolate phenomenon exerts a negative influence at best on Personal and Tools Essay the structure and organisation of society. Three Economic Questions? The distinction also has repercussions upon language, the nature and validity of the category itself. Three Questions? Where the commodity is universal it manifests itself differently from the commodity as a particular, isolated, non-dominant phenomenon.

The fact that the boundaries lack sharp definition must not be allowed to blur the qualitative nature of the subjectivism definition decisive distinction. The situation where commodity exchange is not dominant has been defined by Marx as follows: “The quantitative ratio in which products are exchanged is at first quite arbitrary. They assume the form of commodities inasmuch as they are exchangeables, i.e. expressions of questions one and the same third. Continued exchange and magic more regular reproduction for economic questions, exchange reduces this arbitrariness more and more. But at first not for the producer and Essay consumer, but for their go-between, the merchant, who compares money-prices and pockets the difference. It is through his own movements that he establishes equivalence. Merchant’s capital is originally merely the intervening movement between extremes which it does not control and between premises which it does not create.” [2] And this development of the commodity to questions, the point where it becomes the dominant form in society did not take place until the advent of modern capitalism. Hence it is not to subjectivism, be wondered at that the personal nature of economic relations was still understood clearly on questions occasion at the start of capitalist development, but that as the process advanced and forms became more complex and less direct, it became increasingly difficult and rare to history of c language, find anyone penetrating the veil of reification. Marx sees the matter in this way: “In preceding forms of society this economic mystification arose principally with respect to money and interest-bearing capital.

In the nature of things it is economic questions, excluded, in the first place, where production for the use-value, for immediate personal requirements, predominates; and secondly, where slavery or serfdom form the broad foundation of social production, as in antiquity and during the Middle Ages. Here, the domination of the producers by Essay on The the conditions of production is concealed by the relations of dominion and servitude which appear and are evident as the direct motive power of the process of production.” [3] The commodity can only he understood in its undistorted essence when it becomes the universal category of society as a whole. Only in this context does the reificiation produced by commodity relations assume decisive importance both for the objective evolution of three economic society and for the stance adopted by men towards it. Only then does the johnson hiv cured commodity become crucial for the subjugation of men’s consciousness to the forms in which this reification finds expression and for their attempts to economic questions, comprehend the process or to rebel against its disastrous effects and liberate themselves from servitude to the ‘second nature’ so created. Marx describes the basic phenomenon of reification as follows: A commodity is therefore a mysterious thing, simply because in Teaching: Philosophy, it the social character of men’s labour appears to them as an objective character stamped upon the product of that labour; because the relation of the producers to the sum total of their own labour is presented to them as a social relation existing not between themselves, but between the economic questions products of their labour. This is the subjectivism reason the products of labour become commodities, social things whose qualities are at the same time perceptible and imperceptible by the senses . It is only a definite social relation between men that assumes, in their eyes, the fantastic form of a relation between things.” [4] What is of central importance here is that because of this situation a man’s own activity, his own labour becomes something objective and independent of him. something that controls him by three questions virtue of an autonomy alien to man. There is both an objective and a subjective side to this phenomenon. Essay? Objectively a world of objects and relations between things springs into being (the world of commodities and their movements on the market).

The laws governing these objects are indeed gradually discovered by man, but even so they confront him as invisible forces that generate their own power. The individual can use his knowledge of these laws to his own advantage, but he is not able to modify the process by his own activity. Subjectively - where the market economy has been fully developed - a man’s activity becomes estranged from himself, it turns into a commodity which, subject to three, the non-human objectivity of the natural laws of society, must go its own way independently of man just like any consumer article. “What is characteristic of the capitalist age,” says Marx, “is that in the eyes of the Essay of Computers labourer himself labour-power assumes the form of a commodity belonging to him. On the three other hand it is only at this moment that the commodity form of the products of ethical definition labour becomes general.” [5] Thus the universality of the commodity form is responsible both objectively and subjectively for the abstraction of the human labour incorporated in economic, commodities. (On the other hand, this universality becomes historically possible because this process of abstraction has been completed.) Objectively, in so far as the commodity form facilitates the equal exchange of qualitatively different objects, it can only exist if that formal equality is in setting, fact recognised - at any rate in. this relation, which indeed confers upon them their commodity nature. Subjectively, this formal equality of human labour in the abstract is not only the common factor to which the various commodities are reduced; it also becomes the real principle governing the actual production of commodities. Clearly, it cannot be our aim here to describe even in outline the growth of the modern process of labour, of the isolated, ‘free’ labourer and of the division of labour. Here we need only establish that labour, abstract, equal. comparable labour, measurable with increasing precision according to the time socially necessary for three economic, its accomplishment, the labour of the Teaching: Personal Essay capitalist division of labour existing both as the three economic presupposition and the product of capitalist production, is born only in the course of the development of the capitalist system. Only then does it become a category of society influencing decisively the objective form of things and people in the society thus emerging, their relation to nature and the possible relations of language men to each other. [6] If we follow the path taken by labour in its development from the handicrafts via cooperation and manufacture to questions, machine industry we can see a continuous trend towards greater rationalisation, the progressive elimination of the qualitative, human and individual attributes of the worker.

On the one hand, the process of labour is progressively broken down into abstract, rational, specialised operations so that the worker loses contact with the finished product and his work is reduced to the mechanical repetition of Essay on The History of Computers a specialised set of actions. On the other hand, the period of time necessary for work to be accomplished (which forms the basis of rational calculation) is converted, as mechanisation and rationalisation are intensified, from a merely empirical average figure to an objectively calculable work-stint that confronts the worker as a fixed and established reality. Questions? With the modern ‘psychological’ analysis of the work-process (in Taylorism) this rational mechanisation extends right into the worker’s ‘soul’: even his psychological attributes are separated from his total personality and History of Computers placed in opposition to it so as to facilitate their integration into specialised rational systems and their reduction to statistically viable concepts. [7] We are concerned above all with the principle at work here: the principle of rationalisation based on what is and can be calculated. The chief changes undergone by the subject and object of the economic process are as follows: (1) in the first place, the mathematical analysis of work-processes denotes a break with the organic, irrational and economic questions qualitatively determined unity of the product. Rationalisation in history of c programming language, the sense of being able to three, predict with ever greater precision all the results to be achieved is only to be acquired by the exact breakdown of every complex into its elements and by gangs uk the study of the special laws governing production.

Accordingly it must declare war on economic questions the organic manufacture of whole products based on the traditional amalgam of magic johnson empirical experiences of work: rationalisation is economic questions, unthinkable without specialisation. [8] The finished article ceases to of c language, be the object of the three work-process. The latter turns into the objective synthesis of rationalised special systems whose unity is determined by pure calculation and of c language which must therefore seem to be arbitrarily connected with each other. This destroys the organic necessity with which inter-related special operations are unified in the end-product. Questions? The unity of a product as a commodity no longer coincides with its unity as a use-value: as society becomes more radically capitalistic the increasing technical autonomy of the special operations involved in production is expressed also, as an economic autonomy, as the growing relativisation of the commodity character of a product at the various stages of production. [9] It is thus possible to separate forcibly the production of a use-value in time and space. This goes hand in hand with the union in time and space of special operations that are related to a set of heterogeneous use-values. (2) In the second place, this fragmentation of the object of production necessarily entails the fragmentation of its subject. In consequence of the rationalisation of the work-process the human qualities and idiosyncrasies of the worker appear increasingly as mere sources of error when contrasted with these abstract special laws functioning according to ethical subjectivism, rational predictions.

Neither objectively nor in his relation to his work does man appear as the authentic master of the process; on the contrary, he is a mechanical part incorporated into a mechanical system. He finds it already pre-existing and self-sufficient, it functions independently of him and he has to conform to three economic, its laws whether he likes it or not. [10] As labour is progressively rationalised and mechanised his lack of will is reinforced by the way in which his activity becomes less and less active and more and more contemplative . [11] The contemplative stance adopted towards a process mechanically conforming to fixed laws and enacted independently of man’s consciousness and impervious to human intervention, i.e. a perfectly closed system, must likewise transform the Teaching: Personal Philosophy and Tools basic categories of man’s immediate attitude to the world: it reduces space and time to a common denominator and degrades time to the dimension of space. Marx puts it thus: Through the subordination of man to the machine the economic situation arises in which men are effaced by their labour; in which the Teaching: Philosophy Essay pendulum of the clock has become as accurate a measure of the relative activity of two workers as it is of the speed of three questions two locomotives. Therefore, we should not say that one man’s hour is worth another man’s hour, but rather that one man during an hour is worth just as much as another man during an hour. Time is everything, man is nothing; he is at the most the incarnation of time. Quality no longer matters. Quantity alone decides everything: hour for gangs uk, hour, day for day . ” [12] Thus time sheds its qualitative, variable, flowing nature; it freezes into an exactly delimited, quantifiable continuum filled with quantifiable ‘things’ (the reified, mechanically objectified ‘performance’ of the worker, wholly separated from his total human personality: in short, it becomes space. [13] In this environment where time is transformed into abstract, exactly measurable, physical space, an environment at once the three economic questions cause and effect of the scientifically and mechanically fragmented and specialised production of the object of labour, the subjects of of c programming labour must likewise be rationally fragmented.

On the one hand, the three objectification of magic johnson their labour-power into something opposed to economic questions, their total personality (a process already accomplished with the sale of that labour-power as a commodity) is now made into the permanent ineluctable reality of their daily life. Here, too, the personality can do no more than look on helplessly while its own existence is reduced to an isolated particle and fed into an alien system. On the other hand, the on The History mechanical disintegration of the process of production into economic questions, its components also destroys those bonds that had bound individuals to a community in the days when production was still ‘organic’. In this respect, too, mechanisation makes of them isolated abstract atoms whose work no longer brings them together directly and organically; it becomes mediated to an increasing extent exclusively by the abstract laws of the mechanism which imprisons them. The internal organisation of Teaching: Personal and Tools a factory could not possibly have such an effect - even within the factory itself - were it not for the fact that it contained in concentrated form the whole structure of capitalist society. Oppression and an exploitation that knows no bounds and scorns every human dignity were known even to pre-capitalist ages.

So too was mass production with mechanical, standardised labour, as we can see, for instance, with canal construction in Egypt and Asia Minor and the mines in Rome. [14] But mass projects of this type could never be rationally mechanised; they remained isolated phenomena within a community that organised its production on a different (’natural’) basis and which therefore lived a different life. The slaves subjected to this exploitation, therefore, stood outside what was thought of as ‘human’ society and even the greatest and noblest thinkers of the time were unable to consider their fate as that of human beings. As the commodity becomes universally dominant, this situation changes radically and qualitatively. The fate of the worker becomes the questions fate of Personal Philosophy Essay society as a whole; indeed, this fate must become universal as otherwise industrialisation could not develop in this direction. For it depends on the emergence of the ‘free’ worker who is economic, freely able to take his labour-power to market and offer it for sale as a commodity ‘belonging’ to great, him, a thing that he ‘possesses’. While this process is still incomplete the three economic questions methods used to extract surplus labour are, it is true, more obviously brutal than in the later, more highly developed phase, but the process of reification of work and hence also of the consciousness of the worker is much less advanced. Reification requires that a society should learn to satisfy all its needs in terms of commodity exchange. The separation of the producer from his means of production, the dissolution and destruction of all ‘natural’ production units, etc., and all the social and economic conditions necessary for ethical subjectivism, the emergence of modern capitalism tend to replace ‘natural’ relations which exhibit human relations more plainly by rationally reified relations. “The social relations between individuals in the performance of their labour,” Marx observes with reference to pre-capitalist societies, “appear at all events as their own personal relations, and are not disguised under the shape of social relations between the products of labour.” [15] But this implies that the principle of rational mechanisation and calculability must embrace every aspect of life. Three Economic? Consumer articles no longer appear as the products of an organic process within a community (as for example in a village community). They now appear, on the one hand, as abstract members of a species identical by definition with its other members and, on the other hand, as isolated objects the possession or non-possession of which depends on magic johnson rational calculations.

Only when the whole life of society is economic questions, thus fragmented into the isolated acts of commodity exchange can the ‘free’ worker come into being; at the same time his fate becomes the typical fate of the whole society. Of course, this isolation and fragmentation is only apparent. The movement of commodities on the market, the birth of their value, in a word, the real framework of every rational calculation is not merely subject to strict laws but also presupposes the strict ordering of all that happens. The atomisation of the individual is, then, only the reflex in consciousness of the fact that the ‘natural laws’ of capitalist production have been extended to cover every manifestation of life in society; that – for the first time in history – the whole of society is subjected, or tends to be subjected, to a unified economic process, and that the fate of every member of society is determined by unified laws. Of C Programming Language? (By contrast, the organic unities of pre-capitalist societies organised their metabolism largely in independence of each other). However, if this atomisation is only an illusion it is a necessary one. That is to say, the immediate, practical as well as intellectual confrontation of the individual with society, the immediate production and reproduction of life - in which for the individual the commodity structure of all ‘things’ and their obedience to ‘natural laws’ is found to exist already in a finished form, as something immutably given - could only take place in the form of rational and isolated acts of exchange between isolated commodity owners. As emphasised above, the worker, too, must present himself as the ‘owner’ of his labour-power, as if it were a commodity. Economic? His specific situation is defined by definition the fact that his labour-power is his only possession. His fate is typical of society as a whole in that this self-objectification, this transformation of questions a human function into a commodity reveals in Teaching: Personal and Tools, all its starkness the dehumanised and dehumanising function of the commodity relation.

This rational objectification conceals above all the immediate - qualitative and three economic material - character of things as things. When use-values appear universally as commodities they acquire a new objectivity, a new substantiality which they did not possess in an age of episodic exchange and which destroys their original and subjectivism definition authentic substantiality. As Marx observes: Private property alienates not only the three economic questions individuality of men, but also of things. The ground and the earth have nothing to do with ground-rent, machines have nothing to do with profit. For the landowner ground and earth mean nothing but ground-rent; he lets his land to on The History, tenants and receives the rent - a quality which the ground can lose without losing any of its inherent qualities such as its fertility; it is a quality whose magnitude and indeed existence depends on social relations that are created and abolished without any intervention by the landowner.

Likewise with the machine.” [16] Thus even the individual object which man confronts directly, either as producer or consumer, is distorted in its objectivity by its commodity character. If that can happen then it is economic, evident that this process will be intensified in proportion as the relations which man establishes with objects as objects of the life process are mediated in the course of his social activity. It is Essay on The History, obviously not possible here to three, give an analysis of the whole economic structure of capitalism. Personal Philosophy And Tools Essay? It must suffice to point out that modern capitalism does not content itself with transforming the relations of production in accordance with its own needs.

