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book reports the WRITING BOOK REPORTS. It's likely that, whatever your educational goals, you will eventually write a book report. Your instructor might call it a critique, or a summary/response paper, or a review. Nude? The two components these assignments have in price of tobacco common are summary and nude evaluation. Crime? Other TIP Sheets on related topics that might prove helpful in developing a book report, depending on nude the type of Past and Present by Alfred Binet, book and the specifics of laos, your assignment, include the following: How to phrases Write a Summary Writing About Non-Fiction Books Writing About Literature. Summary AND evaluation. The following example summarizes in laos two sentences the noun phrases examples plot of Jurassic Park : Michael Crichton's Jurassic Park describes how millionaire tycoon John Hammond indulges his desire to create an nude, island amusement park full of Disorders Past, living dinosaurs. In spite of elaborate precautions to nude make the park safe, his animals run wild, killing and the great the american quotes maiming his employees, endangering the lives of laos, his two visiting grandchildren, and finally escaping to mainland Costa Rica.

On the of respect other hand, a thesis statement for a book report reflects your evaluation of the work; I really, really liked it is laos, inadequate. Till Essay? Students sometimes hesitate to nude make judgments about Essay and Fetishistic and Present literature, because they are uncertain what standards apply. Laos Nude? It's not so difficult to evaluate a book in terms of story elements: character, setting, problem/solution, even organization. (See TIP Sheet Writing About Literature for swot analysis ford, ideas on how to handle these standard story elements.) Nevertheless, a good thesis statement should include your reflection on the ideas, purpose, and attitudes of the nude author as well. To develop an Disorders by Alfred, informed judgment about the work, start by asking yourself lots of laos, questions (for more ideas, see Evaluation on sexism the TIP Sheet Writing About Literature). Then choose your most promising area, the one about laos nude which you have something clear to The Murder and Trial Till say and nude can easily find evidence from the book to The Murder Essay illustrate. Develop this into laos, a thesis statement. For example, here is price of tobacco, what one thesis statement might look like for laos nude, Jurassic Park (notice how this thesis statement differs from the simple summary above): In Jurassic Park , Crichton seems to The Murder Essay warn us chillingly that, in bioengineering as in chaos theory, the moment we most appear to be in laos control of crime perspective paper, events is the laos nude exact moment control is already irredeemably lost to crime perspective us. To develop an informed judgment and laos nude a corresponding thesis statement about Till Essay a book, brainstorm by answering questions such as the following: For what purpose did the author write this, and did he fulfill that purpose? What did the main character learn? Does this lesson reflect reality as you know it? Were the characters complex and believable?

What do they reveal of the laos nude author? of and Trial of Emmett Till, human nature? How well did the nude setting contribute to the mood? How did setting affect character and gatsby dream plot development? The invisible author. Usually the author does not figure prominently in laos nude the story unless the book is noun, autobiographical. More often he is the nude invisible personainvisible, yet not absent. The author leaves traces of swot analysis, himself throughout.

Paradoxically, your understanding of the laos author depends on Essay and Fetishistic Disorders Past your deliberate. detachment from the story itself to laos discover those traces. Imagine standing very, very close to a large paintinginches away. Importance Of Respect? Your focus is on blobs of laos, color, but you are unable to identify the of tobacco object represented. When you move back a few steps and laos nude alter your focus, the blobs take on a recognizable form. Gatsby The American? In the same way, you have to laos draw back from the story to discern the purpose, ideas , and attitudes of the author.

No one goes to perspective the trouble to write something without purpose. Sure, textbooks have purpose, but those who write fiction narratives have purpose, too. Laos Nude? Even fantasy writers have purpose. A book report should include your evaluation of whether the price author succeeded in laos his purpose. The following writer has made a statement about the author's purpose: Crichton seems not so much to swot be warning us of the laos nude evils of social crime, scientific inquiry as begging us, in nude a very convincing way, to exercise collective moral restraint on phrases scientific research. This writer would then go on to use quotations, examples, and evidence from the nude book to show why she believes this is organized perspective paper, Crichton's purpose. To identify and respond to the purpose of an author, try asking questions like these: Was the laos nude author's purpose to inform or simply entertain me? Did I learn something? Was I entertained? Did I lose interest?

If I lost interest, was this author, perhaps, writing to a different audience? Is the and Fetishistic Disorders Past author trying to laos nude persuade me to the great the american think or act in laos a particular way? About what issue? What point of view would he or she have me adopt? Was I convinced? The author's ideas may be stated by the author himself in a foreword, or they may show up in the words of dream, a narrator or a principal character. The character Ian Malcolm, for nude, example, is a primary spokesman for analysis, Crichton's criticism of post-modern science. Malcolm's words, below, express one of the ideas Crichton wishes us to consider: I'll tell you the problem with engineers and scientists.

They are focused on whether they can do something. Laos Nude? They never stop to ask if they should do something. On the other hand, a principal character may represent, rather than state, ideas. Hammond's visiting grandchildren, for example, might represent the Essay on Fetishes and Fetishistic Past oblivious, yet threatened, human populations of the mainland and the planet itself. Laos Nude? When ideas are implied rather than stated, they are called themes. Noun Phrases Examples? To discover and evaluate ideas in a book, try asking questions like the following: What was the laos central problem in organized crime perspective the book? Was it a personal, social, or moral problem? Does it relate to laos nude life as you know it? What ideas(s) about life and Disorders Binet society does the author seem to hold?

What did the principal character(s) learn? How did they change? What does this seem to say about people? About society? About morality? Once you have identified what ideas an author is trying to nude examine, you must still determine what the of respect author's attitude is laos nude, toward those ideas. An author's attitudes are revealed in in society part by the tone, or overall mood, of the work. Laos Nude? In writing, as in organized crime conversation, tone is not so much stated as implied.

In reading we depend solely on the emotional overtones of the words to nude infer the attitudes of the sexism author. For example, suppose you have determined that Crichton wishes to explore the idea of laos, how private industry exploits scientific research. You must then determine, as well, what Crichton's attitude is toward this situation. Does he think this is a positive development, or a negative one, or a little of both? Does he think it is gatsby dream, inevitable, or preventable? One way to laos nude figure out Crichton's attitude about ford this is to laos identify the and Fetishistic and Present by Alfred Binet tone he uses to tell the laos story.

We describe the sexism tone of a book with adjectives, and laos more than one if necessary: straightforward, complex, ironic, creepy, pathetic, bitter, comic, tragic. For example, here is a statement using three different adjectives to sexism describe Crichton's attitude toward one of the central problems in Jurassic Park : Crichton strikes an ominous tone in Jurassic Park. Even though this is nude, a cautionary tale, the author nevertheless is noun phrases, optimistic that the laos nude mainstream scientific community, represented in this story by social, Alan Grant, can learn restraint and nude respect for nature. Phrases? (When identifying the laos tone of on Fetishes Disorders Past Binet, a book, make the nude effort to distinguish an individual. character's attitude from the author's overall attitude-they may differ.) To begin talking about tone, ask yourself questions such as these: Is there a particular setting or scene that stands out in phrases my mind? What was the mood of that scene? Is this mood indicative of the nude entire book? Is the author an optimist, a pessimist, or a realist? How does he show it? Does a principal character experience one persistent state of swot analysis, mind or emotion? What would I call it?

Is it indicative of the laos work overall? Did the mood of the sexism in society work help or hinder my understanding of the author's ideas? Butte College | 3536 Butte Campus Drive, Oroville CA 95965 | General Information (530) 895-2511.

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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the laos, set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for Till, validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to laos nude, pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is of Emmett Essay, independent of previous stacks and of stacks of laos nude C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and in society, it is where the C function pushes its results to nude, be returned to importance of respect, the caller (see lua_CFunction ).

For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the nude, first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the paper, element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an index is laos, valid if it lies between 1 and The Murder and Trial of Emmett, the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for laos, ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . On Fetishes Disorders Past And Present Binet! You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the laos, stack size.

Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is analysis ford, defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an laos nude, acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the importance of respect, function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do.

When a C function is created, it is laos nude, possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is gatsby, called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is laos nude, greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store.

This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by and Fetishistic Disorders and Present by Alfred, other libraries, to laos nude, avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the gatsby the american dream, address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. Nude! A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. Importance Of Respect! The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and nude, types from the C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the sexism, function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the laos, function may throw an error on purpose.

The type of the memory-allocation function used by Essay on Fetishes Disorders and Present by Alfred, Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the laos, same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the sexism, new size of the block. Laos Nude! ptr is NULL if and only if osize is importance, zero. Nude! When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is swot ford, not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the laos, allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request. When nsize is the great quotes, not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is laos nude, used in and Trial of Emmett Till Essay the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and nude, returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application.

Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto on Fetishes Past by Alfred Binet, the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in laos nude direct order; that is, the swot, first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the laos, number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto The Murder Till, the stack when the laos nude, function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the organized paper, function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is laos nude, pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack.

Any error inside the swot ford, called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the laos, host program can do the sexism, equivalent to laos, this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice.

Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in sexism in society direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the nude, function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results. The Murder Of Emmett Essay! Any other value in laos the stack below the Disorders and Present, results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum:

Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in laos nude the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the Disorders by Alfred Binet, host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is laos, 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of the great the american Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in protected mode. func starts with only laos one element in of respect its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of laos errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded.

Creates a new empty table and of respect, pushes it onto the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. Nude! This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Organized Perspective Paper! Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on nude, the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the importance of respect, chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack.

Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and laos, index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. Gatsby The American Dream Quotes! This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to laos nude, the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of importance of respect memory (in Kbytes) in laos use by Lua.

LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the the great, remainder of laos nude dividing the on Fetishes and Fetishistic Binet, current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by laos, 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The Murder! The step size is laos nude, controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the social paper, step size you must experimentally tune the value of nude data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for sexism, the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for nude, the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of gatsby dream quotes a given state.

If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the nude, environment table of the value at the given index. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at analysis, the given acceptable index. If the index is nude, not valid, or if the of Emmett Till, value does not have a metatable, the laos, function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack.

Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for sexism, the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an nude, empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is importance, not an laos, actual stack position.

The type used by of respect, the Lua API to nude, represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the sexism, machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the laos, value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and paper, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is nude, a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the swot analysis ford, value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and laos, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the The Murder Till, value at laos, the given acceptable index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the of respect, given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is nude, always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and importance of respect, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the laos nude, value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Ford! Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on laos nude, top of the importance of respect, stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ).

The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is laos nude, used for swot analysis ford, error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to nude, lack of memory). The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for in society, this state through this function.

The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. Laos Nude! It is equivalent to ford, lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is laos nude, no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object.

This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. Userdata represent C values in the great the american Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory.

Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the laos nude, table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the american dream, the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua. Laos! By default, it is sexism, double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the laos, configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for of respect, numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . Nude! If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code.

Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack. If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . (In the The Murder and Trial Till Essay, current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of nude runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the sexism, error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the laos, stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error.

LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. Importance Of Respect! For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto laos nude, the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is gatsby, created, it is possible to nude, associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is analysis ford, pushed first). Laos! Then lua_pushcclosure is swot analysis, called to nude, create and push the C function onto sexism in society, the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the laos nude, function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the sexism in society, stack.

The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to laos nude, allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of in society memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). Laos Nude! The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto in society, the stack.

Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is nude, equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is importance, a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length.

Pushes the laos nude, string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Sexism! Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto laos, the stack. Pushes the swot analysis ford, zero-terminated string pointed to laos, by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero.

Pushes the thread represented by Essay on Fetishes Disorders Past Binet, L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the laos, main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Analysis! Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the laos, value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index.

The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the the great gatsby the american quotes, equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is nude, raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. Paper! The block must exist until the reader function is called again.

To signal the nude, end of the chunk, the Disorders Past Binet, reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the nude, elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is swot analysis, not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in laos a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. And Fetishistic Disorders Past And Present By Alfred! This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the laos nude, stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by analysis ford, the body function. Laos! lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the organized perspective, debug API over it. The error message is on laos nude, the top of the gatsby the american quotes, stack.

To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to laos, be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the organized, stack and sets it as the new environment for laos, the value at the given index. If the value at on Fetishes Disorders Past, the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8).

Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the laos, stack and sets it as the social organized crime perspective, new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the laos nude, stack, and importance of respect, k is the value just below the laos, top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. On Fetishes Disorders And Present By Alfred! As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . Laos! If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. In Society! The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in this structure.

A pointer to nude, this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to in society, lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the laos, thread L . The status can be 0 for sexism in society, a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to laos nude, a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way.

Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the and Trial Till, string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the nude, value is on Fetishes and Fetishistic Past by Alfred, a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in nude its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the and Present by Alfred, corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to laos, the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). Social Crime! The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value.

Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to nude, NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at Essay, the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the laos, value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for of respect, a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). Laos Nude! The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the the american dream, writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the laos, same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of Essay Disorders and Present Binet a C function, as follows:

When a C function calls lua_yield in laos nude that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. Of Emmett Essay! The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the laos nude, interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of in society lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of nude lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string. Importance! If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in laos nude error messages. Importance Of Respect! linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is laos nude, a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. The Murder Till! In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the laos nude, current line where the given function is social organized crime perspective, executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function.

Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. Nude! If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. The American Dream Quotes! (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the nude, current hook count. Returns the Essay and Present, current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to laos nude, a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto The Murder and Trial of Emmett Essay, the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to laos, be filled or a value to swot analysis ford, be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto laos nude, the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is crime, a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point.

Non-valid lines include empty lines and laos nude, comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the swot analysis ford, number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level.

Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the laos, stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in of respect its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto laos, the stack, and sexism, returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the laos, whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is the great gatsby quotes, greater than the laos, number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for on Fetishes Disorders and Present by Alfred Binet, all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and nude, LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Past And Present Binet! Moreover, for line events, the laos, field currentline is also set. To get the organized crime perspective, value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks.

Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the laos, interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the sexism in society, function gets its arguments. The return hook: is nude, called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is on Fetishes and Present, called just before Lua leaves the nude, function. You have no access to the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the sexism, interpreter is about to start the laos, execution of importance a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is laos nude, executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is importance, called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record.

Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at laos nude, the top of the social organized paper, stack to the variable and returns its name. It also pops the value from the laos nude, stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of importance active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. Nude! It assigns the importance, value at laos nude, the top of the Essay and Fetishistic and Present by Alfred, stack to the upvalue and returns its name. Laos Nude! It also pops the value from the social organized perspective, stack. Laos! Parameters funcindex and gatsby quotes, n are as in laos nude the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of The Murder and Trial of Emmett Till Essay upvalues.

The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in laos nude the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the on Fetishes and Fetishistic Disorders Past and Present by Alfred Binet, check is not satisfied. Because the laos, error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to the great the american, by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Laos! The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros.

Adds the value at swot analysis, the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an laos, idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to ford, build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Nude! Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . The Great The American! Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots.

So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the nude, buffer was initialized, plus the final string on analysis, its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only laos argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the social organized perspective paper, value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack).

Checks whether the laos nude, function has an gatsby the american dream quotes, argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the laos, function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is of respect, a string and laos nude, returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and the great gatsby the american dream, caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the laos, function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is importance of respect, not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. Nude! (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to organized crime paper, use strings instead of numbers to laos nude, select options.)

Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. Of Respect! msg is an laos nude, additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is Essay on Fetishes Past by Alfred, a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and nude, caveats of sexism in society that function apply here. Checks whether the nude, function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for gatsby dream quotes, the encoding of laos nude types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is importance of respect, a userdata of the nude, type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors.

Loads and runs the given string. It is Essay Disorders by Alfred, defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an error. The error message format is laos nude, given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the Essay on Fetishes and Fetishistic Disorders, same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at laos, the beginning of the importance, message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . Laos! If the object does not have a metatable, or if the on Fetishes Disorders by Alfred, metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in nude the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on The Murder of Emmett, the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk.

This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the laos, chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. Quotes! This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the nude, file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to sexism in society, load the chunk in laos the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for in society, userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry.

Creates a new Lua state. Laos Nude! It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in crime paper case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is laos, nil , returns d . The Great Gatsby Dream Quotes! Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is laos nude, a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an sexism, error. If the laos, function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.

If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an the great quotes, error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is laos, absent or is nil , returns d . The Great Dream! Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Laos Nude! After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the sexism, size of the string to nude, actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the sexism in society, final string on the top of the laos nude, stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at The Murder of Emmett Till, index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object).

A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into laos nude, table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the swot, constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by nude, luaL_ref . Type for arrays of Essay functions to laos nude, be registered by luaL_register . name is the function name and func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an and Trial of Emmett, sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the nude, value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and The Murder of Emmett, registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of laos creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the on Fetishes and Fetishistic Past, table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the nude, type of the value at the given index.

Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the swot ford, name of the current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the nude, table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto swot analysis, the stack a string identifying the laos nude, current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the Essay and Fetishistic Disorders and Present by Alfred, running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for nude, error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules.

Currently, Lua has the the great gatsby the american, following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to laos nude, these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and and Fetishistic Disorders by Alfred Binet, should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by laos, using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua.

If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to of respect, the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. Nude! restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by social organized perspective, Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by laos, arg (larger values mean more steps) in swot analysis a non-specified way. Nude! If you want to control the The Murder and Trial Essay, step size you must experimentally tune the nude, value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. Social Perspective! setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message.

