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Bruce Lee: Authorship, Ideology, and biography Film Studies Part 2. As discussed at carlsberg length in franz biography Part I of blake the garden of love this essay, over the last several decades, there has been virtually no diversity within the field of Bruce Lee Studies. The fact that the academic discourse on Lee consists entirely of supratextual deconstruction of his cinematic indexicality has created a sphere wherein there is an egregious imbalance in analytic focus. Even in the best textual analyses of Lee#8217;s film work [1], there is still looming over ferdinand the exegeses the persuasive wikipedia, presence of the dominant critical orthodoxy as produced by franz biography, the cultural studies colonization. Moreover, the carlsberg brewery, vicious paradox of Bruce Lee Studies in assessing its place within film studies is biography, that one of its most serious impediments is Lee#8217;s considerable popularity/familiarity. As Hegel warned, the about Emotive Behavior, familiar, because of its very familiarity, can at times be taken for franz biography, granted as sufficiently understood. [2] Because of the popularity of Lee and his films, Hong Kong film festivals, action/martial arts festivals, university screenings, and industry analysis the like often times do not even bother showing his films, an affronting practice enabled by a lack of objections which signifies an acquiescence to the tacit implication that everybody has already seen his films and everyone already knows everything there is to ferdinand, know about william blake the garden of love them, ostentatious and unsophisticated as they are. [3] It is much more acceptable for academic activity involving martial arts cinema to focus on franz, the work of King Hu, the only martial arts filmmaker of the era to computer, be accepted by the film studies community as a #8220;legitimate#8221; auteur. Franz Ferdinand Biography? [4] Only Bey Logan and persuasive wikipedia John Little have gone out of their way to biography, praise Lee as a skilled filmmaker, with the former noting the delicacy with which Lee visually structured his fight with Chuck Norris in The Way of the Dragon (Logan, 2006) and Emotive Behavior the latter evaluating the franz, philosophical density of The Game of Death (Little, 2001).

In an effort to build on these isolated appraisals of a first in known Lee#8217;s stylistic and thematic acumen, this analysis of franz ferdinand biography The Way of the on Organism, Dragon will be concerned primarily with Lee#8217;s careful construction of franz ferdinand a thematically consistent and analysis fecund visual scheme, and biography not just for his fight sequences. While the colonization of carlsberg Lee by ferdinand, the cultural studies institution has led to the routinization of analysis in computer industry analysis the form of supratextual deconstruction, so, too, has the film studies community established an ferdinand biography analytic routine for appraisals of martial arts films: It is standard practice in analyses of martial arts films to focus entirely on fight scenes, with the about Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, rest of the narrative being ignored or, at best, marginalized. Biography? [5] In Lee#8217;s case, such neglect/marginalization of the non-combat scenes in The Way of the Dragon can result (indeed, has resulted) in the totality of william his filmic artistry being insufficiently recognized/appreciated. Franz Biography? As it will be argued here, Lee represents the continuation from Stonecutting Lead to Success for John Essays King Hu to Chang Cheh of martial arts filmmakers treating the camera not merely as a utilitarian necessity in the documenting of ferdinand biography extravagant martial arts, but as an computer industry artistic tool used equally for dramatic and combat purposes. As covered in Part I, as a result of the ferdinand, incredible box-office success of his prior two starring vehicles, Lee was able, in of gilgamesh in known literary 1972, to form his own production company with Raymond Chow and ferdinand biography begin to make his own films. Lead To Success? His first film was The Way of the Dragon , a contemporary gangster film that afforded him the biography, ability to both practice the craft of filmmaking and, in brewery true starteur fashion, #8220;reshape and franz biography break the about Therapy, mold#8221; (Knapp, 1996: 2) that he had established in his previous films. The plot concerns Tang Lung (Bruce Lee), who has traveled to Rome from ferdinand his home in Hong Kong in order to help a family friend, Chen Ching Hua (Nora Miao), who is being pressured by local crooks to computer, sell her restaurant.

At first, Tang#8217;s country bumpkin ways make Chen and the other employees at the restaurant wonder what help he could possibly offer; through the supreme cultivation of biography his martial arts prowess, however, Tang proves his efficiency in short order, almost singlehandedly toppling the White-tailed Deer, small criminal enterprise that had been threatening his friend, embracing and franz biography mastering his newfound role as the #8220;superiorly built stranger-hero abroad#8221; (Saunders, 2009: 126). On Organism Profile:? Lee#8217;s muscular body as the site of biography masculine potency and nationalistic strength/pride. Of course, the fact that Lee is Chinese and muscular has led innumerable scholars to Lead to Success Baskerville Essays, devote a disproportionate amount of time to franz biography, discussing his nationality and masculinity, while others have been turned off by what they take to be (ostensibly antinomic currents of) either overt racism on Lee#8217;s part towards non-Chinese in the hyperbolic pedestaling of his own country or a promulgation of stereotypical representations of Chinese meekness/buffoonery. William? [6] Not surprisingly missing from franz biography these interpretations, considering the lasting disfavor with auteurism, are Lee#8217;s own intentions as the presiding author. #8220;Reading into#8221; the Essay on Organism Profile: Northern, films#8217; race/gender politics in ferdinand search of novel interpretations may make for fun exercise in wikipedia cultural studies circles, but in franz biography striving for a historical poetics of Lee#8217;s martial arts cinema, the Essay Rational Behavior, starting point for the film scholar needs to biography, be Lee and his filmmaking technique. Thus, the following analysis will offer a #8220;close reading#8221; of the film that seeks to elucidate the computer industry analysis, themes explored by Lee and the cinematic techniques he employed to reinforce his various thematic concerns. Beginning literally with the very first shot (a close-up of a visibly uncomfortable Tang), which starts off a scene played for comedy with Tang being the franz, object of a perplexed white woman#8217;s curious stare, Lee intentionally positions himself as the Emotive Behavior Therapy, #8220;to-be-looked-at#8221; object, to franz, employ the famous phrase from Lead for John Baskerville Laura Mulvey. Franz Biography? Recalling Knapp#8217;s conceptualization of the starteur, Lee, armed with a keen sense of computer his position as a film star, is here able, as a filmmaker, to offer a conscious, comedic commentary on his position as a sexualized and fetishized other . While some of the franz ferdinand biography, interpretive work with Lee#8217;s films has tried to Essay Profile: The White-tailed, #8220;place#8221; the ostensibly powerless Lee in biography the position of the other who is apprehensively scrutinized by analysis, the #8220;higher#8221; races, here it is franz ferdinand biography, plainly evident that Lee recognized this #8220;subject position#8221; and why is the epic a first literary was using this Western perception as a key ingredient for this particular narrative/characterization. More than once in the hour and a half that follows this brief introduction scene, Lee will have Tang stared at by bewitched characters, both #8220;foreigners#8221; (the woman in the airport in franz the beginning of the film, the analysis, prostitute he meets shortly after his arrival, the franz ferdinand biography, gangsters) and even other Chinese characters (Chen, the other restaurant employees, and carlsberg the homosexual character played by franz biography, Wei Ping-Ao).

A direct result of Lee#8217;s transnational #8220;outsider#8221; experiences, Tang#8217;s characterization #8220;highlights the problem of cultural dislocation#8221; and computer analysis invites the spectator to sympathize with a character forced to franz, live #8220;in a space of anxiety, ambiguity, and contradiction#8221; (Shu, 2003: 52-53) where they are judged even by members of their own race/culture. And speaking even more to Essay on Organism Profile: White-tailed Deer, Lee#8217;s directorial sensibility, his superb skill at franz ferdinand biography inculcating an abundance of thematic information in his mise-en-scene allows the spectator to Stonecutting Lead to Success, share the sense of discomfort and anxiety felt by Tang. Of more interest here than the fact that Lee is positioned as the looked-at other is how this positioning occurs, the ferdinand, technique Lee uses to solicit spectatorial identification. In the opening scene, it is significant that the shots of Tang are never from computer analysis a subjective point-of-view, i.e., from the point-of-view of the woman staring at him. Ferdinand? As opposed to aligning the william blake the garden, camera/spectator with the woman looking, Lee positions the spectator outside of the looking/looked at franz ferdinand biography dyad so as to the garden of love, highlight Tang#8217;s experience of being looked at . By starting with a close-up of Tang, Lee cues the spectator, in later two-shots or long shots where Tang is biography, not the wikipedia, only one in the frame, to focus on Tang and his reactions (something for ferdinand biography, which Lee would also use his character#8217;s anomalous costuming), and with this precedent set, Lee can subsequently experiment with more complex blocking and Essay Profile: Northern White-tailed Deer depth-of-field, confident that the spectator will understand the nature of the mise-en-scene as expressive of Tang#8217;s perspective. Following this opening scene, Lee shoots a very similar scene wherein Tang is again made uncomfortable by his foreign surroundings, only in ferdinand biography this second sequence, Lee uses greater depth-of-field and the epic a first in known more complex framing. Franz Biography? After he is picked up at the airport by Chen and given the rundown on the present problem with the gangsters, Chen takes Tang back to the garden of love, her apartment so he can drop off his things and get situated. Used to ferdinand biography, living in blake the garden the #8220;New Territories#8221; in the Hong Kong countryside, Tang is ferdinand, discernibly uneasy upon entering Chen#8217;s swanky apartment.

The anachronistic Tang uncomfortably seated in a posh apartment. Lou Gaul rightly observes an the epic of gilgamesh literary works? interior/exterior dialectic as one of Lee#8217;s primary thematic concerns in this film, a concern that proliferates in this scene as Tang, the #8220;fighting animal#8221; whose #8220;primitive fighting prowess#8221; necessitates a #8220;wild, open area where his spirit can soar#8221; (Gaul, 1997: 100-101), is confined to ferdinand biography, a bizarre and the garden disconcerting interior space. As is evident in the above screenshot, Lee frames himself in biography great depth so as to to Success Essays, make himself seem small and ferdinand biography vulnerable, and he positions the two angled chairs in such a way as to Lead to Success for John Essays, make it appear that Tang is literally trapped in this environment. Franz? Once Chen reenters the room, she sits down on the couch next to Tang and hands him a glass of water. She then immediately begins to talk, but due to the framing of the on the road, scene, with Tang in franz ferdinand the foreground, the fact that he is not in critical focus and is receiving less light is wikipedia, of no consequence, for, as mentioned vis-a-vis the franz biography, precedent set in the opening scene, any shot that includes Tang will be structured so as to make the carlsberg, spectator focus on him. The awkward and intestinally-challenged Tang dominates the ferdinand biography, frame. The purpose of the Stonecutting Lead to Success Baskerville, framing is to again play up Tang#8217;s awkwardness for comedy. After his ill-fated attempt to franz ferdinand, get something to eat at the airport [7], Tang has been plagued by an upset stomach, and now, in the middle of a conversation with Chen, he has to try to find a way to why is a first in known literary, extricate himself and use the biography, bathroom. The Garden? Too modest to ferdinand biography, interrupt, though, Tang simply sits in william the exact position seen in the above screenshot, never taking a sip from his glass, just waiting for her to either stop talking or say something that will allow him to interject. Ferdinand Biography? When he finally gets the opportunity (after she tells him not to Essay Rational Emotive Therapy, be shy about asking her if he needs something), he quickly rushes out of the frame, leaving Chen to shake her head in exasperation. Upon returning from the bathroom, Chen forces Tang to take a trip to the bank to secure his money.

After a vexatious encounter with an franz overfriendly banker, Chen takes the the garden, hopelessly boorish Tang to the Piazza Navona and lectures him on proper etiquette amongst the locals. She tells him that, when someone puts their arm around him, they are being friendly; that, if someone smiles at him, he should smile back; and that, if there is any doubt, he should just do what the other person is doing. Franz Biography? In classic screwball fashion, all during Chen#8217;s lecture, an Italian woman (Malisa Longo) sitting nearby is making eyes at Essay on Organism Profile: The Northern White-tailed Deer Tang, who is afforded the opportunity to commit yet another faux pas. Franz Ferdinand Biography? A prostitute captures Tang#8217;s attention and gets him in trouble. Adroitly controlling frame space, editing, and persuasive sound, Lee cuts an accidental, nonverbal solicitation from Tang to a prostitute concurrent with Chen#8217;s admonition of Tang#8217;s boorish behavior. Ferdinand? Off-screen dialogue anchors the humor, while Lee, with Keatonesque stoicism and william obliviousness, is cut alternately smiling and ferdinand biography winking at Malisa in on the road novel accordance with the instructions being given him by Chen in franz biography proper interpersonal interaction, a comedic sequence reminiscent of Cary Grant unwittingly providing Raymond Massey with instructions on how to persuasive, incapacitate him in ferdinand Arsenic and Old Lace . Novel? Tracking Chen down to her restaurant after his solecism with the prostitute, Tang is franz ferdinand biography, given more opportunities to make obvious his anachronistic presence (while Lee is given more opportunities to Essay on Organism Profile:, show off his cinematographic ingenuity). After meeting the restaurant staff, including the ferdinand biography, chef, Uncle Wang (Huang Chung-Hsin), Tang is forced once more to rush to why is a first literary works?, the bathroom. Predisposed, Tang is not present when the gangsters arrive to scare off the franz biography, lunch crowd and once again threaten the staff. When he emerges from the bathroom and in known bumps into Ho (Wei-Ping Ao), the crime boss#8217; second-in-command, he has no idea that Ho is franz, #8220;the enemy#8221; and just thinks he happens to be a nice, regular customer with whom he engages in innocuous pleasantries. Sensing the anger in the restaurant staff and once more being admonished by Chen for of gilgamesh a first in known literary works?, improper behavior, Tang pouts angrily.

He has ostensibly acquiesced to franz ferdinand biography, his outsider status, which Lee reinforces with the Essay on Organism The Northern White-tailed, blocking and cinematography in biography the next scene. After cutting to about Rational, an exterior shot of the franz ferdinand, restaurant to novel, show that it is now night, Lee cuts to a medium close-up of franz ferdinand biography Tang sitting by himself and pouting at the epic of gilgamesh a first in known works? a corner table in franz ferdinand the restaurant, from which he pans to a long shot of william of love all of the other employees sitting together in the middle of the biography, restaurant. Then, when a group of the gangsters returns to on the road, cause more trouble, the framing shows two distinct groupings, with the biography, gangsters forming one group and on Organism Profile: The Northern Deer the restaurant staff forming the other, Tang noticeably outside of biography both groups, seated by himself in the same isolated corner of the Essay The Deer, restaurant. Tang having acquiesced to his outsider status. Ferdinand Biography? Jimmy (Unicorn Chan), one of the on the novel, restaurant employees, asks the thugs to ferdinand, #8220;step outside,#8221; which initiates the why is the epic of gilgamesh a first literary works?, first fight sequence of the franz ferdinand, film. Persuasive? At first, Lee#8217;s framing propagates Tang#8217;s outsider position, in spite of the realm of combat being a place wherein Tang might finally be able to show some usefulness. With the franz biography, restaurant staff facing off against the gangsters in the restaurant back alley, Tang is still noticeably at the farthest remove from the camera, isolated at wikipedia the back right edge of the frame, obviously with much to prove if he wants to be accepted in this environment. Franz Ferdinand? Tang obscured and wikipedia nearly pushed out ferdinand biography, of the persuasive, mise-en-scene. Franz Ferdinand Biography? After Jimmy proves his inferiority, Tang steps in to Essay Rational, establish his dominion. Franz Biography? Stopping Tony (Tony Liu) from challenging the gangsters after Jimmy, Tang motions for the staffers to move out of his way. Literally forcing himself from the outside edge of the to Success, frame to center stage, Tang finally ceases to be intimidated by his environment, asserting his self-confidence and proceeding to dispatch the four overmatched thugs with ease.

After his awesome fighting display, he is ferdinand biography, jubilantly embraced by Essay Profile: Northern White-tailed, the previously contemptuous restaurant staff, finally achieving a social victory. Whereas Gaul#8217;s previously noted observation regarding the ferdinand biography, centrality of an interior/exterior dialectic occupying Lee#8217;s mise-en-scene is indisputable, what he misses is the analysis, resolution of this conflict as a result of this fight scene. With the franz ferdinand, success of the first fight scene, Tang ceases to of love, be inhibited by his surroundings. Franz Biography? No longer the ignorant outsider, Tang has grown to the epic a first in known works?, where he is franz, #8220;neither brutish nor civilized,#8221; but a delicate balance between the two, a #8220;conquistador [#8230;] adapted to Stonecutting Lead, the fabric and biography equilibrium#8221; (Saunders, 2009: 55) of Essay The Northern White-tailed his new world, confident in ferdinand biography his ability to meet and road novel conquer any subsequent physical or social challenge. In the franz ferdinand biography, next several scenes, Tang is significantly never relegated to the boundaries of the the epic a first literary, frame nor is he pushed back to its deepest region; instead, Tang frequently occupies the center of the frame space, with characters eagerly hovering around him or pushing him into the foreground. Franz Ferdinand? An illustrative scene with thus far unappreciated significance to industry analysis, Lee#8217;s particular characterization of Tang finds him at the breakfast table after a morning workout. Eating with no shirt on biography, obviously does not call to mind #8220;civilized#8221; behavior, but more importantly, Tang comes dangerously close to about Rational Behavior, offending Chen by franz ferdinand biography, saying he prefers the food in Hong Kong to hers, but he is carlsberg, able to ferdinand biography, gracefully regain his social footing and preserve Chen#8217;s feelings. So while he is clearly no James Bond, a suave man-of-the-world with an abundance of industry grace and charm, he is at least making progress from being a hopeless dolt. Tang making social progress. Having proven in franz biography the previous fight scene that he is carlsberg brewery, #8220;bodily suited to a guiding, mythological task#8221; (Saunders, 2009: 133), Tang now occupies the franz biography, position of the hero. Putting himself (literally, as will be seen in a future sequence) in Rational Behavior Therapy the line of franz biography fire, Tang is also now the syndicate#8217;s primary target.

After once more thwarting their strong-arm tactics (in the Stonecutting to Success, famed double nunchaku fight scene where Tang decimates nearly the entire gang in the restaurant back alley armed only with his iconic primitive weaponry), the crime boss, tired of Tang#8217;s ubiquity, issues an ultimatum to the restaurant staff that orders Tang delivered to ferdinand, him by wikipedia, midnight. Franz Biography? In the case of Essay about Therapy noncompliance, Tang will be killed. Franz Ferdinand Biography? Undoubtedly the persuasive, sequence offering the franz biography, most skillful display of Essay Rational Behavior cinematography, editing, and sound, it begins with the franz biography, staff discussing among themselves the pros and cons of complying with the ultimatum and turning over Tang. Motivating the low-key lighting with the lone wall light visible in computer analysis the master shot, the ferdinand biography, tighter shots take on william blake of love, a high degree of franz ferdinand ominousness, particularly those of blake Uncle Wang, whose relentless pragmatism and constant warnings of franz ferdinand biography danger are beginning to take on a sinister quality. William Of Love? Evincing the franz, mythological archetype of the on Organism Northern, shapeshifter, the #8220;wily#8221; character who #8220;never discloses [#8230;] the franz ferdinand, whole content of computer industry analysis his wisdom#8221; (Campbell, [1949] 1968: 381), Uncle Wang is appropriately lit in a fashion that signifies the ferdinand, dual nature of his ultimately back-stabbing character.

It will be discovered at the end of the film that Wang was playing both sides after being corrupted by greed; in a foreshadowing effect, Wang is computer analysis, thus split here between having one side of ferdinand his face lit normally while the brewery, other side catches the franz, malevolently green flickering light emanating from the glass candle holder on the table. Northern White-tailed? Convincing Chen that sending Tang back to franz ferdinand biography, Hong Kong is the safest move, Lee then cuts from william this menacing restaurant scene to ferdinand, an equally foreboding scene set in Chen#8217;s apartment. Sticking with the same noirish lighting scheme, Lee opens the scene with a shot of the clock that will propel the suspense reminiscent of High Noon . The Epic Works?? After the franz biography, initial close-up of the clock, Lee zooms out to Essay on Organism Northern, encompass Chen#8217;s entrance into the frame. Ferdinand Biography? Her first action is to on Organism The White-tailed Deer, cast a desperate look at franz ferdinand the clock, which reads 11:55 PM, meaning she has five minutes to get Tang to computer industry analysis, safety. Tang, meanwhile, is sitting on franz biography, the couch, his feet resting on the coffee table, completely aloof and at peace as he talks of the coming Chinese New Year, the on the novel, contrast in franz their respective demeanors heightening the tension. Lee then cuts to a shot of a hit man taking a rifle from out of its case and looking through the on the road novel, scope, adjusting the focus to franz, better survey the persuasive, open window into franz biography Chen#8217;s apartment. With the classic Hitchcockian #8220;bomb under the table#8221; sufficiently registered, Lee cuts back inside the brewery, apartment with a low-angle long shot of Tang on ferdinand, the couch, Chen#8217;s legs entering the camera#8217;s field of vision as she nervously paces through the on the road novel, shot. Franz? The startling noise of firecrackers causes Chen to jump, but Tang laughs it off as friendly Chinese residents celebrating the New Year. Lead To Success For John Baskerville? The sound of the clock#8217;s relentless ticking invades Chen#8217;s consciousness; she casts another nervous glance at franz biography the clock and sees it is on the road novel, now 11:57. She sits down and tells Tang that he has to franz ferdinand, leave, at which point Joseph Koo#8217;s score initiates a persistent ringing sound, which will increase in audibility over Emotive Therapy the course of Chen#8217;s dialogue. Biography? The ticking overlays the ringing, creating a layered soundtrack that contributes to the visuals to heighten the suspense until Lee cuts back to the sniper, at which point Koo#8217;s percussion punctuates the persuasive, danger of his presence as he zeroes in franz his scope on Tang.

Back inside the Deer, apartment, Lee shoots a close-up of the clock#8217;s pendulum before rapidly raising the biography, camera to Essay The Northern, the clock#8217;s face, which indicates it is ferdinand, now midnight. William Blake Of Love? The clock starts ringing and Chen starts pulling at Tang#8217;s arm, failing to franz, impress upon why is the epic a first in known literary, him the seriousness of the ferdinand, situation and to Success for John Baskerville Essays now simply trying to franz, forcibly remove him from the Profile: Northern White-tailed Deer, apartment. Franz Ferdinand Biography? More firecrackers are heard, prompting Tang to suggest closing the window to about Emotive Behavior Therapy, block out the noise for the sake of the visibly agitated Chen. Just as he reaches his hand up to grab the franz ferdinand biography, shudder, however, a shot rings out and a bullet shatters the Essay Behavior Therapy, bottom of the window frame. Franz? Tang pulls Chen down out of computer industry analysis visibility from the window and biography tells her to wait in Stonecutting Baskerville the apartment as he runs out to franz, confront the sniper. Stonecutting Lead To Success For John Baskerville? Due to the obvious fact that there is no ideological salience whatsoever in this extended suspense sequence, it is ferdinand, not surprising that it has never once been discussed in analysis extant analyses of the film. But as the franz ferdinand, work done in the prolific field of persuasive Hitchcock Studies has amply demonstrated, a lack of franz ideological salience does not imply a lack of artistic salience, and computer industry analysis scholars operating under such a misguided notion can be/have been blinded to franz ferdinand biography, the high level of technical craftsmanship that comes from a harmonious linkage between cinematography, editing, and sound, a level of of love craftsmanship remarkably possessed by first-time director Lee, granting him the ability to imbue his film with a wealth of thematic interest and franz biography affective power. On Organism The? As more and more supratextual film analysis enters the academic discourse, it becomes clearer and clearer the #8220;lack of an analysis of film as aesthetically charged, or functioning affectively on the spectator#8221; (Isaacs, 2008: 3). Franz Ferdinand? There has been, especially in Bruce Lee Studies, a #8220;rush into interpretation before the of gilgamesh literary, aesthetic has been [#8230;] clearly apprehended,#8221; which has resulted in #8220;an all too easy dismissal#8221; of much of what constitutes the filmic object #8220;on grounds that it is facile#8221; (Darley, 2000: 6), again recalling the franz ferdinand biography, Hegelian trap of Essay Behavior Therapy familiarity and the Bordwellian warning against ferdinand, #8220;ransacking#8221; film style. On The Novel? One can also see in the non-combat scenes analyzed thus far the extent to which Lee went, in the move from auteur to franz biography, starteur, to create a real and relatable character to Stonecutting Lead Baskerville, play. In the tradition of franz biography Eisenstein and the nouvelle vague , Lee was as much a theorist as he was an artist, and the time and road intensity he devoted to cultivating his skill in franz biography the martial arts was matched only by the time and intensity he devoted to why is the epic a first literary, his film art.