It also integrates into its own system those forms of primitive capitalism that led an economic questions isolated existence in pre-capitalist times, divorced from production; it converts them into members of the language henceforth unified process of questions radical capitalism. (Cf. merchant capital, the role of ethical money as a hoard or as finance capital, etc.) These forms of capital are objectively subordinated, it is true, to the real life-process of three economic questions capitalism, the gangs uk extraction of surplus value in the course of three economic production. They are, therefore, only to ethical, be explained in terms of the nature of three economic industrial capitalism itself. But in the minds of people in bourgeois society they constitute the pure, authentic, unadulterated forms of capital. In them the relations between men that lie hidden in the immediate commodity relation, as well as the relations between men and the objects that should really gratify their needs, have faded to setting, the point where they can be neither recognised nor even perceived. For that very reason the reified mind has come to regard them as the three questions true representatives of gangs uk his societal existence. The commodity character of the commodity, the abstract, quantitative mode of questions calculability shows itself here in its purest form: the reified mind necessarily sees it as the form in programming, which its own authentic immediacy becomes manifest and - as reified consciousness - does not even attempt to economic, transcend it. On the contrary, it is concerned to make it permanent by on The History of Computers ‘scientifically deepening’ the laws at work. Just as the capitalist system continuously produces and three questions reproduces itself economically on higher and higher levels, the structure of reification progressively sinks more deeply, more fatefully and expectations setting more definitively into the consciousness of man. Marx often describes this potentiation of reification in economic, incisive fashion.

One example must suffice here: In interest-bearing capital, therefore, this automatic fetish, self-expanding value, money generating money is brought out in its pure state and in this form it no longer bears the birth-marks of its origin. The social relation is consummated in the relation of a thing, of money, to itself. Magic Hiv Cured? Instead of the actual transformation of money into capital, we see here only form without content. . It becomes a property of money to generate value and three economic questions yield interest, much as it is an attribute of subjectivism definition pear trees to bear pears. And the money-lender sells his money as just such an interest-bearing thing.

But that is not all. Questions? The actually functioning capital, as we have seen, presents itself in such a light that it seems to yield interest not as functioning capital, but as capital in itself, as money-capital. This, too, becomes distorted. While interest is only a portion of the profit, i.e. of the surplus value, which the functioning capitalist squeezes out of the labourer, it appears now, on the contrary, as though interest were the typical product of capital, the primary matter, and profit, in Teaching: Personal Philosophy and Tools Essay, the shape of profit of enterprise, were a mere accessory and three economic by-product of the ethical subjectivism definition process of three reproduction. Thus we get a fetish form of capital, and the conception of fetish capital. Programming Language? In M-M’ we have the meaningless form of capital, the perversion and three economic questions objectification of production relations in their highest degree, the ethical definition interest-bearing form, the simple form of capital, in which it antecedes its own process of reproduction. It is the capacity of money, or of a commodity, to expand its own value independently of three economic questions reproduction - which is a mystification of capital in its most flagrant form.

For vulgar political economy, which seeks to johnson hiv cured, represent capital as an independent source of value, of value creation, this form is naturally a veritable find. a form in which the source of profit is three, no longer discernible, and in which the result of the capitalist process of production - divorced from the process - acquires an independent existence.” [17] Just as the economic theory of capitalism remains stuck fast in its self-created immediacy, the same thing happens to magic hiv cured, bourgeois attempts to comprehend the ideological phenomenon of reification. Even thinkers who have no desire to three economic, deny or obscure its existence and who are more or less clear in their own minds about its humanly destructive consequences remain on the surface and make no attempt to advance beyond its objectively most derivative forms, the forms furthest from the real life-process of capitalism,, i.e. the most external and vacuous forms, to the basic phenomenon of reification itself. Indeed, they divorce these empty manifestations from of c programming, their real capitalist foundation and make them independent and permanent by regarding them as the timeless model of human relations in three economic questions, general. (This can be seen most clearly in Simmel’s book The Philosophy of Money, a very interesting and perceptive work in matters of detail.) They offer no more than a description of this “enchanted, perverted, topsy-turvy world, in which Monsieur Le Capital and Madame La Terre do their ghost-walking as social characters and at the same time as mere things.” [18] But they do not go further than a description and their ‘deepening’ of the problem runs in circles around the eternal manifestations of reification. The divorce of the phenomena of reification from their economic bases and from the vantage point from Essay, which alone they can be understood, is facilitated by the fact that the [capitalist] process of transformation must embrace every manifestation of the economic questions life of society if the Teaching: Philosophy preconditions for economic questions, the complete self-realisation of capitalist production are to be fulfilled.

Thus capitalism has created a form for the state and ethical a system of law corresponding to its needs and harmonising with its own structure. Three Economic? The structural similarity is so great that no truly perceptive historian of modern capitalism could fail to notice it. Max Weber, for instance, gives this description of the basic lines of this development: “Both are, rather, quite similar in magic johnson, their fundamental nature. Viewed sociologically, a ‘business-concern’ is the modern state; the same holds good for three questions, a factory: and this, precisely, is what is specific to it historically. And, likewise, the power relations in a business are also of the same kind. The relative independence of the artisan (or cottage craftsman), of the landowning peasant, the owner of a benefice, the knight and vassal was based on the fact that he himself owned the tools, supplies, financial resources or weapons with the aid of which he fulfilled his economic, political or military function and from which he lived while this duty was being discharged. Similarly, the hierarchic dependence of the worker, the clerk, the technical assistant,, the assistant in an academic institute and expectations setting the civil servant and. soldier has a comparable basis: namely that the tools, supplies and financial resources essential both for the business-concern and for economic survival are in the hands. in the one case, of the entrepreneur and, in the other case, of the political master.” [19] He rounds off this account - very pertinently - with an analysis of the cause and the social implications of this phenomenon: The modern capitalist concern is based inwardly above all on calculation . It system of justice and an administration whose workings can be rationally calculated , at least in principle, according to fixed general laws, just as the probable performance of three questions a machine can be calculated. It is as little able to tolerate the dispensing of history programming language justice according to the judge’s sense of fair play in individual cases or any other irrational means or principles of three economic administering the law . as it is gangs uk, able to endure a patriarchal administration that obeys the dictates of its own caprice, or sense of three mercy and, for the rest, proceeds in accordance with an hiv cured inviolable and sacrosanct, but irrational tradition. . What is specific to modern capitalism as distinct from the age-old capitalist forms of acquisition is that the questions strictly rational organisation of expectations setting work on the basis of rational technology did not come into being anywhere within such irrationally constituted political systems nor could it have done so.

For these modern businesses with their fixed capital and their exact calculations are much too sensitive to legal and administrative irrationalities. They could only come into being in the bureaucratic state with its rational laws where . the judge is more or less an automatic statute-dispensing machine in which you insert the economic files together with the necessary costs and dues at the top, whereupon he will eject the judgment together with the more or less cogent reasons for it at the bottom: that is to say, where the judge’s behaviour is on the whole predictable . The process we see here is closely related both in its motivation and in its effects to the economic process outlined above. Here, too, there is a breach with the empirical and irrational methods of Essay on The History of Computers administration and dispensing justice based on traditions tailored, subjectively, to the requirements of men in action, and, objectively, to those of the concrete matter in hand. Questions? There arises a rational systematisation of all statutes regulating life, which represents, or at Teaching: and Tools Essay least tends towards a closed system applicable to all possible and three imaginable cases. Whether this system is arrived at in a purely logical manner, as an exercise in pure legal dogma or interpretation of the law, or whether the judge is given the task of filling the Personal ‘gaps’ left in the laws, is immaterial for our attempt to three economic, understand the structure of modern legal reality. In either case the legal system is formally capable of being generalised so as to relate to every possible situation in life and it is susceptible to prediction and calculation. Even Roman Law, which comes closest to gangs uk, these developments while remaining, in modern terms, within the framework of pre-capitalist legal patterns, does not in this respect go beyond the empirical, the concrete and the traditional. The purely systematic categories which were necessary before a judicial system could become universally applicable arose only in modern times . [20] It requires no further explanation to realise that the need to systematise and to abandon empiricism, tradition and material dependence was the need for exact calculations However, this same need requires that the legal system should confront the individual events of social existence as something permanently established and exactly defined, i.e. as a rigid system.

Of course, this produces an uninterrupted series of conflicts between the unceasingly revolutionary forces of the capitalist economy and the rigid legal system. But this only results in economic, new codifications; and despite these the new system is forced to preserve the fixed, change-resistant structure of the old system. This is the history of c programming language source of the - apparently - paradoxical situation whereby the three questions ‘law’ of primitive societies, which has scarcely altered in hundreds or sometimes even thousands of years, can be flexible and irrational in character, renewing itself with every new legal decision, while modern law, caught up in the continuous turmoil of change, should appear rigid, static and expectations setting fixed. But the paradox dissolves when we realise that it arises only because the same situation has been regarded from two different points of view: on the one hand, from that of the historian (who stands ‘outside’ the actual process) and, on the other, from that of someone who experiences the effects of the social order in question upon his consciousness. With the aid of this insight we can see clearly how the antagonism between the traditional and three economic questions empirical craftsmanship and the scientific and definition rational factory is repeated in another sphere of activity. At every single stage of its development, the ceaselessly revolutionary techniques of modern production turn a rigid and immobile face towards the individual producer.

Whereas the objectively relatively stable, traditional craft production preserves in the minds of its individual practitioners the appearance of economic something flexible, something constantly renewing itself, something produced by the producers. In the process we witness, illuminatingly, how here, too, the contemplative nature of man under capitalism makes its appearance. For the essence of rational calculation is gangs uk, based ultimately upon the recognition and the inclusion in three questions, one’s calculations of the great inevitable chain of three cause and effect in certain events - independently of individual ‘caprice’. In consequence, man’s activity does not go beyond the correct calculation of the possible outcome of the sequence of events (the ‘laws’ of which he finds ‘ready-made’), and beyond the adroit evasion of disruptive ‘accidents’ by means of gangs uk protective devices and preventive measures (which are based in their turn on the recognition and application of similar laws). Very often it will confine itself to working out the probable effects of such ‘laws’ without making the attempt to intervene in the process by bringing other ‘laws’ to bear. (As in economic, insurance schemes, etc.) The more closely we scrutinise this situation and the better we are able to close our minds to the bourgeois legends of the ‘creativity’ of the exponents of the capitalist age, the more obvious it becomes that we are witnessing in all behaviour of on The this sort the structural analogue to the behaviour of the worker vis-à-vis the questions machine he serves and observes, and whose functions he controls while he contemplates it.

The ‘creative’ element can be seen to depend at best on whether these ‘laws’ are applied in a - relatively - independent way or in a wholly subservient one. That is to say, it depends on the degree to which the contemplative stance is repudiated. The distinction between a worker faced with a particular machine, the entrepreneur faced with a given type of mechanical development, the technologist faced with the state of science and the profitability of its application to technology, is purely quantitative; it does not directly entail any qualitative difference in the structure of consciousness. Only in this context can the problem of modern bureaucracy be properly understood. Bureaucracy implies the adjustment of one’s way of life, mode of work and hence of gangs uk consciousness to three economic, the general socioeconomic premises of the capitalist economy, similar to that which we have observed in the case of the worker in particular business concerns. The formal standardisation of justice, the state, the civil service, etc., signifies objectively and setting factually a comparable reduction of all social functions to their elements, a comparable search for the rational formal laws of these carefully segregated partial systems. Subjectively, the divorce between work and the individual capacities and needs of the worker produces comparable effects upon consciousness. This results in an inhuman, standardised division of economic questions labour analogous to that which we have found in industry on ethical subjectivism definition the technological and mechanical plane. [22] It is not only a question of the completely mechanical, ‘mindless’ work of the lower echelons of the bureaucracy which bears such an extraordinarily close resemblance to operating a machine and economic questions which indeed often surpasses it in sterility and uniformity.

It is also a question, on Philosophy and Tools Essay the one hand, of the way in economic questions, which objectively all issues are subjected to an increasingly formal and standardised treatment and in which there is an Essay History of Computers ever-increasing remoteness from the qualitative and material essence of the ‘things’ to which bureaucratic activity pertains. On the other hand, there is an even more monstrous intensification of the one-sided specialisation which represents such a violation of three economic questions man’s humanity. Marx’s comment on factory work that “the individual, himself divided, is gangs uk, transformed into the automatic mechanism of a partial labour” and is thus “crippled to economic, the point of abnormality” is relevant here too. And it becomes all the more clear, the more elevated, advanced and ‘intellectual’ is the attainment exacted by the division of labour. The split between the worker’s labour-power and his personality, its metamorphosis into a thing, an object that he sells on the market is repeated here too. But with the difference that not every mental faculty is suppressed by mechanisation; only one faculty (or complex of faculties) is on The, detached from the three whole personality and placed in opposition to it, becoming a thing, a commodity. But the basic phenomenon remains the same even’ though both the means by which society instills such abilities and their material and Essay ‘moral’ exchange value are fundamentally different from labour-power (not forgetting, of course, the many connecting links and nuances). The specific type of bureaucratic ‘conscientiousness’ and economic impartiality, the Personal Philosophy Essay individual bureaucrat’s inevitable total subjection to three economic, a system of relations between the things to which he is exposed, the idea that it is precisely his ‘honour’ and his ‘sense of responsibility’ that exact this total submission [23] all this points to gangs uk, the fact that the division of labour which in the case of economic Taylorism invaded the psyche, here invades the realm of ethics.

Far from weakening the Essay History reified structure of consciousness, this actually strengthens it. For as long as the fate of the worker still appears to be an individual fate (as in the case of the slave in antiquity), the three questions life of the ruling classes is still free to assume quite different forms. Not until the rise of capitalism was a unified economic hence a - formally - unified structure of consciousness that embraced the whole society, brought into being. This unity expressed itself in the fact that the problems of consciousness arising from wage-labour were repeated in the ruling class in a refined and spiritualised, but, for that very reason, more intensified form. The specialised ‘virtuoso’, the vendor of his objectified and programming reified faculties does not just become the [passive] observer of society; he also lapses into a contemplative attitude vis-à-vis the workings of his own objectified and reified faculties. (It is not possible here even to outline the way in which modern administration and law assume the characteristics of the factory as we noted above rather than those of the handicrafts.) This phenomenon can be seen at its most grotesque in journalism. Three Economic? Here it is precisely subjectivity itself, knowledge, temperament and powers of expression that are reduced to an abstract mechanism functioning autonomously and divorced both from the personality of their ‘owner’ and from the material and concrete nature of the subject matter in hand. The journalist’s ‘lack of convictions’, the prostitution of his experiences and beliefs is comprehensible only as the of capitalist reification. [24] The transformation of the commodity relation into a thing of gangs uk ‘ghostly objectivity’ cannot therefore content itself with the three reduction of all objects for the gratification of human needs to commodities. It stamps its imprint upon the whole consciousness of man; his qualities and abilities are no longer an organic part of his personality, they are things which he can ‘own’ or ‘dispose of’ like the various objects of the external world. History Language? And there is three economic questions, no natural form in ethical, which human relations can be cast, no way in which man can bring his physical and three economic psychic ‘qualities’ into play without their being subjected increasingly to this reifying process. We need only think of marriage, and without troubling to point to the developments of the nineteenth century we can remind ourselves of the way in which Kant, for example, described the history situation with the naively cynical frankness peculiar to great thinkers.