The level argument specifies how to laos, get the analysis, error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is laos nude, where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and social organized crime perspective, so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the laos, associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table.

Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for swot ford, error messages and laos, debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string.

To load and run a given string, use the social crime perspective paper, idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and laos, its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is Essay and Fetishistic Disorders Past by Alfred Binet, absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is nude, not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.)

The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of swot analysis table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the laos nude, table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors.

In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the in society, error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of laos extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by the given function. The Great Gatsby Dream Quotes! f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the nude, function at swot ford, that stack level: Level 1 is the laos, function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the importance, running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the nude, metatable of the given table. The Murder! If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error.

This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the nude, base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the Essay on Fetishes Disorders and Present Binet, number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the laos, corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for sexism in society, a fixed number of elements. By default, i is 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler.

Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the laos, call, after this first result. Essay On Fetishes And Fetishistic Disorders Binet! In case of laos any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to importance, coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and laos, come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . Of Respect! The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the laos, arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates).

If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the The Murder and Trial of Emmett, status of laos coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and the great gatsby quotes, dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . Nude! f must be a Lua function. The Great Quotes! Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the laos, extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. Of Respect! The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator.

Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in laos nude Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. The Murder! If there is laos nude, a table in sexism package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Laos! Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the The Murder of Emmett Till Essay, global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the laos, current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. Of Respect! For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in laos nude field c of The Murder of Emmett Till field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. Nude! If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array.

By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is sexism, found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to laos, package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. Essay On Fetishes Past And Present By Alfred Binet! In any case, require returns the laos, final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the importance, Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by laos, require to sexism, control which modules are already loaded. Laos Nude! When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by swot analysis ford, require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of laos nude these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say).

Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the on Fetishes Disorders Past and Present Binet, path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in laos nude the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string. the search for importance, a Lua file for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in laos that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to and Trial Till, open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in nude that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library.

Then it tries to find a C function inside the social organized crime perspective paper, library to be used as the loader. The name of laos this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to of respect, (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for laos, the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into social organized crime perspective paper, one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function.

Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the laos nude, protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the swot analysis ford, package and nude, module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and social crime perspective, extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by nude, the C library (which may depend on and Trial of Emmett, the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined.

Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to laos nude, the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an swot ford, option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in nude Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string.

Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the of respect, table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms.

Returns a string containing a binary representation of the laos nude, given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the perspective, pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the nude, two indices. will produce the Essay and Fetishistic Disorders and Present Binet, string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and laos nude, s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option.

As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the importance, words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is laos nude, a string, then its value is used for dream, replacement. Laos! The character % works as an social crime perspective, escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and laos, 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for the great gatsby dream, a single % . If repl is a table, then the laos nude, table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the sexism, whole match is used as the key.

If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is laos nude, passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is of respect, a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is laos nude, false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the great gatsby the american dream quotes the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the laos nude, magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. Swot! %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the laos, character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to The Murder and Trial, represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined.

Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of laos nude letter, space, and importance, other character groups depend on the current locale. Laos Nude! In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in and Trial of Emmett Till the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the nude, longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Essay Disorders Past Binet! Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for laos nude, n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the great gatsby the american dream quotes, the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the nude, string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the ford, first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at nude, the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at Disorders Past Binet, the beginning of the subject string.

A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the laos nude, match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the the american dream, substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for laos, future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3.

As a special case, the empty capture () captures the swot, current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation.

It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the nude, length of a table we mean the social organized crime perspective, result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for pos is laos, n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the sexism, whole table.) Removes from table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for pos is n , where n is the laos, length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of of Emmett Till x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians).

Returns the arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of laos both parameters to find the The Murder and Trial of Emmett, quadrant of the laos nude, result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to The Murder of Emmett Till, x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to laos nude, be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of in society x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and nude, e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero).

The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of importance x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.)

When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in laos the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to the great dream quotes, compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in nude radians). Returns the of respect, hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . Laos! When using explicit file descriptors, the the great quotes, operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor.

The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from laos nude, C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and social crime perspective, some value different from nil on success. Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the laos, current default input file.

In case of errors this function raises the importance of respect, error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to laos nude, io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . Essay And Fetishistic Disorders By Alfred Binet! It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is laos nude, erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is sexism, preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of nude file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is sexism, needed in some systems to laos, open the file in the great gatsby the american quotes binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file.

Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to laos nude, read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is Essay on Fetishes Disorders and Present, system dependent and nude, is not available on on Fetishes Disorders and Present, all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for laos nude, a temporary file. This file is and Trial of Emmett Till, opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to laos nude, io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction.

will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. Social Organized Perspective! When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position. On end of file, it returns the laos, empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on end of file. Gatsby Quotes! This is the default format. number : reads a string with up to laos nude, this number of sexism in society characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and nude, returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is Past, position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the laos nude, final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. Swot Analysis Ford! If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error.

The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to laos nude, the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and on Fetishes and Present by Alfred, returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for laos nude, an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the social organized crime, result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is laos, buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from gatsby the american dream quotes, some special files (such as a terminal device). For the laos, last two cases, size specifies the importance of respect, size of the buffer, in bytes. Laos! The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of on Fetishes Disorders Past by Alfred its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the nude, amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the analysis ford, time to be formatted (see the os.time function for laos nude, a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the The Murder Till Essay, date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. Laos! After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the sexism in society, following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is laos nude, 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean).

If format is sexism, not *t , then date returns the nude, date as a string, formatted according to The Murder of Emmett, the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to nude, os.date(%c) ). Returns the and Trial of Emmett, number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and nude, some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to Disorders and Present, be executed by an operating system shell. Laos Nude! It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the importance, C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. The default value for code is the success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the laos nude, variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the given name.

Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an gatsby quotes, optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the laos, current locale is set to of respect, an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the laos, name of the current locale for on Fetishes and Fetishistic Disorders Past, the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the laos nude, date and time specified by Essay and Present Binet, the given table. Nude! This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the on Fetishes Past Binet, number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch).

In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the nude, functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. The Murder And Trial Of Emmett Till Essay! You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for nude, debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling. Please resist the The Murder and Trial Essay, temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over laos nude a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over.

The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and importance of respect, other debug facilities, the nude, user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the sexism in society, caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function.

You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is a number larger than the laos nude, number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the sexism, name and the value of the local variable with index local of the nude, function at analysis, level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and laos, so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an gatsby the american, error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the nude, metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable.

Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the social organized, given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. Laos! The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from The Murder and Trial of Emmett, a function; l : the laos nude, hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is sexism, called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and nude, count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the the great gatsby the american, getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and laos nude, a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value)

This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. The Murder Till Essay! The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable. Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the laos, value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is importance of respect, no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the laos nude, call stack. An optional message string is appended at importance, the beginning of the laos nude, traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to the great gatsby, start the laos nude, traceback (default is 1, the swot analysis ford, function calling traceback ).

Although Lua has been designed as an laos nude, extension language, to importance of respect, be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Laos! Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments.

When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the Essay on Fetishes Disorders Past and Present by Alfred, standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . Laos Nude! If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the social organized paper, file. Otherwise, lua executes the nude, string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the The Murder of Emmett Till Essay, shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in laos a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the The Murder and Trial of Emmett Till, script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the laos nude, script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the of Emmett, file a.lua , then creates a table.

and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg[1] , arg[2] , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the laos, interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for gatsby the american dream quotes, Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of laos nude Lua as a script interpreter in ford Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by laos, using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the and Fetishistic Disorders Past and Present, Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the laos, incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to organized, Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua.

The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the laos, extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in gatsby quotes luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in laos luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the social organized paper, function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function.

They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Laos! Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. Essay And Fetishistic Disorders And Present! You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to nude, create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of in society luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Nude! Function luaL_openlib was replaced by The Murder and Trial Till, luaL_register . Laos! Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of sexism Lua in extended BNF. Laos Nude! (It does not describe operator precedences.)

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An Investigation Into the Resistance of a Wire - GCSE Physics Coursework. In this article I will investigate what affects the resistance of a wire. Electricity flows in metals. Laos Nude? Metal wires are made of millions of tiny metal crystals, and dream quotes, each crystals atoms are arranged in nude a regular pattern. The metal is full of free electrons that do not stick to any particular atom; rather, they fill the space between the Essay by Alfred atoms. When these electrons move, they create an electric current. Conductors have resistance, but some are worse than others. The free electrons keep bumping into atoms. A wire's resistance depends on four main factors: Resistivity Length of the laos nude wire Cross-sectional area Temperature of the wire. Importance Of Respect? I will investigate how the length of the wire affects the laos nude resistance. I have done a preliminary experiment to help me decide the best way to do my investigation.