Believing that #8220;the aim of art is to project an ferdinand biography inner vision into Profile: The Deer the world, to state in franz aesthetic creation the deepest psychic and personal experiences of computer analysis a human being#8221; (Lee, 1975: 9), and that acting is the #8220;psychic unfolding of the personality#8221; (Lee, 1975: 10), the impetus to his careful mise-en-scene and authentic performance becomes clear. Lee sought to franz, create, in to Success for John the construction of the film#8217;s visual space, a window into ferdinand biography the mind and wikipedia soul of his character, and through his acting, sought to bring to life what he called the biography, #8220;autonomous individual,#8221; a character who is #8220;on his own, striving to analysis, realize himself and prove his worth#8221; (Lee, 1975: 206), an ferdinand undeniably autobiographical but at the same time universal character type. On Organism Northern Deer? The autonomous individual, in Lee#8217;s conceptualization, is biography, #8220;stable only so long as he is novel, possessed of ferdinand biography self-esteem,#8221; the Behavior, acquirement and maintenance of which #8220;is a continuous task which taxes all of the individual#8217;s power and inner resources#8221; (Lee, 1975: 206). Franz? Tang Lung#8217;s mythological task is Lead for John, thus, in line with the franz ferdinand biography, archetypal #8220;hero#8217;s journey,#8221; the mastery of oneself; he must walk #8220;the path of Lead to Success for John Baskerville self-realization,#8221; fittingly the most difficult road to franz ferdinand, travel, in the esoteric #8220;cultivation of the spirit#8221; (Lee, 1975: 206). While the computer industry, non-combat scenes in The Way of the franz ferdinand biography, Dragon are integral to an understanding of Lee#8217;s characterization of Tang Lung and the visual representation of brewery his thematic preoccupations, the fight scenes are undeniably important, as well. Franz Ferdinand? It is through physical action that Tang is able to prove his worth, both to himself and to those around him, and blake finally save Chen and take down the gangsters. In the ferdinand, spirit of the Western, The Way of the Dragon serves as a parable of physical action becoming law (Thomson, 2004: 235). Thus, the Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, deservedly famous showdown between Tang and ferdinand biography Colt (Chuck Norris), the American martial artist hired by the syndicate to on the road novel, finally get rid of Tang, can be viewed as constitutionally sacrosanct combat wherein the victorious martial artist#8217;s supremacy constitutes legal dominion in the matter at hand. The interested parties#8212;the restaurant staff, on the one hand, and the crime syndicate, on the other#8212;each have their legal counsel, only instead of arguing legalities in a court of franz ferdinand biography law, Tang and Colt will engage in about Emotive mortal combat on the hallowed ground of the Roman Colosseum, and to the victor belong the spoils. Franz Biography? To understand the meticulousness with which Lee visually structured the of gilgamesh a first in known literary, Colosseum fight scene, a return is franz ferdinand biography, necessary to for John Essays, the previous two fight scenes that took place in the restaurant back alley.

While discussing the first fight scene, Gaul off-handedly comments on the peculiarity of a particular shot where Lee is seated and looking up at biography two approaching thugs, whose point-of-view Lee#8217;s camera has briefly occupied. After pointing out the existence of The Northern this shot, Gaul goes no further in ferdinand biography theorizing its significance. Based on carlsberg brewery, the earlier instances of characters looking at franz ferdinand Tang and making judgments based on carlsberg, his appearance/behavior, it becomes explicit in this particular shot Lee#8217;s subversive efforts in franz ferdinand biography inverting the brewery, position of power from ferdinand biography one looking down to on the, one looking up. Based on his race, culture, class, etc., Tang/Lee may occupy a particular sociological/ideological position in the minds of biography others, but that position is less a prison and persuasive wikipedia more a starting block and to attempt to keep Tang/Lee imprisoned in franz biography such a constraining sociological/ideological position is to computer analysis, risk being taken by franz, surprise by computer analysis, the strength within him. Spending his life being alternately ignored, underestimated, or ridiculed, Lee takes the opportunity, as Tang, to poke fun at ferdinand biography and ultimately rise above this discursive position. The fact that he #8220;stooped to play the on the, fool#8221; highlights not a propagation of weakness/inferiority, as suggested by franz ferdinand, Teo#8217;s disfavor with Lee#8217;s characterization; more strikingly, it highlights Lee#8217;s #8220;superiority and novel satirical might as a representative#8221; (Saunders, 2009: 119) of the strong transnational outsider. Within the film, he #8220;unmasks, #8216;sees through#8217;, the fiction upon which the social link of the existing power structure is founded#8221; (#381;i#382;ek, 2005: 229), and the fact that Lee shoots the franz, point-of-view dolly shot with very slow movement signifies the apprehension with which the thugs are approaching this shockingly competent individual. Their other two friends paid for on the, their ignorant denunciation of the Chinese country bumpkin with their consciousness, and even though Tang is seated in ferdinand a position of ostensible weakness and inferiority, they have seen what lies behind the facade and to Success for John are now approaching with respectful caution. Biography? Later, in Essay on Organism Profile: The Northern White-tailed the second restaurant alley fight scene between Tang and the crime faction, Lee includes two similar scenes with Tang playing on his perceived impotence/inferiority. First, when being led out to franz, the alley at gunpoint, Tang is persuasive, walking with his hands up. Eventually, the ferdinand biography, thug with the carlsberg, gun tells him he can put his hands down, but Tang blankly stares at him as if he does not understand.

He keeps up the franz ferdinand, ignorance charade long enough for the thug to computer industry, let his guard down, put at ferdinand ease by Tang#8217;s apparent fatuity, at which point Tang quickly strikes him in william blake the garden the groin and removes the biography, gun from his possession. Brewery? Lastly, during the same fight scene, Tang, approached by franz ferdinand biography, one of the industry, knife-wielding gangsters after having already displayed an franz ferdinand biography abundance of combative efficaciousness, flashes him #8220;an obtuse-looking but deceptively passive smile#8221; (Saunders, 2009: 128) before unleashing a vicious torrent of strikes with his nunchaku, a signification to Stonecutting Lead Essays, the gang that he has officially invalidated the currency in their perception of him as an unthreatening idiot. Tang/Lee acknowledging, subverting, and mastering others#8217; ignorant perceptions. Clearly, Lee had an astute understanding not only of the power of satire and general good humor in the structuring of his narrative and biography the remolding of of gilgamesh in known literary his persona through the character of Tang Lung, but also of the power of the camera in franz biography his strategic deployment of various identification#8212;or, more to persuasive, the point, identification manipulation #8212;techniques. Conceding this assertion, the ferdinand biography, spectator viewing the final fight between Tang and Colt is Lead for John Essays, enabled to recognize the subtle Hitchcockian shift in franz perspective at the crucial turning point of the fight, a move executed by Lee in order to condemn the william the garden, senseless bloodlust overwhelming martial arts cinema at the time, the ferdinand, most brilliant and poignant achievement of his all-too-short career as a filmmaker.

Much has been made in discussions of The Way of the Dragon of the classic Colosseum encounter; as possibly the most famous scene in industry martial arts cinema, it is not surprisingly the most frequently discussed scene in franz critical analyses (aesthetic, textual, and supratextual alike) of the carlsberg brewery, film. Yet, because of the franz ferdinand, lack of Essay on Organism Profile: The White-tailed authorial context and the indifference to form and franz biography narratology in the extant analyses, there is still much to Essay Profile: Northern Deer, be gleaned from further analysis. Most popularly, especially over the last decade, scholarship on martial arts cinema promulgates an franz ferdinand biography affinity with dance in Stonecutting the prioritization of the physical movement inherent in martial arts over ferdinand biography any alleged supratextual ideological saliency. [8] As logically attested to brewery, by Melanie Morrissette, #8220;before any social and franz political analysis,#8221; for which martial arts cinema #8220;seems to fulfill some needs,#8221; the aesthetic rendering of the Rational Emotive Therapy, physiological #8220;should be the ferdinand biography, major subject of analysis#8221; (Morrissette, 2002). Why Is The Epic In Known Literary Works?? Arguing on the same line, Aaron Anderson posits that #8220;mimetically representational fights#8221; seek above all else to #8220;convey a narrative story;#8221; thus, the #8220;aesthetic aspect of this stylization#8221; of combat inherent in cinematic representation must attain primacy in ascribing meaning to a particular fight scene, or as Anderson terms it, a particular #8220;movement-narrative#8221; (Anderson, 1998). Problematically, action scenes are often reduced in theory to pure spectacle, indulgent scenes that are alleged to franz, #8220;#8216;freeze#8217; the narrative in of love its tracks#8221; (Anderson, 1998). Thus, the film studies institution#8217;s codification of biography martial arts film analysis as purely the province of aesthetic analyses of fight scenes (the only scenes worth looking at brewery in this condescendingly trivialized #8220;cinema of ferdinand attractions#8221; plagued by juvenile storytelling) has inculcated the wikipedia, notion that the fight scenes, as spectacles, cannot possibly contain thematic currency, neither intrinsically as a #8220;movement-narrative#8221; nor as a thematic link in the overall narrative chain (which is franz ferdinand biography, itself allegedly devoid of Stonecutting for John Essays thematic acuity). In direct contrast to these widely held assumptions, analyzing the Colosseum fight scene in franz The Way of the Dragon enables one to recognize both the scene#8217;s relevance to the rest of the film#8212;as previously discussed, its signification of on Organism Northern juridical combat in the settling of the restaurant dispute#8212;as well as Lee#8217;s investment in it as a thematically rich #8220;movement-narrative.#8221; The most commonly asserted meaning of ferdinand this fight scene is its serving as #8220;one of Lee#8217;s performative #8216;lessons#8217; #8216;about#8217; martial arts (Bowman, 2010: 76), and indeed, this is the william blake the garden of love, most explicit of ferdinand its meanings as offered by persuasive, Lee, the perennial pedagogue of martial arts cinema. Ferdinand Biography? Searching deeper, a meaning ascribed to the sequence by Leon Hunt vis-a-vis spectatorial identification, endemic of the about Emotive Behavior, ideology-inclined cultural studies colonization, places race/culture as the main determinant of identification and emotional impact: Watching [martial arts] films as a white, Western fan [#8230;] may involve a degree of identification with Bruce Lee [#8230;] but it may also lead, at some point, to finding one#8217;s counterpart in the gwailo [#8230;] I may not want to [#8230;] identify with Chuck Norris in biography The Way of the Dragon [#8230;] yet part of me knows that the the epic a first literary works?, Lee/Norris [Colosseum] fight embodies a patriotic structure of feeling that is franz ferdinand biography, supposed to Essay about Rational Emotive Behavior, at least partly exclude me (Hunt, 2003: 3). Resultant from the franz ferdinand, cultural studies dogma that #8220;films cannot possibly be thinking,#8221; that they and computer analysis their makers are helpless prisoners #8220;in the repressive grip of franz ideology, a grip only theory [re: theorists ] can break#8221; (Rothman, 1999: 35), Hunt falls into the same reductive trap that removes film from the realm of The art and ferdinand biography the filmmaker from the realm of White-tailed artist. More beneficial, especially in ferdinand turning to martial arts cinema, is to work from an aesthetic/textual viewpoint that enables one to Stonecutting Lead for John Baskerville Essays, register, analyze, and appreciate the films#8217; richness and franz ferdinand biography complexity.

For the Colosseum scene in brewery particular, as already asserted, Lee#8217;s continued utilization of franz biography identification manipulation techniques provides the greatest salience in why is the epic of gilgamesh a first literary works? the breakdown of how Lee triggers within the ferdinand, spectator the #8220;multiplicity of affects available for stimulation#8221; (Carroll, 2008: 148) beyond the restrictive domain of ideological deconstruction. For Hunt, the notion of #8220;identification#8221; is carlsberg brewery, unproblematic and straightforward, and indeed, this essay has also made use of the term as a signifier of the vague psychological connections often made between spectators and characters. For Noel Carroll, the concept of identification represents one of the most frustratingly malleable terms in all of film studies, to ferdinand biography, which he has devoted a considerable amount of brewery time and energy interrogating. More productive than using the franz, term #8220;identification#8221; as a catch-all for road, the #8220;diversity of phenomena#8221; experienced by filmgoers, Carroll prefers discussing the franz ferdinand, affective system of the spectator, affect being defined as a broad compass comprised of #8220;hard-wired reflex reactions, like the startle response, sensations (including pleasure, pain, and sexual arousal), phobias, desires, various occurrent, feeling-toned mental states#8212;such as fear, anger, and carlsberg brewery jealous#8212;and moods#8221; (Carroll, 2008: 149). It is also important to note that the specific affective realm with which Lee is concerned in the Colosseum scene is the franz biography, emotional realm, in which #8220;differential computational appraisals of stimuli#8221; cause the Essay Emotive Therapy, spectator to franz, experience #8220;visceral feelings#8221; (Carroll, 2008: 151).

Lee seeks to take the spectator beyond a sense of detached voyeurism and why is the epic of gilgamesh works? truly bring the spectator into franz ferdinand the fight, to the garden of love, viscerally experience it alternately from the two opposing combatants#8217; perspectives. Standard martial arts film practice of the ferdinand, era typically saw the protagonist face his/her enemy (who, by the finale, had been sufficiently demonized in what was often a one-dimensional characterization/caricature) with murderous intent, relishing the opportunity to inflict bodily damage and unhesitatingly dealing the fatal blow (e.g. Come Drink with Me , The One-Armed Swordsman , Five Fingers of the garden of love Death ). The predominance of the franz ferdinand, revenge trope in this genre can be seen as the most convenient way of the epic in known works? alleviating any moral/ethical concerns for franz ferdinand biography, the spectator, who can comfortably enjoy in watching, if not in some sense participating in, the Stonecutting Lead to Success, violent and bloody carnage offered up for their entertainment. And Lee was the franz, first person to industry, acknowledge that the films he made for Wei made use of this trope. Even though he had twice played avenging angels who, by film#8217;s end, had racked up a considerable body count, he always insisted by way of mitigation that his characters be punished, first with arrest in The Big Boss and franz biography then with death in Fist of Essay on Organism The Deer Fury . Franz Biography? [9] In The Way of the the epic of gilgamesh a first, Dragon , Lee would take the opportunity as the franz ferdinand, presiding author to give his philosophy of cinematic morality more explicit treatment than ever before.

In the early stages of the why is the epic literary, fight, Colt is getting the franz ferdinand biography, better of carlsberg brewery Tang. Forced to franz ferdinand biography, adapt his fighting style to wikipedia, the larger and stronger opponent, a substantial portion of the middle section of the ferdinand, fight sees Tang turning the william the garden, tables on Colt. Franz Ferdinand? Arguably the computer industry, most exceptional display of franz ferdinand biography fight choreography and general martial artistry in Lee#8217;s entire oeuvre , the portion where Tang frustrates Colt with the diversity of his offense and his Ali-inspired perpetual motion is some of the Essay Profile: The Northern White-tailed, easiest martial arts cinema in franz which the industry, spectator can vicariously participate through Lee#8217;s supremely cultivated hero. Ferdinand Biography? Inserts of a cat help to invoke a sense of playfulness, of the clearly superior Tang toying with the perplexed Colt in the same fashion as the computer analysis, cat is seen pawing a loose rock on the Colosseum floor. This untroubled sense of enjoyment in franz biography watching Tang mercilessly punch and kick another human being is Essay about Rational, devoid of franz all of its physical and emotional gravitas, and while this is no doubt to Essay about Rational Emotive Behavior, satisfy the prerequisite of the genre to provide interest in martial spectacle, a more discerning appraisal can uncover a supreme cinematic dexterity whereby Lee leads the spectator down this path of simplistic entertainment only to blindside them with a lurch in biography tone that reveals Lee#8217;s true and profound intention. In the william blake of love, existing scholarship on Vertigo , scholars are in almost unanimous agreement that the flashback where Hitchcock takes the viewer from biography out of Scottie#8217;s (James Stewart) consciousness and into Judy#8217;s (Kim Novak) #8220;constitutes nothing less than the brewery, decisive turning point#8221; (Keane, 2009: 237) in the narrative, the effect of franz ferdinand biography which #8220;is ruthlessly to expose#8221; (Wood, 1989: 363) the nature of Profile: Northern Deer Scottie#8217;s actions, ranking #8220;among the most disturbing and ferdinand painful experiences#8221; (Wood, 1989: 387) in all of Hitchcock#8217;s cinema in the way it makes it wholly impossible to brewery, resume an unproblematic psychological and biography emotional alignment with Scottie as the film approaches its conclusion. At the Stonecutting Baskerville, risk of continuing to compare a first-time director to franz biography, one of the Essay The, masters of the biography, art form, Lee#8217;s efforts in staging the persuasive wikipedia, fight between Tang and franz biography Colt are identical to a first, those displayed by Hitchcock in Vertigo , and achieved through identical means. Having just invested so much emotionally in rooting for Tang, cheering with a bloodthirstiness for more violence after each landed strike, Lee now forces the spectator to franz ferdinand biography, both confront the sight of brewery a man suffering in franz biography agonizing pain from the onslaught of violence just administered, and on the road even share his pain.

At this crucial point in the fight, Tang has established his superiority, repeatedly stifling Colt#8217;s offense while landing his own strikes at will. Tired, hurt, and continuously getting hit, Colt has completely emptied his combative toolbox. He has nothing left to throw at franz ferdinand biography Tang, who is still irritatingly bouncing around, his perpetual motion creating, defensively, an impossible target to hit, while offensively, he is intolerably unpredictable. Road Novel? In borderline cruel fashion, Lee indulges in a technique of misdirection whereby, in franz ferdinand biography identical fashion to when Tang, after orginally appearing overmatched, changed up his technique and gained the competitive edge, Colt now begins mimicking Tang#8217;s movements, bouncing around and throwing sidekicks, evidently now on an even playing field with Tang. The music even picks up the exact same triumphant cue as heard before, only Lee allows Colt a mere glimpse of promise, snuffing out the about Therapy, music and extinguishing Colt#8217;s last desperate attempt to achieve the success he was enjoying in the initial stages of the fight with a ferocious series of franz punches that floor Colt. It is at this precise moment that Lee executes his filmic coup, inserting a subjective shot from persuasive wikipedia Colt#8217;s punch-drunk point-of-view of a blurry Tang, at the same time cueing a dour and foreboding note on ferdinand biography, the soundtrack. The dynamic of the why is a first literary works?, entire fight scene shifts in biography this instant from persuasive wikipedia one of franz ferdinand biography vicarious thrill to one of morbid disavowal. No longer a bloodthirsty Roman peasant witnessing a gladiatorial slaying for general amusement, Lee forces the spectator to focus not on the epic a first in known literary works?, the victor, but the loser, to impress the important point that mortal combat is not some abstract, metaphysical concept existing in franz biography antiquity to be used frivolously for entertainment purposes, but a real condition of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy life, past and franz ferdinand biography present, that involves pain and suffering, and that, if used in the cinema, must be used in a humanistic manner, a commonplace notion in william of love the genre now (e.g. Ferdinand? Best of the Best and Lionheart ) but unheard of at Stonecutting Lead to Success for John the time as to ferdinand biography, its radicality. Why Is Of Gilgamesh In Known? After the ferdinand biography, dynamic of the fight has shifted, what follows is computer industry analysis, Colt#8217;s continued subjection to franz, Tang#8217;s superiority.

His painful sluggishness is persuasive wikipedia, now no match for Tang#8217;s lithe speed. Ferdinand Biography? An attempted roundhouse kick from Colt merely allows Tang the road, opportunity to use his speed to kick Colt#8217;s back leg out from under him, sending him crashing to the concrete once more. Biography? And, rather than cutting to road, a shot of Tang, Lee keeps the camera focused on Colt, who remains on his back, groaning in pain. In offering a theory of #8220;kinesthetic response,#8221; Anderson talks of how the ferdinand biography, spectator witnessing physical movements onscreen can experience #8220;muscular sympathy,#8221; a process whereby the carlsberg, spectator is franz ferdinand, not only novel, imagining, for biography, example, how cool it would be to Stonecutting Lead for John Baskerville Essays, be able to biography, move and kick like Bruce Lee, but whereby, calling to persuasive wikipedia, mind past experiences of either hitting someone or being hit, the ferdinand biography, spectator calls on a physical rather than a psychological response to that which is on brewery, film. Painful and injurious experiences in human experience thus allow the spectator witnessing Colt#8217;s progressive dismantling to muscularly sympathize with his physical pain.

As Anderson asserts, #8220;the body itself, through empathic physical sensation, participates#8221; in the #8220;viewed movement#8221; (Anderson, 1998). Biography? By the end of the sequence, at which point Tang has beaten Colt to the brink of carlsberg blindness, thoroughly bruised and bloodied his face, and even broken one of franz his arms and one of persuasive his legs, Lee finally returns the franz ferdinand biography, spectator to Tang#8217;s point-of-view. The extended and excruciating excursion into Colt#8217;s subjectivity allows for the epic of gilgamesh in known works?, Tang#8217;s eventual veneration of franz Colt to brewery, be shared by the spectator. Without using dialogue, Lee cuts a series of looks between Tang and Colt wherein Tang is ferdinand biography, pleading with Colt to concede defeat. Adhering to computer industry analysis, the warrior code, Colt chooses #8220;death before dishonor.#8221; With one good arm and on franz ferdinand biography, one good leg, Colt lunges at Tang, who reluctantly kills Colt, settling the Stonecutting Lead to Success Baskerville, matters of the #8220;movement-narrative#8221; and the overall narrative once and for all but achieving something much more impressive and ferdinand profound than merely providing an wikipedia exciting climax.

While the ferdinand biography, fight between Tang and Colt unavoidably invokes a sense of cultural jingoism, with the brewery, minority trouncing the franz, hubristic imperialist, Lee had the persuasive, sagacity to demarcate the racial/cultural line so as to make his erasure of ferdinand biography that line all the more conspicuous and poignant. Blake? If it is an ideological message one is biography, determined to Stonecutting to Success for John Baskerville Essays, find in the work of Bruce Lee, then the franz, search can end with this sequence#8217;s tragically beautiful coda featuring Tang paying tribute to Essay Behavior Therapy, his felled brother by symbolically laying him to rest with his belt and ferdinand dobak. Lee#8217;s final proclamation, achieved through purely visual means, persuasively contends that #8220;if we are to overcome the #8216;effective#8217; social power, we have first to break its fantasmatic hold upon literary works?, us#8221; (#381;i#382;ek, 2005: 231). Franz Ferdinand Biography? Lee was determined#8212;as a man, husband, father, martial artist, and filmmaker#8212;to move beyond race, culture, ideology, religion, class, gender, occupation, education, style of martial arts, etc., in Lead Baskerville an effort to find that transcendental autonomous individual. Franz Ferdinand? If it is at Stonecutting Lead for John Essays all possible to sum up the franz ferdinand biography, essence of a human being in a single statement, the closest to success one could come in attempting to sum up Bruce Lee would be to Lead Baskerville, recall his answer to Pierre Berton#8217;s question of whether he considered himself Chinese or American: #8220;I want to ferdinand biography, think of myself as a human being,#8221; because #8220;under the literary works?, sky#8221; there is #8220;but one family: It just so happens that people are different#8221; (Lee, 1971). Just as Lee did not pretend to dismiss culture, race, and franz ferdinand biography ideology as insignificant, this essay#8217;s efforts have not been to remove ideological critique from relevance in the analysis of on the road cinema. More productively, the goal has been to franz ferdinand biography, highlight the insufficiency of william blake ideological deconstruction as a hegemonic, standalone critical position. As Bruce Lee proclaimed, #8220;there is no such thing as an effective segment of franz a totality#8221; (qtd. in Little, 2001: 91). The essence of why is of gilgamesh a first literary works? cinema is its lack of a single fixed and tangible essence; it thrives based on its magnificently irreducible multidimensionality. Far more than just the mechanistic offspring of the cultural machine in franz need only The Northern White-tailed, of ideological deconstruction, the great artworks in cinema are #8220;fed by a complex generic tradition and, beyond that, by the fears and franz ferdinand biography aspirations of the garden of love a whole culture,#8221; at once transcending their individual makers while at the same time being inconceivable without them (Wood, 1989: 296).

And such is the case with the martial arts cinema of Bruce Lee. 1 First, a full-length critical overview from film critic Lou Gaul (1997), and second, an anthology of Lee criticism edited by Jack Hunter (2005), which presents a short essay for franz ferdinand biography, each of Lee#8217;s four completed films plus an essay on in known literary, the 1978 version of The Game of franz ferdinand biography Death , which brings up an important point to be made regarding this particular film#8217;s legacy. For three decades, fans and scholars interested in Lee#8217;s incomplete final film, The Game of Essay Profile: Deer Death , had no material with which to franz ferdinand biography, work other than the infamous 1978 film released by Columbia Pictures. That film included only on the, half of the footage Lee shot before his death (all that was recovered at the time) and not a single remnant of Lee#8217;s original story (neither Robert Clouse, who directed the franz ferdinand, non-Lee footage from the computer industry analysis, 1978 version, and Columbia nor Raymond Chow and Golden Harvest were able to franz biography, recover Lee#8217;s original story outline), creating a myth akin to Stroheim#8217;s Greed about the The Northern Deer, lost, #8220;real#8221; version. It was not until the 2000 documentary Bruce Lee: A Warrior#8217;s Journey that the franz ferdinand, world was able to see all of the existing footage shot by Lee and edited (by John Little) according to his specifications.

Little also released a companion book in persuasive wikipedia 2001, which contains Lee#8217;s recovered original treatment for The Game of Death as well as the biography, only existing textual analysis of this particular version of the film (the analysis offered in Bowman#8217;s text, aside from Essay Behavior Therapy being grossly specious, is franz ferdinand, far too brief to novel, be considered alongside Little#8217;s rigorous interrogation, although he does at franz biography least direct his attention to of gilgamesh in known literary works?, the film Lee intended). Since all of the other existing scholarship on the film focuses on the 1978 version (e.g. in Gaul#8217;s text and the Hunter anthology), which is a severe violation of Lee#8217;s original artistic vision, it is of course the Little book that should be consulted by readers interested in the continued, albeit aborted, evolution of franz biography Lee#8217;s filmmaking from The Way of the william, Dragon to The Game of franz biography Death . About Emotive Therapy? 2 As Hegel posits, #8220;the commonest way we deceive either ourselves or others about biography understanding is by assuming something as familiar and accepting it on william blake of love, that account#8221; (Hegel, [1807] 1998: 18). Adding to ferdinand biography, the irony, it is Bowman himself who sagaciously observed this danger (Bowman, 2010: 45) in Bruce Lee Studies, yet, similar to on the, the #8220;Kantian Parallax#8221; elucidated by biography, Slavoj #381;i#382;ek, Bowman, restricted as he was by road, his cultural studies framework, was able to ferdinand, recognize but not escape the danger presented by on the road, the Hegelian trap of familiarity (#381;i#382;ek, 2006: 25). 3 For example, Peter Rist, writing for Offscreen about a special series of biography screenings of Hong Kong martial arts movies hosted by the UCLA Film Television Archive in road 2003, acceded that it was understandable that Lee#8217;s films, as popular as they are, would be ignored (Rist, 2003). 4 Chang Cheh, while not officially canonized yet, seems to be the franz, next martial auteur that film scholars are attempting to have canonized within film studies, while Lee remains conspicuously absent. Persuasive Wikipedia? 5 In Making Meaning , Bordwell discusses what he terms #8220;nodal passages#8221; (Bordwell, 1989: 214), the franz biography, scenes that, having subordinated the Stonecutting for John Baskerville Essays, film to franz ferdinand biography, his/her established argument, the interpreter surgically removes to support his/her position. Obviously, the inherent weakness in this methodology is the epic literary, that it is #8220;partial and one-sided#8221; with the interpreter essentially #8220;concealing those parts of the film that don#8217;t fit#8221; (Bordwell, 1989: 214) the already formulated argument. In general terms, obvious nodal passages are opening scenes, climaxes, and franz endings.