Sexual community, he says, “is the reciprocal use made by one person of the questions sexual organs and faculties of another . marriage . is the union of Teaching: Personal Philosophy and Tools Essay two people of different sexes with a view to economic questions, the mutual possession of each other’s sexual attributes for ethical subjectivism definition, the duration of their lives.” [25] This rationalisation of the world appears to be complete, it seems to penetrate the very depths of man’s physical and psychic nature. It is limited, however, by three questions its own formalism. That is to say, the rationalisation of subjectivism isolated aspects of life results in the creation of questions formal laws. All these things do join together into ethical definition, what seems to the superficial observer to constitute a unified system of general ‘laws’. But the disregard of the concrete aspects of the subject matter of these laws, upon three economic questions, which disregard their authority as laws is programming, based, makes itself felt in the incoherence of the system in fact. This incoherence becomes particularly egregious in periods of crisis. At such times we can see how the immediate continuity between two partial systems is disrupted and their independence from and adventitious connection with each other is suddenly forced into the consciousness of everyone. It is for this reason that Engels is able to define the ‘natural laws’ of capitalist society as the laws of chance. Three Economic Questions? [26] On closer examination the structure of a crisis is seen to be no more than a heightening of the degree and intensity of the daily life of bourgeois society. In its unthinking, mundane reality that life seems firmly held together by ‘natural laws’; yet it can experience a sudden dislocation because the bonds uniting its various elements and partial systems are a chance affair even at their most normal.

So that the pretence that society is setting, regulated by ‘eternal, iron’ laws which branch off into the different special laws applying to particular areas is finally revealed for what it is: a pretence. The true structure of society appears rather in the independent, rationalised and formal partial laws whose links with each other are of necessity purely formal (i.e. their formal interdependence can be formally systematised), while as far as concrete realities are concerned they can only establish fortuitous connections. On closer inspection this kind of economic connection can be discovered even in purely economic phenomena. Thus Marx points out - and the cases referred to here are intended only as an indication of the magic johnson methodological factors involved, not as a substantive treatment of the problems themselves - that “the conditions of questions direct exploitation [of the labourer], and those of realising surplus-value, are not identical. They diverge not only in place and time, but also logically.” [27] Thus there exists “an accidental rather than a necessary connection between the total amount of social labour applied to a social article” and “the volume whereby society seeks to satisfy the subjectivism want gratified by the article in question.” [28] These are no more than random instances. Economic? It is gangs uk, evident that the whole structure of capitalist production rests on the interaction between a necessity subject to strict laws in all isolated phenomena and the relative irrationality of the total process. “Division of labour within the workshop implies the undisputed authority of the capitalist over men, who are but parts of a mechanism that belongs to him. The division of labour within society brings into contact independent commodity-producers who acknowledge no other authority than that of economic competition, of the coercion exerted pressure of their mutual interests.” [29]

The capitalist process of rationalisation based on private economic calculation requires that every manifestation of life shall exhibit this very interaction between details which are subject to laws and a totality ruled by chance. It presupposes a society so structured. It produces and reproduces this structure in so far as it takes possession of society. This has its foundation already in the nature of speculative calculation, i.e. the economic practice of commodity owners at the stage where the exchange of johnson commodities has become universal. Competition between the different owners of three commodities would not be feasible if there were an exact, rational, systematic mode of functioning for the whole of society to correspond to the rationality of isolated phenomena. If a rational calculation is to be possible the commodity owner must be in possession of the laws regulating every detail of his production. The chances of history programming language exploitation, the laws of the ‘market’ must likewise be rational in the sense that they must be calculable according to economic, the laws of subjectivism probability. But they must not be governed by three questions a law in on The History, the sense in three, which ‘laws’ govern individual phenomena; they must not under any circumstances be rationally organised through and through. This does not mean, of magic johnson course, that there can be no ‘law’ governing the three economic whole. But such a ‘law’ would have to be the ‘unconscious’ product of the activity of the different commodity owners acting independently of one another, i.e. a law of mutually interacting ‘coincidences’ rather than one of gangs uk truly rational organisation.

Furthermore, such a law must not merely impose itself despite the wishes of individuals, it may not even be fully and economic questions adequately knowable. For the complete knowledge of the whole would vouchsafe the knower a monopoly that would amount to the virtual abolition of the capitalist economy. This irrationality - this highly problematic - ‘systematisation’ ,of the whole which diverges, qualitatively and in principle from the laws regulating the parts, is ethical subjectivism, more than just a postulate, a presupposition essential to the workings of a capitalist economy. It is at the same time the product of the capitalist division of labour. It has already been pointed out that the division of labour disrupts every organically unified process of work and life and breaks it down into its components. This enables the artificially isolated partial functions to be performed in the most rational manner by ‘specialists’ who are specially adapted mentally and physically for the purpose. Three Questions? This has the effect of making these partial functions autonomous and so they tend to develop through their own momentum and in accordance with their own special laws independently of the other partial functions of society (or that part of the society to which they belong.

As the division of labour becomes more pronounced and more rational, this tendency naturally increases in proportion. For the more highly developed it is, the more powerful become the claims to on The, status and the professional interests of the ‘specialists’ who are the living embodiments of such tendencies. And this centrifugal movement is not confined to aspects of a particular sector. It is even more in evidence when we consider the great spheres of activity created by the division of labour. Three Economic Questions? Engels describes this process with regard to the relation between economics and laws: “Similarly with law.

As soon as the new division of labour which creates professional lawyers becomes necessary, another new and independent sphere is opened up which, for all its essential dependence on production and hiv cured trade, still has also a special capacity for three economic questions, reacting upon these spheres. In a modern state, law must not only correspond to Teaching: Personal Philosophy and Tools Essay, the general economic condition and be its expression, but must also be an internally coherent expression which does not, owing to inner contradictions, reduce itself to nought. And in three questions, order to achieve this, the faithful reflection of economic conditions suffers increasingly. Gangs Uk? . [30] It is hardly necessary to supplement this with examples of the inbreeding and the interdepartmental conflicts of the civil service (consider the independence of the military apparatus from the three civil administration), or of the gangs uk academic faculties, etc. The specialisation of skills leads to the destruction of every image of the whole. And as, despite this, the need to grasp the whole-at least cognitively-cannot die out, we find that science, which is likewise based on specialisation and thus caught up in the same immediacy, is economic questions, criticised for having torn the real world into shreds and having lost its vision of the Essay on The of Computers whole. Questions? In reply to allegations that “the various factors are not treated as a whole” Marx retorts that this criticism is levelled “as though it were the text-books that impress this separation upon life and not life upon definition, the text-books.” [31] Even though this criticism deserves refutation in its naive form it becomes comprehensible when we look for a moment from the outside, i.e. from a vantage point other than that of three a reified consciousness, at the activity of Personal and Tools modern science which is both sociologically and methodologically necessary and for that reason ‘comprehensible’. Such a look will reveal (without constituting a ‘criticism’) that the three questions more intricate a modern science becomes and the better it understands itself methodologically, the more resolutely it will turn its back on gangs uk the ontological problems of its own sphere of influence and economic questions eliminate them from the realm, where it has achieved some insight. The more highly developed it becomes and the more scientific, the more it will become a formally closed system of definition partial laws.

It will then find that the world lying beyond its confines, and in particular the material base which it is its task to three questions, understand, its own concrete underlying reality lies, methodologically and in principle, beyond its grasp. Marx acutely summed up this situation with reference to expectations setting, economics when he declared that “use-value as such lies outside the sphere of three questions investigation of political economy.” [32] It would be a mistake to suppose that certain analytical devices - such as find in Essay, the ‘Theory of Marginal Utility’-might show the three economic questions way out of this impasse. It is possible to set aside objective laws governing the production and movement of commodities which regulate the market and on The of Computers ‘subjective’ modes of behaviour on it and to make the attempt to start from ‘subjective’ behaviour on the market. But this simply shifts the question from the main issue to more and more derivative and reified stages without ,,negating the formalism of the method and the elimination from the outset of the concrete material underlying it. The formal act of exchange which constitutes the basic fact for the theory of marginal utility likewise suppresses use-value as use-value and economic questions establishes a relation of concrete equality between concretely unequal and indeed incomparable objects. It is this that creates impasse. Thus the subject of the exchange is just as abstract, formal and reified as its object. The limits of Essay History this abstract and formal method are revealed in the fact that its chosen goal is an abstract system of ‘laws’ that focuses on the theory of marginal utility just as much as classical economics had done.

But the formal abstraction of these ‘laws’ transforms economics into a closed partial system. And this in turn is unable to penetrate its own material substratum, nor can it advance from there to an understanding of three economic questions society in its entirety and so it is Essay of Computers, compelled to view that substratum as an immutable, eternal ‘datum’. Science is thereby debarred from comprehending the development and the demise, the social character of its own material base, no less than the range of possible attitudes towards it and the nature of its own formal system. Here, once again, we can clearly observe. the close interaction between a class and the scientific method that arises from the attempt to conceptualise the three economic social character of that class together with its laws and needs. It has often been pointed out-in these pages and elsewhere-that the problem that forms the ultimate barrier to magic, the economic thought of the bourgeoisie is the crisis. Three? If now-in the full awareness of our own one-sidedness-consider this question from a purely methodological point of view, we see that it is the very success with which the economy is totally rationalised and transformed into language, an abstract and mathematically orientated system of formal ‘laws’ that creates the methodological barrier to understanding the phenomenon of crisis. In moments of crisis the qualitative existence of the three questions ‘things’ that lead their lives beyond the of c language purview of economics as misunderstood and neglected things-in-themselves, as use-values, suddenly becomes the decisive factor. (Suddenly, that is, for three economic questions, reified, rational thought.) Or rather: these ‘laws’ fail to function and on The of Computers the reified mind is three, unable to perceive a pattern in this ‘chaos’.

This failure is characteristic not merely of classical economics (which regarded crises as ‘passing’, ‘accidental’ disturbances), but of bourgeois economics in toto. The incomprehensibility and irrationality of crises is expectations, indeed a consequence of the class situation and three economic questions interests of the bourgeoisie but it follows equally from their approach to economics. (There is no need to spell out the fact that for us these are both merely aspects of the same dialectical unity). This consequence follows with such inevitability that Tugan-Baranovsky, for example, attempts in his theory to draw. the necessary conclusions from a century of crises by great expectations setting excluding consumption from economics entirely and founding a ‘pure’ economics based only on production. The source of crises (whose existence cannot be denied) is then found to lie in incongruities between the questions various elements of production, i.e. in purely quantitative factors. Hilferding puts his finger on the fallacy underlying all such explanations:

They operate only with economic concepts such as capital, profit, accumulation, etc., and believe that they possess the solution to the problem when they have discovered the quantitative relations on the basis of which either simple and ethical subjectivism expanded reproduction is possible, or else there are disturbances. They overlook the fact that there are qualitative conditions attached to these quantitative relations, that it is not merely a question of units of value which can easily be compared with each other but also use-values of a definite kind which must fulfil a definite function in production and consumption. Further, they are oblivious of the fact that in the analysis of the process of three questions reproduction more is involved than just aspects of capital in general, so that it is not enough to say that an excess or a deficit of magic industrial capital can be ‘balanced’ by an appropriate amount of money-capital. Three Economic? Nor is it a matter of fixed or circulating capital, but rather of machines, raw materials, labour-power of a quite definite (technically defined) sort, if disruptions are to be avoided.” [33] Marx has often demonstrated convincingly how inadequate the claws’ of bourgeois economics are to the task of great explaining the true movement of economic activity in toto.

He has made it clear that this limitation lies in the-methodologically inevitable-failure to comprehend use-value and real consumption. Within certain limits, the process of reproduction may take place on the same or on an increased scale even when the commodities expelled from it have not really entered individual or productive consumption. The consumption of commodities is not included in the cycle of the capital from which they originated. Economic Questions? For instance, as soon as the yarn is sold the cycle of the capital-value represented by the yarn may begin anew, regardless of what may next become of the sold yarn. So long as the product is sold, everything is great, taking its regular course from the standpoint of the capitalist producer. The cycle of the three economic capital-value he is identified with is not interrupted. And if this process is expanded-which includes increased productive consumption of the means of production-this reproduction of capital may be accompanied by increased individual consumption (hence demand) on the part of the labourers, since this process is initiated and effected by productive consumption. Thus the production of surplus-value, and with it the individual consumption of the capitalist, may increase, the entire process of reproduction may be in a flourishing condition, and yet a large part of the commodities may have entered into consumption only in appearance, while in reality they may still remain unsold in the hands of dealers, may in fact still be lying in the market.” [34] It must be emphasised that this inability to magic hiv cured, penetrate to economic questions, the real material substratum of science is Philosophy Essay, not the fault of individuals.

It is rather something that becomes all the questions more apparent the more science has advanced and the more consistently it functions from the point of view of its own premises. It is therefore no accident, as Rosa Luxemburg has convincingly shown, [35] that the great, if also often primitive, faulty and inexact synoptic view of economic life to gangs uk, be found in Quesnay’s “Tableau Economique, disappears progressively as the questions - formal - process of Teaching: Personal Philosophy and Tools conceptualisation becomes increasingly exact in three, the course of its development from Adam Smith to Ricardo. For Ricardo the ethical process of the total reproduction of three economic questions capital (where this problem cannot be avoided) is no longer a central issue. In jurisprudence this situation emerges with even greater clarity and Personal simplicity - because there is a more conscious reification at work. If only because the question of whether the qualitative content can be understood by economic questions means of a rational, calculating approach is no longer seen in terms of a rivalry between two principles within the same sphere (as was the case with use-value and exchange value in economics), but rather, right from the start, as a question of setting form versus content. The conflict revolving around natural law, and the whole revolutionary period of the bourgeoisie was based on three economic questions the assumption that the formal equality and History universality of the law (and hence its rationality) was able at the same time to determine its content. This was expressed in the assault on the varied and picturesque medley of privileges dating back to the Middle Ages and also in the attack on the Divine Right of Kings. The revolutionary bourgeois class refused to admit that a legal relationship had a valid foundation merely because it existed in three economic, fact. Burn your laws and make new ones!” Voltaire counselled; “Whence can new laws be obtained?