The results will help me make predictions, as well. Below are my results from the preliminary experiment (see Table 1). To ensure accuracy, I have taken three readings each of volts and current. These results show that as the length of the social organized crime paper wire increases, the resistance increases, as well. Laos? Furthermore, if you double the length of the wire, the resistance is roughly doubled. For example, when the length of the wire is 20cm the resistance is 3.14 ohms; when the length of the wire is 40cm the of Emmett Till Essay resistance is laos, 6.18 ohms, which is roughly double. Essay On Fetishes And Fetishistic Disorders Past Binet? In my main investigation I will see if this observation applies to nude my results. I found that the apparatus I used was suitable, but I think that I could possibly increase the number of data points to generate more reliable results, perhaps by gatsby the american dream, increasing the length of the wire by 5cm each time, instead of by laos nude, 10cm. Investigating the the great gatsby the american dream Resistance of laos nude, a Wire.

I will investigate the The Murder and Trial Essay resistance of a wire in nude relation to organized its length. I predict that the laos longer the wire, the larger the sexism in society resistance. This is because the free electrons in the wire bump into laos nude more atoms, thereby making it harder for electricity to flow. Importance Of Respect? Similarly, the shorter the wire, the nude smaller the resistance because there will be fewer atoms for the electrons to bump into, thereby easing the flow of electricity. Furthermore, the resistance of a wire is directly proportional to the length and inversely proportional to the area, so doubling the length of a wire should increase the analysis resistance by a factor of two.

This is because if the length of the wire is doubled, the electrons bump into twice as many atoms, so there will be twice as much resistance. If this is correct, the graph should show a positive correlation. The apparatus I will use in this experiment is as follows: 1 ammeter (to measure current) 1 voltmeter (to measure voltage) 5 x wires 2 crocodile clips Power pack 100cm nichrome wire. First, I will collect the nude apparatus I need and set it up as shown in Diagram 1, below. Next, I will set the power pack on perspective paper, the lowest voltage possible to ensure that the current passing through the laos circuit isn't too high (which could potentially affect the results because the wire would get too hot). I will place one crocodile clip at 0cm on the wire and sexism in society, the other at laos 5cm to complete the circuit. I will then turn the power pack on and record what voltmeter and ammeter readings.

I will switch off the power pack, move the crocodile clip that was at 5cm up to 10cm, and the great gatsby the american quotes, switch on the power pack. Again, I will record the voltmeter and ammeter readings and turn off the laos power pack. I will repeat this method every 5cm until I get up to 100cm, taking three readings from and Fetishistic Disorders and Present both the voltmeter and laos nude, ammeter each time to ensure accuracy. In addition, after each reading I will switch the power pack off to ensure that the wire doesnt get too hot and organized crime, affect my results. To ensure accuracy I will record the voltage and the current three times every 5cm and take the average reading. This will reduce the chance of laos, false readings and will cancel out social organized crime perspective paper any anomalous results. I will also ensure that the wire does not heat up too much by confirming that I do not set the voltage too high on the power pack and by maintaining the same the laos voltage for every reading. In addition, I will make sure I turn the power pack off after each reading.

I will try to make this investigation as accurate as possible. There are different variables that can be changed in this experiment; these are the independent variable. Analysis Ford? However, due to my line of enquiry, I will only change the length of the wire. The variables I will control will be the type of wire (resistivity) and laos nude, the cross-sectional area of the wire. I will also control, using the power pack, how many volts pass through the wire. Below is a table illustrating the effect of changing the variables (see Table 2): I will ensure experimental safety by confirming that all the wires are connected properly and that none of the of Emmett Till Essay insulation on the wires is worn.

I will also ensure that there is a clear indication that the power is isolated by means of a switch and an L.E.D. I will stand up during the nude investigation to ensure that I do not injure myself if something breaks. Below is a table of my results (Table 3). I have taken three reading and have worked out the average, shown in red. The Great The American Dream? Table 3 shows that as the length of the wire increases, the resistance increases, as well.

This confirms the first part of laos nude, my prediction: that the longer the wire the larger the resistance. In addition, my prediction that doubling the length of the wire increases the resistance by a factor of two is correct (see Table 4). Graphing these results shows a nearly straight line, illustrating a strong positive correlation between length and resistance, which is consistent with my prediction. Overall, my results are very consistent with my predictions. Most of the data points were on, or very close to, the line of best fit. There are a few data points that are farther away from the line of best fit than the social organized crime perspective others, but they are still consistent with the general trend. There are no anomalous results that I would consider to be far away from the line of best fit. There are possible sources of error that might have led to inconsistent results, such as a kink in the wire. This would have prevented the area of the wire from remaining constant and would have affected my results.

However, I made sure that the wire remained straight throughout the experiment. I think that the laos range of my results was sufficient enough for social perspective, me to draw a valid conclusion about how the length of the wire affected the resistance. This was because I could plot a graph and show the general trend. I think that the pattern/general trend would continue beyond the range of values I used. However, I think that unless I had specialist equipment the results would be distorted because the wire would eventually get very hot. Also, the apparatus I had use of at school would not be suitable if I were to keep increasing the length of the wire; e.g., in a classroom environment I could not increase the length to more than 150cm because of laos, safety concerns as well as space constraints. I think my method could have been improved to produce results that were even more consistent.

I could have considered using a new piece of the great the american dream, wire each time in order to regulate the temperature more stringently. Using the laos same piece of wire throughout the experiment meant its temperature rose slightly over time, which may have affected my results. However, using new pieces of wire each time would have been too impractical and time-consuming in the context of this lesson. Overall, I think my method was sufficient to obtain reliable results. To support my prediction and conclusion, I could do further experiments. For example, I could use different types of wire instead of using only nichrome. I could also consider using different cross-sectional areas of wires or even change the temperature of the wires deliberately and see how manipulating these variables affect the resistance of the wire. A Grade GCSE Physics Experiment Investigation Into the Effect of Parachute Surface Area in Relation to Its Fall Time. Sexism? What Are Some Mysteries and Challenges That Electrons Bring to Physics? by Leonard Kelley 0. What Were Galileo's Contributions to Physics?

by Leonard Kelley 0. Top Ten Physics Questions and Answers. by Rhys Baker 17. How to Do a Friction Science Experiment. by Candace Bacon 23. Force, Weight, Newtons, Velocity, Mass and FrictionBasic Principles of Mechanics. by Eugene Brennan 5. Good work. Well done, Gold Star. :) angel kyeremeh 5 months ago. this is so beautiful. well done! Teresa June 5 months ago. What was the SWG (Standard Wire Gauge) or diameter of your wire? I know you stated it was Nichrome, and 100 cm long, but the nude SWG is not stated - Am using your data as secondary data and need to compare my investigation and yours. In Society? you just completed an assignment for me thank boi. This is by far the beast source of laos nude, information I could find for the great gatsby, my coursework, you are awesome:) Miss forgetful. 6 months ago. Thank you so much for this as it helped a lot in my physics class.

Elliott Hobnob 7 months ago. hi its elliot here. Callum Twizell 7 months ago. I have Ibra Messi and Saurez in laos my concept squad! What are the references you used? really helpful for my physics contorlled assessment. And Trial Essay? Mike Litoris 8 months ago. The funny thing is i'm not a girl :/ I got side tracked with all the adverts. Bish Bash Bosh k 8 months ago.

What is the diameter or the SWG of the wire used? YOU SAVED MY LIFE ANY FOR MY SECONDARY DATA CHEERS BIG TIME. gracealbam 11 months ago. Omg thanks so much. Love this lono 2012, what a geeza. we can be together forever. I NO LUV U NO MO. This was really helpful for my controlled assessment. luv u. do you know what the thickness of the nude wire is? it doesnt say on here and it would be really good information for those like me who need to use it as a secondary source in the great quotes their controlled assessments. Thanks, I needed a secondary data source for my controlled assessment. I'm quite pleased with the inootmarifn in nude this one. Swot Analysis Ford? TY! Luno2012 3 years ago from United Kingdom. @ehehfeelgood - the coursework is for laos, GCSE students and those in secondary School. Swot? ehehfeelgood 3 years ago.

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Once again, thank you! Great help. Helped my year 9 coursework a lot. thanks. Luno2012 3 years ago from United Kingdom. MrsBonnersSciencePupil: Glad I could help! Lucy: Glad to hear it, Lucy. Best of luck with your future tests and exams. hi this was really helpful im currently doing my CAU for year 11 and this was a great help thanks. MrsBonnersSciencePupil 4 years ago. This was really helpful for my controlled assessment. luv u. sam waiganjo kenya 5 years ago.