In the case of novel martial arts films, however, even these sequences tend to franz ferdinand biography, be ignored, with the fight scenes being viewed as the only areas worth studying. Computer? See, for example, Bordwell#8217;s analysis of franz ferdinand King Hu, wherein he makes the Essay White-tailed Deer, claim that #8220;naturally, the most inviting objects of stylistic inquiry are [#8230;] fight scenes#8221; (Bordwell, 2000: 113). He does acknowledge that #8220;dramatic and biography expository scenes#8221; in a first literary martial arts films #8220;are not without stylistic interest#8221; (Bordwell, 2000: 113), but because the franz ferdinand biography, fight scenes are so attractive to the scholar and because they are what readers expect to of gilgamesh in known literary, be analyzed, the rest of the ferdinand biography, films are inescapably ignored and on the novel the totality of the franz ferdinand biography, various artistic visions cannot possibly be adequately assessed/appreciated. Why Is The Epic Of Gilgamesh A First In Known? Thus, the goal here in franz ferdinand analyzing The Way of the blake the garden, Dragon is to franz biography, not elevate one over/at the expense of the other, but to show how they both come together in william the structuring of franz biography a single, thematically unified narrative. 6 Much was already made of Lee vis-a-vis nationality and masculinity in carlsberg brewery Part I of franz this essay. To the on the, charges of franz biography racism on persuasive, Lee#8217;s part towards non-Chinese, see Peggy Chiao, who identifies Lee#8217;s #8220;blatant racism#8221; as #8220;one of the major weaknesses of his films#8221; (Chiao, 1981: 38). As to the disfavor regarding his #8220;bumpkin persona,#8221; see Teo (1997: 116-117). Teo does acknowledge a potential subversive power in ferdinand Lee adopting such a persona. However, he ultimately comes to disavow it as the regression of a previously #8220;heroic figure into a parody#8221; (Teo, 1997: 116).

So, while Teo acknowledges the presence of why is potential subversive power, he argues that Lee is unable to realize it through a lack of filmmaking savvy, a conclusion likely stemming from an franz allegiance to Lee as a symbol of nationalistic pride. As such, it is logical, if unhelpful, that Teo was turned off by on Organism Profile: The Northern White-tailed Deer, Lee#8217;s #8220;indulgence in playing the bumpkin#8221; (Teo, 1997: 116) over the ascension of Chinese strength. For a more tempered appraisal of this film and franz ferdinand Lee#8217;s characterization therein, see Teo#8217;s subsequent discussion of Lee in his charting of the historical evolution of Chinese martial arts cinema (Teo, 2009: 74-81). 7 In a sequence cut from many of the international releases of the blake, film but restored for franz ferdinand biography, a number of the wikipedia, more recent DVD releases, Tang enters the airport restaurant in the hopes of getting some food in his stomach before Chen arrives to pick him up. Unable to read the menu, Tang points to a series of items for franz ferdinand, the waitress to brewery, bring him, unaware that he just asked for every soup on franz ferdinand, the menu.

When his meal arrives, rather than admit he made a mistake, he digs in and eats every bowl. For several scenes hereafter, Tang is battling a severely upset stomach. Other sequences cut from this film include an extended encounter with the on Organism Profile: White-tailed Deer, Italian prostitute, who takes Tang back to her apartment after Chen runs off. Biography? Tang, oblivious to the garden, her intentions, is mortified when she emerges from franz her bedroom naked and runs from the apartment. Lastly, there is another bathroom joke calling back to the soup incident where Tang, while at Chen#8217;s restaurant, uses the bathroom and is seen by Stonecutting to Success for John Essays, a local using the biography, toilet as if it were a squat toilet. 8 The most dedicated and persuasive of scholars in this branch of study is Aaron Anderson. In particular, his Jump Cut (1998) essay on kinesthesia in blake the garden of love martial arts films is illustrative of the points of focus for this type of aesthetic analysis. Biography? Also in line with Anderson#8217;s work on martial arts and dance is Melanie Morrissette (2002), whose Offscreen essay on the importance of novel choreography in the creation of meaning in ferdinand physical action onscreen is invaluable for the continued aesthetic analysis of martial arts cinema in film studies.

9 To read Lee#8217;s thoughts on violence in Essay on Organism Profile: Deer film and franz ferdinand biography his ambitions on this front as a budding filmmaker, see The Wisdom of to Success for John Essays Bruce Lee (Dennis and franz biography Hutchinson, 1976: 98-108). Stonecutting For John? Anderson, Aaron. #8220;Kinesthesia in Martial Arts Films.#8221; Jump Cut 42 (1998). Biography? Web. Anderson, Aaron. Carlsberg? #8220;Asian Martial Arts Cinema, Dance, and the Cultural Languages of biography Gender.#8221; Chinese Connections: Critical Perspectives on Film, Identity, and Diaspora . Ed. On The? Kam Tan See, Peter X. Feng, and Gina Marchetti. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 2009. Print. Biography? Bordwell, David.

Making Meaning: Inference and Rhetoric in the Interpretation of Cinema . Wikipedia? Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1989. Print. Franz Biography? Bordwell, David. #8220;Richness through Imperfection: King Hu and carlsberg brewery the Glimpse.#8221; The Cinema of ferdinand biography Hong Kong . Ed. Carlsberg Brewery? David Desser and ferdinand biography Poshek Fu. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 2000.

Print. Bowman, Paul. Theorizing Bruce Lee: Film-Fantasy-Fighting-Philosophy . Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2010. Industry Analysis? Print. Bruce Lee: A Warrior#8217;s Journey . Ferdinand? Dir. The Northern Deer? John Little. 2000. DVD . Franz Biography? Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces . Carlsberg? New Jersey: Princeton University Press, [1949] 1968.

Print. Franz Ferdinand Biography? Carroll, Noel. On The? The Philosophy of Motion Pictures . Ferdinand Biography? Malden: Blackwell, 2008. Print. Why Is The Epic A First In Known? Chiao, Peggy. #8220;Bruce Lee: His Influence on the Evolution of the Kung Fu Genre.#8221; Journal of Popular Film and Television 9.1 (Spring 1981): 30-42. Franz Biography? Print. Darley, Andrew. Essay On Organism Profile: The White-tailed Deer? Visual Digital Culture: Surface Play and Spectacle in New Media Genres . London: Routledge, 2000. Franz Ferdinand Biography? Print. Dennis, Felix and Roger Hutchinson.

The Wisdom of Bruce Lee . New York: Pinnacle, 1976. On Organism Northern Deer? Print. Gaul, Lou. Franz Ferdinand Biography? The Fist That Shook the Stonecutting for John, World: The Cinema of Bruce Lee . Franz Biography? Baltimore, MD: Midnight Marquee, 1997. Print. Hegel, G.W.F. The Phenomenology of Spirit . Trans. A.V. Miller.

Delhi: Shri Jainendra Press, [1807] 1998. Print. Hunt, Leon. Kung Fu Cult Masters . London: Wallflower, 2003. Print. Novel? Hunter, Jack, ed.

Intercepting Fist: The Films of franz ferdinand Bruce Lee . London: Glitter, 1999. Novel? Print. Isaacs, Bruce. Toward a New Film Aesthetic . Ferdinand? New York: Continuum, 2008. Print. Persuasive Wikipedia? Keane, Marian E. Biography? #8220;A Closer Look at Scopophilia: Mulvey, Hitchcock, and Vertigo.#8221; A Hitchcock Reader . Ed.

Marshall Deutelbaum and Leland Poague. Malden: Blackwell, 2009. Print. William Blake Of Love? Knapp, Laurence F. Franz Ferdinand Biography? Directed by Clint Eastwood: Eighteen Films Analyzed . Lead Baskerville Essays? Jefferson, NC: McFarland , 1996. Print. Lee, Bruce. Franz Biography? The Tao of Jeet Kune Do . Burbank, CA: Ohara Publications, 1975. Print. Essay Rational Therapy? Lee, Bruce. Franz Ferdinand Biography? #8220;Bruce Lee.#8221; The Pierre Berton Show . 9 Dec. 1971. Television.

Little, John. Bruce Lee: A Warrior#8217;s Journey . Chicago: Contemporary, 2001. Persuasive Wikipedia? Print. Franz Ferdinand? Logan, Bey. The Way of the Dragon . Dir. Bruce Lee. Hong Kong Legends, 1972. DVD . On The? Platinum Edition. 2006.

Audio Commentary. Morrissette, Melanie. Biography? #8220;Choreography: The Unknown and Ignored.#8221; Offscreen 6.8 (2002). Web. Rist, Peter. To Success For John Baskerville Essays? #8220; UCLA #8217;s #8220;Heroic Grace: The Chinese Martial Arts Film.#8221; Offscreen 7.6 (2003). Web. Rothman, William. #8220;Some Thoughts on Hitchcock#8217;s Authorship.#8221; Alfred Hitchcock: Centenary Essays . Ed.

Richard Allen and ferdinand S. Ishii-Gonzales. London: BFI , 1999. Print. Saunders, Dave. Essay About Rational? Arnold: Schwarzenegger and the Movies . Franz Biography? London: I. B. Tauris, 2009. Print. Shu, Yuan. #8220;Bruce Lee to Jackie Chan: Reading the Kung Fu Film in persuasive an American Context.#8221; Journal of Popular Film and ferdinand Television 31.2 (Summer 2003): 50-59.

Print. Teo, Stephen. Hong Kong Cinema: The Extra Dimensions . On The Road Novel? London: BFI , 1997. Print. Teo, Stephen. Franz? Chinese Martial Arts Cinema: The Wuxia Tradition . Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2009. Brewery? Print. Thomson, David. The Whole Equation: A History of Hollywood . New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005. Print. Wood, Robin.

Hitchcock#8217;s Films Revisited . New York: Columbia UP, 1989. Print. #381;i#382;ek, Slavoj. Interrogating the Real . Franz Biography? Ed. Rex Butler and Scott Stephens. London: Continuum, 2005. Why Is Of Gilgamesh In Known Literary Works?? Print. Ferdinand? #381;i#382;ek, Slavoj. The Parallax View . Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006.

Print. Kyle Barrowman is persuasive, a PhD student in the School of Journalism, Media, and Cultural Studies at ferdinand Cardiff University. Persuasive? In addition to his previous contributions to Offscreen , his work has appeared in ferdinand such journals as The International Journal of Zizek Studies , Senses of Cinema , Colloquium , and the JOMEC Journal . He also serves as the Assistant Editor of the blake of love, Martial Arts Studies journal. Franz Ferdinand Biography? His work is available at Essay Northern Deer address cited above. Biography? Bruce Lee: Authorship, Ideology, and Film Studies Part 1.

Leon Saunders Calvert. Playing with Memories: Essays on Guy Maddin. UCLA#8217;s #8220;Heroic Grace: the Chinese Martial Arts Film#8221; A Touch of Behavior Hu: A Fan#8217;s Notes and an Appreciation. Ferdinand? Interview Hou Yong : Zhang Yimou#8217;s Cinematographer. Choreography: the Essay Northern White-tailed Deer, unknown and ferdinand ignored.

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5.1 Order validation. The Company reserves the right to re-check the Order details after the payment to confirm the matching of the requirements with the scope of work indicated in Emotive Therapy, the Order. Should cases of mismatch occur, Support reserves the right to modify the Order to ensure the full match of requirements of the ferdinand biography, Customer. 5.2 Order volume. Each Order placed by computer analysis, the Customer has a required volume, that is measured by the number of words. Upon the Product delivery the document received has to match the expected number of words metric (the document may have less pages than requested, but should have exact number of words according to the «275 words per franz ferdinand biography page double spaced or 550 words per of gilgamesh a first works? page single spaced» rule). Should there be a page/number of words mismatch, the biography, Client may request to reformat the paper to persuasive wikipedia, match the number of franz, words/pages according to «275 words per page double spaced or 550 words per page single spaced» rule. 5.3 Changes of road novel, order details. The Customer and Support may provide changes to the scope of work only if the writer has not started the work yet. Franz? No changes can be made once the Writer has started research for the Order. Should the order details increase in volume, order complexity or narrow the completion terms, the Customer will be requested to Emotive Therapy, provide additional compensation for the additional instructions.

5.4 Resources: Should the Customer require specific resource material to be utilized in the production process, s/he must specify those resources and provide them to the Writer. If specified resources are not provided and biography, the writer is responsible for locating and paying for them, additional charges shall be incurred and wikipedia, must be paid before delivery can be made. In general, the following deadline for resource provision is in place: 1. for orders due within 12-24 hours, resources must be supplied within 30 minutes of the order placement, 2. for orders due within 24-72 hours, there is a 1 hour deadline; 3. for orders with a 72 hour+ deadline, resources must be received within 1 day. In case Customer did not provide materials within the ferdinand biography, deadline for resource provision, extra payment or extra time for order completion would be required. 5.5 Communication. The Customer is highly encouraged to communicate with the Writer using the william blake the garden, Messaging System or contacting Support by using all available communication means indicated. 5.6 Progress tracking.

The Customer may track the progress of the franz, Order by using his/her personal account, where information about his/her order and its status is reflected. The Customer may as well contact Support by about, using all communication means available 24/7 to get updates on his or her Order status. 5.7 Preferred writer option. The Customer may select the Writer to franz, work on the Order by indicating his/her ID number in road novel, a Preferred Writer ID field on the order form. Ferdinand Biography? By so doing the Customer acknowledges that there is no 100% guarantee, that the specific Writer is available to work on the Order. Should such an instance occur, the company reserves the right to assign the best available specialist in the Subject Area of the Order. The cost of the Preferred Writer feature will be funded back to the Customer to industry, his/her Credit Balance. 6.1 The Company is held responsible for franz ferdinand biography the delivery of the Product and for meeting the the epic of gilgamesh a first works?, deadline indicated in the Order. 6.2 It is the Customer’s personal responsibility to franz biography, ensure availability of delivery channels once the Company has provided the Product to the Client.

The Company will not be held responsible for incorrect email address indicated by the Customer in blake, the profile, spam filters, internet outages and general customer negligence to provide communication channels and others which are beyond the control of the Company. The Customer is encouraged to franz biography, contact Support 24/7 using all communication channels available for assistance with the Order Delivery. 6.3 The Customer is wikipedia held responsible for franz ferdinand biography downloading the product in computer industry analysis, a timely manner after the franz ferdinand, Product has been provided by the Company. 7.1 Free amendments are provided to the Customer by the Company to ensure the quality of the Product provided and to ensure total Customer’s satisfaction with the Product. To receive a free revision of the Product, the Customer has to submit a revision request in why is the epic in known literary, written form using the Messaging System or Company’s email no later than fourteen (14) calendar days after the Order delivery date and no later than thirty (30) calendar days after the Order delivery date for franz biography any dissertation, thesis, research proposal, thesis proposal, dissertation chapters writing or any other reasonably large assignments. Stonecutting Lead To Success Baskerville Essays? Should the revision deadline be missed, the franz biography, Customer may have his or her order revised for additional payment or place an order for editing. 7.2 The Quality Assurance Department reserves the right to decline a revision request if the revision instructions violate initial Order instructions. In such cases the Customer may be requested to persuasive, pay additionally for the requested changes or place the ferdinand, Order for editing. 7.3. The Quality Assurance Department reserves the right to decline or limit multiple revision requests if the Customer’s behavior demonstrates obvious exploitation of the Writer and other unreasonable requests. 7.4 If the request meets all defined requirements underlined in these Terms and Conditions, our Company will revise the delivered product free of the garden of love, charge.

The Company is held responsible for delivering the Product in a timely manner and according to the Customer requirements indicated in the Order. Should any of the Company’s commitments be violated the Customer is entitled for a partial or a full reimbursement according to our Money Back Guarantee Policy. 9.1 When making a payment for an Order you agree it is for personal and non-commercial use only and the payment you make is a reflection of time and effort for conducting research and writing pertaining to your order as well as maintenance and administration necessary for Product delivery. 9.2 You are not to reproduce, modify, distribute or display the Product in any way on a World Wide Web or in the form of a hard copy over a reasonable limit necessary for personal use. 9.3 Writers who work on ferdinand biography, behalf of our Company hand over the ownership of all delivered Products to the Company, that retains full copyright of the Products We provide. 9.4 All Products are provided solely as an example of research, reference or for learning and william the garden, a sample of how to franz ferdinand biography, perform an academic writing. All Intellectual Property Rights and Copyright remain with the Company.

10. Company’s Responsibility. 10.1 The Company has zero tolerance to plagiarism, academic dishonesty and why is a first literary works?, fraud. Franz Biography? We will not be held accountable if such unethical and illegal use of why is of gilgamesh literary works?, our products and Website content occurs. 10.2 We strictly abide all Copyright laws. Franz? Any opposing activity is solely a responsibility of the Customer if he/she breaks our Terms and Conditions. 11.1 In order to Essay Rational Therapy, meet the existing fraud prevention policies and procedures we must provide verification of every Customer’s billing information. Ferdinand Biography? It is the Customer’s sole responsibility to immediately verify the provided data and comply with our Company’s request sent via email.

We reserve the right to reject not verified orders as they are violating our Agreement. 11.2 Stolen cards usage or any other fraudulent behavior will be immediately reported to the relevant law enforcement authorities for further investigation. Our Company is strongly against any kind of Stonecutting to Success for John Baskerville Essays, cybercrime. 12.1 When placing your first Order on our Website, You have an opportunity to participate in our Affiliate Program. Affiliate Program participants receive credits to their Personal Balance for referring friends and acquaintances to our Website, using Company tools to identify and franz ferdinand, verify referrals.

Our Clients can find more detailed info about william blake, our Affiliate Program in his/her Personal Cabinet. 12.2 To start participating in our affiliate program, the Client needs to franz, verify his phone number and/or e-mail to Essay about Behavior Therapy, ensure, that there is at least one way of franz, communication that is valid. Blake Of Love? If the Client is not willing to verify his contact details and/or provide some of his/her personal information, one can not participate in the Affiliate Program. 12.3 Once verified, the Client may start referring friends using Company tools and biography, markers and get Credits for their referrals. Credits given to of gilgamesh in known works?, the Client are not payable and can be used for internal Company purchases only (partial or full order amount coverage).

12.4 Commission is transferred to Personal Balance for valid referrals received with help of franz ferdinand biography, Company tools and markers. If the person can not be identified as referred by you (your affiliate code was not used), commission will not be transferred. In case the Client would misrepresent him/herself to be his or her own referral – commission will not be paid and all sorts of cooperation between this Client and the Company will be terminated. 13. Miscellaneous Provisions. 13.1 All Terms and blake the garden of love, Conditions that define the rights and obligations of ferdinand, both contract parties, the Customer and computer, the Company, are listed in this Agreement.

This document solely, its statements, promises or inducements, are to be considered valid or binding. After accepting the Terms and Conditions, this Agreement substitutes all previous verbal or written communications and/or Agreements between the parties. Ferdinand Biography? The content can only be modified in writing, signed by the Customer and the Company, and indorsed on this Agreement. 13.2 The Customer accepts that if a certain portion of our Terms and Conditions is in conflict with any state law, it will not affect the rest of the document. Our and a first in known works?, the Customer’s rights and obligations will continue to be in force as there is no invalid part in the Agreement.

13.3 The Agreement is franz ferdinand biography governed, in its interpretation and performance, by the laws of the state where the Company is located and william, holds its principal business. We highly value the privacy of our Customers and franz, will not disclose their personal and on the, billing information to any third parties. To ensure the data are protected, the Company processes all transactions through the secure online payment system. However, the Company cannot be held responsible if credit information gets disclosed without our Company’s consent or beyond its control. Should any privacy or security questions arise, the Customer is welcomed to refer to our Privacy Policy . The Company provides no warranties or representations in terms of the stated website or any materials published. The case includes any warranties of merchantability or lack of infringement of use, or any warranties arising from the direct usage of the service or any products purchased via this website. The Company also does not claim that our service will always be uninterrupted or free of errors, and thus will not be held liable for any consequences that can occur as a result. It is the ferdinand, Customer’s responsibility to evaluate the computer industry analysis, accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, opinion, advice, or other content provided in franz ferdinand, connection with our service or otherwise. 16. Limitation of road, Liability. By accepting the above Terms and Conditions of this Agreement you agree to release and not hold the Company and its employees, shareholders, officers, agents, representatives, directors, affiliates, promotion, subsidiaries, advertising and fulfillment agencies, any third-party providers or sources of information or data and legal advisers (the “Company’s Affiliates”) responsible for any and all losses, rights, damages, claims, and actions of franz ferdinand biography, any kind, arising from or related to the products, including but not limited to: (a) telephone, electronic, hardware or software, Internet, network, email, or computer malfunctions, failures or difficulties of any kind; (b) failed, garbled, incomplete or delayed computer transmissions; (c) any condition caused by events beyond the control of the Company, that might cause the product to be corrupted, delayed or disrupted; (d) any injuries, damages or losses of any sort arising in connection with, or as a result of, utilizing our services; (e) any printing or typographical errors in Stonecutting Baskerville Essays, any materials associated with our services.

Customers accept that the Company can modify its Terms and Conditions determined by the Agreement; therefore, it is recommended and franz, strongly advised, that they continuously review these pages. Before using our Application, please, make sure that you carefully review all the below mentioned points of our Privacy Policy. The following rules explain the main principles according to which personal information of our Customers is Stonecutting Lead to Success processed. The information we need you to provide may include: Your name, billing address, e-mail and telephone number(s). Paper details of the order that you place on our website and information, necessary for ferdinand biography order completion. Recorded Chat and wikipedia, phone conversations. Information That You Provide When Filling In The Application Form. Anyone, who places an order on, submits necessary details in an automatic order form. It includes time of access, type of device and location.

We gather such information in order to implement improvements in our Service that will make it easier to use. We guarantee that this information will not be sold, shared or rented to any third parties. As mentioned above, our Company never sells, rents or shares the acquired details to any third parties, they are only used in the following cases: to provide you with the services that you wish to use; for internal record keeping, billing, accounting and market research purposes; to respond to any queries, complaints or requests for further information; to customize the content and/or layout of the Service; to notify you about franz ferdinand, important changes and alterations to the Service. If you have an order in progress, our Team will contact you by e-mail or phone to ensure timely delivery and high quality of your paper. It is on the novel also possible for our Company to contact you via Application messaging system or e-mail. Except as set out above, we will not sell, distribute or disclose your Information without your consent, unless in occasions required or permitted by law, such as complying with a subpoena, or similar legal processes. If you wish to change your personal information, or if you no longer wish to franz biography, use our service, you may correct, update, amend, delete/remove or deactivate any details you provided by contacting our Customer Support Team via email or telephone number indicated on our Contact Us page. We will retain your information for as long as your account is active or needed to provide you with our services.

We will retain and use your details as necessary to comply with our legal obligations, resolve disputes, and Essay about Rational Behavior, enforce our agreements. Please, keep in mind that the Company can not be held responsible for information available directly to our freelancers. Our company cannot control it or give any guarantees over franz ferdinand, its future distribution. The Information you provide us with is stored on why is the epic of gilgamesh literary works?, our secure servers. Where we have given you (or where you have chosen) a password which enables you to enter your account. You are responsible for keeping this password confidential and not disclosing it to any third parties. We follow generally accepted standards to protect the personal information of ferdinand biography, our Customers. The conditions states in our Privacy Policy may change depending on the improvements we implement. It is strongly suggested that you constantly review these pages to be updated on william blake the garden, the possible amendments.

The goal of administrators, writers and Customer service staff is to support student success by providing the most educationally-sound writing, based upon the individual needs of each Customer. Accordingly, Customer satisfaction is tantamount to ferdinand biography, our business model. Put simply, we will do whatever is necessary to produce exemplary academic works that meet every specification and requirement a Customer designates. On certain occasions, a Customer may request revisions to a finished product, and we have provided for this event in the following ways: If your request for wikipedia revision does not entail any additional specifications that were not contained in franz ferdinand biography, the original order, the revision shall be completed free of charge. About Rational Emotive Behavior? Should the revision request entail additional specifications that were not designated in the original order, the revision shall be completed, but there will be an ferdinand biography additional charge. For example, if a Customer’s initial request is for a 6-page essay or paper, and on the, the revision request is for 8 pages, there must be an additional charge put into place Any request for revision must be placed within 14 days of Customer receipt of the final product.

The 14-day period allows the Customer to review the work and to determine if it meets his/her needs or not. Revision requests should be placed with the Customer Support Department via email, phone or live chat on franz ferdinand, the site. About Rational Emotive? Any revision request that is submitted after the 14-day period will involve an additional charge. On occasion, a Customer may believe that another writer would be preferable for the revision(s) requested. Our Customers always have the right to request another writer, and biography, we will locate a qualified professional as quickly as possible. If, in the rare event that we are unable to locate a suitable writer, we will notify you immediately and discuss other options with you.

In general, if your revisions requests alter your original instructions, there will be a charge. Road Novel? The following are typical examples of revisions that will entail an additional charge: The Customer has altered the original instructions after his/her writer has already begun production. If the Customer has received comments from an franz ferdinand biography instructor/tutor regarding the revisions that must be made to the original work, such as additional resources, pages, or information. Novel? Additional pricing shall be determined after Customer has provided with the changes required by the instructor. The Customer has made an error relative to original instructions and has not informed the Customer support department within two hours following payment. The Customer has not provided access to the required resources for project completion. If specific resources are required and those resources are not readily available, then the Customer has the responsibility to provide those resources.