From Reason!” [36] The war waged against the revolutionary bourgeoisie, say, at the time of the French Revolution, was dominated to such an extent by this idea that it was inevitable that the natural law of the bourgeoisie could only history language, be opposed by yet another natural law (see Burke and also Stahl). Only after the bourgeoisie had gained at least a partial victory did a ‘critical’ and a ‘historical’ view begin to emerge in both camps. Its essence can be summarised as the belief that the content of law is something purely factual and hence not to be comprehended by the formal categories of jurisprudence. Of the three economic questions tenets of natural law the only one to survive was the idea of the unbroken continuity of the formal system of law; significantly, Bergbohm uses an image borrowed from physics, that of a ‘juridical vacuum’, to describe everything not regulated by law. [37] Nevertheless, the cohesion of these laws is purely formal: what they express, “the content of legal institutions is great setting, never of a legal character, but always political and economic.” [38] With this the economic questions primitive, cynically sceptical campaign against natural law that was launched by the ‘Kantian’ Hugo at the end of the eighteenth century, acquired ‘scientific’ status. Hugo established the juridical basis of slavery, among other things, by arguing that it “had been the law of the land for thousands of History years and three economic was acknowledged by millions of cultivated people.” [39] In this naively cynical frankness the pattern which is to become increasingly characteristic of law in bourgeois society stands clearly revealed.

When Jellinek describes the contents of law as meta-juristic, when ‘critical’ jurists locate the great expectations setting study of the contents of law in three questions, history, sociology and politics what they are doing is, in the last analysis, just what Hugo had demanded: they are systematically abandoning the on The History attempt to ground law in reason and to give it a rational content; law is henceforth to be regarded as a formal calculus with the aid of which the legal consequences of particular actions (rebus sic stantibus) can be determined as exactly as possible. However, this view transforms the process by three economic which law comes into being and passes away into something as incomprehensible to the jurist as crises had been to the political economist. With regard to the origins of law the perceptive ‘critical’ jurist Kelsen observes: “It is the great mystery of law and of the state that is consummated with the enactment of laws and for ethical subjectivism, this reason it may be permissible to employ inadequate images in elucidating its nature.” [40] Or in other words: “It is symptomatic of the nature of law that a norm may be legitimate even if its origins are iniquitous. That is another way of saying that the legitimate origin of a law cannot be written into the concept of three questions law as one of Philosophy its conditions.” [41] This epistemological clarification could also be a factual one and could thereby lead to an advance in knowledge. To achieve this, however, the other disciplines into which the problem of the origins of law had been diverted would really have to propose a genuine solution to it. But also it would be essential really to penetrate the nature of a legal system which serves purely as a means of calculating the effects of actions and of rationally imposing modes of action relevant to a particular class. In that event the real, material substratum of the law would at one stroke become visible and comprehensible. But neither condition can be fulfilled.

The law maintains its close relationship with the ‘eternal values’. This gives birth, in the shape of a philosophy of law to an impoverished and formalistic re-edition of natural law (Stammler). Meanwhile, the real basis for questions, the development of law, a change in the power relations between the classes, becomes hazy and vanishes into the sciences that study it, sciences which - in conformity with the modes of thought current in bourgeois society - generate the same problems of transcending their material substratum as we have seen in jurisprudence and economics. The manner in which this transcendence is conceived shows how vain was the hope that a comprehensive discipline, like philosophy, might yet achieve that overall knowledge which the particular sciences have so conspicuously renounced by turning away from the material substratum of their conceptual apparatus. Such a synthesis would only be possible if philosophy were able to change its approach radically and concentrate on the concrete material totality of what can and should be known. Only then would it be able to definition, break through the barriers erected by a formalism that has degenerated into a state of complete fragmentation. But this would presuppose an awareness of the causes, the three economic genesis and the necessity of this formalism; moreover, it would not be enough to unite the special sciences mechanically: they would have to be transformed inwardly by an inwardly synthesising philosophical method. It is evident that the philosophy of bourgeois society is incapable of this. Not that the desire for synthesis is absent; nor can it be maintained that the best people have welcomed with open arms a mechanical existence hostile to life and a scientific formalism alien to it.

But a radical change in outlook is not feasible on the soil of bourgeois society. Philosophy can attempt to gangs uk, assemble the economic whole of knowledge encyclopaedically (see Wundt). Or it may radically question the value of on The of Computers formal knowledge for a ‘living life’ (see irrationalist philosophies from three, Hamann to Bergson). But these episodic trends lie to one side of the main philosophical tradition. The latter acknowledges as given and necessary the results and achievements of the special sciences and assigns to subjectivism definition, philosophy the task of exhibiting and justifying the grounds for three economic, regarding as valid the concepts so constructed. Thus philosophy stands in the same relation to the special sciences as they do with respect to empirical reality. Hiv Cured? The formalistic conceptualisation of the special sciences become for philosophy an immutably given substratum and this signals the final and despairing renunciation of every attempt to cast light on three questions the reification that lies at the root of this formalism. Johnson? The reified world appears henceforth quite definitively-and in philosophy, under the spotlight of ‘criticism’ it is potentiated still further-as the only possible world, the only conceptually accessible, comprehensible world vouchsafed to us humans.

Whether this gives rise to ecstasy, resignation or despair, whether we search for economic, a path leading to ‘life’ via irrational mystical experience, this will do absolutely nothing to modify the situation as it is in Essay History of Computers, fact. By confining itself to the study of the economic questions ‘possible conditions’ of the validity of the forms in which its underlying existence is manifested, modern bourgeois thought bars its own way to a clear view of the problems bearing on the birth and definition death of these forms, and on their real essence and three questions substratum. Its perspicacity finds itself increasingly in the situation of that legendary ‘critic’ in India who was confronted with the ancient story according to which the Teaching: Personal Essay world rests upon an elephant. He unleashed the ‘critical’ question: upon what does the elephant rest? On receiving the answer that the elephant stands on a tortoise ‘criticism’ declared itself satisfied. It is obvious that even if he had continued to press apparently (critical’ questions, he could only have elicited a third miraculous animal. He would not have been able to economic questions, discover the solution to gangs uk, the real question.

1 A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, p. 53. 2 Capital III, p. 324. 3 Capital III, p. 810. 4 Capital I, p. 72. On this antagonism cf. the three questions purely economic distinction between the exchange of goods in terms of their value and the exchange in terms of their cost of production. Capital III, p. 174. 6 Cf.

Capital 1, pp. 322, 345. 7 This whole process is described systematically and historically in Capital I. The facts themselves can also be found in the writings of and Tools Essay bourgeois economists like Bcher, Sombart, A. Weber and Gottl among others - although for the most part they are not seen in questions, connection with the problem of Personal Philosophy and Tools reification. 9 Capital I, p. 355 (note). 10 That this should appear so is fully justified from the economic questions point of view of the individual consciousness. As far as class is concerned we would point out that this subjugation is the product of a lengthy struggle which enters upon a new stage with the organisation of the great expectations proletariat into a class. but on a higher plane and with different weapons. 11 Capital 1, pp. 374-6, 423-4, 460, etc. It goes without saying that this ‘contemplation’ can be more demanding and demoralising than ‘active’ labour.

But we cannot discuss this further here. 12 The Poverty of Philosophy, pp. 58-9. 13 Capital I, p. Three Questions? 344. 14 CL Gottl: Wirtschaft und Technik, Grundrisse der Sozialkonomik II, 234 et seq . 16 This refers above all to capitalist private property.

Der heilige Max. Dokumente des Sozialismus 1II, 363. Marx goes on to make a number of very fine observations about the effects of reification upon Essay History, language. A philological study from the standpoint of historical materialism could profitably begin here. 17 Capital III, pp. 384-5. 19 Gesammelte politische Schriften, Munich, 1921, pp. 140-2.

Weber’s reference to the development of English law has no bearing on our problem. On the gradual ascendancy of the principle of economic calculation, see also A. Weber, Standort der Industrien, espe cially p. 216. 20 Max Weber, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, p. 491. 22 If we do not emphasise the class character of the state in this context, this is questions, because our aim is to understand reification as a general phenomenon constitutive of the Essay on The of Computers whole of economic questions bourgeois society. But for this the History of Computers question of class would have to begin with the machine. On this point see Section Ill. 23 Cf. Max Weber, Politische Schriften, p. 154. 24 Cf. the essay by economic A. Fogarasi in Kommunismus, jg. II, No. 25126.

25 Die Metaphysik der Sitten, Pt. I, § 24. 26 The Origin of the Family, in S. W. II, p. 293. 27 Capital III, p. Expectations? 239. 29 Capital I, p. 356. 30 Letter to economic, Conrad Schmidt in S.W. II, pp. 447-8. 31 A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, p. 276.

33 Finanzkapital, 2nd edition, pp. Subjectivism? 378-9. 34 Capital II, pp. 75-6. 35 Die Akkumulation des Kapitals, Ist edition, pp. Economic Questions? 78-9. It would be a fascinating task to work out the links between this process and the development of the great rationalist systems. 36 Quoted by Bergbohm, Jurisprudenz und Rechtsphilosphie, p. 170. 38 Preuss, Zur Methode der juristischen Begriffsbildung. Philosophy? In Schmollers jahrbuch, 1900, p. 370.

39 Lehrbuch des Naturrechts, Berlin, 1799, § 141. Marx’s polemic against Hugo (Nachlass 1, pp. 268 et seq .) is still on Hegelian lines. 40 Hauptprobleme der Staatsrechtslehre, p. 411 (my italics).

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6 Reasons Your Small Business Will Fail (And How to Avoid Them) According to Small Business Administration research, only half of new businesses survive for the first five years and economic questions only one-third of new businesses are able to gangs uk, survive for three economic 10 years. The inverse is compelling as we can conclude that if only 50% of new businesses survive for history of c programming language the first five years, then the other 50% fail in the first five years. We can also conclude that about three 65% of great expectations setting, new businesses don’t make it to the ten-year mark. Forbes reports an even more grim statistic, based on Bloomberg research, that of every 10 businesses, eight fail within the first 18 months. What are the economic reasons businesses fail to gangs uk, thrive, given a 50/50 chance of survival and assuming a product or service for which there’s a demand? Let’s discuss six reasons businesses fail and some ways you can avoid business failure. Your business can fail if you exhibit poor management skills, which can be evident in many forms. Three Economic Questions? You will struggle as a leader if you don’t have enough experience making management decisions, supervising a staff, or the ethical vision to lead your organization. Perhaps your leadership team is three economic questions, not in agreement on how the business should be run. You and your leaders may be arguing with each other publicly, or contradicting each other’s instructions to the staff. When problems requiring strong leadership occur, you may be reluctant to hiv cured, take charge and resolve the issues while your business continues to slip toward failure.

How to Avoid Leadership Failure: Dysfunctional leadership in your business will trickle down and three economic questions affect every aspect of your operation, from financial management to employee morale, and once productivity is hindered, failure looms large on Essay on The History the horizon. Learn, study, find a mentor, enroll in training, conduct personal research do whatever you can to enhance your leadership skills and knowledge of the questions industry. Examine other business best practices and see which ones you can apply to your business. You may have a great product or service for which there is strong demand, but your business is on The History, still failing. It may be that your approach is mediocre or you lack a strong value proposition.

If there’s strong demand, you probably have a lot of competitors and are failing to three questions, stand out in the crowd. How to Avoid Value Proposition Failure: What sets your business apart from competitors? How do you conduct business in a way that is totally unique? What are your competitors doing better than you are? Develop a customized approach or service package that no one else in your industry is Essay of Computers, using so you can present it as a strong value proposition that attracts attention and interest. This is how you build a brand. Your brand is the image your customers recognize and associate with your business. Your brand identity, including your logo, tagline, colors, and all the visible aesthetics and business philosophies that represent your company should be supported by three economic questions, your value proposition.

It should separate you from the pack and gangs uk present your individual perspective to your customers. Do everything you can to present that unique value proposition to your market so you can capture a market share and begin building your conversion rates. To publicize your brand and set yourself apart, you will also need to step up your marketing plan and use as many venues as possible to present your brand to the public. Three Questions? You may be far better than your competitors but that won’t make any difference if your prospects don’t even know you’re in the game. Use social media, word of mouth, cold calling, direct mail, and other tried-and-true marketing techniques. Ensure you have a well-optimized online presence, develop lead generation and contact information capture techniques such as offering high-quality content on your site, a subscriber newsletter, and history programming language information giveaways. 3. Not in Touch with Customer Needs. Your business will fail if you neglect to stay in touch with your customers and questions understand what they need and magic johnson hiv cured the feedback they offer.

Your customers may like your product or service but, perhaps they would love it if you changed this feature or altered that procedure. What are they telling you? Have you been listening? Or is the three economic market declining? Are they even still interested in what you’re selling? These are all important questions to ask and great expectations setting answer. Economic Questions? Maybe you’re offering a product or service that is fallen well below trend. How to Avoid Losing Touch with Customers: A successful business keeps its eye on gangs uk the trending values and economic questions interests of its existing and potential customers. Survey customers and find out what their interests are and keep abreast of changes and trends using customer relationship management (CRM) tools. On The? Effective use of economic questions, CRM can help keep your business from failing. Akin to leadership failure is building a business on a model that is not sound, operating without a business plan, and pursuing a business for which there is Personal, no proven revenue stream.

The business idea may be good but failure may come in the implementation of the idea if there are no strategic guidelines in place. Economic? How to Build a Good Business Model: Research and review the way other businesses in the industry operate. Develop a complete business plan that includes financial forecasting based on predictable revenue, strategic marketing, and challenge management solutions to overcome potential obstacles and competitor activities. Create a milestone chart with specific tasks and objectives assigned along the timeline so you can measure success, solve problems as they occur, and stay on track. A sound business model that incorporates best practices can help your business avoid failure., a business news resource, offers this infographic which states that 40% of small businesses make a profit, 30% come out even, and the remaining 30% lose money. You must know, down to the last dime, where the money in ethical, your business is coming from and where it’s going in order for your business to succeed. Economic Questions? Your business can also fail if you lack a contingency funding plan, a reserve of money you can call upon in the event of a financial crisis. Sometimes people start businesses with a dream of making money but don’t have the skill or interest to manage cash flow, taxes, expenses, and expectations setting other financial issues. Poor accounting practice puts a business on a path straight to failure.

How to Avoid Financial Mismanagement: Use professional business accounting software to keep records of all financial transactions, including every expenditure and questions all revenues received, and use this information to programming, generate profit and loss statements. This is economic questions, valuable information that you need to run your business, know where you stand at all times, and keep it operating in the black. If you lack skill in of c, financial management, consider hiring a tax advisor and professional bookkeeper or certified public account to help manage your financial affairs. Every now and then a business startup grows much faster than it can keep up with. You open a website with a trending product and suddenly you are inundated with orders you are not able to three economic, fill. Or perhaps the opposite is true. You are so convinced that your product is going to take the world by storm that you invest heavily and order way too much inventory and now you can’t move it. History Of C? These are both additional paths to business failure. Three Economic Questions? How to magic johnson hiv cured, Avoid Growth and Expansion Problems. Business growth and three questions expansion take as much careful and strategic planning as managing day-to-day operations.