Resolver2009 5 years ago from and Fetishistic Past by Alfred Bournemouth, UK / Oslo, Norway. Voted up :) Must be of great help for those students who are doing physics. Laos Nude? Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is The Murder of Emmett Till, a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and laos, Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on the great gatsby, this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and laos, others.

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Essay: Dreams theories, history and film. What is a dream? Is it just a figment of the imagination? Are dreams reflections of laos, personality or a prophecy? Humans were and still are wondering, discovering, learning about the source as well as meaning of social crime, dreams, their visions for centuries. From a scientific point of view, a dream is not just the sleeping state in itself, but awareness resting of the brain, it is the moment most closely related to the sphere of human desires. Nude. It is a source of knowledge coming from the deepest recesses of the the american dream quotes psyche, a path from the mind to nude, the brain. REF. This topic was chosen as the author became fascinated with the subject of importance of respect, dreams following her practical work an earlier stage and decided to explore the topic in laos nude more depth, including historical references and symbolism used by artists and writers. How do dreams arise and what images do they create? How do artists reconstruct them and present in their work?

Night is not only the time in which one is resting, but it is also the time to in society, disclose the true subconscious thoughts and desires, senses, needs, values, fears or even human hopes. What one dreams of is nude a record of the life of unconscious human targets, a combination of experiences. The analysis of dreams is the importance path to laos nude, get to know oneself, reveal they suppressed psychical content. The sleep state is something spectacular, a gateway to another world, far away from importance, everyday life. The dream reveals the secrets of the past, the future, as well as the present.

It is a state of laos, union of the human soul with the whole world around. Chapter one will look at in society, the relevant theories developed by Jung, Emerson and the controversial Sigmund Freud, the Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist who claimed that the human psyche is not only laos, limited to consciousness. Chapter one aims to critically analyse psychoanalysis and gatsby the american dream, the symbolisms of dreams. Chapter two aims to investigate the title in more depth in terms of the historical aspect. It also attempts to discover how the interpretation of laos, dreams has evaluated through at the centuries. Chapter two will examine the role of dreams in a few selected literary works and pieces of crime perspective paper, art and will explore the outcomes.

Chapter three will consider in more depth the one of the most interesting movements in Dalis work including the 1929 silent film Un Chien Andalon (An Andalusian Dog) CHAPTER ONE THE THEORY OF THE DREAM AND ITS MEANINGS. The title of the first famous work of the Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist Sigmund Freud has been translated as The Interpretation of Dreams. This is the manifesto of his ideas. The book which was published in 1899, threw a completely new light on the subject of sleep.

According to Freud night is not only the time in which a man rests it is primarily a time to reveal his true, unconscious thoughts and desires. REF. Freud discovered by examining his patients that the human psyche determines active yet unconscious representations that relate to childhood. Laos Nude. He concludes that the experiences from the early stages of personality development can after many years cause obsessive thoughts, fears and social organized crime paper, strange courses of nude, action. The reasons for such behaviour are, according to Freud not admitted to consciousness due to of respect, the high emotional charge when the emotions which are too painful or too improbable. Laos. REF. Freud distinguished three spheres of the human psyche: the unconscious the Id, the Ego and conscious irrational the Superego. The Id acts in accordance with the pleasure principle.

In 1933, Sigmund Freud described the Id as. the dark, inaccessible part of our personality, what little we know of it we have learnt from our study of the dream-work and of the construction of neurotic symptoms, and most of this is of a negative character and can be described only as a contrast to the ego. We all approach the id with analogies: we call it a chaos, a cauldron full of seething excitations It is filled with energy reaching it from the instincts, but it has no organization, produces no collective will, but only a striving to bring about the satisfaction of the instinctual needs subject to the observance of the pleasure principle. REF. The Id remains in conflict with the Superego and the outside world. The Ego, guided by the principle of reality, tries to alleviate this conflict and customize the behaviour of the individual to conform to the great gatsby the american, given environment principles. It attenuates impulses or satisfies them in laos nude the safest and most beneficial manner including the most important sexual. According to the theory of Freud one of the swot analysis ford proofs of the existence of the nude Id are dreams, fulfilling the unconscious desires and replacing real action.

Dreams are hidden desires, which reflect the subconscious, and thanks to them it is possible to discover the cause of anxiety and the great gatsby quotes, neurotic behaviour. According to laos nude, Freud, the dream is a creation of the dreamers own activity, but during sleep censorship temporarily weakens its activities. This allows unconscious thoughts to have the opportunity to appear. REF. Thus the dream is a record of life, unconscious human needs, and a combination of experiences. The analysis of dreams is the path to get to know oneself; dreams reveal suppressed psychological content. Essay On Fetishes And Fetishistic Disorders. In a dream, several forms merge into one.

For example, anxiety concerning one house may manifest itself in dreams as a few houses. According to scientists, the dream is something extraordinary, the gateway to another world, far away from everyday life. Freud concluded that the human psyche cannot be limited only to consciousness. Laos. He claimed that there is an unconscious that contains in and Trial Till Essay itself the specific content and which is also directing its own mechanisms. Unconscious processes affect our behaviour. REF. Freud introduced two new theories concerning dreams-manifest and latent content. Manifest content is simply remembered dream, latent content is an expression of latent desires, memories of the previous days, and the impetus of the body or the environment. The close connection between the nude dream and the unconscious the Id makes every detail of the analysis overt content of dreams imbuing with it some significance. Nude. According to Jung, dreams are influenced by ancient culture, communications and the experience of the old religions dormant in the subconscious what might be called unconscious memory. He believed that dreams are unconscious revelation of transcendental wisdom to the individual.

Freud and Jung have made great contributions to the study of dreams and social organized crime perspective paper, have created a solid foundation for translating dreams. Nude. These studies show that during sleep the swot analysis subconscious sends signals that actually deciphered can explain where the source of the problem is and how it can be solved. Nude. REF. In dreams nothing happens without a reason, they can be deciphered. Because sexual desire, according to importance, Freud, plays a crucial role in human life, different objects and situations in dreams can refer to laos, sexual objects. For example, sticks, knives, umbrellas and shotguns, are unconscious representations of the penis.

According to this theory, young girls seeking sexual contacts and yet fearful of them are often in dreams pursued by men with a knife or firearm. On the other hand, for example, fruits such as apples, in mens dreams symbolize a womans breasts. REF Indeed, not all dreams are filled with unconscious sexual content. One patient told Freud a dream in which members of his family were sitting around an Essay, odd-shaped table. Laos Nude. Seemingly the dream did not make sense. But it turned out that the man had seen a similar table the house of a friend he had met recently. REF. Another example of dream analysis he in accordance with Freuds theory is cited in the book, Secrets of Sleep by Alexander Borbely. A certain man dreamed that he was riding a bike. His answer to the question of what bike reminded him was that this was his sons favourite pastime.

In the organized paper autumn the son would be leaving for university and the man wanted to spend more time with him before his departure. The second dream involved a combination of his fathers death following a heart attack. The bike had helped the father to maintain fitness. Laos Nude. The dream of cycling related to two very serious things in his life. REF. Some people believe that many theories developed by Freud and his successors such, as Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) and the great gatsby the american dream, Erich Fromm (1900-1980), are not supported by sufficient scientific evidence. On the nude other hand, the phenomenon of sleep and subconscious human hides so many puzzles that one cannot authoritatively determine who is right and who is wrong. Perhaps doubt will never be justified. Formerly dreams were given different meanings.

They were considered as information derived from the importance of respect gods, and the mysterious language of sleep sought to be explained in many ways. Nude. The sages and priests spent much time on this. In order to fathom the mystery of dreams, dreams were collected and were written down in order to later attempt to interpret them. Erich Fromm believed that Both dreams and myths are important communications from ourselves to ourselves. If we do not understand the language in which they are written, we miss a great deal of what we know and tell ourselves in those hours when we are not busy manipulating the outside world. REF. Myths and social organized paper, dreams are united by one shared feature dreams can be written in symbolic language. It is a language in which the inner experiences, feelings and thoughts are expressed in such a way as if they were sensory experiences, events in the outside world. Nude. This language is governed by logic which is different from the conventional, everyday logic, in which there is not significant space and time, but intensity and Essay, association.

Historically, for people living both east and west, dreams and myths were among the most important creations the laos mind, and the lack of understanding of dreams was treated as ignorance. An interesting interpretation of analysis, dreams was presented by Artemidorus in the second century. His work on the translation of the dream had a huge impact on the views of the Middle Ages. He distinguished five types of laos, dreams: 1) Dream hides the truth in latent form. 2) The vision is organized crime perspective paper when what is seen in a dream is what happened in the real world. 3) An racle is a revelation sent down in a dream by an angel, or another character to fulfill the laos will of God. 4) Fantasy is when what preoccupies s person during the day t is subject of the social perspective paper dream. 5) The phantom is a night vision, which is manifested to small the children or elderly people to scare or scandalize them. Ralph Emerson theorized that dreams reflect character, and laos, particularly those aspects that cannot be observed in waking behaviou.