If Customer is franz ferdinand biography unable to provide the resources, will purchase such resources; however, the Customer will be responsible for the cost of on the, obtaining those resources. Should the Customer fail to specify resources, the writer shall use the most current and relevant resources available. Franz? If revisions are requested relative to on the road novel, including additional resources, the Customer shall be required to make payment for the revision and for procurement of the resources. While it may appear that revision requests are complicated and always result in additional cost, please understand that, in an effort to attain 100% satisfaction from its Customers, offers free revisions, so long as the following apply: The initial instructions for ferdinand production have not varied, and yet those specifications have not been fully honored by a writer. The request for a free revision occurs within 14 days of receipt of the final draft of the work. (If a Customer’s final product is a complex and lengthy graduate work, Customer should contact the Customer Support Department for computer industry analysis the number of franz biography, days allowed for revision requests). To request revisions, a Customer should do the following: The request for revision(s) should be sent to the garden, the Customer Support Department, by phone, email or live chat, within the time frame for such a request. All requests for revision should be made in ferdinand biography, writing, so if the william blake the garden of love, Customer Support Department is contacted by telephone, Customer will be asked to franz ferdinand, submit the request in writing, along with supporting evidence when that may be necessary to support one’s claim. A revision request may become a new order, under the following conditions: If additional pages and resources are required, and these were not a part of the initial order, the on the road novel, Customer should complete a new order, specifying the revisions to be made and uploading the initial product for writer use.

If the revision request is not complex and involves small extensions of content and thus pages, the Customer should discuss this with the Customer Support Department and receive an additional payment amount, so that the biography, writer may begin the revisions quickly. If the analysis, Customer is requesting a different writer to biography, complete the revisions, and those revisions are relatively significant, a new order form should be completed, if the parameters for free revisions have not been met. It is novel certainly our goal, as stated initially, that each and every Customer will be satisfied with both our services and the products provided. With this in mind, we attempt to work with any Customer who has complex needs and/or who needs revisions to a delivered academic work. We will try, as much as possible to provide free revisions within the parameters of our policies; we will try, at all times, to keep the costs of revisions to franz, a minimum, when the revisions fall outside the parameters of the specifications for no cost; we are open to discussing any specific situation with any Customer at Essay Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy any time, in order to attain a mutually satisfactory resolution to revision needs. It is our responsibility to follow our own policies and also to be certain that all Customers understand our policies; it is the responsibility of the Customer to provide very clear and accurate specifications with the initial order, so that mis-understandings do not occur and so that there are no delays in franz biography, obtaining a final product that meets his/her expectations.

Revision.Customer Support Care Department. We are here for our Customers 24 hours a day and will be available to about Rational Emotive, discuss all revision requests at any time. Ferdinand? We will work with you until you are fully satisfied with your final product, even though that full satisfaction may involve some additional charges. The Epic Of Gilgamesh A First Literary Works?? We ask as well that you present your revision request within the deadline parameters that are set by biography, Policy. Money Back Guarantee gives you the right to request reimbursement for not fulfilling the duties of our service. As our professional writing service offers real academic paper assistance, we want to be 100% sure that you leave fully satisfied! Our satisfaction rate is high. More than 80% of our customers return just to order more. However, sometimes things can go wrong and in these cases, you can always refer to our Money Back Guarantee. We just want to Essay about Rational Behavior, emphasize that there are only certain situations when we can offer a full refund. You are entitled to a refund if:

No writer assigned yet: This is a rare situation, but sometimes it happens. The amount of the refund is always 100%. Biography? If such case happens, the customer should not worry and he or she will be notified within the quickest time. If you want another writer to on the novel, work on your revision request, but there is no appropriate one available, your claim will be directed to our dispute department. They will review and proceed with the corresponding refund based on your request. The writer was confirmed, but you decided to cancel the order . In this case, the franz, amount of refund is 70%, to cover the effort of the company and industry analysis, the writer in franz, attempt to provide you with the product and services purchased. The writer was confirmed and over of gilgamesh literary, a half of remaining deadline has passed, but the customer decided to cancel the franz biography, order . The amount of refund can be 50%, to cover the effort of the company and the writer in attempt to provide you with the for John Baskerville Essays, product and services purchased. Late Delivery: It can only happen if the writer gets ill or in case of franz ferdinand, other emergencies. The Company will give the computer industry, amount of the refund that will be due to franz ferdinand, tardiness of completion delivery. The amount of refund will be discussed with the customer. On time delivery of all the orders is Lead for John Baskerville guaranteed.

Sometimes delay happens because of the late upload of the needed materials on franz ferdinand biography, the customer`s side. On The Road Novel? In this situation, no refund can be granted. That is why it is always ideal to ferdinand, send the details of the task and the required additional resources all at once when making the initial order. If the order must be finished in 6 hours but it came an hour late, the order will fall to the next deadline category of 8 hours. It will cost less than what the customer has paid for the garden and the ferdinand biography, difference shall be refunded. Please remember that for long term orders only 7% refund can be acquired after sending a request. Disputed claims: If the on the, customer is not satisfied and would like to get a refund instead, the agency administration will conduct an investigation. The claim and refund will be based on its result. We always want our customers to be fully satisfied.

Hence, we will always do our best just to achieve the customer`s satisfaction. Additional order by mistake: In order to cancel the order placed by mistake, you need to contact us as soon as possible. Franz? You need to clarify with us that the other order is not needed. The order will be treated valid if we did not receive any cancellation before a writer has been assigned. You can still cancel the order but the situations listed above will be used. Two invoices received: If you are billed twice, you need to to Success, notify us immediately.

You need to send us both receipts so we can properly address the issue and process the full refund of the extra charge. This instance happens in ferdinand, very rare occasions. There is no way for a customer to industry analysis, be billed for franz ferdinand a single order, unless he paid for it by mistake. In Known Works?? When such incident happened, we can freeze or block the sum for the next order or give discount that can cover the sum. Plagiarized content: If the claim is that the paper is plagiarized, a Turnitin report is needed. There will be no other reports that can be accepted aside from this or else no refund is possible. You are not entitled to biography, a refund if: A grade below expected is received: Please be reminded that we do not give any guaranteed high grades. Why Is The Epic Literary? The paper that we create is only for references or samples and not ready for any submission. Delay payment: If the customer claims that the order has been delayed when the reality is that the payment was also delayed, we shall not bear responsibility for it.

Moreover, a refund cannot be requested. Note: in the case of ferdinand biography, revision deadline, the previously mentioned delay refunds and the recalculation of the price do not apply as the end dates are different. Editing, proofreading, formatting orders: Please be reminded, that the Order you place for the earlier mentioned services contains original content provided by you, that may contain errors of persuasive, contextual nature. Editing, proofreading and formatting services do not presuppose input to the original context, that was provided in the initial Order instructions. The customer who is not satisfied with the completed order can ask for a free revision, another writer to revise it, or get a partial refund. Ferdinand Biography? We will automatically send a Word version of the document and you need to provide strong evidence to persuasive, support the claim. We can even ask for franz your own revised version in order for the dispute department to make the appropriate decision. This information must be sent within 3 days.

Otherwise, the dispute claim will be cancelled and no refund will be processed. When a refund is needed after the final version has been approved, we urge that you call our Support Team as soon as possible to get further help. Once you receive the about Rational Behavior Therapy, refund confirmation, the Company will process it within 5 business day from the confirmation date. Please note, that the Company can not be held responsible for your Bank Transfer fees, peculiarities of franz ferdinand biography, transfer, and possible delays occurring due to your Bank service issues. Note: The refund transaction may be processed for the amount of industry, 10 (Ten) USD and ferdinand biography, more. If the transaction is for a smaller amount - it cannot be processed due to the fact that it barely covers transaction fees both of Company and Clients’ bank. You will have the amount back as credit to the garden, your Credit Balance to ferdinand biography, use as payment for william blake the garden your future orders. We, at biography do not store any personal data and/or Credit Card details. All payments data is secure and never released to the epic works?, any third parties. You are 100% protected by ferdinand, our Security System.

When the time is running out and you are still not sure what to choose, fill out this easy-to-use mini-order form and send us a Free Quote. Persuasive Wikipedia? Our professional writers together with well-trained Customer Care Department will Evaluate your task and contact you immediately to biography, help with placing an order!

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Step By Step How to get Hibernate Working for Linux (Ubuntu 11.04, Mint 11) Hibernation takes all the data in ferdinand biography your ram and stores it on your hard drive and then powers down the computer. The data is stored in a special type of partition called a swap partition (you can also have a swap file). When you power the computer on again the data stored from your old session is reloaded. In the following article I am going to lead you through a systematic approach to diagnosing why Linux’s hibernation feature isn’t working on your computer and hopefully fix it. Here’s a Brief overview.

You should have as much swap as you have RAM plus some margin. If you try to hibernate and you are using more ram than you have swap the process will fail and sometimes hangs. Essay Emotive! Sometimes there is an error message that says “not enough swap” This is an easy problem to check for. Run the command in red. The output shows the amount of swap and ram on my computer. As you can see I have 8005 Mb of RAM and I have 8100 Mb of ferdinand, swap. Computer Analysis! For a hibernate to work you have to have more swap than used RAM not counting cached), Also if you run out of RAM during your session your swap is ferdinand, used. To hibernate you must have free swap greater than the sum of william of love, your RAM and your used swap. As a general rule you should have a swap partition slightly bigger than your RAM (hopefully you aren’t using swap during your session, if you are it’s time for a RAM upgrade.)

If you don’t have enough swap or if you don’t have any swap, roll up your sleeves you need to repartition your hard drive. Remember to be careful with your repartitioning, you can destroy your OS easily. Pull out franz biography your bootable CD/Jump Drive and boot It (we can’t repartition the Essay about Emotive Behavior, drive we we are using it.) Run the “gparted” disk utility. If you have swap, right click - Delete Right click on your linux partition - Resize/Move Decrease the size of the partition by the amount of franz, space you want to increase your swap. Click Okay Right click on the free space - New Change the File System Type to “linux-swap,” click okay. Road Novel! Click the apply check mark in the top menu of gparted to apply the changes Right Click On the new swap partition - Information Copy down the UUID value and franz ferdinand biography /dev/sdXN value for later. Make Sure the File System is linux-swap. Copy down the Stonecutting to Success for John Baskerville Essays, UUID and path values. We will use them later. Note:Remember to franz ferdinand be careful with your repartitioning, you can destroy your OS easily.

After repartitioning you will need to edit your Linux Hard Drive file. Open up terminal and industry analysis run the command. $ sudo gedit /media/NAME_OF_YOUR_COMPUTER/etc/fstab. If you had a swap partition before, look for the line that has the word swap and change the franz ferdinand biography, /dev/sdXN to the epic in known literary the new /dev/sdXN value. You can also use the UUID instead of the path as shown in red. If never had a swap partition to franz begin with add the following line to the bottom of the “/media/NAME_OF_YOUR_COMPUTER/etc/fstab” file. UUID=a453-Your-UUID-Number-ea33 none swap sw. The path variable can change depending on how you have your hard drive plugged in (ex /dev/sda1 - /dev/sdb1). This usually isn’t a problem if you don’t move your hard drives around in your computer.

However, Using a UUID is more reliable. The /dev/sdXN designator can change, but the UUID is unique to the storage device and doesn’t change even if you move to another computer. After you’ve made the changes to the fstab file, shut down and boot your computer normally. Stonecutting For John Baskerville Essays! To make sure this all worked run the following command in red. You should see your swap partition listed. If you see this take you have successfully created/expanded your swap to accommodate hibernation. 2. Your Computer Isn’t Saving Your Session. If you’ve tried to get your computer to hibernate and it didn’t work it’s helpful to look at the hibernation log. If you see something that has a date and says “Finished” like the what is franz ferdinand, shown in blue, that means that your computer successfully saved the the epic works?, session.

If you see a bunch of errors then get ready to ferdinand biography roll up your sleeves again. Unfortunately this is the hardest error to fix. The Epic A First! There could be dozens of reasons for this to happen, but in my case it had something to do with binding and unbinding peripheral devices. The following article explains what I did to fix the problem. One solution that I found that worked for a lot of people, but not me is this simple fix. Don’t lose hope if you get stuck in this step. Ferdinand Biography! Instead google everything you can on the problem. Stonecutting Lead Baskerville Essays! Google the errors you see in the log.

Someone has solved the problem you just need to find the solution. 3. You Computer Isn’t Reading your Saved Session on Boot. So your computer successfully saves a session, but doesn’t resume the session upon franz ferdinand, power up? It acts as if it was rebooted rather than hibernated? Well the good news is that this is a fairly easy thing to fix. The Epic Of Gilgamesh In Known Works?! This is most likely because GRUB the bootloader doesn’t know to resume from your swap. Ferdinand! Take a look at the GRUB profile. Look for why is the epic a first the line that starts with.

Add the following option in red. GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX=” resume=UUID=a353e-Your-SWAP-UUID-34eda other-option=value” GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX=” resume=/dev/sdXN other-option=value” You may or may nor have other options. Be careful that you type in the correct path or UUID for the drive here. If you don’t then when you try to resume you will have to boot in safe mode to fix the franz, drive name and Stonecutting Baskerville re-run the update-grub script. Save the file and then update grub with the franz, following command. In addition to grub we need to update/create one more file.

Edit the following file. Add this line to the file. Then run this command to update. Now hibernate your computer and cross your fingers! It just might work.

4. Wikipedia! Your Computer Says “resuming from /dev/sdX” but freezes. Linux is so close to hibernating and resuming successfully that it even says it is biography, resuming. Fortunately this is another easy fix. The problem with this comes from two programs that are redundant. Removing them should fix the of gilgamesh, problem.

I know that the command may seem counterintuitive. but it worked for franz ferdinand biography me so hopefully it will work for blake of love you. Remember to check to make sure your USB ports work after the ferdinand, suspend/hibernate. If you tried the steps above, please leave a comment below with your system setup (OS, Computer Hardware) so that we can create a reference that others can use. Also I got a lot of the epic of gilgamesh in known literary, my resources from the Ubuntu page on swap partitions. If you want to ferdinand biography learn more about this subject read this article. 50 Responses to Step By Step How to get Hibernate Working for Linux (Ubuntu 11.04, Mint 11) The last step did not work for me, I had it to computer analysis the point where the image was created onscreen: the percents progressed visually. Franz! then the same for restoring, hanging after 100% and about Rational Emotive Behavior a few more lines of text.

after number 4, i can see my hard drive light running hard on franz hibernate, but no percents or anything on the screen. on resume, it never attemot to restore because of file system errors obvious the snapshot is broken now. You could check to see whether your swap partition is still working. Check in GParted, and look whether the persuasive, partition is still recognized as swap. I had this problem multiple times before I found this guide! I hope this helps. Multiple bugs, painful.

Glad to franz biography know I could help you squish them. Thanks. Works perfectly (with some extra suggested tweaks) on a HP Pavilion dv4-2013la with Ubuntu 11.04v. How ever it required some reboots to the garden work fine; I just don’t know why. Gracias…luego de muchos dias por fin pude solucionar los problemas. Hi! Just wanted to say thanks! I fixed my swap/hibernating issue on an old X300 using Lubuntu 11.x ! Merci!!

Thanks it worked like a charm! This worked wonders for me. I have an asus K53sv running kubuntu 12.x (precise) and franz ferdinand I’ve been poking around this problem for a while. I had to install a custom ACPI hardware unbind script, which i would recommend anyway, as it is pretty generic. But, I managed to get it halfway working with a few different methods, but the actual key for me was removing the confusion of computer industry analysis, extra packages with: “sudo apt-get remove hibernate uswsusp” Also FYI, in ferdinand biography ubuntu 12, sleep/suspend functionality has been disabled by default because of Stonecutting to Success Baskerville, all the trouble ACPI causes. Ferdinand! You will need to re-enable (don’t have a link to hand)

I got stuck on the gedit stage. got response: sodu: gedit: command not found. Have a friend who can probably help, just wanted to point out that there is a first in known works?, no info for this result! Thanks a TON!! #128578; I had issue #4 and your fix worked like a charm. I had just upgraded my Ubuntu from 11.04 to ferdinand 11.10 (yeah, I kn0w… its ancient by now) and hibernate stopped working, just like that.

Thanks man, this works perfectly to get hibernate working in 12.04 with an Asus u52f. Does the solution given for case no:1 work with ubuntu 12.04 version ? my swap: 255Mb RAM : 3557 Mb . I got the message saying “Not Enough Swap”. I have windows and ubuntu both in my system. I have the Essay about Rational, case1 problem, i.e, ‘NOT ENOUGH SPACE’. Will this swap partition affect my windows ? This is the ferdinand biography, most comprehensive and well-explained article I could find on the topic, and Step 3 got my hibernation back! [Ubuntu 12.04 x64, Acer TravelMate 8372G] Thank you, chris! You are saying that `free -m’ shows that you have “8005 Mb of RAM”.

Where does that number come from? Did you mean “_10005_ _MiB_ of RAM” as per william blake the garden of love, “Mem: total 10005”? TIA. The total section should be the biography, sum of all memory/ram that your computer posesses. Good article, thanks! I would just suggest replacing the. I know you may have typed it like that to william blake give an idea of the kind of ferdinand biography, value to on the fill in ferdinand biography there, but it actually misled me on my first attempt. I am very grateful for the google-hours you have saved me. Cheers and thumbs up! Great systematic approach, and the epic of gilgamesh a first in known works? worked for ferdinand me on road novel Ubuntu 12.04.

Thanks! sudo apt-get remove hibernate uswsusp. Is the difference between your post and many others! All my configuration was perfect, but the hibernation just “off-on” the video in some seconds. I don’t remember when I instaleed those apps, but I didn’t suspet of a package problem as, by franz ferdinand biography, coincidence, I changed the swap partition some days ago. Excellent!! You made my day sir. Saved me some hours of Essay about Rational Emotive Therapy, googling. Thank you very much Chris #128578; Thanks chris, for ferdinand biography such a wonderful post, it solved my problem of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, grub not reading my saved session on boot . you should update your line resume=UUID=41e86209-3802-424b-9a9d-d7683142dab7 to mention YOUR-SWAP-UUID instead of hard-coding some value. Thanks for franz the very well-researched solutions.

Unfortunately, they didn’t work for on the my system. I have a HP Envy dv6 notebook, dual booting Windows 8 and franz ferdinand biography LinuxMint 14. The notebook completes all the suspend operations, but does not wake up. Could it be that the new Windows 8 boot loader is interfering? Why do you say the UUID doesn’t change?

When you move or change the partition it does change. The LABEL if one is give remains however. In fact the loss of proper hibernation is often related to having the UUID change due to some adjustment of the swap partition. If the swap was setup as a file instead of in blake the garden a separate partition, then having hibernate process lose it, will not happen. Oh MAN you save my day! sudo apt-get remove hibernate uswsusp. did the trick for me.. a fully working hibernate now.. :o) Thanks! Oh MAN you save my day! $ sudo apt-get remove hibernate uswsusp.

did the trick for me.. Franz Ferdinand! a fully working hibernate now.. Why Is The Epic In Known Works?! :o) Thanks! EDIT: Ubuntu 12.04.2 LTS 64 bit edition running on a laptop. Regarding step-by-step how to get hibernate working: Very well done step-by-step. Biography! But I’ am weary/scared!

I am a complete newbie…I am running Linux Mint 14. And cannot resume. I have 300gb ext4 and a 30gb swap. And a completely fresh install of Mint 14. cat /etc/default/grub |grep GRUB_CMDLINE. I am scared to death to edit the to Success Baskerville, grub line: GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX=”ShawnNeedsToAddSomethingHere” As I just don’t understand what I suppose to add. It appears to me I should add /edit this portion. But I don’t what my swap UUID is ? Or exactly what. GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX=”resume=/dev/sdXN other-option=value” is?

Sorry to franz ferdinand biography bug you. But I love’n this Linux Mint 14. But I have already totaled by box by computer, editing the franz ferdinand, grub. Spent a day ‘re imaging’ my dual boot…can’t completely break from Essay about Rational, win, yet. So my only ferdinand biography complaint is on the, that I can’t get Linux Mint 14 to sleep or hibernate….

/dev/sda1: LABEL=”System Reserved” UUID=”9818E3EE18E3C978? TYPE=”ntfs” /dev/sda4: UUID=”089f4092-383e-4fe2-8efc-a51d7059168b” TYPE=”ext4? /dev/sda5: UUID=”314b5dba-03ae-4e37-94b7-1067553ccbfc” TYPE=”swap” /dev/sdb1: LABEL=”System Reserved” UUID=”2C74722E7471FB42? TYPE=”ntfs” sudo gedit /etc/default/grub. edited the line. With the above UUID.

Maybe this will get’er done! After counless hours, step 4 was the right one! Thanks! I will praise your fame on other forums. Thank you for franz this post. As many other folk commenting here, this saved my bacon. Worked out the issues with hibernate/resume for me on Linux Mint Debian Edition.

Hibernate now works flawlessly as it should. I can confirm that the computer industry, last point (uninstalling extraneous related packages) was also an issue in my case as well and franz ferdinand was the final piece of the puzzle for me. Incredibly helpful! Step 3 solved it for me. Computer Industry Analysis! Turned out that my GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX value disappeared after I changed swap partition size on Mint 15. Worked perfectly! Thanks for the guide. This is the “only” complete guide I found, the franz ferdinand biography, other guides leave out the “resume=UUID”-thing in the grub file! Thanks for this _very_ good guide covering many problems at once.

Suspend/resume used to work for me in Ubuntu 13.04 but failed after moving to Linux Mint Debian Edition 201403, which I found strange. Turned out to be issue #3 – the GRUB part. I have Linux Mint 17 (Cinnamon) and my problem isn’t any of the above. Blake Of Love! When I ask the laptop to hibernate, the screen shuts off, but the laptop is biography, still running (you can hear the fan). I have to turn it off using the power button, and persuasive then turn it back on when I want to resume my setting. I thought hibernate was supposed to turn the power off by itself. Any ideas of franz ferdinand biography, how to fix?

Thanks in advance. first of all, thank you! This the persuasive wikipedia, best overwiew I found in franz the last five hours! I am using Kubuntu 12.04 lts on a Toshiba Satellite A100-775 notebook. Essay About Rational Behavior Therapy! As I found out here the problem “Hibernate missing in Kubuntu 12.04 lts” is known. In my case, the franz biography, german “Hibernate”-button simply locked the screen. And the solution was using the command pm-hibernate instead of the menu. (Maybe you want to add this problem to road novel your list?) BUT: By the time I got there I had tried out several scripts and packeges and ferdinand I needed your point 4 to on the novel get everything going. THANKS! (been trying to get this working since I installed Zorin a few months back)

I’m using this site as reference! all I had to ferdinand biography do was: $ sudo apt-get remove hibernate uswsusp. Linux Mint 17.1 Rebecca. Mother Asus, AMD processor. Option 3 was my problem. In addition, another thing to have in mind is that if you have multiple swap partitions the one that worked for me was in the same disk as the OS. William Blake The Garden Of Love! I don’t know if this is something obvious or not. In case one of them doesn’t work, keep trying the others. Thanks for this post, it was really helpful. Ferdinand Biography! #128578; Worked perfectly for me #128578;

System: Kernel: 3.13.0-37-generic x86_64 (64 bit gcc: 4.8.2) Desktop: MATE 1.8.1 (Gtk 3.10.8. Distro: Linux Mint 17.1 Rebecca. it works perfectly in Linux moto 3.18.0-kali3-686-pae #1 SMP Debian 3.18.6-1. kali2 (2015-03-02) i686 GNU/Linux. core2duo E7500 with MSI 775 board. blkid to get UUID of swap.

leafpad /ect/fstab change UUID of swap and save. leafpad /etc/initramfs-tools/conf.d/resume change UUID of swap and save. Then hibernation was successful. Thanks for these instructions! Just a suggestion to industry analysis make things clearer: the GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX commands contain fancy quotation marks which, when copied directly into the grub file, break things. Franz Ferdinand Biography! They might be the persuasive, automatically inserted by the blogging software? Mine wasn’t resuming… Now it is. Thanks. It works for me to resume from hibernate after I finish this line.

distribution: ubuntu 14.04. kernel number: 3.13.0-79-generic. Thank you a lot. Debian Linux jessie desktop:GNOME on toshiba core i7, 4gb ram, Hibernate was not working. it resolved itself when my user id was added to franz sudo group.

Thank you for blake of love this guide. It worked for me on two (relatively recent) Linux Mint installations. They had slightly different deficiencies, but both worked. Reckon I’ll see if it will work on a CentOS installation also. Thanks Chris. Your blood’s worth bottling (as the ferdinand biography, expression used to be). Note that your kernel may not be able to use UUID on boot. In which case, you will need to use “resume=PARTUUID=YOUR_SWAP_PARTITION_UUID” or resume=/dev/sdXN.

Your PARTUUID can be obtained with the why is of gilgamesh in known literary works?, blkid cmd as well. Hello. I tried the methods above and the hibernation finally works. Franz Ferdinand Biography! Thank you very much. Anyway, though the hibernation seems working, but there is Essay Emotive, no “finished” line when I use tail /var/log/pm-suspend.log after the successful hibernation. And other lines are ending with “hibernation success”. Franz Ferdinand Biography! Is this normal? Also, when I try to suspend my laptop, It does suspend but I heard a kind of a very small “peeeeep” noise coming from my laptop.

Also, is this normal?

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aix resume websphere Q1.What is franz, MQ and what does it do? Ans. MQ stands for of gilgamesh in known MESSAGE QUEUEING. Ferdinand. WebSphere MQ allows application programs to use message queuing to participate in message-driven processing. Application programs can communicate across different platforms by using the appropriate message queuing software products. About Rational Emotive Behavior. Q2.What is Message driven process? Ans . When messages arrive on a queue, they can automatically start an application using triggering . If necessary, the applications can be stopped when the message (or messages) have been processed. Q3.What are advantages of the MQ? Ans.

1. Integration. 3. Assured Delivery. Q4.How does it support the Integration? Ans . Because the MQ is independent of the Operating System you use i.e. Ferdinand. it may be Windows, Solaris,AIX.It is independent of the protocol (i.e. TCP/IP, LU6.2, SNA, NetBIOS, UDP).It is not required that both the sender and receiver should be running on the same platform. 5. What is Asynchrony?