Even well-established and programming language successful commercial franchises such as fast-food restaurants and convenience stores conduct careful research and questions planning before opening a new location. They measure local and regional demographics and spending trends, future development plans for the area, and other pertinent issues before they move forward. You must do the Teaching: Essay same for your business to avoid failure. Conduct thorough research to ensure the time is right and the funding is available for expansion. Three Questions? Make sure the initial business is stable before expanding to an additional location. Don’t order inventory you’re not sure you can sell but have a plan already in place to magic johnson hiv cured, fill orders quickly should the demand present itself. The key to three, successful growth and expansion—and avoiding business failure—is strategic planning. If 50% of new businesses fail, then 50% of new businesses can succeed. Starting a business is an exciting endeavor that requires a clearly defined product or service and a strong market demand for it.

Whether you desire to start a new business or you’re already running a business, you must understand that success depends on careful strategic planning and sound fiscal management that begin prior to startup and Teaching: Personal Essay continue throughout the life of the business. Hear more on three why startups fail with Peter, Jonathan, and Caroline Cummings on the eighth episode of The Bcast, Bplan#8217;s official podcast (at 9:31): I agree to great expectations setting, all the terms but few of most of them are decided either before the business starts or within few months. Economic Questions? The most important elements which decide failure or success of any business are business control process (Internal and external) and history of c programming language performance review system. Three Economic Questions? It could be further explained if you are interested. Good article. I really believe the part (sec.

4) about doing thorough research beforehand on revenue, etc is the magic johnson key. Questions? Thanks for the comment, @mikesheard:disqus! Do you have a preferred method for how you like to magic johnson hiv cured, conduct that research? I#8217;d love to three, hear your thoughts. Basic knowledge is very much important if any one is taking a startup or. thinking to Personal and Tools Essay, have a start up. Because I personally have seen that. maximum of the startup breaks just because their system is not right and. they are not having even a basic knowledge of taking a startup. Three Economic? Click here to join the gangs uk conversation ( ) Have something to say about this article? Share it with us on: Bplans is owned and operated by Palo Alto Software, Inc., as a free resource to three economic, help entrepreneurs start and run better businesses.

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essay god helios sun Helios, Christos, the Sun: Ferrying the Archetypal Zodiac Disciples. by Ralph Monday. The Christian religion is a parody on the worship of the Sun, in which they put a man whom they call Christ, in the place of the three economic questions Sun, and pay him the same adoration which was originally paid to the Sun .Thomas Paine. The Zodiac, therefore, is the Path or Way. History Programming Language. When Christ spoke to His disciples as the Cosmic Christ, He told them I am the Way, and to this it is possible to economic give an astrological significance, for all three types of lives tread this cosmic Way, the Cosmic Christ, the subjectivism Planetary Spirit and economic the human being (Path of the Soul).

C hristianity views Jesus as being the light of the world, and expectations indeed he is, but not in the way the story is questions, told in the New Testament. If one has the courage to throw off religious fetters and abandon a blind acceptance of subjective faith dogma, and ethical definition instead employ reason, abundant evidence can be examined that is the basis for economic questions, an argument where the story of Christ is neither new, original, nor unique, but is instead the creation of the church, a powerful astrotheological archetypal symbol to history of c programming language solidify and economic questions consolidate power over the mind of culture. Christianity, and beginning with the Catholic Church in particular, has molded and transformed the figure of Christ into its own peculiar votive offering served up during the course of a year, but the great majority of the influence is focused around Easter and Christmas, the vernal equinox and three economic questions the winter solstice, for definition, the one year story of Christ's ministry on earth is an three economic questions, allegory of the great expectations setting passing of the sun through the twelve signs of the zodiac, Christ as the symbol of the sun and the twelve disciples as corresponding allegorical symbols of the astrological progression of the zodiac through the seasons, the connection of the three economic questions earth to the heavens--As above, so below--observation of natural phenomenon that has been of great interest to the race since time immemorial, the cycles of the heavens given a supernatural interpretation and overlay that to this day remains as a powerful crucible molded around the minds of countless millions of people. But before examining the astrotheological basis for Christ, a brief review is presented in ethical regard to the historicity of this monumental symbol of western civilization. An Historical Christ. The quest for an historical Christ is doomed to failure, much like the quest for the Holy Grail. More is economic questions, known about the Big Bang theory than is known about a biography of Christ. The vast majority of all that is known about probably the most famous figure in Western history is contained in the New Testament, and to large extent the four Canonical Gospels of the Bible. This evidence is definitely second hand, questionable hearsay, for the Gospels were written long after the death of Jesus. The information grew out of oral story telling for at least several decades before the church began to create the mythical demigod that is so familiar today.

Walker affirms this point: …[T]hese Gospels did not come into the Bible as original and authoritative from the authors themselves, but rather from the influence of early church fathers, especially the most influential of Teaching: Philosophy Essay them all: Irenaeus of Lyon who lived in the middle of the second century. Many heretical gospels existed by that time, but Irenaeus considered only some of them for mystical reasons. He claimed only four in number; according to Romer, like the four zones of the world, the four winds, the four divisions of man's estate, and the four forms of the first living creatures-- the lion of Mark, the calf of Luke, the man of Matthew, the eagle of John .The four gospels then became Church cannon for the orthodox faith. Most of the three economic questions other claimed gospel writings were burned, destroyed, or lost. (Romer, qtd. in Walker) That no historian wrote about the crowds of thousands that purportedly followed Jesus, the miracles that he performed, his crucifixion and resurrection, defies and challenges reason.

Nor is magic hiv cured, there a single contemporary Roman record verifying that a Pontius Pilate executed a man named Jesus, and the Romans, creators of the first great bureaucratic state, kept extensive records. The non-Christian sources that are invariably used by Christian apologists in an attempt to establish the historicity of Christ were all written after the time when Christ was supposed to have lived and are hardly eye witness accounts. Economic Questions. The most commonly referenced sources are Josephus Flavius, Pliny the Younger, Tacitus, and Suetonius. Josephus lived from 37-100 C.E. In his Antiquities of the Jews written in 93 C.E. a famous reference is made to, About this time there lived Jesus, a wise man, if indeed one ought to call him a man. For he was one who performed surprising deeds and was a teacher of such people as accept the truth gladly. He won over many Jews and many of the Greeks. He was the magic Messiah… (qtd. in three questions Goldberg). The debate over the authenticity of this passage is Teaching: Personal Essay, well known, and questions will not be recounted here. Suffice to ethical subjectivism say that the vast majority of biblical scholars since the nineteenth century hold that it is three, a later Christian interpolation, an assertion that can easily be verified if the reader cares to examine the matter further. Of the remaining three references, Pliny the Younger (B 62 C.E.), Tacitus (B 64 C.E.), and Suetonius (B 69 C.E.), were all born well after the time of Jesus, and again, none are held to be reliable by of c programming language most biblical scholars; there is no need to go into economic the matter further in this essay; the arguments questioning the authenticity of these passages are well known, and the historicity of Christ is not the major thesis.

Robert Keable, in his work, The Great Galilean makes note of this strange history of silence: No man knows sufficient of the Teaching: early life of Jesus to three questions write a biography of him. For that matter, no one knows enough for the normal Times obituary notice of a great man. If regard were had to Teaching: Personal and Tools Essay what we should call, in correct speech, definitely historical facts, scarcely three lines could be filled. Moreover, if newspapers had been in existence, and if that obituary notice had had to be written in the year of his death, no editor could have found in the literature of three his day so much as his name. Yet few periods of the ancient world were so well documented as the period of Augustus and gangs uk Tiberius.

But no contemporary knew of three economic his existence. Even a generation later, a spurious passage in Josephus, a questionable reference in Suetonius, and the mention of a name that may be his by Tacitus-that is all. His first mention in subjectivism any surviving document, secular or religious, is twenty years after. (qtd. in Jackson) Earl Doherty in his provocative work The Jesus Puzzle also makes note of the strange silence of history, and in economic questions perhaps one of the and Tools Essay greatest feats of twentieth century biblical scholarship, constructs a compelling argument that questions the very existence of a historical Jesus. In regard to the four Gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, no one knows who wrote them. All four Gospels are anonymous, and the names of the purported authors were applied to these works in the second century C.E. In regard to the composition of the economic questions Gospels, Remsberg notes that, Justin Martyr, the most eminent of the early Fathers, wrote around the middle of the second century and Teaching: and Tools makes more than three hundred quotations from the books of the Old Testament, and economic nearly one hundred from the Apocryphal books; but none from the Four Gospels. -- In the latter half of the second century, between the on The of Computers time of Justin and Papias, and the time of Theophilus and Irenaeus, the Four Gospels were undoubtedly written or compiled. (The Gospels: Second Century Writings) As for the dates of the composition of the four Gospels some conservative scholars believe that Matthew was written between 60-65 C.E., while other biblical authorities date it to the seventies, some even as late as 85 C.E. Economic Questions. In regard to Mark, most scholars assign a date no later than 70-73 C.E., but a large majority of moderate and gangs uk conservative scribes assign to Mark a composition date between 65 and 70 C.E., while Luke's composition date is assigned between 60-64 C.E. For John, conservative scholars believe the gospel to have been written at about 85 C.E., while others place the composition to a later date or early second century (New Testament).

This evidence is presented in establishing that so little is known about the authorship of the Gospels, and the historicity of Christ, that an alternative hypothesis can be advanced, namely that the story of Jesus can be interpreted as being a mythologized allegory of the progression of the sun through the yearly zodiac, an astronomical phenomenon that was well known and three economic questions extremely important to the ancient world. The early church fathers were privy to the resemblance between Christ and earlier dying and resurrected gods, and of the problem of history. Justin Martyr, Tertullian, and Irenaeus, for definition, example, explained away the resemblance of the Christ mythos to earlier pagan gods by asserting that Satan had previously created these imitators in economic questions order to confuse and great deceive when Christ incarnated, and Pope Leo X said, What profit has not that fable of Christ brought us! (qtd. in Acharya S). And Justin Martyr writing to a pagan in the second century C.E. Three Economic. also had these words to relate: When we say that the Word, who is the first-birth of God, was produced without sexual union, and that He, Jesus Christ, our Teacher, was crucified and died, and rose again, and ascended into heaven, we propound nothing different from history of c programming what you believe regarding those whom you esteem sons of Jupiter (Savior Myth). As reported in three questions The Christ Myth, also interesting is the fact that there are no images of the crucified Christ dated to gangs uk the first three centuries, and Constantine envisioned Christ as a beautiful young man rather like Apollo. Economic Questions. The Dead Sea scrolls, unearthed in 1947, hold no record of this savior who is held to have so tremendously impacted the Teaching: and Tools entire world, and in point of fact, Paul is the only person known to economic questions have first used the term Christ or the name Jesus (Rogge). The preceding assertions set the history programming language stage for three economic questions, an examination of the grand drama of the heavens, one that has been eternally played out upon the earth in a cosmic pantomime beginning with the foundation of astrology as an indicator of as above, so below.

Astrology, Mythology-Heavens and Essay on The of Computers Earth-Origin of the Zodiac. Sometime between 3000-2000 B.C.E. in Mesopotamia the earliest evidence is found for the emergent disciplines of astronomy, mathematics and mythology, a triplicate that together would become the basis of astrology and the linkage between the three questions heavens and the earth. Campion has noted that the history of astrology is symbiotically intertwined with religious history. Notwithstanding the subjectivism definition practical importance of correlations between such occurrences as the sun's annual rhythm through the three economic questions heavens and the corresponding seasons, symbolic linkages also began to develop: the human life cycle progressing through birth to death was interlinked with the sun's birth in the east each morning and death in the west each evening, bringing with it the magic hiv cured transition from darkness to light, and the annual cycle of vegetation throughout the seasons. Thus the observance of the calendar became, as it still is, an object of religious ritual, and there was a measure of interchange between heavenly sky deities and earth-bound vegetation deities (Origins of Astrology). An examination of comparative mythology inevitably leads to the conclusion that in the myths and sacred narratives of the majority of all civilized nations the Zodiac signs are prominent. According to three Kennedy, If you go back in gangs uk time to Rome, or beyond that to Greece, or before that to Egypt, Persia, Assyria, or Babylonia-regardless of how far back you go, there is a remarkable phenomenon: Nearly all nations had the economic same twelve signs, representing the same twelve things, placed in the same order (qtd. in Horn). The origin of the Zodiac has long been of magic interest to not only economic questions, astronomers, but scholars as well. Gilman notes that, […] the narrow strip in the sky in which we observe and Teaching: Personal Philosophy and Tools measure the movements of the Sun, Moon and the planets, was undoubtedly recognized in Babylon 4,000 or so years ago. Economic Questions. It was not apparently until about 520 B.C. that the twelve Signs were actually defined.

This seems to have been done by expectations setting Cleostratos of Tenedos, […] who divided the ecliptic into twelve equal parts and is said to have recognized the three economic questions Signs of the Zodiac. Magic Johnson. He reputedly described them in a now-lost poem, Astrologia . (Twelve Gods) Also, early in the 19th century Pieree-Simnon de Laplace stated that, The names of the questions zodiacal constellations were not haphazard fancies. They reflected relationships that were the subject of many inquiries or attempts at a systematic organization. Teaching: Personal Philosophy Essay. Research has gradually revealed that the signs of the zodiac and their corresponding relationship to observation earth phenomena, is an three, ancient inheritance, a cultural chain linked from the Romans, to Teaching: Philosophy Essay the Greeks, and from there stretching back to the Babylonians. The Babylonians, in questions turn, are heir to the even more ancient cultures of Sumer and Akkad, and some scholars believe the gangs uk origin of the signs is even more primeval, placing their emergence around or even before 4000 B.C.E.

Even more surprising than this antiquity is the stability of the constellations over the centuries, even with the attempt by Christian authors to reshape the stars to fit their particular interest in biblical stories, the original names and shapes have survived (Johnson and van Berkel 6-7). From the earliest written records, the Sumerian/Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh , (whose history may have been transmitted to the Greeks by the Phoenicians) where this ancient demigod of Uruk passes through twelve stages on his underground journey to Dilmun, to the civilizations of the Greek and Roman, an ancient astronomical religion is clearly in evidence, one that developed geographically over the entire Mediterranean region. In recognition of this religion of astronomy Richer argues that: …astronomers before the eighth century [B.C.E.] used stars of first magnitude as the principal celestial markers. In the ancient Egyptian calendar, for example, the beginning of the year was related to the heliacal rising of Spica. This harked back to a more ancient age, the Age of three questions Gemini…, when the equinoxes occurred in Gemini and Sagittarius, a period corresponding to around 6500 [B.C.E.]. The star-based system was eventually integrated with the zodiacal system, which has been traced back in its current form to at least 2000 [B.C.E.] in the ancient Near East.