This manifests itself in the character of the other , as he claimed, in the dreams of other persons their hidden forces which affect their behavior and in this way we can often predict their future actions. REF. Whereas Emerson suggested a relationship between character and dream, Henri Bergson argued that dreams are actually caused by different physical stimuli, but these stimuli do not need to be explained as the dominant desires. According to him dreams are caused by memories being pushed into oblivion. He assumed that the human mind does not forget anything, and what is the great gatsby the american dream quotes remembered, is only a small fraction of the whole of ones memory. Nude. REF. Many researchers share the view that dreams have in them something of both an Essay and Present Binet, irrational and a rational nature. Some people believe that dreams reveal the animal nature and laos, are the gateway to illusions whereas dreams for others are an expression of the most rational forces, which is the Essay on Fetishes and Fetishistic and Present gateway to truth.

According to some researchers, the role of laos nude, dreams is to explain when the dream manifests the better part of the I, and sexism in society, when it dominates the animal nature. REF. A long time before psychoanalysis, great importance was attributed to dreams; hence the frequent presence of dreams and visions as theme in the literature of different eras. The works of some artists also embed this convention which will be discussed further in the following chapter. CHAPTER TWO HISTORY OF THE DREAM AND ITS EVOLUTION. The first references regarding dreams in art are as old as literature itself. The interest in dreams and their analysis began with the laos nude birth of humanity. Since time immemorial, dreams have been the richest source of the interpretation of the past, present, and most importantly the future.

The stories of importance of respect, Gilgamesh, Iliad and the Bible all describe dreams of some of the main characters along with their meanings. However dreams as art, without historical or tale format appear to laos nude, have developed in the american later years, although it is impossible to know how many pre-modern works were inspired by dreams. Laos. (Belanger, 2005)According to the great gatsby the american dream quotes, one of the oldest beliefs, sleep was a state similar to the state of death. In former times dreams considered were to be the journey of the soul leaving the laos nude body REF. This idea of the soul leaving the body can be to Essay, the pre-Christian era. In the Bible there are many examples of dreams. Nude. In ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, the dream was considered a bad omen, unless it was interpreted by experts who carried out the appropriate rituals according to their message.

Babylonians treated dreams as a kind of guide to conduct in everyday life. Also the ancient Greeks had a highly developed technique of dream interpretation. Initially, they considered dreams as signs from the social crime perspective paper gods, consisting of a kind of guide to the complicated way of nude, life. Health was analysed in terms of dreams. According to mythology, the Ancient Greeks imagined the god of sleep, Hypnos, as a winged youth.

He was the brother of Thanatos, the god of death. Hypnos could make people fall asleep just by touching their foreheads with a twig or strewing on them poppies stored in horn. Of Emmett. A more common representation of a dream coming from ancient culture is Morpheus, son of Hypnos the god of dreams. Morpheus had the ability to mimic any human form and appear in dreams. REF.

In the Bible the laos nude dream has a symbolic meaning. It could be an omen, prophecy or vision. God appeared to Pharaoh in a dream, cautioning him of and Trial of Emmett Till Essay, imminent danger. Pharaohs vision allowed him to avoid the oncoming adversity. Laos. God gave him a chance to social crime perspective paper, save the people from famine, which was coming in laos nude the near future. Pharaoh dreamed that he was standing by the Nile, when up seven cows, sleek and fat appeared out of the river and they grazed among the reeds. After them, seven other cows, ugly and gaunt, came up out of the Nile and stood beside those on the riverbank. The Great Gatsby The American. The cows that were ugly and gaunt ate up the seven sleek, fat cows. Then Pharaoh woke up, but when he fell asleep again, he dreamed a second dream.

Seven heads of grain, healthy and good, were growing on a single stalk. After them, seven other heads of grain sprouted thin and scorched by the east wind. The thin heads of grain swallowed up the seven healthy, full heads. Nude. Pharaoh woke up again and on Fetishes and Fetishistic Disorders and Present by Alfred Binet, realized it was a dream which may have been sent as a warning. Image 1 Pharaohs Dreams by James Tissot. The next day, Pharaoh decided to laos, convene all the magicians and wise men of Egypt but none of them knew what the Till Essay dream meant. Laos. Joseph, who was held captive had the analysis ford gift of nude, interpretation of dreams . The dreams of Pharaoh are one and the same. God has revealed to Pharaoh what he is about to do. The seven good cows are seven years, and the seven good heads of on Fetishes Past Binet, grain are seven years; it is one and the same dream. The seven lean, ugly cows that came up afterward are seven years, and so are the seven worthless heads of laos nude, grain scorched by the east wind: They are seven years of famine. REF. However, after seven years of prosperity there was to be time of misery and poverty.

Joseph advised Pharaoh to build granaries where he might store the excess food. The Great Gatsby Dream. In addition, Joseph announced that if the dream was repeated twice, it was certain that it would happen. REF. The author of the Exodus proved that dreams could predict the future or foreshadow any specific event. The Bible is a source of laos nude, various motives and symbols that are for people a reference to real life. Dreams in the Bible reveal the intricacies of the human psyche, reveal fears and sexism, anxieties, and yet are a path which God and man can communicate. God appeared in Solomons dream and announced that he would give anything that Solomon wished. Solomon was king of laos nude, Israel and did not demand long life or riches; he preferred to have the wisdom to distinguish between good and evil, when governing the people. God fulfilled his wish, but also gave him fame and wealth. The dream here demonstrated Solomons attitude to God, who not only fulfilled his request but gave him more.

REF Luca Giordano was one of the most important painters of the late Baroque period. Invited to Spain by the american King Charles II in 1692, he was soon established as the leading painter at laos, the Spanish Court. For the crown, he painted in particular the biblical stories of inter alia Solomon where he also immortalized the gatsby the american scene of Solomons dream. Early Christians interpreted dreams as a state in which the defenseless body and spirit were susceptible to a variety of influences. Laos. Nightmares were thought to be a clear manifestation of demons and monsters or warnings from God or a message from crime perspective paper, heaven.

In the nude New Testament, an angel appeared to The Murder Till, Joseph in a dream and declared that Mary was pregnant by the Holy Spirit. Mary and Joseph were not married yet and Joseph thought about nude annulling the betrothal because of the pregnancy of Mary. However, the angel told him that the future child would be the Saviour, which led to Josephs change of heart. Sexism In Society. REF. Dream themes appeared as early as in ancient Greek and Roman comedies, and laos, continued to provide material for drama throughout the centuries. The Murder Of Emmett. One example is the nude Baroque Life Is a Dream by Calderon de la Barca in analysis ford 1635 (WHERE?!) Long before the nude discovery of psychoanalysis and its development, there were attempts to unravel the mystery of the origin and message of dreams.

Also artists started to be more involve in this phenomen. Sexism In Society. The Renaissance era was no exception. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, dreams became a theme often adoptedby artists who tried to push the nude boundaries of art seeking ways to show the unpreventable. Of Emmett Essay. How could an artist capture on canvas something so intangible, ephemeral and laos, incomprehensible as a dream? Another form, which was as its basic material, imagination and dream, is the drama of the analysis Renaissance era. Writers used dreams to laos nude, reveal the importance of respect complexities of the human psyche and to reveal subconscious fears and anxieties. This method was used by William Shakespeare (1564 1616) who already in the sixteenth century broke with the existing conventions of drama and placed the supernatural alongside the real world. In A Midsummer Nights Dream the playwright applied a phenomenon called the dualism of the represented world, which means that fantasy should be represented equally with reality. REF. One night in laos the middle of summer the gatsby the american dream boundary between these two worlds was obliterated. The forest, which was the place of the action, became a place for the simultaneous operation of two states of consciousness: reality and dream.

In this way, Shakespeare created an image resembling the original beliefs of the people or the fantasies of a child whose mind was not yet sufficiently affected by the suffering of the world and the things overlooked by adults. The forest was turned into a magical place with the presence of magic and elves. Among the characters of the drama, two circles could be distinguished: humans and laos nude, elves. And Trial Of Emmett. The first is a symbol of the ordinary and the mundane, while the second circle symbolizes the nude extraordinary and magic. Elves show that anything can happen. By being transformed physically into an ass, Bottoms true character is the great gatsby the american quotes revealed. This was depicted by Edwin Landseer in laos his painting Scene from A Midsummer Nights Dream.Elvish magic showed the impossibility of distinguishing dream from reality. In the words of Shakespeare: The lunatic, the lover, and the poet, are of Essay and Fetishistic Past by Alfred, imagination all compact. REF. In Shakespeares Macbeth the world resembles ghostly phantom apnea, which is rife with crime, and the scenery is immersed in the darkness of night. Laos Nude. The theme is the organized paper desire to gain power, which Macbeth and nude, his wife achieve by the murder of King Duncan. After the crime both perpetrators have guilty consciences, which they cannot suppress.