Ans. With message queuing, the exchange of messages between the sending and receiving programs is independent of time. Essay About Therapy. This means that the sending and receiving application programs are decoupled; the sender can continue processing without having to wait for the receiver to acknowledge receipt of the message. The target application does not even have to ferdinand biography, be running when the message is Stonecutting Lead to Success, sent. It can retrieve the message after it is ferdinand biography, has been started. Q6.what is on the road novel, a Message and what does it contain? Ans: A message is a string of bytes that is meaningful to the applications that use it. Messages are used to transfer information from one application program to another (or between different parts of the franz ferdinand biography same application). Lead For John Essays. The applications can be running on the same platform, or on different platforms. WebSphere MQ messages have two parts: 1. The application data . The content and franz biography, structure of the application data is defined by Essay Emotive Therapy the application programs that use it. 2. A message descriptor . Biography. The message descriptor identifies the message and contains additional control information, such as the type of message and the priority assigned to the message by the sending application.

WebSphere MQ defines the Essay about format of the message descriptor. Q7.What is the Max Length of the message does MQ support/ Ans: The default maximum message length is 4 MB , although you can increase this to a maximum length of ferdinand, 100 MB (where 1 MB equals 1 048 576 bytes). Ans: A queue is a data structure used to store messages. Computer. A queue manager owns each queue. The queue manager is responsible for maintaining the queues it owns, and for storing all the messages it receives onto the appropriate queues.

Q9.What are the Different Types Of Queues? Ans: Queues can be characterized by the way they are created: 1. Predefined queues are created by an administrator using the appropriate MQSC or PCF commands. Predefined queues are permanent; they exist independently of the applications that use them and survive Web Sphere MQ restarts. 2 Dynamic queues are created when an application issues an MQOPEN request specifying the name of a model queue . Franz Ferdinand Biography. The queue created is based on a template queue definition , which is called a model queue. Q10.How does an application sends and Stonecutting Lead for John Baskerville Essays, receives messages from the franz biography Queues? Ans: Application programs send and receive messages using MQI calls. MQOPEN: It is used to open the Require Queue. MQPUT: It is used to PUT the message in to the Required Queue. MQGET: It is used to get the message from the required Queue. MQCONNX: This command used to connect to the QueueManager. MQPUT1: It performs the putting, browsing and Lead for John Baskerville Essays, getting application at a time on a single queue.

MQCLOSE: It closes the franz ferdinand connection with the Queue. MQDISC: This is used to disconnect the application with the Queuemanager. 11.What is the Algorithm followed in retrieving the Messages from the Queue? Ans: 1.First-in-first-out (FIFO). 2.Message priority, as defined in the message descriptor.

Messages that have the same priority are retrieved on a FIFO basis. 3. Lead. A program request for franz a specific message. Q12.What are the Objects used in Web sphere MQ? Ans: 1. Queue Manager 2. Queues. 3. Channels 4. Wikipedia. Processes 5. Franz Ferdinand Biography. Name lists . Q13.Wbat is the Default port number for MQ Queue Manager?

Q14.Mention the Different Types of MQ Queues? Ans: There are four types of Queues Available in Web sphere MQ. Local queue object : A local queue object identifies a local queue belonging to the queue manager to which the application is connected. All queues are local queues in the sense that each queue belongs to a queue manager and, for that queue manager; the queue is a local queue. Remote queue object : A remote queue object identifies a queue belonging to another queue manager .This queue must be defined as a local queue to that queue manager.The information you specify when you define a remote queue object allows the local queue manager to find the remote queue manager, so that any messages destined for the remote queue go to the correct queue manager. Alias queue object An alias queue allows applications to access a queue by referring to it indirectly in MQI calls. Industry Analysis. When an alias queue name is ferdinand, used in an MQI call, the name is resolved to the name of either a local or a remote queue at a first literary works?, run time. This allows you to change the queues that applications use without changing the application in franz ferdinand, any way; you merely change the alias queue definition to reflect the name of the new queue to persuasive wikipedia, which the alias resolves. An alias queue is franz ferdinand, not a queue, but an object that you can use to access another queue. Computer Analysis. Model queue object A model queue defines a set of biography, queue attributes that are used as a template for creating a dynamic queue.

Q15.How can U define Queues in MQ? Ans: Queues are defined to Web Sphere MQ using: 1. The MQSC command DEFINE. 2. The PCF Create Queue command. Q16.What is Transmission Queue? Ans: Transmission queues are queues that temporarily store messages that are destined for a remote queue manager.

You must define at least one transmission queue for each remote queue manager to which the local queue manager is to send messages directly. Q17.What is Initiation Queues? Ans: Initiation queues are queues that are used in triggering. A queue manager puts a trigger message on an initiation queue when a trigger event occurs. A trigger event is a logical combination of conditions that is detected by a queue manager. Q18.What is Dead Letter Queue? Ans: A dead-letter (undelivered-message) queue is a queue that stores messages that cannot be routed to their correct destinations. This occurs when, for example, the persuasive wikipedia destination queue is biography, full. The supplied dead-letter queue is the epic a first, called SYSTEM.DEAD.LETTER.QUEUE. For distributed queuing, define a dead-letter queue on each queue manager involved. Q19.What is franz, Process Definition and what are the attributes does it contain?

Ans: A process definition object defines an application that starts in response to novel, a trigger event on a WebSphere MQ queue manager. The process definition attributes include the application ID , the application type , and data specific to the application. Q20 . What is channel and mention different types of channels in MQ? Ans: Channels are objects that provide a communication path from one queue manager to another. Channels are used in distributed queuing to move messages from one queue manager to biography, another. Wikipedia. They shield applications from the underlying communications protocols. The queue managers might exist on the same, or different, platforms. Different types of Channels: 1. Sender-Receiver Channels. 2. Requester-Server Channels. 3. Client Connection channels.

4. Server Connection Channels. Franz Ferdinand Biography. 5. Cluster Sender. 6. Cluster Receiver Channels. Q21What is Stonecutting to Success for John Baskerville Essays, Cluster? Ans: A cluster is franz, a group of queue managers set up in such a way that the queue managers can communicate directly with one another over a single network, without the on the novel need for transmission queue, channel, and remote queue definitions. Ferdinand. Q22.What is MQ Client? Ans: A Web Sphere MQ client is a component that allows an application running on a system to issue MQI calls to a queue manager running on another system. The output from the call is sent back to the client, which passes it back to the application. Essay Emotive. Q23.What is franz biography, MQ Server? Ans: A Web Sphere MQ server is Essay Therapy, a queue manager that provides queuing services to one or more clients. All the Web Sphere MQ objects, for example queues, exist only on the queue manager machine (the Web Sphere MQ server machine), and not on franz, the client.

A Web Sphere MQ server can also support local Web Sphere MQ. Q24.What are commands used for creating the Queue manager from the Command prompt? Ans : crtmqm -q -d MY.DEFAULT.XMIT.QUEUE -u DEAD.LETTER.QUEUE QM1. Here -q used to define the Queue manager QM1 as a Default Queue manager. -d is used to define the default transmission Queue -u is used to define the default dead letter queue. Q25.How can U make the Lead for John Baskerville existing Queue Manager as an default Queue Manager? Ans: On Windows systems, use the Web Sphere MQ Services snap-in to franz biography, display the properties of the queue manager, and check the Make queue manager the default box. Rational Behavior Therapy. You need to stop and restart the queue manager for the change to take effect.

Q26.Where are the backup files are present after creating the Queue Manager? Ans: Windows systems : If you use Web Sphere MQ for Windows NT and Windows 2000, configuration information is stored in the Windows Registry. UNIX Systems : 1. When you install the franz ferdinand product, the Web Sphere MQ configuration file (mqs.ini) is created. Road. It contains a list of queue managers that is updated each time you create or delete a queue manager. There is ferdinand, one mqs.ini file per node. On The Novel. 2. When you create a new queue manager, a new queue manager configuration file (qm.ini) is automatically created. This contains configuration parameters for franz biography the queue manager.

Q27.What is the command used for computer analysis starting the Queue Manager? Ans: strmqm QMName. Q28.What is the command used for biography stopping the Queue manager? Ans: endmqm -w QMName. The command waits until all applications have stopped and the queue manager has ended. This type of shutdown does not wait for applications to disconnect from the queue manager. Q29.What is the command used to delete the QueueManager? Ans: dltmqm QMName. Persuasive. Q30.How can a Client connect to a Remote Server?

Ans: The client can establish a connect with the Server using the command. SET MQSERVER=SYSTEM.ADMIN.SVRCONN/TCP/IPADDRESS (PORT NO) Here SYSTEM.ADMIN.SVRCONN is the Default server connection channel used to connect to the server TCP is the protocol used. IPADDRESS is the IP address of the server PORT : Port no is the no on which the QueueManager is running. Q33.What does MQSC Commands are used for? Ans: You can use MQSC commands to franz ferdinand biography, manage queue manager objects, including the queue manager itself, clusters, channels, queues, namelists, process definitions, and authentication information objects. Q34.Is the MQSC attributes are Case sensitive? Ans: MQSC commands, including their attributes, can be written in uppercase or lowercase. Object names in MQSC commands are folded to uppercase (that is, QUEUE and queue are not differentiated), unless the william of love names are enclosed within single quotation marks. If quotation marks are not used, the object is processed with a name in uppercase. Q35.How can we write the MQSC commands that have too many parameters/ Ans: For commands that have too many parameters to fit on one line, use continuation characters to indicate that a command is continued on the following line: 1. A minus sign ( ) indicates that the franz command is to be continued from the start of _ the following line. Industry. 2. Franz Biography. A plus sign (+) indicates that the command is to be continued from the first nonblank character on Essay, the following line.

Q36.What is the Max size that Queues support in MQ. Ans. They support around 2GB of Size. Q37.How can u create a Transmission Queue from a local Queue? Ans.

Change the usage attribute from biography normal to Transmission. Q38.Define a Local Queue LQ using the MQSC Commands in the QM QM1. Ans: runmqsc QM1. Define qlocal (LQ) Q39.Display the attributes of the Queue Manager QM1? Ans: runmqsc QM1. Q40.What is Triggering? Ans: Web Sphere MQ enables you to william, start an application automatically when certain conditions on a queue are met. For example, you might want to start an biography, application when the computer number of messages on a queue reaches a specified number. This facility is called triggering.

Q41.Explain the different types of Triggering? Ans: There are three types of franz, triggering. 1. FIRST: 2. EVERY 3. DEPTH. Q42.What is the Different Logging Methods available? Ans: There are two different types available. 1. Circular : The circular logging is used for restart recovery. It is the on the road novel default logging method. Circular is used in Development and Testing Queues.

Circular logging keeps all restart Data in a ring of log files. Logging fills the first file in the ring, then moves on to the and so on, until all the files are full. It then goes back to franz, the first file in the ring and starts This continues as long as the product is in use, and has the advantage that you never run out of log files. 2. Linear : Linear logging gives you both restart recovery and media recovery. It is used in Production.

Linear logging keeps the log data in a continuous Sequence of wikipedia, files. Space is not reused, so you can always retrieve any record logged from the franz time that the queue manager was created. As disk space is finite, you might have to think about some form of archiving. It is an administrative task to manage your disk space for the log, reusing Or extending the existing space as necessary. Q43.What is the Default location where the logs are stored and mention the default sizes? Ans: Default location: Windows : C:Program FilesIBMWebSphere MQlogqmgr.

Q44.What is the log file size? Ans: In Web Sphere MQ for Windows NT and Win 2000, the minimum value is 32, and the maximum is 16 384. The default value is william blake the garden, 256, giving a default log size of 1 MB. In Web Sphere MQ for UNIX systems, the minimum value is 64, and the maximum is 16 384. The default value is 1024, giving a default log size of 4 MB.

Q45 what is the number for ferdinand log primary and secondary file allocated? Ans: Primary log files: The number of primary log files to be allocated. The default value is 3, the minimum is 2, and Essay Rational Behavior Therapy, the maximum is 62. Secondary log files: The number of secondary log files to be allocated. The default value is 2, the minimum is 1, and the maximum is franz ferdinand biography, 61. Blake The Garden Of Love. Q46.What is the difference between Persistent and Non Persistent Messages? Ans: In Web Sphere MQ, messages can be either persistent or non persistent. Persistent messages are logged and can be recovered in the event of a WebSphere MQ failure. Thus, persistent messages are guaranteed to be delivered once and only once. Nonpersistent messages are not logged. Web Sphere still guarantees to franz biography, deliver them not more than once, but it does not promise to deliver them once.

Q47.What is the effect of using Persistant messages? Ans: Persistent messages are usually logged. Rational Emotive. Logging messages reduces the performance of your application, so use persistent messages for essential data only. If the data in a message can be discarded if the biography queue manager stops or fails, use a nonpersistent message. Q48.What is Intercommunication? Ans: In Web Sphere MQ, intercommunication means sending messages from william one Queue manager to another. Ferdinand Biography. The receiving queue manager could be on Essay about Behavior Therapy, the same machine or another; nearby or on the other side of the world. It could be running on the same platform as the local queue manager, or could be on ferdinand, any of the platforms supported by Web Sphere MQ. This is called a distributed environment . Web Sphere MQ handles communication in a distributed environment such as this using Distributed Queue Management (DQM). The local queue manager is sometimes called the wikipedia source queue manager and the remote queue manager is sometimes called the target queue manager or the franz partner queue manager.

Q49.What is the Objects required for the DQM? Ans: On source QueueManager: 1. Transmission Queue 2. Remote queue definition. Computer Industry. 3. Dead Letter Queue(recommended) 4. Sender Channel. On Target Queue Manager. 1. Local Queue 2. Dead Letter Queue 3. Biography. Receiver Channel 4.Listenr. ***.The sender and receiver channels names should be same. Q50.What is the attribute used to by the Message length? Q51.What is Message Channel agent (MCA)? Ans: A message channel agent (MCA) is a program that controls the sending and receiving of messages. There is one message channel agent at each end of a channel. One MCA takes messages from the the garden transmission queue and puts them on the communication link.

The other MCA receives messages and delivers them onto a queue on the remote queue manager. A message channel agent is called a caller MCA if it initiated the communication; otherwise it is called a responder MCA . Q52.What is franz, Channel initiators and Listeners? Ans: A channel initiator acts as a trigger monitor for sender channels, because a transmission queue may be defined as a triggered queue. When a message arrives on a transmission queue that satisfies the triggering criteria for that queue, a message is sent to the initiation queue, triggering the the epic of gilgamesh in known literary channel initiator to start the. Ferdinand Biography. appropriate sender channel. You can also start server channels in this way if you specified the connection name of the partner in the channel definition. This means that channels can be started automatically, based upon messages arriving on the appropriate transmission queue. You need a channel listener program to start receiving (responder) MCAs. Responder MCAs are started in Stonecutting for John Essays, response to a startup request from the caller MCA; the channel listener detects incoming network requests and starts the associated channel.

Q53.What are attributes required for franz ferdinand biography the Sender Channel? Ans: 1. The Name of the Channel. 2. The Connection name. 3. Transmission Queue Name. Q54.What are the attributes required for the Remote Queue Definition?

Ans: 1.Name of the Queue 2. Transmission Queue Name. 3. For John Essays. Remote QueueManager name 4. Remote Local Queue Name. Q55.Mention the No of franz ferdinand biography, Characters required for Stonecutting Baskerville Essays creating names of the MQ objects? Ans: For MQ Channels it is ferdinand biography, 20 Characters. For Remaining objects it is 48 characters. Q56.What is the command used for the running trigger monitor?

Ans: Server side: runmqtrm -m QMName -q Initiation QueueName. Client side: runmqtmc -m QMName -q Initiation QueueName. Q57.What is the road command used for franz ferdinand creating the on the road listener? Ans: crtmqlsr -t tcp -m QMNAME -p portno. Q58.What is the commands used for franz running listener? Ans: runmqlsr -t tcp -m QMNAME -p portno. Industry. Q59.What is command used to perform task on the MQ services? Q60.What are commands used on the Command server? Ans: 1. strmqcsv : to start the command server.

2. dspmqcsv : to display the franz ferdinand command server. 3. Lead For John Baskerville. endmqcsv : To end the command server. Q61.Is there is any chance for the Message loss? Ans: If the franz ferdinand target queuemanager doesn.t contain the dead letter queue defined and if the messages are running on a fast channel and of non persistant,Then there is a chance of the message loss. Q62.What is the use of clustering? Ans.

Due to the use of of gilgamesh literary, clustering. 1. The Administrator tasks can be reduced. 2. We can achieve the Workload balance. Ferdinand. Q63.How many no Full Repository Queue Managers are required for creating a cluster. What is the difference between full and partial repositories? Ans: In each cluster you must select at least one, preferably two, or possibly more of the persuasive wikipedia queue managers to franz ferdinand biography, hold full repositories. Computer Industry Analysis. A cluster can work quite adequately with only one full repository but using two improves availability.

Every cluster has at least one (preferably two) queue managers holding full repositories of information about the queue managers, queues, and channels in a cluster. These repositories also contain requests from the other queue managers in the cluster for updates to the information. The other queue managers each hold a partial repository, containing information about the subset of queues and queue managers with which they need to communicate. Q64.Where does the franz biography information about the messages of a QueueManager are stored when they are in cluster? Ans: Each queue manager stores its repository information in messages on a queue called SYSTEM.CLUSTER.REPOSITORY.QUEUE . The queue managers exchange repository information in messages on a queue called SYSTEM.CLUSTER.COMMAND.QUEUE . Q65.What is the command that is used to provide authorization for the clients? Ans : setmqaut -m QMName -t queue -n Queuename -p GUEST +all. Q66. What are the common errors u get in DQM? Ans: mqrc 2058: MQRC_Q_MGR_NAME_ERROR. Mqrc 2059: MQRC_Q_MGR_NOT_AVAILABLE. Mqrc 2033: MQRC_NO_MSG_AVAILABLE.

Mqrc 2085: MQRC_UNKNOWN_OBJECT_NAME. Persuasive Wikipedia. Mqrc 2009: MQRC_CONNECTION_BROKEN. Mqrc 2043: MQRC_OBJECT_TYPE_ERROR. Mqrc 2086: MQRC_UNKNOWN_OBJECT_Q_MGR. Mqrc 2035: MQRC_NOT_AUTHORIZED. Q67.What are different modes in franz biography, which a application can connect to a Queuemanager?

Ans: 1.Binding mode: In binding mode, also known as server connection, the communication to Essay Rational Emotive Behavior, the queue manager utilizes inter-process communications. Ferdinand Biography. One of the key factors that should be kept in mind is that binding mode is available only to programs running on the MQSeries server that hosts the queue manager. A program using binding mode will not run from an MQSeries client machine. Binding mode is a fast and Rational, efficient way to interact with MQSeries. Certain Facilities, such as XA transaction co-ordination by queue manager, are available only in binding mode.

2. Franz Ferdinand Biography. Client Connection: Client connection uses a TCP/IP connection to Essay Emotive Therapy, the MQSeries Server and enables communications with the queue manager. Programs using client connections can run on an MQSeries client machine as well as on an MQSeries server machine. Client connections use client channels on the queue manager to communicate with the queue manager. The client connection does not support XA transaction coordination by the queue manager. Franz Ferdinand Biography. Q68.What are the different types of messaging systems used by JMS? Ans: JMS applications use either the point-to-point (PTP) or publish/subscribe style of computer analysis, messaging. Biography. Point-to-Point : Point-to-point messaging involves working with queues of messages. The sender sends messages to a specific queue to be consumed normally by william blake the garden of love a single receiver. In point-to-point communication, a message has at franz biography, most one recipient.

A sending client addresses the message to the queue that holds the messages for industry analysis the intended (receiving) client. Publish/Subscribe: In contrast to the point-to-point model of communication, the publish/subscribe model enables the delivery of a message to multiple recipients. Franz Biography. A sending client addresses, or publishes, the message to about Emotive, a topic to which multiple clients can be subscribed. There can be multiple publishers, as well as subscribers, to a topic. Q69.What are different Channel status? Ans: Channel Status: 2.1). Stopped 2.2). Starting 2.3). Franz Biography. Retrying.

2.4.1). Essay About Rational Emotive Behavior. Initializing 2.4.2). Biography. Binding 2.4.3). Requesting. 2.4.4). Computer. Running 2.4.5). Paused 2.4.6). Stopping. Q70.Is It Possible to use one transmission Queue for the multiple message channels? Ans: It is possible to define more than one channel per transmission queue, but only one of these channels can be active at any one time. This is ferdinand biography, recommended for the provision of alternative routes between queue managers for traffic balancing and link failure corrective action.

A transmission queue cannot be used by another channel if the previous channel to use it terminated leaving a batch of messages in-doubt at the sending end. Q71.What is computer industry, BATCH HEARTBEAT INTERVAL? Ans: The batch heartbeat interval allows a sending channel to ferdinand, verify that the receiving channel is still active just before committing a batch of messages, so that if the persuasive wikipedia receiving channel is not active, the batch can be backed out ferdinand biography, rather than becoming in-doubt, as would otherwise be the case. By backing out the william blake of love batch, the. Ferdinand. messages remain available for processing so they could, for example, be redirected to another channel. William Blake The Garden Of Love. Q72.What is Keep Alive Interval? Ans: The Keep Alive Interval parameter is used to specify a time-out value for a channel. The Keep Alive Interval parameter is a value passed to the communications stack specifying the Keep Alive timing for the channel. It allows you to specify a different keep alive value for each channel. The value indicates a time, in seconds, and must be in the range 0 to 99999. Q73.What is LONG Retry count? Ans: Specify the maximum number of times that the channel is to try allocating a session to its partner.

If the initial allocation attempt fails, the short retry count number is decremented and the channel retries the remaining number of times. Q74.What is the command used to test whether the channel is active or not? Ping channel (channel name). Q75. What are the commands that are used on client side for putting and getting messages from a queue? Ans: amqsputc -q Queue name -m QMName. amqsgetc -q Queue name -m QMName. Q76.What is the Default max Queue depth? Q77.What are the administrative commands that are used in Publish and Subscribe? Ans: The strmqbrk command is used to start a broker. The first time this command is run on a queue manager, all the relevant MQSeries objects are automatically created. strmqbrk -m MYQMGRNAME. The dspmqbrk command is used to check the status of the broker.

Possible states are: starting, running, stopping, quiescing, not active and franz biography, ended abnormally. dspmqbrk -m MYQMGRNAME. Industry Analysis. The endmqbrk command is used to ferdinand biography, stop a broker. There are two options: -c requests a controlled shutdown (default), -i requests an immediate shutdown. About Rational Behavior. endmqbrk -i -m MYQMGRNAME. Ferdinand. Q78.What is the algorithm that is why is the epic of gilgamesh literary works?, followed by MQ in clustering? Ans: WebSphere MQ uses a workload management algorithm that uses a round-robin routine to select an available queue manager to route a message to. Q79.What is multiple hoping? Ans: If there is franz ferdinand biography, no direct communication link between the source queue manager and the target queue manager, it is possible to pass through one or more intermediate queue managers on the way to the target queue manager.

This is known as a multi-hop. Q80.What are the platform does MQ Client support? Ans : WebSphere MQ for analysis AIX. WebSphere MQ for HP-UX. Ferdinand. WebSphere MQ for iSeries. WebSphere MQ for analysis Solaris. WebSphere MQ for Windows. WebSphere MQ for z/OS. Q81.What are the Hardware requirements for WebSphere MQ client? Ans: A WebSphere MQ client can run on Windows on any Intel 486 processor based IBM PC machine or equivalent that can run Windows 98 or Windows NT® 4.0.

There must be enough random access memory (RAM) and disk storage for the programming prerequisites (below), the WebSphere MQ client, the access methods, and the application programs. Q82.What are software requirements for WebSphere MQ client? Ans: The following are prerequisites for WebSphere MQ applications running on a Windows client. Minimum supported software levels are shown. Later levels, if any, will be supported unless otherwise stated. Microsoft Windows NT, Version 4 compatible, to include TCP/IP, NetBIOS, SNA LU 6.2, and SPX.Microsoft Windows 98. What’s the message code for Stopping a Queue Manager? AMQ4044 Queue manager stopping. What is triggering and franz ferdinand biography, what are the components? WebSphere MQ can start an application automatically when certain conditions on a queue are met. For example, you might want to start an application when the maximum number of messages on a queue reaches a specified number.

This facility is called triggering. Computer Industry. There are two ways of triggering. a. Application triggering b. Channel Triggering. a) In the case of application triggering the components are Application queue: This is the message queue associated with an application Process: A process definition defines the application to be used to process messages from the application queue. Initiation queue: The queue manager moitors the application queue. If the trigger type of the application queue is set to Every then whenever a message is put to the application queue, the q manager looks into the process definition and puts a message having the application name and other details to franz ferdinand, the initiation queue Trigger monitor: The trigger monitor gets the trigger message from the initiation queue and starts the william blake the garden of love program specified. b) For channel triggering the transmission queue is monitored and ferdinand, when messages are put in the transmission queue, the q manager puts a message in the channel initiation queue. The channel initiator is the program which monitors the initiation queue and starts the sender MCA. For the message to persuasive, reach the target queue, the channel listener has to be running in the target queue manager. How will you change the log file size? You cannot change the log file size. For this you need to franz ferdinand, drop and re-create the queue manager. The number of log files primary secondary can be changed but you need to restart the novel Q manager for the changes to take effect. Franz Ferdinand Biography. What’s the queue where the full and computer industry analysis, partial repository is stored?

How to franz, determine if full repositories are in why is the epic a first in known literary works?, Synch? SYSTEM.CLUSTER.REPOSITORY.QUEUES should have the franz ferdinand same depth. Also you should find something in your errorlogs if it fails. If the channels between the two FRs are able to run, trust IBM, and assume all is well use runmqsc to display all cluster objects. Stonecutting For John Essays. Redirect the output into a file Analyze both files for differences . What is Local administration and Remote administration? Local Administration: Means carrying out administration tasks on any queue managers you have defined on your local system. Remote Administration: This allows you to issue commands from your local system that are processed on another system. For example, you can issue a remote command to change a queue definition on a remote queue manager. You do not have to ferdinand, log on to that system, although you do need to have the computer analysis appropriate channels defined. The queue manager and command server on the target system must be running.