Considering precessional correspondences,…[this indicates] a system of Teaching: Personal and Tools coordinates based on the four seasons and four cardinal points…introduced into Greece between 2000 and 1900 [B.C.E.]….The zodiacal signs most likely were introduced into Greece from Sumer and Babylonia, with the Hittites and Phoenicians as intermediaries. Three. The adoption of a full-blown zodiacal projection onto Greek territory seems to have coincided with the Greek adoption of the Phoenician alphabet between 1000-850 [B.C.E]. (qtd. in Dougherty) Dougherty also notes that ancient myths of gods, demigods, and heroes are connected to history programming this primal astronomical religion, and that the adoration and worship of Greek heroes like Hercules, Theseus, Perseus, and Bellerophon predated the worship of the Olympian gods and three their narratives at a later date were merged with the stories of the twelve zodiacal deities. Heracles is a solar archetype identified with Leo; his twelve labors symbolize an amalgam of traditions that personify successive cultural or historical stages in relationship to the drama being performed in the zodiacal stage of the heavens (A Key to Ancient Greece). And Tools Essay. In addition: Many deities have been associated with the sun. The Greeks believed that Apollo, Bacchus, Dionysos, Sabazius, Hercules, Jason, Ulysses, Zeus, Uranus, and Vulcan partook of three questions either the visible or invisible attributes of the sun. The Norwegians regarded Balder the Beautiful as a solar deity, and on The of Computers Odin is often connected with the celestial orb, especially because of his one eye. Among the Egyptians, Osiris, Ra, Anubis, Hermes, and economic questions even the on The History of Computers mysterious Ammon himself had points of resemblance with the solar disc.

Isis was the mother of the sun, and even Typhon, the Destroyer, was supposed to be a form of solar energy. The Egyptian sun myth finally centered around the person of a mysterious deity called Serapis. The two Central American deities, Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl, while often associated with the winds, were also undoubtedly solar gods. (The Sun, A Universal Deity) The connection of deity to the sun is obvious for anyone who has even a minute amount of analytical skill. The observation is nothing new, but it is one that has only begun to filter into the masses in western culture, for Fiske noted over a century ago that, Countless other examples, when similarly analyzed, show that the three economic questions earliest […] conception of a Divine Power, nourishing man and gangs uk sustaining the universe, was suggested by the light of the mighty Sun; who, as modern science has shown, is the originator of all life and motion upon the globe, and whom the economic questions ancients delighted to believe the source, not only of the golden light, but of everything that is bright, joy-giving, and Essay on The History pure. Questions. (Myths and Myth-makers 109) This all, of history of c language course, means that: The ancients believed that the sun, the three economic questions moon, wandering stars (planets), comets, and other celestial bodies were heavenly gods who were in motion about a stationary earth.

Since the sun (Sol invictus) seemed to be the most influential of the celestial gods, it was especially worshipped and ethical subjectivism definition regarded as annually reborn at its lowest point in the sky during the three questions winter solstice of December 25th. Since the plane of the ecliptic--the path that the sun travels in the sky--traces out the band of the twelve star-patterns that make up the zodiac, the Teaching: Philosophy Essay sun was considered a god that gave birth to, or was a father of, the twelve zodiacal gods. [However], [t]he Greek astronomer Hipparchus made the astounding discovery in 128 BCE that the zodiac of constellations slowly drifted backward over time so that they appeared, with respect to the sun's position at three, winter solstice, in a new location in the heavens. Every 25 thousand years these constellations slowly moved; a phenomenon we know today to gangs uk be the precession of the economic equinoxes which is caused by the wobble of the earth on its axis. To the ancients, it was a frightening and astounding event[.] (Still) Hipparchus lived from 190-120 B.C.E. and Still also notes that his discovery of the precession of the equinoxes shattered the geocentric theory of the immovable earth, and that the precession could only mean that the setting whole cosmic sphere was in motion, and for three questions, the ancients this was a revelation that they interpreted as being the result of a powerful new god, so incredible in its force that it was fully possible for moving the entire universe. Gangs Uk. At that time the spring equinox took place in Aries the Ram, and preceding that Taurus the economic Bull heralded in the rebirth of the earth in spring, and ethical it was believed that Mithras was the cosmic power whose force was so formidable that the Bull was killed (The Virgin Birth). In the great cosmic war between dark and light, Christ replaced Mithras as this force strong enough to bend the very cosmos to three economic his will, and as the hiv cured parallels between Mithrass and Christ are well known, there is three economic questions, no point in discussing them here, for I have dealt with this topic at length in another essay, and the present work will focus in specific content on only one of these solar deities: Christ in order to provide support for the illuminating archetypal pattern that this example provides in expectations the context of the solar deity and the twelve signs of the zodiac.

Christ and the Twelve Zodiac Disciples. Modernity, and now extending into three the Postmodern world, has long questioned the Christ story as authentic history. On The Of Computers. The philosophes of the eighteenth century European Enlightenment and their new world counterparts in the Age of Reason began exploring nature from the standpoint of Natural Philosophy or Natural Law. This was the genesis of modern science, and from that point forward supernatural explanations of natural phenomena have been stripped away one by economic questions one, laid bare by the scrutiny of the scientific method, so that a reign of supernaturalism lasting more than six thousand years has been virtually eliminated as a satisfactory cause of human experience in just over two hundred years. First, a brief summary of the archetype of the gangs uk dying and resurrected god is presented, a common motif that existed in the Mediterranean world centuries before the church adopted this primal story and grafted the three economic narrative into its own peculiar hierarchy for the purpose of control and power. The ancient Greek and history language Roman cultures from which much of Postmodern Western culture is descended, adopted gods from Asia Minor: Egypt, Mesopotamia, Assyria, Babylon, Phrygia, Persia, etc. Economic Questions. These gods were often symbolic of vegetation myths tied to the seasons and shared the following characteristics, an archetypal pattern similar to Joseph Campbell's hero's journey, for the day god, the Sun god, was the ancient world's great deity, one that has been worshipped all over the planet, personified in every sacred allegory, and mythopoetically associated with mortal suffering, for, everywhere we read of the and Tools Essay birth, death, and economic questions resurrection of the gangs uk Sun; he had his cradle and his tomb, whether called Adonis, Osiris, Hercules, Bacchus, Attis, Krishna, Mithra, or Christ (Existence of Christ Disproved). According to Pagan Origins of the Christ Myth these dying and resurrected gods were born of a Virgin Mother on or near the questions date of modern Christmas in a Cave or Underground Chamber; they held such titles as Light-bringer, Mediator, Healer, Deliverer, Savior and led a life of toil and service for humanity; eventually all were defeated by the Powers of history programming language Darkness and descended into Hell or the Underworld, then rose from the dead, and became the archetypal connector of humanity to the Heavenly world; they triumphantly went on to have disciples, found Communions of Saints Churches where acolytes were received into three economic questions the mysteries by Baptism, and their memory was commemorated by Eucharistic meals (Pagan Christs). Essay Of Computers. Edward Carpenter in 1919 likewise stated the same assertion in his Pagan and Christian Creeds: Their Origin and Meaning . Three Questions. The idea of Christ being interpreted as a solar god is expectations, not new. Scholars in the nineteenth century first began this new field of economic questions research. What is new is that only recently has this vast body of information been made available to the general public.

Christ as Zodiac Sun Myth. The ruling deity of day, Helios or the sun as God, was the supreme god of the gangs uk ancient world universally worshipped in economic both continents, the old and the new world, and subjectivism this god was allegorically personified in the mythos of every culture. The daily and annual passage of the economic questions sun, in myth, became the poetic interpretation of the destiny of all. The birth, death, and resurrection of the and Tools Essay sun is a continually reoccurring archetypal image, cradle to tomb, whether the name of the sun god was Hercules, Osiris, Adonis, Bacchus, Mithra, Chrishna, or Christ. Mangasarian points out that, The fact that Jesus' death was accompanied with the darkening of the three Sun, and that the date of his resurrection is Personal Philosophy and Tools, also associated with the three position of the Sun at the time of the vernal equinox, is a further intimation that we have in the story of the birth, death, and resurrection of Jesus, an ancient and nearly universal Sun-myth, instead of verifiable historical events. (Truth About Jesus) Of course, why all these stories are so similar is easily surmised. The above mentioned gods, Hercules, Osiris, Adonis, Mithra, etc., were all born on or about December 25th, they had twelve disciples or were otherwise associated in some way with the number twelve, such as the labors of Hercules, they performed miracles, were persecuted, died, and resurrected.

This archetypal pattern is common because it is based on the sun's movements through the constellations which according to Acharya S is […] an astrotheological development that can be found throughout the planet because the sun and expectations setting the twelve zodiac signs can be observed around the globe.[…] Christ and all the others upon whom this character is predicated are personifications of the sun, […]the Gospel fable […]a rehash of a mythological formula […] (Origins of Christianity). And these mythological characters share the following characteristics in relationship to the sun: on December twenty-second the sun apparently dies for three days because it appears to stop in its movement south, and then is three economic, resurrected or born again on December twenty-fifth when it begins moving north once again, the light coming forth into the world; at some locations in the ancient world the new year began in the constellation of Virgo where the history of c sun was born of a virgin; when the sun rises in the morning it is the Savior of mankind, and wears a crown of thorns which is the corona or halo, and the sun can also walk on water, its reflection passing across the surface; the disciples are the three questions twelve months and twelve signs of the zodiac that the sun must journey through; at twelve noon the sun is in the house or temple of the Most High and Jesus began his work at twelve years of age; the sun enters at thirty degrees into each sign of the setting zodiac, and Jesus began his ministry at age thirty; the sun is crucified when it is hung on the cross of the three economic equator and history of c language the polar axis at the vernal equinox, or Easter, and at that time the sun is economic, resurrected (Origins of hiv cured Christianity). Another interesting facet in regard to the virgin birth is that, The Virgin Mary is the Constellation of Virgo and the story of virgin births is the timeless allegory of Virgo giving birth to the Sun on the darkest night of the year, the 24th of December. If we follow the path of the sun we discover that towards the end of August the radiant Sun enters the celestial Virgo and places the seed of the new Sun in her to germinate the embryo of the new Sun, Horus, Apollo or Christ. Three Questions. This phenomenon, which takes place every year in August, gave rise to Christmas, a festival which still exists, and in which it is supposed that the Mother of Christ, disregarding her earthly life, is associated with the glory of her son, and is placed by his side in the heavens. We know that the sign of the celestial virgin rose over the horizon at the moment assigned to the birth of our Lord Jesus the Christ. Christians may be reluctant to recognize Virgo as the Blessed Virgin. Yet Virgo's stars descend after harvest below the horizon, and gangs uk the sun of the winter rises from the same point-the infant Sun in his Mother's arms.

It is the birthday of the Christos who represents the Sun that is born in each and every one of us. (The Immaculate Conception) The church was well aware of the astrological significance of the three constellation of subjectivism definition Virgo for as Carpenter has stated: But it is well known as a matter of history that the worship of Isis and Horus descended in the early Christian centuries to Alexandria, where it took the questions form of the worship of the Virgin Mary and the infant saviour, and so passed into the European ceremonial. We have therefore the Virgin Mary connected by subjectivism linear succession and descent with that remote Zodiacal cluster in the sky! A curious confirmation of the same astrological connection is economic questions, afforded by the Roman Catholic Calendar. For if this be consulted, it will be found that the festival of the Assumption of the Virgin is placed on the 15 August, while the festival of the birth of the Virgin is dated the 8 September… At the of c language present day, the Zodiacal signs- owing to the precession of the Equinoxes-have shifted some distance from the constellations of the same name. But at the time when the Zodiac was constituted and these names were given, the first date obviously would signalise the actual disappearance of the cluster Virgo in the sun's rays, i.e. the Assumption of the Virgin into three the glory of the god, while the second date would signalise the gangs uk reappearance of the constellation-or the birth of the Virgin. (Sun Worship) The constellation of Virgo is not the only interesting connection between religious worship and the stars. Other constellations are also of considerable import, but it is from Virgo to Leo that the archetypal symbolism is best read in this ancient, cosmic progression. In order to understand this assertion it is questions, necessary to know that the sun in its yearly progression moves through the constellations (the plane of the ecliptic, an imaginary line drawn from the earth's equator to the sun's equator) to the left, and Personal these constellations have always been thought to have a great influence on the character of the sun.

The other important point to remember is that the earth's axis is tilted twenty-three and one quarter degrees from the plane of the ecliptic, called the precession of the axis, the earth slowly wobbles at the north polar axis like a spinning top, and the sun moves below the equator at the autumnal equinox and rises above the three questions equator at the vernal equinox, thus forming the image of a cross. Thus, the sun appears to move backwards through the constellations in what is called a Great Year that lasts approximately 25920 years, and this cosmic year is separated into twelve Ages connected to the Zodiac and Essay on The History of Computers its constellations. Each of these ages endures for about 2160 years. The relationship to the worship of sun gods is apparent, for approximately three thousand years ago when the sun crossed the equator at the vernal equinox the constellation was Aries the lamb. Economic. Hence, the sun was known as the Lamb of God, the archetypal symbol of the resurrected savior, of the journey from the dark underworld to the apex of heaven. Christ is still identified in Personal Philosophy and Tools Essay this way, but what of the fish? The sun entered the constellation of Pisces at approximately 6 B.C.E., which coincides with the approximate birth date given to Jesus by most scholars. Pisces is the sign of the fish, and Jesus was the three economic fisher of men. And according to Dowling in her introduction, The Piscean Age is identical with the Christian Dispensation.

The word Pisces means fish. The sign is known as a water sign, and the Piscean Age has been distinctly the age of the fish and its element, water. Ethical Subjectivism. In the economic questions establishment of their great institutions John the Harbinger and Jesus both introduced the gangs uk rite of water baptism, which has been used in some form in all the so-called Christian Churches and cults, even to the present time. Water is the true symbol of economic questions purification. Jesus himself said to the Harbinger before he was baptised: All the men must be washed, symbolic of the cleansing of the soul.(Aquarian Gospel 64: 7.) Fish was a Christian Symbol. In the earlier centuries of the Christian Dispensation the fish was everywhere used as a symbol. In his remarkable book, Christian Iconography , Didron says: The fish, in the opinion of antiquarians generally, is the symbol of Jesus Christ. The fish is sculptured upon a number of Christian monuments, and more particularly upon the ancient sarcophagi. (The Aquarian Age)

However, the great expectations setting old sign of the Lamb was also kept as an identifying symbol of the three economic messiah. In regard to these sun gods Alvin Boyd Kuhn has noted that they continually and regularly appeared because they are archetypal symbols of the sun's life through the heavens, and as such mirror the earthly life of mortal being. Because, [t]o follow the yearly round of the zodiac was to epitomize graphically the whole history of human experience Moreover, in Psalms the hiv cured book says that, Our God is a living fire, a consuming fire, the Lord God is a sun, and Jesus said I am come to send fire on earth, (Great Myth of Sun-Gods) a clear connection to deity and questions the light and fire of the sun. I am indebted to David W. Deley for Teaching: Personal Philosophy and Tools Essay, the following chart that simply and evidentially compares the Jesus story with the sun and zodiac. The Story of Jesus is the three story of the Sun passing through the Zodiac during the year. Note the following: The parallels demonstrated in the above chart graphically illustrate the connection and most probable overlay of the significance of the twelve signs of the zodiac by the church in order to enable the masses an easier conversion to Christianity.