Dark thoughts and memories haunt both characters in dreams. The crime which they have committed has led to them believing every man was a threat to sexism in society, them as a potential enemy. In a dream Macbeth sees the spirit of a dead friend, Banquo. This means he is faced with a difficult choice. On the one hand there is the desire to gain power, on the other sensitivity and a sense of morality, which ultimately is victorious. Laos. Macbeth could no longer keep secret, the terrible crime which was haunting him every night. Nightmares also tormented his wife.

Remorse disturbed his peace of mind. And Fetishistic Disorders And Present By Alfred. However, recurring nightmares still had a greater influence on his wife, and especially on the psyche. This is confirmed by the words of nude, Macbeth (ACT 2 SCENE 5) REF. Methought I heard a voice cry, Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleepthe innocent sleep, Sleep that knits up the raveled sleave of care, The death of each days life, sore labors bath, Balm of hurt minds, great natures second course, Chief nourisher in lifes feast. REF. The killing a man by Macbeth is the killing of dream, his own conscience.

The painting Nightmare by Henry Fuseli (1781) reflects the struggle of the protagonist of Macbeth and his wife to come to ford, terms with the murder. The woman lying on the bed perfectly reflects their mental state. Moreover, the nude womans position suggests that she may be dreaming of something horrifying, manifesting as fear in the dreamer. Social Crime. The painter has not left any specific instructions regarding its interpretation. It can be assumed that a woman lying on the bed is his beloved Anna Landolf. This would allow the discovery of an additional intimate sense. REF. The Nightmare simultaneously offers both the image of a dreamby indicating the nude effect of the nightmare on the womanand a dream imagein symbolically portraying the sleeping vision. REF It is also unclear whether the woman is swot ford immersed in a dream or whether she is trying to catch her last breath. The symbolism and laos, imagery of the painting is very much exposed. The outer form is the undercover for what is important, which is a nightmare of the spirit. Social Organized Perspective Paper. Within the symbolism there is a monkey ornament, which according to ancient times was the creature which most closely resembles to a human.

However, in the art of the Middle Ages it symbolized the essence of a degraded, creature hiding in the animal nature of man. REF Similar symbols associated with the laos nude character of the importance of respect horse. Additional evidence may be darkness, from which it emerges. Sleep, the Cousin of Death Charles Sackville REF. Indeed the woman lying on the bed could be dead or just sleeping. During the Renaissance poets developed an awareness, not only laos nude, of the importance od dreams but of unlimited imagination. The poets of the seventeenth century liked to compare dream to the state of death. They even discussed the concept that human life ends in the sleep of death. Miko??aj S??p Szarzy??ski (1550 1581) REF. In European literature Romanticism emphasized the The Murder Till Essay value of emotions and inspirations coming from the irrational. Visions, stemming from dreams or the mental, and nude, sometimes the physical state caused by the interaction of drugs, served as excellent material to manifest the highest potential and skills of the artist. Onirism which is an art form directly based on material from dreams, or which employs dream-like imagery, often embraces the entire composition of the artists work, especially the on Fetishes and Present by Alfred Binet construction of the person and his relationship with the real, fantastic and nude, spiritual world. (Drucker, 2006) In fact, the term Onirism in relation to art appeared in organized crime the twentieth century as a result of the laos achievements of the Surrealists, for whom creativity and onirism tendencies are very characteristic.

The Surrealists were fascinated by hypnosis, myths and tales, tearing down the logical order of reality and the great the american quotes, investigating absurdity, dreams and mediumship which was thriving at the time of psychoanalysis. The Surrealists attributed on enormous role to unrestrained imagination. Oneiric tendencies were noticed and disseminated in the 1960s and 1970s with the resurgent popularity of surrealism. (Jurewicz, 2014) The epithet oneiric is most commonly used to characterize the artistic techniques, rather than the overall concept of the dream. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century symbolism and expressionism introduced dream images to the visual arts. Laos. Expressionism was also a literary movement and embraced later work. In Society. (Jouvet, 2000) August Strindberg coined the term dream play for narrative style, which does not apply the differentiations between fantasy and reality. Whereas others believed that sleep is a kind of escape from the world. The Wedding (1901) defining work of Polish drama written at the turn of the nude 20th century by Stanis??aw Wyspia??ski (1869 1907) describes the social perils of the national drive toward self-determination following the two unsuccessful uprisings against the Partitions of Poland, in November 1830 and January 1863. The author, by combining reality with fiction, evaluates Polish society facing an nude, opportunity to regain independence. There are large number of symbols, which serve as criticisms of inconsistency, lack of understanding and the motivation to fight for the country. Sexism. Wyspiariski placed in his act realistic as well as fictional characters, ghosts and laos nude, spirits.

There is no doubt that the whole of the ford second act of the drama is constructed from oneiric conventions. Ghosts and spirits, which have symbolic importance, are merely the imagination of the authentic characters. Almost every one of them is a remembrance of the past, the embodiment of their desires, fears and aspirations. Their task is to unmasked the inner state of the person to whomghost are appearing. The Poet is visited successively by the Black Knight a symbol of the nations past military glory, the Journalist, then by the court jester Sta??czy who is a conservative political sage and by the Ghost of Wernyhora, a paradigm of leadership for Poland.

Wernyhora presents the Host with a golden horn symbolizing the national mission, and calls the Polish people to revolt. There is a mood of horror, mystery, understatement, ambiguity, so it is not known whether the characters see spirits while they are awake, or they are merely a dream. Nude. Painting B?dne ko??o (The Mad Circle) by Jacek Malczewski is an example of a symbolic painting. The painting presents quite a strange scene referring to the play The Wedding In the center of the painting is located a ladder on it there is sitting little boy while numerous characters are dancing around him. Among them is impossible to distinguish between both the rural population, positioned on second plane of the painting, naked women and men in the foreground.

The humans and the figure of the social perspective devil, that is, half-naked creature with hooves instead of feet. The painting is a composition closed, is kept in dark tones predominate, gray, black, brown only on the left side, where there are people of rural origin suddenly colours change in a very lively, much happier with a majority of red, yellow, blue. Laos. The image is very dynamic, but the full balance is maintained between one and the other side of the work. Malczewskis painting sums up all the thoughts and values which carries with it drama The Wedding. The twentieth first century brought many amazing discoveries in the field of parapsychology, which allowed for the american dream quotes a variety of interpretations of various phenomena in the area of the laos nude human mind. It has been proved that the brain during sleep functions only ten percent. REF. What is happening with the rest? It is still a mystery to be solve. The dream is a kind of escape into the world of fantasy, a condition in which a person is in no way limited even by the force of gravity. On Fetishes Disorders By Alfred. Wislawa Szymborska (1923 -2012) demonstrated this in the poem In Praise of laos nude, Dreams.

In praise of dreams. I paint like Vermeer van Delft. I speak fluent Greek. and not just with the social organized crime perspective living. that does what I want it to. and write mighty epics. as clearly as any venerable saint. My brilliance as a pianist. I fly the way we ought to, Falling from the roof, I tumble gently to the grass.

Ive got no problem. breathing under water. Ive been able to locate Atlantis. Its gratifying that I can always. wake up before dying. As soon as war breaks out,

I roll over on laos, my other side. Im a child of my age, but I dont have to be. A few years ago. And the night before last a penguin, The poems title makes the subject matter obvious. The subject shows the reader that during sleep, nothing is impossible. . One can become an outstanding painter fluent in different languages who plays the piano beautifully or soars high above the ground. The poet sees sleep as a land where anything can happen, an endless realm of improbable things like two suns. In the dream, death does not need to be feared. Each time, when all kinds of threat are revealed by analysis ford simply opening the eyes one is again lying safely in bed cuddling a pillow. Unknown corners of the earth can be explored; it is possible or to breathe underwater, we become better, we blur the boundary between the worlds of the living and the dead.

In dreams, it is possible to meet different creatures, different people, familiar faces, relatives, and friends.. people who died a long time ago who appear to be alive. Dreams have one common feature they do not exist in the laws of logic that govern thinking in reality. In dreams different states and emotions are experienced, yet only the most shocking or the most important moments of sleep are remembered. It is not surprising that Szymborska devoted a poem to the praise of dreams for their uniqueness. Laos Nude. A dream is a second life; it is state of transition, in which people are the masters of their dreams.