Runmqsc command modes? Verification Mode Direct Mode Indirect Mode. How do you set channel triggering? 1. The local queue manager places a message from an application or from a message channel agent (MCA) on the transmission queue. 2. When the triggering conditions are fulfilled, the local queue manager places a trigger message on the initiation queue. 3. The long-running channel initiator program monitors the initiation queue, and franz ferdinand biography, retrieves messages as they appear. 4. The channel initiator processes the trigger messages according to information contained in them. This information may include the channel name, in which case the corresponding MCA is started. 5. Persuasive Wikipedia. The channel listener running in the target q mgr starts the receiving MCA. Difference between Control Commands used in Windows and other Os? Control commands on are case sensitive other OS but Windows they can be used any way.

What is Repository queue manager? What are Full and partial repository? A repository queue manager is a cluster queue manager that holds a full repository. A queue manager that hosts a complete set of information about every queue manager in the cluster is referred to as having a full repository for the cluster. The other queue managers in the cluster inquire about the information in franz biography, the full repositories and build up their own subsets of this information in partial repositories. A partial repository contains information about only computer those queue managers with which the franz queue manager needs to exchange messages. The queue managers request updates to the information they need, so that if it changes, the full repository queue manager will send them the new information.

Where does each queue manager store its repository information? Where do the queue managers exchange repository information? Channel initiator is the road novel program that monitors the initiation queue and starts. A channel listener program ‘listens’ for franz biography incoming network requests and starts the appropriate receiver channel when it is needed. What is MQOO_BIND_ON_OPEN option on the MQOPEN call ? When this attribute is set it forces all the messages sent to this queue to persuasive, be sent to the same instance of the queue (go to the same queue in ferdinand biography, cluster) Difference between MQPUT and MQPUT1 call ? The MQPUT1 call always operates as though MQOO_BIND_NOT_FIXED were in effect, that is, it always invokes the workload management routine. On The Road. What happens when a queue manager fails? What happens if I put-disable a cluster queue? How long do the queue manager repositories retain information?

It must be 90 days but the Qm sends information to all the QM’s in the cluster to update its information around 30 days. Franz Ferdinand Biography. When is Channel security exit program called? Are called at why is the epic of gilgamesh a first, MCA initiation and termination. Stopping unauthorized queue managers putting messages on your queues. Use OS security, Object Authority Manager (OAM) on WebSphere MQ user-written procedures. What is intercommunication and its components to send message ? Intercommunication means sending messages from one queue manager to another. The receiving queue manager could be on the same machine or another; nearby or on the other side of the world. It could be running on the same platform as the local queue manager, or could be on any of the franz ferdinand platforms supported by WebSphere MQ. This is called a distributed environment. Message channels Message channel agents.

Transmission queues Channel initiators and listeners. On The Novel. What is Message Channels and ferdinand biography, How many types? Message channels are the channels that carry messages from one queue manager to another.They are Uni-directional Channels. 1. Sender Channel 4.Receiver Channel. 2. Server Channel 5.Requester Channel. 3. Cluster-sender channel 6.Cluster-receiver channel. What are MQI channels and Essay Rational, there types? MQI channels are the channels that carry messages from MQ Client application to the MQ server and vice versa.They are Bi-directional Channels.

1. Server-connection 2. Client-connection. 1.Sender-receiver Channel 4.Requester-server Channel. 2.Requester-sender Channel 5. Server-receiver Channel. 3.Cluster-Sender- Receiver Channel 6.Client-Server Channel. Batch Heartbeat Interval (BATCHHB): This heartbeat interval allows a sending channel to verify that the receiving channel is still active just before committing a batch of messages. If the receiving channel is not active, the batch can be backed out rather than becoming in-doubt, Batch interval (BATCHINT), Batch size (BATCHSZ), Channel type (CHLTYPE), Cluster (CLUSTER), Cluster namelist (CLUSNL), Connection name (CONNAME), Convert message (CONVERT), Disconnect interval (DISCINT), Heartbeat interval (HBINT), KeepAlive Interval (KAINT), Long retry count (LONGRTY), Long retry interval (LONGTMR), Maximum message length (MAXMSGL) What is channel disconnect interval? This is a time-out attribute, specified in seconds, for ferdinand biography the server, cluster-sender, and cluster-receiver channels.

The interval is measured from the point at on the road novel, which a batch ends, that is when the batch size is reached or when the batch interval expires and the transmission queue becomes empty. Ferdinand Biography. If no messages arrive on the transmission queue during the specified time interval, the channel closes down. Explain the channel attribute BATCHSIZE? BATCHSIZE denotes the maximum number of messages that can be sent through a channel before taking a checkpoint. This parameter is valid only for channels with a channel type (CHLTYPE) of Essay Behavior, SDR, SVR, RCVR, RQSTR, CLUSSDR, or CLUSRCVR. The value must be in the range 1 through 9999. What are the ways to start a channel?

Use the MQSC command START CHANNEL. Use the control command runmqchl to franz ferdinand, start the channel as a process. Use the Behavior Therapy channel initiator to trigger the channel. Type of franz biography, channel states: Inactive and persuasive wikipedia, Current- Stopped, Starting, Retrying and Active. What are the ferdinand three options for stopping channels? QUIESCE FORCE TERMINATE. What are the components of message channel? A queue manager to communicate with another queue manager uses message channel. The components of a message channel are.

1. Sender Message channel agent: Sender MCA is a program that transfers messages from a transmission queue to a communication link. 2. On The. Receiver MCA: It transfers messages from the communication link into biography, the target queue. 3. Rational Therapy. Communication protocol: Responsible for transferring messages A message channel is unidirectional. A message channel agent (MCA) is a program that controls the sending and ferdinand biography, receiving of messages. There is blake of love, one message channel agent at each end of a channel. One MCA takes messages from the transmission queue and puts them on the communication link.

The other MCA receives messages and delivers them onto a queue on the remote queue manager. Types: caller MCA and responder MCA. Due to: 1. Ferdinand Biography. Xmitq is set to get disabled 2. Computer Industry Analysis. Network Issues. 3.QueueManager Stopped 4. Listener is not running 5.TriggerTurned Off. Explain Channel-Exit programs and what are the types?

Channel-exit programs are called at defined places in ferdinand, the processing carried out by MCA programs. Security Exit: You can use security exit programs to verify that the partner at the other end of persuasive, a channel is genuine. Message Exit: Message Exit can be used for Encryption on the link, message data conversion, validation of user ID, Message-retry Exit: Message-retry exit is called when an attempt to open the target queue is unsuccessful. Biography. Sender and receiver Exit: You can use the send and receive exits to perform tasks such as data compression and decompression. Channel auto-definition Exit Transport-retry Exit. What happens if DEAD letter Queue is not defined? If dead letter queue are not defined the analysis Messages are placed on the Transmission Queue and the Queue Manager become Inactive. Explain Remote queue definitions? Advantages? These are definitions for queues that are owned by another queue manager.

Advantages: The advantage of remote queue definitions is that they enable an application to put a message to franz ferdinand, a remote queue without having to specify the name of the remote queue or the william blake the garden remote queue manager, or the name of the transmission queue. This gives you location independence. If the messages pass through one or more intermediate queue managers on the way to franz biography, the target queue manager is known as a multi-hop. What is programmable command format (PCF) commands? These commands are issued from persuasive wikipedia a programme for local or remote administration done by programmers. Ferdinand. What happens if channel terminates when fast non-persistent messages are in transit? If a channel terminates while fast, non-persistent messages are in transit, the messages are lost and it is up to the application to arrange for their recovery if required. If the Rational Therapy receiving channel cannot put the message to its destination queue then it is placed on the dead letter queue, if one has been defined. If not, the message is discarded. What happens when a message cannot be delivered?

Message-retry: If the MCA is unable to put a message to the target queue for a reason that could be transitory (for example, because the queue is franz biography, full), the MCA has the Stonecutting Lead Baskerville Essays option to wait and retry the operation later. Return-to-sender: If message-retry was unsuccessful, or a different type of error was encountered, the MCA can send the message back to the originator. Dead-letter queue: If a message cannot be delivered or returned, it is put on to the dead-letter queue (DLQ). You can use the DLQ handler to process the message. Recovery scenario –Disk Drive Full, damaged Queue manager object, Damaged single object, Automatic media recovery failure. MQ ensures that messages are not lost by maintaining records (logs) of the activities of the queue managers that handle the receipt, transmission, and delivery of messages. How to Process Messages from the Dead-letter-Queue? We can Process the DLQ messages using runmqdlq command for sending messages to franz ferdinand, the destination Queues or target Queues.

Use the runmqdlq command to start the dead-letter queue (DLQ) handler, which monitors and handles messages on a dead-letter queue. runmqdlq QName QMgrName. Use the Dead-Letter-Queue-Handler to computer, perform various actions on franz ferdinand biography, selected messages by specifying a set of rules that can both select a message and define the action to be performed on that message. The runmqdlq command takes its input from about Rational Emotive Therapy stdin. When the command is franz biography, processed, the results and the epic a first in known literary, a summary are put into a report that is sent to stdout. Which field of the ferdinand biography MQDLH structure contains a reason code that identifies why the message is on the DLQ? What is completion code and reason code? Completion code gives the status of the blake of love current transaction it can be 0, 1, 2. 0- for Successful completion (MQCC_OK), 1- Warning (MQCC_WARNING), 2- call failed (MQCC_FAILED). Franz Ferdinand Biography. Reason code is that which gives the reason for which the about Therapy transaction fails it can be MQRC_NONE, MQRC_BACKED_OUT etc. This is a byte string that the franz application can use to relate one message to another, or to relate the message to other unit of work that the application is william the garden, performing. The correlation identifier is a permanent property of the franz message, and persists across restarts of the queue manager. Explain commit and Back Out units of work?

When a program puts a message on a queue within a unit of work, that message is made visible to other programs only when the program commits the unit of work. Commit: To commit a unit of work, all updates must be successful to preserve data integrity. If the program detects an error and decides that the put operation should not be made permanent, it can back out the unit of work. Back Out: When a program performs a back out, WebSphere MQ restores the queue by removing the messages that were put on the queue by that unit of work. The way in which the program performs the commit and back out operations depends on wikipedia, the environment in which the program is running. Franz Ferdinand Biography. This is a count of the number of times that the message has been previously returned by the MQGET call as part of a unit of work, and blake of love, subsequently backed out. BackoutCount is the number of times the application tried and failed to put the messages in the Queue. What is segmentation and explain segmentation Flag?

When a message is too big for franz a queue, an attempt to put the message on the queue usually fails. Segmentation is a technique whereby the queue manager or application splits the message into road novel, smaller pieces called segments, and places each segment on the queue as a separate physical message. The application that retrieves the message can either retrieve the segments one by one, or request the queue manager to reassemble the segments into a single message that is returned by ferdinand biography the MQGET call. What are Namelist? when do you use it? A namelist is a WebSphere MQ object that contains a list of other WebSphere MQ objects. Typically, namelists are used. Essay Rational Emotive. a By trigger monitors, where they are used to identify a group of queues. a Namelists are also used with queue manager clusters to maintain a list of clusters referred to by more than one WebSphere MQ object. Franz. a The advantage of using a namelist is that it is Essay about Rational Emotive Behavior, maintained independently of applications; it can be updated without stopping any of the franz applications that use it. Also, if one application fails, the Stonecutting Lead to Success for John Essays namelist is not affected and ferdinand, other applications can continue using it. Namelists are also used with queue manager clusters to maintain a list of clusters referred to persuasive wikipedia, by more than one WebSphere MQ object. Command to create a queue manager? crtmqm -q -d MY.DEFAULT.XMIT.QUEUE –u SYSTEM.DEAD.LETTER.QUEUE SATURN.QUEUE.MANAGER.

Why is Channel RETRYINT attribute used? If a message is places in DLQ because of put inhibited or queue full condition, the ferdinand biography DLQ handler attempts to put the message back to the destination queue. This interval is called as RETRYINT by default the retry interval is 60 seconds. Receiver Cluster Receiver Requester. What is blake the garden of love, Local units of work (uses a single-phase commit process) and franz ferdinand biography, Global unit of Work (uses a two-phase commit process)? Local unit of work: Units of work that involve only the queue manager are called local units of work.

Syncpoint coordination is provided by the queue manager itself (internal coordination) using a single-phase commit process. Use global units of work when you also need to include updates to Baskerville, resources belonging to other resource managers. Here the coordination can be internal or external to the queue manager uses a two-phase commit. Stopping a Queue manager manually? For Win NT: use endmqm command or WebSphere MQ service from franz biography Services on the Windows Control Panel. For Unix/AIX: use ps command to find the process Ids that are still running Ex: ps –ef | grep QMNAME, then use kill command to kill the running process. Endmqm -I -c -w -p Qmgrname. What are name services? The name service is an the garden of love, installable service that provides support to the queue manager for franz ferdinand looking up the name of the Emotive Behavior queue manager that owns a specified queue. Problem Definition: Messages do not appear on the Queue?

We must check for: has the message been put on the queue successfully, are we able to get messages form the queue, can other applications get messages from the queue, has other application got exclusive access to the queue. Difference between MQSC commands and Control commands? MQSC Commands - These commands are used to handle the admin related functions for the components that are present in the MQ Series. In general MQSC commands are used for creating and maintaining Message channels, Queue Managers, Clusters etc… Control Commands - These commands are used to manage the processes and services that are helpful in the functioning of the MQ Series. In general these commands are used for Channel listener, Channel Initiator, Trigger monitor etc… How is Automatic definition of channels done? If WebSphere MQ receives an franz ferdinand biography, inbound attach request and cannot find an appropriate receiver or server-connection channel or Cluster receiver in the channel definition file (CDF), it creates a channel automatically and adds it to the CDF. The Epic Of Gilgamesh A First In Known Literary. Automatic definitions are based on two default definitions supplied with WebSphere MQ: SYSTEM.AUTO.RECEIVER and SYSTEM.AUTO.SVRCONN.

How will we start a command server? Depending on the value of the queue manager attribute, SCMDSERV, the command server is franz ferdinand biography, either started automatically when the queue manager starts, or must be started manually. Start: Using strmqcsv saturn.queue.manager where saturn.queue.manager is the wikipedia QM name. Display: dspmqcsv Stop: endmqcsv. When we use CCSID attribute of the ALTER QMGR command to change the CCSID of the QM what are the components that need to be restarted? Stop and restart the biography queue manager, stop and restart command server (A command server processes command messages) and Behavior, channel programs.

What is a MQ Series Configuration file (mqs.ini),Queue manager Configuration file (qm.ini)? A queue manager configuration file (qm.ini) to effect changes for specific queue managers. There is one qm.ini file for each queue manager on the node. (A queue manager configuration file, qm.ini, contains config information relevant to biography, a specific queue manager. There is one queue manager configuration file for each queue manager. The qm.ini file is automatically created when the queue manager with which it is associated is created.

For example, the to Success Baskerville path and the name for a configuration file for a queue manager called QMNAME is:/var/mqm/qmgrs/QMNAME/qm.ini) What is name transformation in naming a Queue manager Configuration File? A qm.ini file is biography, held in the root of the industry directory tree occupied by the queue manager. Franz Ferdinand Biography. For example, the path and the name for a configuration file for a queue manager called QMNAME is: /var/mqm/qmgrs/QMNAME/qm.ini A directory name is generated based on the queue manager name. This process is known as name transformation. Connecting to the queue manager (MQCONN or MQCONNX calls), Opening the object (MQOPEN or MQPUT1 calls), Putting and getting messages (MQPUT or MQGET calls), Closing the object (MQCLOSE) What is a Websphere MQ configuration file (mqs.ini)?

Contains information relevant to all the queue managers on road, the node. It is created automatically during installation (The WebSphere MQ configuration file, mqs.ini, contains information relevant to biography, all the queue managers on the node. It is created automatically during installation. The mqs.ini file for WebSphere MQ for UNIX systems is in the /var/mqm directory. It contains: v The names of the queue managers v The name of the default queue manager The location of the persuasive files associated with each of biography, them) How can we edit the configuration files? Automatically using commands that change the industry configuration of queue managers on the node, Manually using a standard text editor. Franz Biography. First Failure Support Technology For MQSeries for UNIX systems, FFST information is recorded in a file in the /var/mqm/errors directory. These errors are normally severe, unrecoverable errors, and indicate either a configuration problem with the system or an computer analysis, MQSeries internal error. The files are named, where: nnnnn Is the ID of the ferdinand biography process reporting the william error mm Is a sequence number, normally 0 When a process creates an FFST record, it also sends a record to syslog. Ferdinand Biography. The record contains the name of the FFST file to assist in automatic problem tracking.

What are logs, Log Sizes, what are uses ? Log Primary : 3 IN win a 2-253 In Unix a 2-510. Log Secondary: 2 IN win a 1-253 In Unix a 2-509. Type of Logging in MQ. Circular: Circular logging rotates the logs every and so overwrites the existing logs. Linear: Linear logging will not rotate log files but keeps the log data in of love, a continuous sequence of files. Franz Biography. New log files are added if there is more data to be logged. Creating Damaged Objects Using Log files? 1.Rcdmqimg: Use this command to why is the epic of gilgamesh a first, write an image of an object, or group of objects, to the log for franz biography use in why is of gilgamesh in known literary works?, media recovery. This command can only franz biography be used when using linear logging. Use the associated command rcrmqobj to recreate the Stonecutting Lead to Success for John Baskerville Essays object from the image.

2.Rcrmqobj: Use this command to recreate an object, or group of objects, from their images contained in the log. This command can only franz ferdinand biography be used when using linear logging. Use the associated command, rcdmqimg, to record the object images to the log. Blake The Garden Of Love. Types of recovery: Restart recovery: When you stop WebSphere MQ in a planned way. Crash recovery: When a failure stops WebSphere MQ.

Media recovery: To restore damaged objects. What are the locations and franz ferdinand, files of the Error Logging? IBMWebSphere MQerrors a AMQERR01.LOG, AMQERR02.LOG, AMQERR03.LOG. What are the different types of security services available in MQ Series? Access control a The access control service protects critical resources in on the novel, a system by limiting access only to authorized users and their applications. Confidentiality a The confidentiality service protects sensitive information from unauthorized disclosure. Data integrity a The data integrity service detects whether there has been unauthorized modification of data. There are two ways in which data might be altered: accidentally, through hardware and transmission errors, or because of a deliberate attack, Non-repudiation. Commands For Authorization: 1.setmqaut: Command used to change the authorizations to a profile, object or class of objects. Ferdinand. Authorizations can be granted to, or revoked from, any number of principals or groups. 2.dspmqaut: Command to display the current authorizations to a specified object.

If a user ID is a member of more than one group, this command displays the combined authorizations of all the groups. Only one group or principal can be specified. 3.dmpmqaut: Command to dump the current authorizations to a specified object. What are the persuasive different methods handled by MQ Series for securing a message? Cryptography Message digests. Digital signatures Digital certificates. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) What is Cryptography, Why and where it is used in MQ Series?

Cryptography is the process of converting between readable text, called plaintext, and an unreadable form, called cipher text. Franz Ferdinand Biography. The sender converts the william of love plaintext message to ferdinand, cipher text. This part of the process is called encryption (sometimes encipherment).The cipher text is transmitted to the receiver. The receiver converts the cipher text message back to its plaintext form. William The Garden Of Love. This part of the ferdinand process is called decryption (sometimes decipherment). The conversion involves a sequence of on the road novel, mathematical operations that change the appearance of the message during transmission but do not affect the content. Cryptographic techniques can ensure confidentiality and franz, protect messages against unauthorized viewing (eavesdropping), because an encrypted message is not understandable. Digital signatures, which provide an assurance of message integrity, use encryption techniques. What is a Message Digest, Digital Signature and industry, Digital Certificate? Message digest: Is also known as a Message Authentication Code (MAC), because it can provide assurance that the message has not been modified.

The message digest is sent with the message itself. The receiver can generate a digest for the message and compare it with the sender’s digest. If the two digests are the ferdinand same, this verifies the integrity of the message. Any tampering with the message during transmission almost certainly results in Emotive Therapy, a different message digest. Digital signature: Is formed by encrypting a particular representation of a message the ferdinand encryption uses the private key of the signatory and, for efficiency, usually operates on a message digest rather than the message itself. Digital signatures vary with the data being signed, unlike handwritten signatures, which do not depend on the content of the document being signed.

If two different messages are signed digitally by the same entity, the two signatures differ, but both signatures can be verified with the same public key, that is, the public key of the entity that signed the messages. Digital certificates: Provide protection against impersonation, because a digital certificate binds a public key to its owner, whether that owner is an individual, a queue manager, or some other entity. Digital certificates are also known as public key certificates, because they give you assurances about the ownership of a public key when you use an asymmetric key scheme. What is a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), where it is used? The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) provides an industry standard protocol for wikipedia transmitting data in a secure manner over an insecure network. The SSL protocol is widely deployed in both Internet and Intranet applications. SSL defines methods for authentication, data encryption, and message integrity for a reliable transport protocol, usually TCP/IP. What are Cipher Suites and Cipher Specs in franz ferdinand, SSL?

Cipher Suite: Is a suite of cryptographic algorithms used by an SSL connection. A suite comprises three distinct algorithms. The key exchange and authentication algorithm, used during the SSL handshake. Why Is. The encryption algorithm, used to encipher the ferdinand data.The MAC (Message Authentication Code) algorithm, used to generate the industry analysis message digest. Ferdinand. Cipher Spec: Identifies the combination of the william the garden of love encryption algorithm and franz ferdinand, MAC algorithm. Both ends of an SSL connection must agree the same CipherSpec to be able to computer industry, communicate. What are the steps to be followed in working with SSL on an UNIX environment? 1.Setting up a key repository 2.Working with a key repository. 3.Obtaining personal certificates 4.Managing digital certificates.

5.Configuring for cryptographic hardware 6.Mapping DNs to user IDs. 7.Adding personal certificates to a key repository. Websphere MQ installation naming consideration? Ensure that the franz biography machine name does not contain any spaces. If you insatall in such a machine you cannot create and Queue managers. Names for userId and group must no longer that 20 characters. WebSphere MQ messages: Messages are made up of persuasive wikipedia, Two parts: Message descriptor, Application data. Types of ferdinand, messages? Datagram: A Message sent with no response expected. Request: A Message sent for which a response is expected.

Reply: A Response Message for a requested message. Why Is Works?. Report: A Message that describes the occurrence or event. Qmanager a 10000 Msgs Maxmsglength a 4 Mb. Queue a 5000 Msgs Maxmsglength a 4 Mb. Biography. This defines the character set of character data in about Rational, the message.

If you want to set this character set to that of the queue manager, you can set this field to franz ferdinand, the constant MQCCSI_Q_MGR or MQCCSI_INHERIT. When you get a message from a queue, compare the value of the for John Essays CodedCharSetId field with the value that your application is ferdinand, expecting. If the two values differ, you might need to convert any character data in on the road, the message or use a data-conversion message exit if one is available. Local Queue Remote Queues Alias Queues. Model Queue Dynamic Queues Cluster Queues.

Queue: A safe place to store messages for Prior-To-Delivery, it belongs to ferdinand biography, the Qmgr to persuasive wikipedia, which the application is connected. Model Queue: Model queue is a template of ferdinand biography, a queue definition that uses when creating a dynamic queue. Wikipedia. Alias Queue: Queue definition, which is ferdinand biography, Alias to an actual Local or Remote Q. Used for security and easy maintenance. Remote Queue: Object that defines a Queue belongs to another Q Manager (Logical Def). Initiation Queue: An initiation queue is a local queue to Lead Baskerville Essays, which the queue manager writes a trigger message when certain conditions are met on ferdinand biography, another local queue. Dynamic Queue: Such a queue is defined on the fly when the application needs it. Dynamic queues may be retained by the queue manager or automatically deleted when the application program ends.

Use- To store intermediate results. Cluster Queue: Custer queue is a local queue that is known throughout a cluster of Stonecutting to Success Baskerville Essays, queue managers. Franz Biography. Reply-To-Queue: A request message must contain the name of the queue into which the on the novel responding program must put the Reply Message. Queue Manager: Provides Messaging services and franz ferdinand, manages the Queues, Channels, and Processes that belongs to it. Alias Q Manager: Queue-manager aliases, are created using a remote-queue definition with a blank RNAME. Channel: Communication Paths between Queue Managers. Default objects: (43 objects) Queues: SYSTEM.DEFAULT.LOCAL QUEUE SYSTEM.DEFAULT.MODEL.QUEUE. Channel Queues: SYSTEM.CHANNEL.INITQ SYSTEM.CHANNEL.SYNCQ. Admin Queues: SYSTEM.ADMIN.ACCOUNTING.QUEUE.

Channels: SYSTEM.AUTO.RECEIVER SYSTEM.AUTO.SVRCONN. Process Def: SYSTEM.DEFAULT.PROCESS. Services: SYSTEM.DEFAULT.SERVICE SYSTEM.BROKER. Name Lists: SYSTEM.DEFAULT.NAMELIS. Event Queues: SYSTEM.ADMIN.CHANNEL.EVENT. What are advantages of creating Aliases? Why do we create Alias? When sending messages: Re mapping the queue-manager name when sending messages, Altering or specifying the transmission queue when sending messages, Determining the destination when receiving messages, Using a queue manager as a gateway into the cluster.

Gives different application different levels of access authority to the target Queue Allows different applications to work with the same queue in different way Simplifies maintenance, migration and workload balance. What are the parameters required to put a message on a queue (or) putting a message on queue parameters? Requires a Connection handler (Hconn), a Queue handler (Hobj), a description of the message that you want to on the road, put on the queue (MQMD), Control information, message length, the message data itself. You can remove a message from the franz ferdinand queue so that other programs can no longer see the message, you can copy a message, leaving the original message on the queue. Industry. This is known as browsing. You can remove the franz biography message once you have browsed it. In both cases, you use the MQGET call, but first your application must be connected to the queue manager, and you must use the MQOPEN call to open the queue. What are Persistent Non-Persistent messages?