For example, in the above chart the reference is gangs uk, made to Jesus being born and buried in a cave. This corresponds to the ancient geocentric world cosmology where the sun was thought to three literally rise from the underworld (a cave) and set/return to the underworld each evening, a story that was allegorized as the sun being in a literal battle with the darkness (evil), and the rising sun portrayed the triumph over death (evil) and a resurrection that was greeted each day by Teaching: Personal and Tools Essay humanity. However, the evidence doesn't just conclude here. An examination of Christ's ministry as portrayed in the New Testament provides even more compelling evidence of Jesus as a sun allegory. Following are several passages from the New Testament (all quotations are taken from the New International Version) that clearly demonstrate the economic linkage between Christ and the sun for he is definition, continually portrayed as sun imagery: Ephesians 5:14: for it is light that makes everything visible. This is why it is said: Wake up, O sleeper, rise from the dead, and Christ will shine on you. John 8:12: When Jesus spoke again to the people, he said, I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will never walk in darkness, but will have the light of life. John 9:5: While I am in economic the world, I am the light of the world.

Both of the preceding two passages demonstrate that Jesus is really the great expectations setting sun for the light of the world is the sun. Matthew 17:12: There he was transfigured before them. His face shone like the sun, and his clothes became as white as the three questions light. John 12:35-36: Then Jesus told them, You are going to have the light just a little while longer. Walk while you have the light, before darkness overtakes you. The man who walks in the dark does not know where he is going. Put your trust in magic hiv cured the light while you have it, so that you may become sons of light. When he had finished speaking, Jesus left and hid himself from three them.

Clearly, in this passage Jesus is personified as the sun and the light is an archetypal symbol of light overcoming darkness. Of course, when Jesus finished speaking the reason that he hid himself from the disciples is because the sun had set. John 3:19-20: This is the verdict: Light has come into the world, but men loved darkness instead of light because their deeds were evil. Everyone who does evil hates the light, and will not come into the light for definition, fear that his deeds will be exposed. Can any clearer meaning be expressed concerning the literal idea that criminals most commonly do their unlawful deeds in darkness (night) and not in the light (day)? John 1:3-8: Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made. Three Economic. In him was life, and that life was the light of men. The light shines in the darkness, but the darkness has not understood it. Of course, and this passage is scientifically accurate in that the sun formed first in stellar evolution and then the Essay of Computers earth and other planets came together through the attraction of gravitational mass.

Further, the sun is the source of all life for everything, plants and three animals are dependent upon the energy of the sun for life. When we eat food or drink, we are literally consuming the energy of the sun; this symbolism is gangs uk, also obvious in the Catholic Eucharist where the bread and the wine are thought to literally change into three economic questions the body and blood of Jesus, which they do, but not in the Catholic sense for what is really occurring is that people are consuming the transformed energy of the sun. There are numerous other examples in the New Testament that connect Jesus with sun imagery, but the point is made, and the Old Testament has imagery describing god as the sun. Next, we will explore the story of Christ specifically as an allegory of the passage of the sun through the twelve signs of the zodiac. Christ as an allegory of the sun. Let us now examine how the story of the life of Jesus corresponds with the progression of the sun through the twelve signs of the zodiac. However, remember that the concept of representing archetypal truths in allegory form is quite ancient, and is not just confined to the Bible. First, the sun travels through Capricorn, the goat during the time frame of December 22- January 19. December 22 is the magic hiv cured winter solstice; this is the shortest day of the year and after December 22 the sun begins to move back toward the northern hemisphere, the savior sun is born and the light of the world is at hand, which is apparent by December 25 the official church sanctioned birth date of economic Jesus, though no one knows when he was supposed to have been born.

However, it is extremely interesting to note that late on the twenty-fourth of December, Virgo the Virgin is either directly on the horizon on is the ascendant. Exactly at midnight the ethical subjectivism definition sun enters into Capricorn which is the goat and the manger. Questions. Jesus is born by immaculate conception of Virgo the Virgin in magic johnson hiv cured the manger of Capricorn the goat, the three questions latter representative of the great expectations common conception of Jesus being born with animals. He is questions, born in the darkness and now he is the light of the world. This symbolism of light and darkness is ancient, archetypal and hiv cured cross-cultural. Three Economic Questions. It has many rich resonances of gangs uk meaning.

Darkness is associated with blindness, night, sleep, cold, gloom, despair, lostness, chaos, death, danger and yearning for the dawn. It is a striking image of the human condition. Light is seen as the antidote to economic the above, and is thus an image of salvation. In the light, one is awake, able to see and find one's way; it is associated with relief and rejoicing that the night is over; in the light one is safe and warm. In the light there is life….FOR MATTHEW and Luke, and for Christians ever since, Jesus is the light shining in the darkness. The author of John's Gospel makes the same affirmation with compact perfection: The true light, which enlightens everyone, was coming into the world. Jesus is the light who brings enlightenment; indeed, he is the light of the Essay on The History of Computers world.

This is the truth of this theme of the three economic questions birth stories. And it is true independently of their historical factuality (Borg 1218). Now, continuing with Christ personified archetypally as the gangs uk sun moving yearly through the twelve signs of the questions zodiac, note that Christ was baptized thirty years after birth, and thirty days after the rebirth of the sun at the winter solstice the sun enters Aquarius the water bearer (January 20-February 18), the pouring out of water a symbolic baptism, and Christ is baptized by John, the of c programming language Baptist, a pouring out of water: I baptize you with water for repentance. But after me will come one who is more powerful than I, whose sandals I am not fit to three questions carry. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire (Matthew 3:11). The fire is the Teaching: Personal Philosophy flame of the sun, and what of John? The New Testament merely says that he was put in economic questions prison with no explanation offered. In the allegory, this is the gangs uk constellation Aquarius moving lower and lower into the sky at sunset until it can no longer be seen, because it has been put in prison as the sun moves into the next sign of the zodiac, where each sign of the zodiac is divided into thirty degrees and economic questions there are twelve signs, as Christ had twelve disciples, and twelve times thirty equals three hundred sixty, the total number of degrees in the zodiac. Of course, the New Testament has Jesus beginning his ministry at age twelve; can a clearer point be made?

If not, then this: each of the twelve signs of the zodiac when entering into the beginning of the thirty degrees of the great allotted sign, represents some event in the ministry of Christ allegorized as the three sun. After the Baptism of expectations setting Christ he continues on his journey into Galilee which literally means circuit, and this is the closed elliptical path of the sun on questions its circuit through the constellations. Here Christ selected his first disciples from fishermen, Simon and Andrew: As Jesus was walking beside the Sea of Galilee, he saw two brothers, Simon called Peter and his brother Andrew. They were casting a net into the lake, for they were fishermen (Matthew 4:18). The sign following Aquarius is Pisces, the Fish (February 19-March 20). The Catholic Lent is observed to this day in the sign of Pisces, and fish is eaten one day of the week in obvious symbolism of this event. In his ministry Christ next transforms into the Good Shepard of the flock, watching over the lambs of the field so that they would be encouraged to not stray from the path. This corresponds to the sun entering the sign of Aries the Ram (March 21-April 19), and a ram of course, is a lamb before growing into a Ram, just as Christ must grow in power before becoming truly recognized as the Lamb of God, and the Jews still celebrate the Paschal Lamb during the Philosophy and Tools same time frame, a sacrifice to God as Jesus was the sacrificial lamb.

Christ as lamb means that the sun is young in three economic questions the sign of Aries, and Teaching: and Tools Essay will grow into the full power of the Ram, just as the sun grows in power as it passes through this sign, which is also the three economic sign of spring, rebirth, resurrection. Christianity celebrates Easter at this time, which is really a pagan festival, and the name Easter means that the sun is rising due east. On The Of Computers. Sunrise services are also celebrated at this time when the idea of, He is risen, is thrown about. Of course, the sun has risen. Following this Christ begins his salvation of humanity. How is this accomplished? By the Eucharist, of course. The Son must provide spiritual nourishment in three economic order for his people to be saved. The sun, entering the sign of Taurus the Bull (April 20-May 20), is the time of plowing the fields to grow crops that are nourished by the energy of the sun, and thus though food energy the salvation is at hand.

After Taurus the next sign of the zodiac is Gemini the Twins (May 21-June 20); we are getting close now to the height of summer, when the sun's energy is at its most abundant and the crops grow and increase, doubling, like the twins, the process of salvation. The son's power, in his ministry, grew stronger and magic johnson stronger, doubling as the economic questions multitudes reported by the New Testament followed him about the land. Following Gemini the sun enters Cancer the Crab (June 21-July 22). A crab is often depicted as traveling backwards, and the sun has reached its furthest point north at the summer solstice; after that the sun begins traveling backwards in its journey toward the equator once again. Christ spoke often of the backsliders, and it is at this time of year that the sun is indeed sliding back, falling, from our apparent perspective, toward the equator and the power of the sun begins to wane, as does vegetation and crops. Magic Hiv Cured. Also interesting to note is three economic questions, that John the Baptist was born six months before Christ, and John 3:30 says, He must increase, but I must decrease. One power is waning, the great expectations other waxing, the story of the sun in its annual pilgrimage through the heavens, the cycle of the seasons. According to Deley: Around this point in the Jesus story an interesting thing happens - John the Baptist reappears and is beheaded.

According to the Bible, John the Baptist has been raised from the dead, (Mark 6:14), or This is John the Baptist; he has risen from the dead! (Matthew 14:2). Recall at the beginning of the allegory how Aquarius moved below the western horizon at sunset as the year went from January to February and the Sun traveled from Aquarius to Pisces. Each Zodiac constellation in turn goes below the horizon at sunset as each month passes. After six months the constellation of Aquarius begins to rise on the eastern horizon at sunset, and it appears that the head of Aquarius is cut off by the horizon. This is John the economic questions Baptist rising from the dead, the dead being those who are below the earth. This is the beheading of John the Baptist by King Herod, a personification of darkness, which reigns supreme at night (See Matthew Chapter 2-The Birth of expectations Jesus for more on economic questions King Herod). (Solar Mythology and the Jesus Story) After Cancer comes Leo the johnson Lion. Christ had to first be the economic Lamb (Aries) before he could become the Lion of Judah (Leo). The lion is a symbol of ethical majestic royalty, power, awe inspiring majesty, and it is at this time of year (July 22-August 23) that the sun is at its most royal incarnation as it travels through the zodiac.

It is in Revelation 5:5 that Christ is called Lion of the Tribe of Judah. This majesty is seen in three economic Jesus' rebuking of the wind and Teaching: Essay the waves, and it is the power of the sun at the hottest months of the questions year. The power of the sun as the on The allegorical Christ is manifested at the grave of Lazarus when he proclaimed, Lazarus, come forth! (John 11:43). This is resurrection power, the calling forth of the three questions dead just as the history of c sun calls forth and provides energy to the land. The symbolism is quite obvious, as this is the masculine archetype of power. We come now to Virgo the Virgin (August 23-September 23). Questions. This is the time of expectations setting year when the sun, traveling south, crosses the equator once again at the autumnal equinox.

The sun passes over the equator where this celestial body is annually crucified, and he the sun as the cross on its back like Christ climbing toward Golgotha, only this Golgotha will be the crucifixion of the vernal equinox. Economic Questions. In addition, according to Deley, Harvest time comes about history programming, three quarters of the way through the year, and it's the happiest time of the year. And about three quarters of the way through the Jesus story is his triumphant entry into Jerusalem, which is the happiest part of the story (Mark 11:1-11; Matthew 21:1-11; Luke 19:28-44; John 12:12-16). Everyone knows him and economic is happy to see him. Jesus' triumphant entry into Jerusalem is an allegory for the Sun's triumphant entry into Virgo, because that means it is harvest time, the best time of gangs uk year.

Harvest time is The Kingdom of Heaven time which Jesus refers to in earnest as coming soon throughout the story up to here. (Solar Mythology) Directly after Virgo the sun enters Libra the Scales of Justice (September 23-October 22). This is the time of harvest, when all the bounties and fruits that the energy of the sun has provided in the growing season are reaped. At this point Deley notes that it is time to three economic sell the harvest. So the harvest is weighed out in the buying and selling process, and it is at this time that Jesus, On reaching Jerusalem, Jesus entered the temple area and began driving out those who were buying and selling there. He overturned the tables of the money changers and the benches of those selling doves… (Mark 11:15). Jesus, as the sun, is leaving the sign of Libra for the harvest is over, just as the language money changers packed up and three economic left. Directly preceding this event from the New Testament, Jesus curses the fig tree: The next day as they were leaving Bethany, Jesus was hungry. Seeing in the distance a fig tree in leaf, he went to find out if it had any fruit.

When he reached it, he found nothing but leaves, because it was not the season for figs. Then he said to the tree, May no one ever eat fruit from you again (Mark 11: 12-14). The tree withered up and died because this is the Essay History autumn season, the year is declining, just as the son is also declining. Following this event Jesus and the Twelve disciples have the last supper, for the year is closing and the twelve are the signs of the zodiac that the sun has nearly passed through. The time is now Scorpio the Scorpion (October 23-November 22), and these two months October and three economic questions November symbolize the two thieves that Christ is crucified between, because these months are the two thieves of the on The of Computers year when there is no harvest, the sun further descends toward its weakest point of winter that will occur at the Winter solstice. Jesus is betrayed now by Judas, the sign of Scorpio, and he betrays Christ for thirty pieces of silver, this event symbolizing the thirty days of a month. The sun is betrayed at this point, for it will soon be at its weakest, and Sagittarius the Archer (November 22-December 21) is the culmination of the death story of the sun, that will soon be reborn on December 21 at the Winter solstice, and thus the economic questions cycle of the year is complete, as is the story of Jesus as an archetypal allegory of the great setting sun. Comments and questions may be sent to the author at [emailprotected]

Borg, Marcus. Light in the Darkness (the Christmas Myth and three Bible as Literature). The Christian Century Dec. 16 1998: 1218. Campion, Nick. The Origins of Astrology. Nick Campion's Online Astrology Resource. 09 Oct. 2005 Deley, David W. The Story of Jesus is the Story of the Sun Passing Through the Zodiac During the Year.12 Jan.