Apnea material began to be used as an inspiration for of Emmett Till comics in the 1980s. For instance the popular comic strips of Winsor McCay. Nude. Artists began to illustrate their own dreams. In The Committee of swot, Sleep the Harvard psychologist Deirdre explored material for media provided by dreams among many modernist works inspired by dreams she included paintings such as Flag (195455) by Jasper Johns, most of the work of laos, Jim Dine and Salvador Dali, novels ranging from Sophie Choice directed by Essay Past by Alfred Alan J. Pakula, who adapted William Styrons novel of the same name. Works of Anne Rice and Stephen King, even films such as 3 Women directed by nude Robert Altman, Wild Strawberries directed by Ingmar Bergman, Dracula or even Frankenstein. Swot Analysis Ford. Barrett also mentions that the song Yesterday by Paul McCartney, was heard by laos him in a dream. (Belanger, 2005) Content coming from the dreams is still used for and Trial of Emmett Essay different purposes by many contemporary artists.

The exploitation of dreams is considered by some to laos, give suitable psychological weigt to their work, regardless of artistic value. (Pells, 1973) CHAPTER THREE SURREALISM: THE DREAM MOVEMENT. Dreams have been an inseparable part of everyones life since time immemorial, and this is reflected in swot analysis ford the fields of literature and art where the use of dreams as theme. Simultaneously, the discussion regarding dreams reached a new level of awareness in the western world due to the work of Sigmund Freud who introduced the concept of the unconscious as a field of research. Freuds theories greatly influenced the twentieth-century Surrealists who combined visionary impulses and expressionism placing great emphasis on the unconscious as a creative tool, with the assumption that the seemingly irrational content might contain much of relevant information, perhaps even more than the rational. The aim of the nude Surrealists was to investigate the realm of the unconscious. Quotes. They took the view that man is governed by forces beyond his conscious Ego, an idea introduced by Sigmund Freud. Although the Surrealists strongly embraced Freuds theory he wrote letter to Stefan Zweig (20 July 1938), after meeting Salvador Dali, that he was inclined to look upon surrealists, who have apparently chosen me for their patron saint, as absolute (let us say 95 per cent, like alcohol) cranks! (Pontalis, Frontiers in Psychoanalysis, p.49) Films, particularly those of Bunuel have, to nude, a large extent been responsible for analysis spreading the concept of the dream. Some of Bunuels sequences have been described as an involuntary imitation of sleep. (Solar, 2003) Film criticism popularized the laos epithet oneiric, but very often it is used interchangeably with the term surreal regardless of sexism in society, whether it is a film created through surrealism or not. Commonly, these terms apply to discontinuities in nude the film, the scenes that are a contradiction of realistic logic and unexpected associations. The invention of film and animation has brought new opportunities to describe irrational events, but films composed entirely of dream-like images and swot, content were still rare avant-garde. (Peterson, 1994)

One of the most interesting movements in painting of the twentieth century was Surrealism. Artists representing this style were using surprising ideas that were innovative, inspired by reality as well as dreams. Antonin Artaud states that, Surrealism is not a style. It is the cry of a mind turning back on itself. (1997, p.3) Surrealism was founded in France and nude, quickly gained followers. And Fetishistic Past Binet. It expressed what is difficult to nude, determine, allowed freedom of association, and even expressed the irrational. The style was a revolt against analysis, classicism, realism, empiricism, rationalism, utilitarianism and previous conventions in art.

The main feature of Surrealist painting was a visual expression of nude, internal perception. Artists tried to create images that disturbed the logical order of reality. Swot Analysis. Often these were grotesque visions, the borderline between reality, dream, fantasy, hallucinations and a movement away from rationalism. (Durozoi, 2002) The Surrealists, who attributed a major role to unrestrained imagination, also derived some ideas from Romanticism. They wanted to dramatize even seemingly ordinary events. Important for them also was the element of laos nude, surprise, absurdity and the american, nonsense.

The Surreal images are shreds of disordered and illogical thoughts. Important inspirations for the Surrealists were Hieronymus Boschs (1450 1516) paintings. Art historian Walter Gibson described Boschs paintings as a world of dreams [and] nightmares in which forms seem to flicker and change before our eyes. The Spaniard Felipe de Guevara wrote that the artist was regarded merely as the inventor of monsters and chimeras. Laos Nude. Whereas a Dutch art historian Karel van Mander described Boschs work as wondrous and strange fantasies () often less pleasant than gruesome to look at. The aim of the in society Surrealists was to investigate the realm of the unconscious. They took the view that man is nude governed by forces beyond his conscious Ego. The Great Gatsby. The Surrealists were fascinated by hypnosis, automatic writing, medium-ship which was thriving at the time of psychoanalysis. The most prominent psychoanalysiss were Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung. Although the Surrealists referred to the theories of Freud, he himself was utterly puzzled by the Surrealists.

They Surrealists wanted to dramatize even seemingly ordinary events. Their images are shreds of disordered and laos, illogical thoughts. Salvador Dali (1904 1989) was one of the most outstanding artists who was highly influenced by the world of dreams. The Great. An example can be Dalis most recognizable series of laos, melting clocks, supposedly inspired by a dream about camembert cheese. Dali transferred on of respect, canvas culinary materialistic dreams and laos, obsessions. Symbolism is in society part of the inherited culture of nude, human nature. It should be remembered that new symbols are constantly being created and they join the old.

Each symbol has its counterpart which is its translation or example. The quantity and quality symbol which humans use to express thoughts and desires, is, however, changed during the course of life and depends on the changing socio-cultural context. Because desires are suppressed during resting, they are revealed only in conditions of reduced censorship. The essence of dreams is the hallucinatory fulfilment of irrational impulses and desires. The formation of dreams involving two types of mental processes: one that creates thoughts of sleep and the other encodes these thoughts in sexism in society such a way that they are irrational. Encoding is laos designed to sexism, conceal infantile desires, as well as those that are contrary to the principles of pleasure, but which are thought about in everyday life. (Jurewicz, 2014 p.7)

The 1929 silent film Un Chien Andalou (An Andalusian Dog) by Salvador Dali and Luis Bu??uel is a Surrealistic potpourri of nude, shocking, dream-influenced obscene non-related episodic clips with no purpose but merely to shock the viewer. The chronology of the films is the great dream quotes chaotic and laos nude, disjointed, there are no central characters to follow, it jumps from once upon a time to eight years later without any explanation whatsoever. It uses dream logic in narrative flow that can be described in terms of the then-popular Freudian free association, presenting a series of tenuously related scenes. (The Generalist, 2014) The film is reminiscent of dream logic that requires no rhyme or reason, just like an actual dream. For centuries, people have been having dreams. The Murder And Trial Of Emmett. Every night they enter into the world of dream, an unknown world where it is possible to be anyone.

In dreams, it is possible to meet different creatures, different people, familiar faces, relatives, and friends people who died a long time ago who appear to laos, be alive. Dreams have one common feature they do not exist in the laws of logic that govern thinking in reality. In dreams different states and emotions are experienced, yet only the and Fetishistic Disorders by Alfred most shocking, the most important moments of sleep are remembered, and so it is with this film. Laos Nude. The film includes ants crawling out of a mans palm, a severed hand in the street and a shocking scene when a razor is held to a womans eyeball and an incision is promptly made. By Alfred. Bu??uel in his youth played outside surrounded by dead donkeys and Dali had a dream of ants poking out of his hand. The film is a patchwork of scenes inspired by Dalis and Bu??uels dreams. This dissertation has examined the importance and relevance of dreams in art and literature.

It has shown that dreams can reveal the secrets of the past and present and nude, predict the future. Dreams may be evidence of supernatural power, and may provide an insight into the afterlife. Dreaming is a state of the union of body, mind and The Murder and Trial Till, soul. It is a disclosure of unconscious and repressed psychological contents. Dreams are wonderfully mysterious vision, a manifestation of different dimension of reality. According to Freud, most experiences are pushed out of the realm of consciousness into the subconscious, where they remain involuntarily. This realm of the subconscious is not without influence on peoples lives, because dreams are the laos nude expression, a disclosure they represent symbolically all that is feared and loved.

What people yearn for often a matter of sexism in society, great surprise themselves. Other theorist, Gustav Jung stated that dreams are influenced by ancient culture, communications and the experience of the old religions dormant in the subconscious what might be called the unconscious memory. Emerson postulated that there is a relationship between personality and dream, whereas Henri Bergson argued that dreams are caused by different physical stimuli. Sleep can be a key factor in nude the creation of the represented world or create a composition those rovers between reality and fiction, between a waking state and a dream. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom History essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of Essay on Fetishes and Fetishistic Disorders and Present, us is qualified to laos, a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised History work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This History essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Dreams theories, history and film . Crime Paper. Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/history/essay-dreams-theories-history-and-film/ [04-10-17]. If you are the nude original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal:

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