Persistent messages survive system failures, as they are stored in blake, system log files. However non persistent message will be lost if a system failure occurs. Persistent messages are used to ferdinand biography, ensure guaranteed delivery of messages to the target queue manager even if there are system failures, Non-persistent messages are used when the source can reproduce the messages. What happens when a message is william blake the garden, put in a PUT-INHIBITED Queue? The messages are put in the dead letter queue. If a channel is unable to put a message to the target queue because that queue is full or put inhibited, the channel can retry the operation a number of times (specified in the message-retry count attribute) at a given time interval (specified in the message-retry interval attribute). Biography. Alternatively, you can write your own message-retry exit that determines which circumstances cause a retry, and the number of attempts made. The channel goes to PAUSED state while waiting for the message-retry interval to finish. Syncpoint coordination is the process by which units of work are either committed or backed out blake, with data integrity. The decision to commit or back out the changes is taken, in ferdinand biography, the simplest case, at the end of a transaction. However, it can be more useful for an application to synchronize data changes at other logical points within a transaction.

These logical points are called syncpoints (or synchronization points) and the period of processing a set of updates between two syncpoints is called a unit of william of love, work. Biography. A trigger monitor is a continuously - running program that serves one or more initiation queues. When a trigger message arrives on an initiation queue, the trigger monitor retrieves the message. The trigger monitor uses the information in the trigger message. It issues a command to persuasive, start the corresponding application/channel. What are the biography Trigger types available Explain? EVERY: A trigger event occurs every time that a message arrives on the application queue. Use this type of trigger if you want a serving program to process only one message, then end.

FIRST: A trigger event occurs only when the number of messages on the application queue changes from zero to industry, one. Use this type of trigger if you want a serving program to start when the first message arrives on a queue, continue until there are no more messages to process, then end. DEPTH: A trigger event occurs only when the number of messages on the application queue reaches the value of the TriggerDepth attribute. IS used to describe the store for digital certificates and biography, their associated private keys. An in-doubt channel is a channel that is indoubt with the Stonecutting to Success for John remote channel about which messages has been sent and received. Franz Ferdinand Biography. Queue open failed? *Reason: On an MQCONN or MQCONNX call, the on the novel value specified for the QMgrName parameter is not valid or not known. *Resolution: we must correct the configuration information. *Reason Code 2085 MQRC_UNKNOWN_OBJECT_NAME. *Resolution: check for the Queue name in the QM if not found define it.

Messages sent to DLQ? *Reason code: 2218 Message too big for Channel. *Investigation: Examine the contents of the dead-letter queue. Each message is contained in franz ferdinand, a structure that describes why the message was put to the queue, and to where it was originally addressed. Also look at previous error messages to see if the attempt to put messages to a dead-letter queue failed. *Resolution: change the channel size as required, if the Essay about Rational Emotive channel is a cluster channel then do a REFRESH cluster so that it will reflect to the other QM’s, then reprocess the message. Message piling up in a Queue? *Investigation: Check for the log files (/var/mqm/qmgrs/qmgrname/errors/*.log), The messages were not being processed because of very high workload.

The SSL client does not have a certificate. Ferdinand. A certificate has expired or is not yet active. A certificate is not supported. A certificate is corrupted. May be ssl version upgradation. Channel refuses to run or channel retry? *Reason: A mismatch of name between a sending and receiving channels, Incorrect channel type specified, A receiver channel might be in stopped state, the connection might not be defined Correctly, there might be a problem with communication software. *Resolution: Alter the Queue and for John Baskerville Essays, REFRESH the cluster to reflect the change in the information stored in the partial repository. Increase the Queue and Queue manager MaxMsgLength attributes, Use segmented messages (Messages can be segmented by either the ferdinand application or the computer Queue manager), use reference message.

AIX (Advance Interactive X-change) AIX logs messages as specified in /etc/syslog.conf. What is ferdinand, kproc? Is a kernel’s process. William The Garden. What is franz ferdinand biography, AIX? Advance Interactive X-change. Of Gilgamesh. A simple calculator, Dc command takes its input from the File parameter or standard input until it reads an end-of-file character. Converts and copies a file, DD command reads the In File parameter or standard input, does the specified conversions, then copies the converted data to the Out File parameter or standard output. Deletes files if the request is biography, confirmed, The del command displays the persuasive wikipedia list of specified files and asks you to confirm your request to delete the group of files. Reports information about space on file systems. Compares text files, It can compare single files or the contents of directories. The du command displays the number of biography, blocks used for files.

Processes the command history list. What is grep command / fgrep command? Searches a file for a literal string. What is IKEYCMD command? Is a UNIX command line interface that you can use to manage keys, certificates, and certificate requests. A semaphore is a special variable that takes only whole positive numbers and upon which only two operations are allowed: wait (P) and on the, signal (V). They are used to ensure that a single executing process has exclusive access to a resource.

A pipe is franz, a half-duplex communication channel defined by computer industry two file descriptors, one open for writing and one for reading, such that what is written in the former pops out in the latter. Using pipes command can be joined so one input to another. Interacts directly with the HW and provides the service to the user programs. Franz. A shell is a command interpreter. That can interact with the Kernel through the computer shell (program). We can write ASCII (text) scripts to be acted upon by the shell. Franz Biography. A command is of gilgamesh in known literary works?, a program that tells the franz ferdinand unix system to Baskerville Essays, do something. What will perform a long list on all files in the current directory and recursively perform the list through all sub-directories. Used to perform special functions on ferdinand biography, the command line or within editor. Of Love. ps –e This command counts the number of processes running on your computer system. wc -l This command pipeline sort the franz ferdinand biography output of the. ps –ef This command counts the number of users logged into your computer system. who | wc -l The output of the on the road who command is piped into the wc command, which counts the number of franz biography, lines in the who output.

grep This command as a search command (most people wish it was named search). It is used to search for text strings within one or more files. find This command is very powerful. It can search the the garden entire filesystem for ferdinand biography one or more files that you specify to look for. This is very helpful when a file has been lost .Ex: Find / -name Chapter1 -type f –print This command searches through the william the garden of love root filesystem (/) for the file named Chapter1. If it finds the file, it prints the franz location to the screen.

More about Vi editor: Three distinct modes of Vi Editor: Input mode Command mode Last line mode. Input Mode: Lets you type text into your document. Command Mode: Lets you enter vi commands(cut, paste etc..). Last Line Mode: Lets you enter commands that appear on the bottom line of the screen, and can affect the editing environment or interact with the external environment. Blake The Garden. Notes: When you first open a file, your default mode is ferdinand biography, command mode. To switch from command mode to input mode use the command mode commands insert(i) append(a) open(o) i- insert a new text in front of a current character. a- append new text after a current character. o- Open a new line after the current line and start inserting text. For deleting text: These commands must all be entered from command mode. x - Delete the character at road, the current cursor position. dew - delete the remainder of the current word. dd - delete the line. ssndd - delete n number of lines (current line is line 1) d - delete to ferdinand, the end of the line. Searching for text: /text search forward through the document for text. ?text search backward through the document for text. n repeat the previous search.

DQM: DISTRIBUTED QUEUEING MANAGEMENT. Setuping Controlling of Message Channel in Message Queuing for Q Managers on blake of love, Distributed Systems. What is queue-sharing group for z/OS ? The Client Application fails and gets return code? What is the SSL Version used in WMQ5.3? NPMSPEED FAST. What happens if the channel goes down? Nonpersistent message speed (NPMSPEED) It is used to specify the speed at which nonpersistent messages are to be sent. It can take on two values either ‘normal’ or ‘fast’.

The default is ‘fast’, which means that nonpersistent messages on a channel are not transferred within transactions. Non persistent messages are lost if there is a transmission failure or if the channel stops when the messages are in transit. Franz Biography. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is persuasive wikipedia, a protocol designed to allow the transmission of secure data over an insecure network. Ferdinand. SSL makes use of digital certificates to enable authentication of the partner. It also uses encryption to prevent eavesdropping and hash functions to enable detection of tampering.

It can be used with both MCA channels for queue manager to Essay Emotive Behavior, queue manager communication and MQI channels for client applications connecting to a queue manager. A CipherSuite is a suite of cryptographic algorithms used by ferdinand biography an SSL connection. A suite comprises three distinct algorithms: The key exchange and authentication algorithm, used during the wikipedia SSL handshake. The encryption algorithm, used to encipher the data. The MAC (Message Authentication Code) algorithm, used to generate the message digest. Some important MQSC commands that work with cluster. DISPLAY CLUSQMGR SUSPEND CLUSQMGR.

RESUME CLUSQMGR REFRESH CLUSTER. What are the Advantages of clustering? Advantages: Reduced system administration. Ferdinand. Increased high availability. Essay About Emotive Behavior. Improved resource utilization. Franz Ferdinand Biography. A cluster Queue manager is a queue manager that is road novel, a member of a cluster. A queue manager can be a member of more than one cluster.

What happens when we give a Refresh Cluster mqsc command ? This command issued on a queue manager, the queue manager discard all locally held information about a cluster except the FULL repository information. This enables you to perform a “cold-start” on the cluster. How to remove a Qmgr from biography Cluster? a Suspend queue manager. Analysis. a Remove the franz biography CLUSRCVR channel definition from the william the garden of love cluster by setting the CLUSTER attribute to franz ferdinand biography, empty. Rational Emotive. a Stop the CLUSRCVR channel. a Delete the CLUSSDR channel definition. What happens when full cluster repository Qmgr goes down? If your queue manager is a full repository queue manager, alter the queue manager definition to set the REPOS and REPOSNL attributes to blank. This sends a notification to other queue managers advising them that they must stop sending cluster information to biography, this queue manager. When will we use RESET CLUSTER command? To forcibly remove a queue manager from the cluster and resets the cluster. How does a partial repository QM share information with other clusters when the novel full repos QM is down? The cluster continues to ferdinand biography, work with information from the other full repository. If both the full repositories are down, still the persuasive cluster continues to work with available information from the partial repository.

A repository handles the request whenever possible but if the chosen repository is not available another repos used. When the first repository becomes available again, it collects the latest new and changed information from the others so that the queue managers are kept in synch. The repository queue manager send messages to each other to be sure that they are both kept up to franz ferdinand, date with new information about the cluster. How do I set up a cluster and Stonecutting to Success for John, add a new QM to franz biography, a cluster? Determine to which full repository the qmgr has to on the road, point to ferdinand, get cluster information, Define the CLUSRCVR channel, Define a CLUSSDR channel on queue manager. The components of a cluster are. a group of queue managers.(more than one) Cluster receiver channel - to communicate with any cluster queue manager. Emotive Behavior Therapy. Cluster sender channel- to communicate with any cluster queue manager. The cluster sender channel points to biography, a full repository queue manager.

Cluster transmission queue. One transmission queue to transmit message to any cluster queue. Computer Industry. A queue that is available to franz biography, all cluster queue managers. Persuasive. Types of cluster services ==============D. How many Transmission Queues are present in a Queue manager present in a Cluster? When defining a Cluster sender channel, for example if there is ferdinand biography, more than one instance in the cluster what will happen? How many cluster channel definitions are required for a QM in Essays, a cluster? TWO cluster channel definitions are required: Cluster Sender channel and Cluster Receiver channel. What is Cluster queue how is it defined? A cluster queue is a queue that is ferdinand biography, hosted by a cluster queue manager and analysis, made available to other queue managers in the cluster. The cluster queue manager makes a local queue definition for the queue, specifying the ferdinand name of the cluster where the queue is to be found.

This definition has the effect of Essay Rational Emotive, showing the other queue managers in franz ferdinand biography, the cluster that the on the road novel queue is there. The other queue managers in the cluster can put messages to a cluster queue without needing a corresponding remote-queue definition. Defining a cluster-receiver channel has the effect of ferdinand biography, introducing a queue manager to on the road novel, one of the full repository queue managers. The full repository queue manager updates the information in its full repository accordingly. Then it automatically creates a cluster-sender channel back to the queue manager, and sends the queue manager information about the cluster. Thus a queue manager learns about franz ferdinand biography a cluster and a cluster learns about a queue manager. Types of aliases and analysis, remote-queue definitions with clusters? Queue-manager aliases, reply-to queue aliases, and queue aliases. What is a gateway queue manager and ferdinand biography, advantages of using in a cluster? This enables workload balancing for messages coming from outside the cluster.

How will you keep a cluster secure? Stopping the unauthorized Queue manager sending message to your Queue manager. Stopping unauthorized Queue manager putting messages on your Queues. Stopping Your Queue manager putting messages to remote Queues. Preventing Queue manager from joining a cluster: Define a channel security exit program.

Forcing unwanted queue manager to leave a cluster. Analysis. Adding a new Queue manager to a cluster? Determine the franz ferdinand biography Full repository to which the QM should refer. Define the CLUSRCVR channel. Define the CLUSSDR channel on blake the garden of love, the QM. Review the application for biography message affinities.

Removing a cluster queue from a Queue manager? Indicate the Queue is no longer available – remove the CLUSTER name from the analysis local queue definition (ALTER QLOCAL(localqueue) CLUSTER(‘’)) Disable the Queue – ALTER QLOCAL(localqueue) PUT(DISABLE) Monitor the Queue until it is EMPTY. Monitor the channel to ensure that there is no in-doubt message. Delete the Queue. Removing a Queue Manager form a Cluster? Suspend the QM (SUSPEND QMGR CLUSTER(clusname)) Remove the CLUSRCVR channel definition.

Stop the CLUSRCVR channel. Delete the CLUSSDR channel definition. Converting an existing network to cluster? Alter two QM to make it a FULL repository MQ. Biography. Define CLUSRCVR channel on each Queue manager.

Define CLUSSDR channel on william the garden, each Queue Manager. Delete all remote Queue definitions for biography the existing network. Analysis. When a cluster contains more than one instance of the same queue, WebSphere MQ uses a workload management algorithm to determine the best queue manager to biography, route a message. The algorithm uses a round-robin approach to of gilgamesh in known, finalize its choice between the suitable queue managers. Remove the cluster queues from the cluster. Stop all applications that have access to cluster Queue. Remove the repository attribute from the biography full repository Queue manager. Remove Cluster channels on each Queue manager.

Issue REFRESH cluster command on william of love, each Queue manager. - Which exit is used to franz ferdinand, perform compression during transmission?

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The personal statement might just be the hardest part of franz biography, your college application. Mostly this is because it has the least guidance and is the most open-ended. Stonecutting To Success For John Baskerville Essays! One way to understand what colleges are looking for when they ask you to write an essay is to check out the franz ferdinand biography essays of william the garden, students who already got in—college essays that actually worked. After all, they must be among the most successful of this weird literary genre. In this article, I’ll go through general guidelines for what makes great college essays great. Ferdinand! I've also compiled an enormous list of 100+ actual sample college essays from 13 different schools. Finally, I’ll break down two of these published college essay examples and explain why and how they work. With links to 125 full essays and essay excerpts , this article will be a great resource for on the road novel learning how to biography, craft your own personal college admissions essay!

What Excellent College Essays Have in Common. Even though in why is of gilgamesh in known literary, many ways these sample college essays are very different from franz biography, one other, they do share some traits you should try to emulate as you write your own essay. Building out from a narrow, concrete focus. You’ll see a similar structure in many of the why is of gilgamesh in known works? essays. The author starts with a very detailed story of an event or description of a person or place. After this sense-heavy imagery, the essay expands out to franz ferdinand biography, make a broader point about the author, and connects this very memorable experience to the author’s present situation, state of mind, newfound understanding, or maturity level.

Knowing how to tell a story. Some of the experiences in these essays are one-of-a-kind. But most deal with the stuff of everyday life. Computer Analysis! What sets them apart is the way the author approaches the topic: analyzing it for drama and humor, for its moving qualities, for ferdinand biography what it says about the persuasive author’s world, and for how it connects to the author’s emotional life. A killer first sentence. Franz Ferdinand Biography! You’ve heard it before, and you’ll hear it again: you have to industry analysis, suck the reader in, and the best place to do that is the first sentence.

Great first sentences are punchy. They are like cliffhangers, setting up an exciting scene or an unusual situation with an unclear conclusion, in order to make the reader want to know more. Don’t take my word for it—check out these 22 first sentences from Stanford applicants and tell me you don’t want to read the rest of those essays to find out what happens! A lively, individual voice. Writing is for franz ferdinand biography readers. In this case, your reader is an admissions officer who has read thousands of persuasive wikipedia, essays before yours, and will read thousands after.

Your goal? Don’t bore your reader. Use interesting description, stay away from cliches, include your own offbeat observations—anything that makes this essay sounds like you and franz ferdinand not like anyone else. Enchanted Prince Stan decided to stay away from any frog-kissing princesses to retain his unique perspective on ruling as an amphibian. Technical correctness.

No spelling mistakes, no grammar weirdness, no syntax issues, no punctuation snafus—each of blake of love, these sample college essays has been formatted and ferdinand biography proofread perfectly. If this kind of exactness is not your strong suit, you’re in luck! All colleges advise applicants to have their essays looked over several times by parents, teachers, mentors, and anyone else who can spot a comma splice. Your essay must be your own work, but there is industry analysis, absolutely nothing wrong with getting help polishing it. Links to Full College Essay Examples. Some colleges publish a selection of their favorite accepted college essays that worked, and I've put together a selection of over 100 of these (plus some essay excerpts!). Please note that some of these college essay examples may be responding to prompts that are no longer in franz, use. The current Common App prompts are as follows: 1. Some students have a background, identity, interest, or talent that is persuasive, so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it.

If this sounds like you, then please share your story. 7. Share an essay on any topic of your choice. It can be one you've already written, one that responds to a different prompt, or one of your own design. These essays are answers to biography, past prompts from why is the epic in known literary works?, either the Common Application or the Universal Application, both of which Johns Hopkins accepts. Essay Examples Published by franz ferdinand Other Websites. 7 Common Application essays from applicants admitted to Stanford, Duke, Connecticut College, NYU, Carleton College, Washington University, and the University of Pennsylvania 2 Common Application essays (1st essay, 2nd essay) from industry, applicants admitted to Columbia. Here is a smaller collection of essays that are college-specific, plus 22 essay excerpts that will add fuel to your essay-writing fire. The University of ferdinand, Chicago is well known for its off-the-wall, often wacky supplementary essay prompts.

These seven sample essays respond to a variety of thought-provoking questions. Sometimes it's helpful to see how others managed to get over the difficult first-line hump. We're guessing all these monkeys would write different first sentences. Analyzing Great Common App Essays that Worked. I've picked out Essay Rational Behavior two essays from the examples collected above to franz ferdinand, examine in more depth so that you can know exactly what makes a successful college essay work. Full credit for Rational Therapy these essays goes to the original authors and the schools that published them. Example #1: Breaking Into Cars, by Stephen, Johns Hopkins Class of '19 (Common App Essay, 636 words long)

I had never broken into ferdinand biography, a car before. We were in Laredo, having just finished our first day at a Habitat for Humanity work site. In Known Literary! The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the college kids to clean up. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out of the van. Someone picked a coat hanger out of the dumpster, handed it to me, and took a few steps back. “Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to unlock it?” “Why me?” I thought. More out of amusement than optimism, I gave it a try.

I slid the hanger into the window’s seal like I’d seen on crime shows, and spent a few minutes jiggling the apparatus around the inside of the frame. Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. One was the lock on ferdinand biography the door. (I actually succeeded in springing it.) The other was the realization that I’d been in this type of situation before. In fact, I’d been born into why is of gilgamesh, this type of situation. My upbringing has numbed me to unpredictability and chaos. With a family of seven, my home was loud, messy, and spottily supervised. My siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringing—all meant my house was functioning normally.

My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the time. When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant. Franz! At the age of william, nine, I learned how to clear burning oil from the ferdinand biography surface of water. My Dad considered this a critical life skill—you know, in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed. “The water’s on fire! Clear a hole!” he shouted, tossing me in persuasive wikipedia, the lake without warning.

While I’m still unconvinced about that particular lesson’s practicality, my Dad’s overarching message is unequivocally true: much of life is unexpected, and ferdinand you have to deal with the twists and turns. Living in my family, days rarely unfolded as planned. A bit overlooked, a little pushed around, I learned to about Emotive Therapy, roll with reality, negotiate a quick deal, and give the improbable a try. I don’t sweat the small stuff, and I definitely don’t expect perfect fairness. So what if our dining room table only has six chairs for seven people? Someone learns the importance of punctuality every night. But more than punctuality and a special affinity for musical chairs, my family life has taught me to thrive in situations over which I have no power. Ferdinand Biography! Growing up, I never controlled my older siblings, but I learned how to thwart their attempts to wikipedia, control me.

I forged alliances, and franz ferdinand biography realigned them as necessary. Computer Analysis! Sometimes, I was the poor, defenseless little brother; sometimes I was the omniscient elder. Different things to biography, different people, as the situation demanded. I learned to adapt. Back then, these techniques were merely reactions undertaken to ensure my survival. But one day this fall, Dr. Hicks, our Head of Stonecutting Essays, School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on throughout the year: “How can I participate in a thing I do not govern, in the company of people I did not choose?”

The question caught me off guard, much like the question posed to me in Laredo. Then, I realized I knew the answer. I knew why the coat hanger had been handed to me. Growing up as the middle child in my family, I was a vital participant in a thing I did not govern, in the company of people I did not choose. It’s family.

It’s society. And often, it’s chaos. You participate by letting go of the small stuff, not expecting order and perfection, and facing the biography unexpected with confidence, optimism, and preparedness. My family experience taught me to face a serendipitous world with confidence. It's very helpful to william blake the garden of love, take writing apart in order to franz ferdinand biography, see just how it accomplishes its objectives. Stephen's essay is Emotive Therapy, very effective. Let's find out why!

An Opening Line That Draws You In. I had never broken into a car before. In just eight words, we get: scene-setting (he is standing next to a car about to break in), the franz ferdinand biography idea of crossing a boundary (he is industry, maybe about to do an illegal thing for franz biography the first time), and Lead to Success Baskerville a cliffhanger (we are thinking: is franz ferdinand biography, he going to get caught? Is he headed for a life of crime? Is he about to william the garden, be scared straight?).

We were in Laredo, having just finished our first day at a Habitat for Humanity work site. Franz Ferdinand! The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the college kids to clean up. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out of the van. Someone picked a coat hanger out of the dumpster, handed it to me, and Rational Emotive took a few steps back. “Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to franz biography, unlock it?” “Why me?” I thought. More out of amusement than optimism, I gave it a try. I slid the hanger into the window’s seal like I’d seen on crime shows, and spent a few minutes jiggling the apparatus around the inside of the frame. It’s the details that really make this small experience come alive.

Notice how whenever he can, Stephen uses a more specific, descriptive word in william blake the garden, place of a more generic one. The volunteers aren’t going to franz, get food or dinner; they’re going for “Texas BBQ.” The coat hanger comes from “a dumpster.” Stephen doesn’t just move the coat hanger—he “jiggles” it. Details also help us visualize the industry analysis emotions of the people in the scene. The person who hands Stephen the coat hanger isn’t just uncomfortable or nervous; he “takes a few steps back”—a description of movement that conveys feelings. Finally, the ferdinand biography detail of actual speech makes the scene pop.

Instead of writing that the other guy asked him to on the road, unlock the van, Stephen has the ferdinand biography guy actually say his own words in a way that sounds like a teenager talking. Coat hangers: not just for crows' nests any more! (Gotz/Wikimedia) Turning a Specific Incident Into a Deeper Insight. Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. One was the lock on the door. (I actually succeeded in persuasive wikipedia, springing it.) The other was the realization that I’d been in this type of situation before. In fact, I’d been born into this type of situation. Not only does Stephen make the locked car experience a meaningful illustration of how he has learned to be resourceful and franz ferdinand ready for wikipedia anything, but he also makes this turn from the specific to the broad through an elegant play on the two meanings of the franz biography word “click.” Using Concrete Examples When Making Abstract Claims.

My upbringing has numbed me to unpredictability and chaos. With a family of seven, my home was loud, messy, and spottily supervised. My siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringing—all meant my house was functioning normally. “Unpredictability and persuasive chaos” are very abstract, not easily visualized concepts. Not only that, but they could mean any number of things—violence, abandonment, poverty, mental instability. Ferdinand Biography! By instantly following up with highly finite and unambiguous illustrations like “family of seven” and “siblings arguing, the dog barking, the Behavior phone ringing,” Stephen grounds the abstraction in franz biography, something that is Stonecutting for John Baskerville, easy to picture: a large, noisy family. Using Small Bits of Humor and Casual Word Choice. My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the ferdinand biography time.

When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant. At the age of nine, I learned how to a first in known works?, clear burning oil from the surface of water. My Dad considered this a critical life skill—you know, in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed. Obviously, knowing how to franz ferdinand, clean burning oil is not high on the list of things every 9-year-old needs to computer industry, know. To emphasize this, Stephen uses sarcasm by bringing up a situation that is clearly over-the-top: “in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed.” The humor also feels relaxed. Part of this is because he introduces it with the franz colloquial phrase “you know,” so it sounds like he is talking to us in person. This approach also diffuses the blake potential discomfort of the reader with his father’s strictness—since he is ferdinand biography, making jokes about it, clearly he is OK. Notice, though, that this doesn’t occur very much in the essay.

This helps keep the tone meaningful and william blake the garden of love serious rather than flippant. Mr. President? There's been an oil spill! Then I want our best elementary school students on franz it, STAT. An Ending That Stretches the Insight Into the Future. But one day this fall, Dr. Hicks, our Head of School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on throughout the year: “How can I participate in a thing I do not govern, in the company of Essay about Rational Behavior Therapy, people I did not choose?” The question caught me off guard, much like the question posed to me in Laredo. Then, I realized I knew the answer. I knew why the coat hanger had been handed to me.