2006 Deley, David W. Magic Johnson Hiv Cured. Solar Mythology and the Jesus Story. 24 Feb. 2006 Dowling, Eva S. The Aquarian Age Gospel of Jesus, the Christ of the economic questions Piscean Age. The Reluctant Messenger. 19 Dec. 2005 Fiske, John. Myths and Myth-makers: Old Tales and Superstitions Interpreted by Comparative Mythology. 1872.

Electronic Text Center. Gangs Uk. University of Virginia Library. 16 Dec. 2005 . s1-248. Gillman, Ken. Twelve Gods and Seven Planets. C.U.R.A. Three. University Centre for Philosophy and Tools, Astrological Research. Jan. 1997. Three Economic. 19 Dec.

2005 Goldberg, G.J. Josephus' Account of Jesus The Testimonium Flavianum . Flavius Josephus Home Page. 3 Sep. 2005. 07 Oct.

2005 Horn, Thomas. Ancient Israel, the Zodiac, and the Sun God. Christian News Service 2004. 15 Oct 2005 Immaculate Conception,The. Virgin Births. 28 March 2000.

18 Dec. 2005 Invention of Christendom. Theosophy March 1966: 140-146. Jabbar, Malik H. The Astrological Foundation of the Christ Myth. Rare Books. Jackson, John G. Pagan Origins of the Christ Myth Part Two: The Christ Myth. Subjectivism Definition. The John G. Jackson Virtual Museum. Three Questions. 1941. 09 Oct. 2005

Johnson, Richard and great setting Gregory van Berkel. Three Questions. The Zodiac: Stellar Stories. Rhodes University Astronomy Society. 09 Oct. 2005

Kuhn, Alvin Boyd. The Great Myth of the Sun-Gods. October 1934. Of C Language. 18 Dec. 2005 Mangasarian, Mangasar Magurditch. The Truth About Jesus Is He a Myth?.

The Project Gutenberg Ebook. 10 Oct. 2005 Maxwell, Jordan. Sun Worship. 04 Nov. 2005 . Pagan Christs.

Pagan Origins of the three questions Christ Myth. 09 Oct. 2005 Remsberg, John E. Sources of the Christ Myth:Pagan Divinities. The Christ. 2000. 16 Dec. 2005

Rogge, Michael. On The Of Computers. The Christ Myth. Economic Questions. Man and the Unknown. Magic. 1 Dec. 2003. 19 Dec. Three Economic Questions. 2005 S, Acharya. Magic. The Origins of Christianity and the Quest for the Historical Jesus. 2006. 17 Dec.

2005 Savior Myth. Pagan Origins of the Christ Myth. 17 Dec. 2005 Sun, a Universal Deity, The. Secret Teachings of All Ages. Sacred Texts. 04 Nov. 2005 Sun Worship.

Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2000 © 1997-2000 . CD_ROM. ed. Twelve Labours,The. Three. Wikipedia. 31 Oct 2005. Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia.


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International Cooperation Essay Sample. 1. Anarchy, Cooperation, Harmony, and three questions Discord. – Alliances, coalitions, and international organizations. Managing and controlling conflicts. 3. Functional collaboration in specialized agencies. Other international organizations and regimes. In this chapter, the author mainly examine various means of international cooperation; international organizations, alliances, and coalitions. Reaction toward the Iraq’s invasion to Essay on The History of Computers, Kuwait can be shown as one of examples of international cooperation.

Multinational coalition of military force and collective security by three, different countries against to johnson hiv cured, the threat to the world’s oil supply cost so many lives of soldiers, but still represented as an important precedent of international cooperation. *Anarchy, Cooperation, Harmony, and three economic Discord. International anarchy makes people of some or all states vulnerable. ( security concern boost economic and military capabilities. Or collaborate with other states for the same goal. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries consists of 11 oil producing states. They coordinate their oil production policies to subjectivism, stabilize oil market revenue. Three Economic. OPEC has been more successful in definition, cooperation than other commodity cartel. ?North America countries international organization. In addition to NATO, the US and Canada collaborated militarily with NORAD organization. Early warning devices against bomb or missile toward Canada or the US have been managed by NORAD.

Moreover, commercial cooperation among Canada, the US, and three Mexico established NAFTA. Along the spectrum between complete harmony and discord are seven categories to present the History degree of positive or negative interaction across states and NGOs. Cooperation among states does not always seek ‘the common good’, instead they cooperate to maximizes their benefits. Moreover, it does not necessarily toward positive goal, they sometimes join together to conquer some countries such as the Germans and Soviets or cooperate to exploit some weaker states economically. International cooperation can be short-term deal or longer effort. In this chapter, the author is interested in three questions, repeated long-term cooperation which is defined as ‘ a pattern of behavior that has become formally or informally organized and reflects certain rules and norms of behavior’. ? Regional International Organization. Europe: the most highly institutionalized set of international organization such as the European Union (EU). The Americas : North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Central American Free Trade Agreement, Organization of American States(OAS). OAS is the longest standing and expectations setting most inclusive of regional international organization. Middle East and Africa : Organization of African Unity(OAU).

Given the three diversity and often conflicting interest of its members, forging cooperation on many issues has been very difficult stage. Essay On The Of Computers. East Asia and three questions the Pacific: Much less common in subjectivism definition, East Asia except ASEAN which was formed in 1967. ASEAN also consults with its 10 dialogue partners including Australia, Japan, China, Korea and questions etc. 1. World Government. Centralized management of international politics is required to create world government.

Centralized law-making, judicial, and enforcement institutions would be established, and states would consent on renounce of their control over some important matters. So, world government has never occurred historically and is considered as an idealistic concept. History. World federalists go after less ambitious approach to world governance. They pursue central institutions such as international court. Even though it’s small step, this are more practical than larger constitutional plan which try to change world politics in short-term. 2. Alliances, Coalition, and International organizations.

Alliance: a coalition of questions states, mostly formal and long-term commitments (ex; NATO) NATO is more than an history language alliance and three is also an international organization. Sometime, alliances or coalitions can be offensive such as in WWII alliance of Germany with Italy and Japan. Gangs Uk. However, most case of current alliances are defensive purpose; collective defense. Defensive alliances try to maintain current stable condition and balance powers of states. It has apparent benefit of decreasing the burden of economic questions each states defense cost. Less formal coalition may not have alliance status. For example, the Teaching: intimacy between the economic questions US and Philosophy Israel maintain an agreement to three economic, cooperate on security matters. The US has avoided formally allying with Israel in great, afraid of questions diminishing ability of US with Arab states.

Other coalitions for security function under the UN charter do not qualify as formal alliances. For example, in programming, 1990 and 1991, the questions multinational coalition against Iraqi invasion to Kuwait was formed for the purpose of balancing of power, collective defense, and enforcing collective security under UN Security Council. When alliances are successful, security is the collective good they produce. The US maintains important bilateral alliances with various countries, including Canada, Japan, and South Korea. In this concept, an important part in hiv cured, alliance is ‘who will pay’ or ‘how much should be paid’ for the collective good. The payment of each country is divergent with their capabilities or their roles. ? Security as a collective good. The free rider problem arises from three questions some countries who make no payment to the collective good can get benefits from the contributions of gangs uk other few countries. As an example, nonmember of NATO also benefit from the security it brings to the North Atlantic area, even if they contribute nothing. The cost of effort can be asymmetric or uneven. The crucial point of collective security is ‘all against one’ as in communal law-enforcement against an aggressor state.

Unlike an alliance that is directed against an external threat, collective security is regionally or globally oriented. The goal is to restrain any state from violating international law and committing aggression. Under collective security arrangement, states possess dominant power which enables the law-enforcement to be more effective mean. Three Questions. In addition, the scope of collective security can be in global scope or limited to particular region. Great Setting. Unlike many alliances, there is economic no binding, strong commitment to collective action. Agreements are often decided through negotiations.

Although a concert is based on magic johnson hiv cured, compatible view of member states, competitions still occur. Several historical examples. ?The concert of Europe. As we learned in three economic questions, previous chapters, it lasted from 1815 (Congress of Vienna) to 1854 (Crimean War). Minor states were not members of this selective group which consist of major players such as Great Britain, Russia, France, etc. And its geographic interest was limited to Europe. The underlying consensus was that all members would comply with the territorial settlement of 1815. Collective management of relations could be accomplished by invoking universally accepted legal principles and norms. Therefore, Concert diplomacy can be described as an early expression of collective security. ?The League of subjectivism definition Nations. The collective security idea was a root of the new League of Nations established in three economic questions, 1920 after WWI.

They try to institutionalize multilateral efforts to establish peace and prevention of war. By 1938, the 57 members joined the League and subjectivism definition represented in the General Assembly. The League Council was only limited to great-power permanent members. All of three economic states members were demanded to subjectivism definition, impose collective economic or diplomatic sanctions against the aggressor. Economic. Also, the use of military force was decided by the Council.

However, there were some problems regarding definition of aggression or clarity to be decent basis for collective action. In addition, the recommendation had to be agreed on unanimously and each member has veto powers. The League’s incompetency in 1930s toward Axis powers (Germany, Japan, and Italy) led to the demise of the ethical definition League of Nations and the outbreak of WWII in 1939. The US did not even join the League and not participate in the collective security system. ?The United Nations. The term ‘United Nations’ was first used by President Roosevelt in three economic questions, 1942when 26 states pledged their governments to counter against subjectivism definition, the Axis powers. The UN Charter was drawn up in UN conference in questions, 1945. The UN was officially established on October of ethical subjectivism definition 1945. All participants attend the General Assembly, but permanent members of Security Council (the US, UK, France, Soviet Union, and China) obtained power to initiate collective military action. The United Nations did not throw away collective security as a basis, and it was supplemented by both preventive diplomacy and collective defense.

Preventive diplomacy: prevent conflicts from occurring in the first place Collective defense: supported by legal framework Article 51 of the UN Charter, primarily on balance of power. The United Nations maintained the League’s collective security or collective law-enforcement, but it also allowed their sovereign rights to individual or collective defense. This significant improvement of the League framework has supported the disappearance of three world war since 1945. Ethical Definition. During high tension period (The Cold War), the economic Security Council could not reach agreement on many issues, but states could still rely on their collective defense alliances. Overall, multilateral diplomacy of various international organizations, including UN, has contributed to significant advance in arms control, trade, commerce, human rights and history of c programming language other socio-economic issues. Multilateral diplomacy has been institutionalized in such regional organization as ASEAN and OAS as we learned before. And the creation of questions Council of Europe made strong economic and political ties among its EU members, and now institutionalized as the Organization for Essay on The, Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Multilateral diplomacy has come a long way from the Concert system. Many lessons have been learned and modifications have been implemented.

? Limitations to collective security. Universal and concert approaches to collective security have at least 6 problems. – Confusion about questions, cause and effect relationship between collective security and peace. – Gap between states’ expressed commitments to collective security. – Timing problem (belated responses) – Reliance on collective security’s multilateralism response will cause ignorance of the virtues of unilateralism. – Possibility of expansion of a minor war into a major war.

– Implication of commitment to the status quo. *Peacekeeping: Managing and controlling conflicts. Peacekeeping can be shown as an Personal Philosophy expansion of collective security thinking to prevent conflicts that threaten international peace. Since end of WWII, multinational UN forces (Blue Helmets) or other multinational contingents on patrol in territorial border areas to protect or separate between conflicting parties. However, difficult problem occur when a government collapses, civil war breaks out. In such cases there are no parties to agree to a UN presence. ( In 1993, Somalia regime collapsed and domestic disorder broke out. The relief effort gave away to an enforce peace). Efforts have undertaken to extend beyond the more limited peace keeping into economic include peace enforcement and even peacemaking.

? Selected peacekeeping and observer missions. The UN and other peacekeeping missions summarized and organized by regions. Ethical Subjectivism Definition. The emergence of new contingencies and rapidly changing conditions have made peacekeeping highly fluid. Africa: UN Mission in the Sudan, Democratic republic of Congo, Western Sahara, Sierra Leone, Liberia. Three. Asia : UN Military observer group in India and Pakistan. UN observer Mission in Georgia. UN Mission in East Timor. Europe: UN Force in Cyprus. NATO Stabilization Force. UN Mission in Kosovo.

NATO international security force for Kosovo. NATO Albania Force. OSCE Peace Missions. Middle East : UN Truce Supervision Organization. UN Interim Force in Teaching: Personal Philosophy and Tools, Lebanon. *Functional collaboration in specialized agencies, Other international organizations and regimes. Three approaches to cooperation to build security under international anarchy, consequently remove anarchy; -World government and related world federalism. -Collective defense in alliances or less formal coalitions. -Collective security through peacekeeping and observer missions.

Another approach is to establish concerted multilateral institutions not only for matters of defense and security, but also to perform other important functions. In addition to the UN 6 organs, numerous specialized agencies perform essential tasks in diverse area. International regimes have developed with international organizations, implying generally accepted rules or norms. How these rules or norms developed is of particular interest of liberals and social constructivists. Nongovernmental organizations perform both security-related task and human welfare activity. NGOs affect on the agendas of international organization and also monitor closely for their actions in three economic questions, 3 ways; – directly making their positions known to international organizations – indirectly influencing them through their links.

– publicizing their views via media. ?Applying theory: Functionalism, Neo- functionalism, and Epistemic communities David Mitrany identified certain functions that could not be performed by single state, and were the basis for forming international organizations to perform. Magic. (telecommunications, international trade and investment, and three disease control) – Functionalism : According to functionalism, international integration – the collective governance and ‘material interdependence’ between states – develops its own internal dynamic as states integrate in limited functional, technical, and/or economic areas. International agencies would meet human needs, aided by knowledge and expertise. – Neofunctionalism : Neofunctionalists focused their attention in the process of integration among states, i.e. regional integration. Initially, states integrate in limited functional or economic areas. Thereafter, partially integrated states experience increasing momentum for further rounds of integration in related areas. The author identified a spectrum between harmony and discord, and important part was various means by which states cooperate in the regimes and History international organizations. There were 4 approaches addressed to questions, build security and cooperation. – building world governance. – cooperating within alliances and coalitions to meet collective defense challenges. – participating in international law enforcement.

– building consensus and expanding multilateral international organizations to deal functionally with the great expectations setting many diverse issues. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order International Cooperation. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and three quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for magic johnson, International Cooperation. NATO is economic questions a military alliance involving several countries whose formation date from the Brussels treaty of ethical subjectivism definition 1948. Three Questions. The main reason behind the forming of hiv cured NATO was to protect the security… Beginning Of Cold War.

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