Growing up as the middle child in my family, I was a vital participant in a thing I did not govern, in ferdinand biography, the company of people I did not choose. It’s family. It’s society. And often, it’s chaos. You participate by letting go of the small stuff, not expecting order and perfection, and facing the unexpected with confidence, optimism, and preparedness. My family experience taught me to face a serendipitous world with confidence. The ending of the essay reveals that Stephen’s life has been one long preparation for persuasive wikipedia the future.

He has emerged from franz ferdinand, chaos and his dad’s approach to parenting as a person who can thrive in a world that he can’t control. This connection of the epic of gilgamesh in known literary, past experience to current maturity and self-knowledge is a key element in all successful personal essays. Colleges are very much looking for mature, self-aware applicants. These are the qualities of successful college students, who will be able to ferdinand, navigate the wikipedia independence college classes require and the responsibility and franz ferdinand quasi-adulthood of college life. What Could This Essay Do Even Better? Even the best essays aren't perfect, and even the world's greatest writers will tell you that writing is never finished—just due. So what would we tweak in road, this essay if we could? Replace some of the cliched language.

Stephen uses handy phrases like twists and turns and don’t sweat the small stuff as a kind of shorthand for explaining his relationship to chaos and franz ferdinand biography unpredictability. But using too many of these ready-made expressions runs the risk of clouding out your own voice and replacing it with something expected and boring. Use another example from recent life. Stephen's first example (breaking into the van in Emotive Therapy, Laredo) is a great illustration of ferdinand biography, being resourceful in an unexpected situation. Road Novel! But his essay also emphasizes that he learned to adapt by being different things to franz, different people. It would be great to see how this plays out outside his family, either in the situation in Lead for John Baskerville Essays, Laredo or another context. Example #2: By Bridget Collins, Tufts Class of '19 (Common App Essay, 608 words long) I have always loved riding in cars. After a long day in first grade, I used to fall asleep to the engine purring in my mother's Honda Odyssey, even though it was only franz a 5-minute drive home. As I grew, and graduated into the shotgun seat, it became natural and enjoyable to look out the Essay about Rational Behavior Therapy window.

Seeing my world passing by through that smudged glass, I would daydream what I could do with it. In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to be Emperor of the World. While I sat in the car and watched the miles pass by, I developed the ferdinand plan for my empire. I reasoned that, for the world to run smoothly, it would have to look presentable. On The! I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to fix everything that needed fixing. That old man down the street with chipping paint on his house would have a fresh coat in ferdinand biography, no time.

The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto the roof of the school would get it back. The big pothole on persuasive wikipedia Elm Street that my mother managed to franz ferdinand biography, hit every single day on the way to Stonecutting to Success Essays, school would be filled-in. It made perfect sense! All the people that didn't have a job could be Fixer-Uppers. Franz Ferdinand Biography! I was like a ten-year-old FDR. Seven years down the road, I still take a second glance at the sidewalk cracks and think of persuasive wikipedia, my Fixer-Uppers, but now I'm doing so from the driver's seat. Franz Ferdinand Biography! As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the Stonecutting to Success Baskerville Essays World, and franz ferdinand that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in novel, my car ride imaginings. Or do they?

I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in an orange T-Shirt. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me. Bridget the Fixer-Upper will be slightly different than the imaginary one who paints houses and fetches Frisbees. I was lucky enough to discover what I am passionate about when I was a freshman in high school. A self-admitted Phys. Ed. addict, I volunteered to help out with the Adapted PE class. On my first day, I learned that it was for developmentally-disabled students. To be honest, I was really nervous.

I hadn't had too much interaction with special needs students before, and wasn't sure how to franz, handle myself around them. Stonecutting Lead To Success For John Baskerville Essays! Long story short, I got hooked. Three years have passed helping out in APE and eventually becoming a teacher in the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program. I love working with the students and watching them progress. When senior year arrived, college meetings began, and franz biography my counselor asked me what I wanted to do for a career, I didn't say Emperor of the World. Instead, I told him I wanted to become a board-certified behavior analyst. A BCBA helps develop learning plans for students with autism and other disabilities.

Basically, I would get to do what I love for computer industry analysis the rest of my life. He laughed and told me that it was a nice change that a seventeen-year-old knew so specifically what she wanted to do. I smiled, thanked him, and biography left. Persuasive Wikipedia! But it occurred to franz ferdinand biography, me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in life was still to become a Fixer-Upper. Industry! So, maybe I'll be like Sue Storm and her alter-ego, the ferdinand biography Invisible Woman. I'll do one thing during the why is of gilgamesh in known day, then spend my off-hours helping people where I can. Instead of flying like Sue, though, I'll opt for a nice performance automobile. My childhood self would appreciate that. Bridget takes a somewhat different approach than Stephen, but her essay is just as detailed and engaging. Biography! Let's go through some of the strengths of her essay.

A Structure That’s Easy to Follow and Understand. The essay is arranged chronologically. Bridget starts each paragraph with a clear signpost of where we are in persuasive, time: Paragraph 1: “after a long day in first grade” Paragraph 2: “in elementary school” Paragraph 3: “seven years down the road” Paragraph 4: “when I was a freshman in franz, high school” Paragraph 5: “when senior year arrived” This keeps the reader oriented without being distracting or gimmicky. I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to for John Baskerville Essays, fix everything that needed fixing. That old man down the street with chipping paint on his house would have a fresh coat in ferdinand biography, no time. The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto the roof of the school would get it back. Seven years down the road, I still take a second glance at the sidewalk cracks and william think of my Fixer-Uppers, but now I'm doing so from the ferdinand driver's seat. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the persuasive wikipedia World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to franz ferdinand, remain in my car ride imaginings.

Or do they? I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in an orange T-Shirt. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me. I wanted to become a board-certified behavior analyst.

A BCBA helps develop learning plans for students with autism and other disabilities. Basically, I would get to do what I love for the rest of persuasive, my life. …But it occurred to me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in life was still to become a Fixer-Upper. What makes this essay fun to ferdinand, read is that Bridget takes a child’s idea of a world made better through quasi-magical helpers and about Behavior turns it into a metaphor for the author’s future aspirations. Franz! It helps that the metaphor is a very clear one: people who work with students with disabilities are making the world better one abstract fix at a time, just like imaginary Fixer-Uppers would make the of love world better one concrete physical fix at a time. Every childhood Fixer-Upper ever. Ask your parents to explain the franz back row to you. Computer Industry Analysis! (JD Hancock/Flickr) This essay uses many techniques that make Bridget sound genuine and make the reader feel like we already know her. Technique #1: humor. Notice Bridget's gentle and relaxed humor that lightly mocks her younger self’s grand ambitions (this is biography, different from the more sarcastic kind of humor used by Stephen in the first essay—you could never mistake one writer for the other). In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to be Emperor of the World. I was like a ten-year-old FDR.

Technique #2: invented terminology. Computer! The second technique is the way Bridget coins her own terms, carrying them through the franz ferdinand biography whole essay. It would be easy enough to simply describe the people she imagined in childhood as helpers or assistants, and to simply say that as a child she wanted to rule the world. Instead, she invents the capitalized (and thus official-sounding) titles “Fixer-Upper” and “Emperor of the World,” making these childish conceits at once charming and iconic. What's also key is the epic of gilgamesh a first literary, that the titles feed into the central metaphor of the essay, which keeps them from franz, sounding like strange quirks that don’t go anywhere. Technique #3: playing with syntax. The third technique is to Lead to Success for John, use sentences of varying length, syntax, and structure. Biography! Most of the essay's written in standard English and uses grammatically correct sentences. However, at key moments, Bridget emphasizes that the reader needs to sit up and pay attention by switching to short, colloquial, differently punctuated, and sometimes fragmented sentences.

The big pothole on william the garden of love Elm Street that my mother managed to hit every single day on the way to school would be filled-in. It made perfect sense! All the people that didn't have a job could be Fixer-Uppers. When she is narrating her childhood thought process, the franz ferdinand sudden short sentence “It made perfect sense!” (especially its exclamation point) is basically the essay version of drawing a light bulb turning on over someone’s head. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in persuasive wikipedia, my car ride imaginings.

Or do they? Similarly, when the essay turns from franz ferdinand biography, her childhood imagination to for John Baskerville Essays, her present-day aspirations, the turn is marked with “Or do they?”—a tiny and arresting half-sentence question. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me. The first time when the ferdinand biography comparison between magical fixer-upper’s and computer industry analysis the future disability specialist is made is when Bridget turns her metaphor onto herself. The essay emphasizes the importance of the moment through repetition (two sentences structured similarly, both starting with the franz biography word “maybe”) and the use of a very short sentence: “Maybe it could be me.” To be honest, I was really nervous. I hadn't had too much interaction with special needs students before, and about Emotive wasn't sure how to handle myself around them. Long story short, I got hooked. The last key moment that gets the small-sentence treatment is the franz emotional crux of the essay. As we watch Bridget go from nervously trying to help disabled students to persuasive wikipedia, falling in love with this specialty field, she undercuts the potential sappiness of the moment by relying on changed-up sentence length and slang: “Long story short, I got hooked.”

The best essays convey emotions just as clearly as this image. What Could This Essay Do Even Better? Bridget's essay is very strong, but there are still a few little things that could be improved. Explain the car connection better. The essay begins and ends with Bridget's enjoying a car ride, but this doesn't seem to franz ferdinand, be related either to the Fixer-Upper idea or to her passion for working with special-needs students.

It would be great to blake, either connect this into the essay more, or to take it out altogether and create more space for something else. Give more details about being a teacher in franz biography, the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program. It makes perfect sense that Bridget doesn't want to put her students on the garden of love display. It would take the ferdinand focus off of her and possibly read as offensive or condescending. Computer Analysis! But, rather than saying long story short, maybe she could elaborate on her own feelings here a bit more. Franz Ferdinand! What is it about this kind of teaching that she loves? What is she hoping to bring to the lives of persuasive, her future clients? 3 Essential Tips for Writing Your Own Essay. How can you use this discussion to better your own college essay? Here are some suggestions for ways to franz, use this resource effectively.

#1: Take Apart the Other Essays in the Links. As you go through the essays we've compiled for you above, ask yourself the following questions: Can you explain to yourself (or someone else!) why the opening sentence works well? Look for the essay's detailed personal anecdote. Why Is Of Gilgamesh A First Works?! What senses is the author describing? Can you easily picture the scene in your mind's eye? Find the place where this anecdote bridges into a larger insight about the franz ferdinand biography author. How does the essay connect the two? How does the anecdote work as an example of the author's characteristic, trait, or skill? Check out the essay's tone.

If it's funny, can you find the places where the humor comes from? If it's sad and Stonecutting to Success for John Baskerville moving, can you find the imagery and description of feelings that make you moved? If it's serious, can you see how word choice adds to this tone? When you figure out franz ferdinand how all the cogs fit together, you'll be able to industry, build your own . um . whatever this is. All of franz, these essays rely on connecting with the reader through a heartfelt, highly descriptive scene from the author's life. Wikipedia! It can either be very dramatic (did you survive a plane crash?) or it can be completely mundane (did you finally beat your dad at Scrabble?). Either way, it should be personal and revealing about you, your personality, and the way you are now that you are entering the adult world. Let me level with you: the best writing isn't writing at all.

It's rewriting. And in order to have time to rewrite, you have to franz biography, start way before the application deadline. My advice is to write your first draft at least two months before your applications are due. Let it sit for a few days untouched. William Blake Of Love! Then come back to it with fresh eyes and think critically about what you've written. What's extra? What's missing? What is in biography, the wrong place? What doesn't make sense? Don't be afraid to take it apart and rearrange sections. Do this several times over, and your essay will be much better for it!

Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to the garden, have a shot at franz ferdinand biography improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Anna scored in the 99th percentile on road novel her SATs in high school, and went on to major in English at franz Princeton and to get her doctorate in English Literature at Columbia. She is passionate about improving student access to higher education. You should definitely follow us on social media. Novel! You'll get updates on our latest articles right on franz ferdinand your feed. Follow us on on the novel all 3 of ferdinand biography, our social networks:

Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to on the road, Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to franz ferdinand biography, Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in analysis, a variety of franz biography, other topics!

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Inside Beatles' Bloody, Banned 'Butcher' Cover. How one photographer's outre vision spawned the ultimate Fab Four collectible. My original idea for the cover was better #x2013; decapitate Paul, John Lennon once cracked while discussing Yesterday and Today , a 1966 collection of assorted recent Beatles tracks cobbled together for the North American market. Joking aside, his concept is franz, almost tame compared with the photo that ultimately graced the LP upon its release that June. Fans seeking the aggressively inoffensive hit Yesterday name-checked in the title were shocked to find a grotesque tableau starring the Stonecutting to Success Baskerville Essays group, clad in franz ferdinand biography white butcher coats, snickering like naughty (murderous, even) schoolboys while draped in slabs of raw meat and persuasive cigarette-burned doll parts. Lennon could have drawn and quartered his bandmates and it might have inspired less outrage. George's rosewood ax, mics wrapped in pantyhose and Orson Welles' alleged son — the wild truth about the Fab Four's final show. Half a century later, the franz ferdinand biography image of a cheerful Fab Four posing post-baby-slaughter remains unspeakably bizarre. Blake Of Love. Though the cover was immediately withdrawn, the fact that it was produced at franz biography, all is a testament to the band's unprecedented status. You couldn't show a toilet seat on an album cover in 1966, and it would be a decade before punk rockers approached this level of Lead Baskerville Essays, public provocation. Yet there sat the Beatles, gleeful among the carnage.

The so-called butcher cover vaulted an otherwise unremarkable record into rock infamy and ferdinand biography spawned what George Harrison once called the definitive Beatles collectible worth tens #x2013; and sometimes hundreds #x2013; of thousands of dollars. Still, the cover remains one of the most misunderstood chapters in the band's chronicle. Was it their comment on the Vietnam War? A protest against their record company? A publicity stunt? A sophomoric prank by bored rock stars? The truth is more complex.

The image was the road brainchild of Robert Whitaker, a 26-year-old Australian photographer whose dark humor and ferdinand biography love of the surreal made him one of the band's favorite cameramen. Responsible for some of the most striking images of the group, Whitaker won particular praise for wikipedia his whimsical 1965 portrait of John Lennon posed with a dandelion over one eye. Drawn from the Greek myth of Narcissus and a quote from ferdinand biography, Euripides, the image beautifully captured the Beatles' idiosyncratic sensibilities. When the of gilgamesh a first works? group arrived at his studio in London's hip Chelsea neighborhood on March 25th,#xA0;1966, the well-read Whitaker had a more ambitious concept in mind. Ferdinand. I got fed up with taking squeaky-clean pictures of the Beatles, and Lead Baskerville Essays I thought I'd revolutionize what pop idols are, he told author Jon Savage. Having personally witnessed the biblical level of Beatle adulation, including their record-breaking concert at Shea Stadium, Whitaker was inspired to create a satirical photo series that would address the biography absurd degree of why is the epic in known literary, their fame and franz ferdinand biography remind fans that these rock deities were actually flesh and blood. All over the world I'd watched people worshiping like gods, four Beatles, he explained. For John Baskerville. To me they were just stock standard normal people. Ferdinand. But this emotion that fans poured on them made me wonder where Christianity was heading.

His piece would take the form of a triptych, retouched and manipulated to resemble a Russian religious icon. Influenced by a film collaboration between Salvador Dali and for John Essays Luis Bu#xF1;uel called Un Chien Andalou , the work of conceptual artist Meret Oppenheim and the doll assemblages in Hans Bellmer's book Die Puppe , Whitaker also drew upon images that occurred to him in dreams. The hypnagogic piece was to be called A Somnambulant Adventure. Clearly this was no run-of-the-mill photo session, but the Beatles couldn't have been better primed. Franz. The Whitaker shoot was the quartet's first public outing since their final British concert in computer industry December 1965.

The early months of 1966 had been booked to accommodate shooting their third feature film, but when a script failed to materialize they found themselves with their first sizable block of free time since achieving worldwide stardom. The result was an intellectual growth spurt as all four pursued individual interests and devoured books, plays, paintings, music and everything else available in London's burgeoning counterculture. Like Whitaker, Lennon had become fascinated by the role of religion in the modern world. Christianity will go, he famously opined to the Evening Standard 's Maureen Cleave. It will vanish and shrink. #x2026; We're more popular than Jesus now; I don't know which will go first #x2013; religion or rock roll. The quote would mushroom into a nearly life-threatening scandal when it was reprinted in the United States later that summer, but the Beatles entered Whitaker's studio on March 25th filled with confidence and a strong desire to franz indulge their appetite for experimentation. An irreverent take on religious iconography was certainly a selling point for the band, but it was the extraordinary prop list that held their notoriously short attention span. Sausage links, false teeth, joints of raw pork, glass eyes, hammers, nails, white coats, a bird cage, a severed pig's head and doll parts were laid out Essay about Rational Emotive, like an occult flea market. We'd done a few sessions with [Whitaker] before this, and he knew our personalities, remembered Paul McCartney in an interview for the Beatles Anthology . He knew we liked black humor and sick jokes.

And he said, 'I have an idea #x2013; stick these white lab coats on.' It didn't seem too offensive to us. It was just dolls and a lot of franz ferdinand, meat. Persuasive Wikipedia. I don't really know what he was trying to say, but it seemed a little more original than the things the rest of the ferdinand biography people were getting us to do. George Harrison was less magnanimous in on the novel his assessment: I thought it was gross, and I also thought it was stupid. Sometimes we all did stupid things, thinking it was cool or hip when it was na#xEF;ve and franz ferdinand biography dumb, and that was one of wikipedia, them. But again, it was a case of being put in a situation where one is obliged, as part of a unit, to cooperate. So we put on those butchers' uniforms for that picture. #xA0;

Only Whitaker knew the exact manner in which the franz biography triptych would have been assembled, and he offered several different explanations prior to blake the garden his death in 2011. The first image, slated to be the franz ferdinand biography cover of a gatefold sleeve, depicted a woman with her back to the camera, genuflecting before the william the garden of love Fab Four, who stand clasping a string of sausages. Biography. According to Whitaker, this represented the birth of the Beatles, humans like everyone else. The sausages are meant to be an umbilical cord, he said in a 2004 Mojo profile. And then that image was going to be inset inside a pregnant woman's womb, and then there was going to be an illustration of a breast with a nipple and a big womb, and the four Beatles laying insider her tummy all connected to an umbilical cord.#xA0; The second image, the famous butcher shot, conveyed the idea that the Beatles were in danger of being dismembered #x2013; both physically and psychically #x2013; by their celebrity.

It would've been two-and-a-quarter-inches square in the center of a 12-inch sleeve, Whitaker told Mojo of the persuasive wikipedia photo. Ferdinand Biography. Around their heads would have been silver halos with precious stones and then the whole of the rest of it would've been like a Russian icon #x2013; silver and gold, so that I've sort of wikipedia, canonized them and put them into the church. That meat is ferdinand biography, meant to represent the fans, and the false teeth and on the novel the false eyes is the falseness of representing a god-like image as a golden calf. The third image shows George Harrison hammering a nail into a blissful John Lennon's head. Franz Ferdinand. Unlike the illusion of fame, the william musicians were as real and sturdy as a piece of wood. John would actually have had a transparent film of wood grain over his face so that he looked like a wood block, Whitaker later recalled. There would also have been a horizon with the sky where the water should be and the water where the sky was. Despite, or perhaps because of, these grandiose concepts, the franz ferdinand biography Mop Top icon was destined to remain incomplete. Reasons are unclear to this day, but only the butcher photo made it to the record label. They didn't have the other pictures #x2013; the keys to unlock it.

So it was a cock-up, and I guess it upset a lot of people. Whitaker lamented in Mojo . As spring turned to summer, the of gilgamesh in known literary works? label grew eager to biography release an album in advance of the Beatles' North American tour that August. With the industry analysis groundbreaking Revolver still far from finished, they improvised. It was common practice by Capitol to shave a few tracks off the franz ferdinand biography Beatles' British albums to create new LPs unique to the U.S. market. Both the Beatles and Capitol made serious money off of these bonus records, but the persuasive wikipedia band resented the franz biography artistic interference. The track list for why is in known Yesterday and Today consisted of franz, songs elbowed from the abridged American versions of Stonecutting Lead to Success for John Baskerville Essays, Help! and Rubber Soul , padded out with recent hit singles and franz biography three new Lennon compositions recorded for a first in known literary the Revolver sessions. Ferdinand. When pushed to supply a cover, the Beatles' promptly submitted the butcher photo. Wikipedia. Today many fans insist this was a dig at Capitol for franz biography butchering their American albums by altering the track sequence. Whitaker categorically denied this, dismissing the claims as rubbish, absolute nonsense. Label president Alan Livingston was apoplectic when the proposed album cover landed on his desk.

I looked at it and on the thought, 'What in the hell is this? How can I put this out?' he said in ferdinand Mojo . I showed it to our sales manager and of love a few other people and they turned green. Livingston placed an emergency call to London and pleaded with the franz biography group to reconsider their choice. My contact was mainly with Paul McCartney. He was adamant and felt very strongly that we should go forward. He said, 'It's our comment on the war,' he remembered. It's debatable whether that meaning was clear to Essay about Emotive Behavior anybody outside of the Beatles themselves, but the cover marks their first overt protest of the Vietnam conflict.#xA0; While McCartney may have been the spokesman of the group, Lennon claimed to be the instigator. Ferdinand. I would say I was a lot of the force behind [the butcher cover] going out and trying to keep it out. I especially pushed for it to be an album cover, just to break the image, he recalled in 1974. Persuasive Wikipedia. The shot had already been used without incident in England to promote the Beatles' new single, Paperback Writer, but it was obvious that an album cover would attract more scrutiny.

There we were, supposed to be sort of angels. I wanted to ferdinand show that we were really aware of life. Against his better judgment, Livingston ordered the analysis sleeve into production. Three quarters of a million albums were printed, with a reported 60,000 copies sent to media contacts and retailers in advance of the franz June 15th#xA0;release date. Predictably, most balked at the gory cover. Word came back very fast that the dealers would not touch it. They would not put the Essay about Emotive Therapy album in their stores, Livingston said. Lennon, however, remained defiant. It's as relevant as Vietnam, he said during a press conference at ferdinand, the time. If the public can accept something as cruel as the war, they can accept this cover. Capitol Records found themselves in Essay Emotive Behavior the unenviable position of either sitting on an album they couldn't sell or pissing off their star attraction by changing the artwork.

The Beatles could have flexed their formidable muscle, but to the surprise of all concerned, they backed down.#xA0; The band's manager, Brian Epstein, was in the midst of franz biography, renegotiating their American distribution contract. On The Road Novel. Though it's hard to believe today, offers from other labels were not forthcoming. Industry insiders, including Columbia kingpin Clive Davis, felt the Beatles had peaked and ferdinand weren't willing to match Epstein's figure. Rather than risk future negotiations with reps at Capitol, Epstein (who apparently loathed the photo) convinced the Beatles to substitute a new shot #x2013; also taken by computer industry analysis Whitaker #x2013; showing the band crowded around an old fashioned steamer trunk. Franz Ferdinand Biography. They stuck that awful-looking picture of novel, us looking just as deadbeat but supposed to be a happy-go-lucky foursome, Lennon grumbled a decade later. On June 14th, Capitol began a massive recall effort dubbed Operation Retrieve. They sent a letter to retailers and reviewers requesting that copies of the album be returned immediately. The original cover, created in England, was intended as 'pop art' satire, Livingston explained in the message. Franz Ferdinand. However, a sampling of public opinion in the United States indicates that the computer industry cover design is franz ferdinand, subject to Stonecutting Essays misinterpretation. The strategy was largely successful, although a handful of stores jumped the gun and sold the illicit album for a single day.

Workers at biography, Capitol's four major pressing plants toiled through the Stonecutting Lead Baskerville Essays weekend stuffing discs into new sleeves. According to an internal memo, 50,000 butcher sleeves were dumped into a landfill, where they were covered with layers of water, dirt, and trash. Rational minds ultimately hit upon a more efficient solution of pasting new cover slicks onto the existing sleeve. Ferdinand. This saved time as well as money, and the inoffensive version of william, Yesterday and ferdinand biography Today was in stores on June 20th, 1966, five days later than scheduled. The controversy didn't dampen the a first in known public's ardor for the Fab Four, and the album shot to franz biography Number One on the Billboard charts. Even so, the recall cost the Lead Baskerville label over $200,000, reportedly making it the only Beatles' album to lose money for Capitol. They could have saved themselves the ferdinand biography trouble.

News of the paste-over began circulating by word of william of love, mouth and in franz ferdinand the underground press, and soon it became de rigueur to steam off the trunk cover to reveal the taboo picture beneath #x2013; a secret communication from the Beatles to their faithful. This forbidden fruit was made even sweeter by its scarcity, and the mythology of the album grew long after the band's demise in 1970. They made it into a really heavy collector's item, remembered Ringo Starr in the Beatles Anthology . Which, I'm afraid to on the novel say, I don't have a copy of, because in those days we never thought, 'We'd better save this.' But many did save it, giving rise to ferdinand biography market that continues to thrive to this day. Most sought after are the so-called first state butchers, original copies that missed the recall. Paste jobs, or second state butchers, are also extremely valuable. Entire websites exist offering tips on how to spot them, how much they're worth, and how best to peel them into a third state butcher. It sounds ridiculous, but the money doesn't lie. In February 2016, a shrink-wrapped first state sold for an astonishing $125,000. Even lowly third states regularly bring in thousand-dollar paydays. The legacy of the butcher cover goes far beyond the financial. Essay Emotive Behavior. Whitaker was successful in his goal of humanizing the Beatles with his surreal photographs, but perhaps not in the way he expected.

By publicly embracing the avant-garde and letting their freak flag fly, the band outgrew their role as the media's golden children. Whitaker captured this crucial time when innocent fun gave way to something less cuddly: four rebellious young men questioning the status quo and finding their voices as risk-taking artists. The cover may be dark, ugly, even grotesque #x2013; but it was real. Sign up for our newsletter to receive breaking news directly in your inbox.