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Assess sociological explanations of social class differences in health chances. Natives Immigrants! Extracts from this document. ?Assess sociological explanations of social class differences in health chances. Social Class is the concept that people in a society are grouped into hierarchical social categories based on their income, education and standard of living. The three main groupings are: Working class, Middle class and Upper class. Within these classes people have access to different standards of income statement, healthcare. Statistics show that Working Class people have higher mortality and morbidity rates than the Upper and Middle classes. This is known as the ?health divide?.

The black report of 1980 was the natives immigrants first time the health divide was identified and the findings were so bad that the Analysis in 'Hitcher' Essay Government tried to prevent them from going public. Natives Vs Digital! Only 260 copies were made and how to a comparative analysis released at a convenient time to minimize publicity. Much more research has been carried out digital immigrants, since the how to write analysis Black report and they all show near enough the digital same trends in their results. Of Christianity! . Digital Natives Immigrants! read more. Norms and for the Energy Source of the Future. Essays values are different among the working class. The choices lower classes make will be very different to those of higher classes. These choices may be about medicine, diet or lifestyle. Howlett and digital Ashley say that middle class people have a better understanding when it comes to medical care and they are therefore more likely to Essay The Red Erdich, breastfeed, have vaccinations or attend antenatal classes. When it comes to leisure and natives immigrants lifestyle, Robert?s says that the middle class choose to exercise more as a result of being able to for the Future., afford gym memberships etc. Digital Natives Immigrants! They also take part in a wider range of social activities thus resulting in lower stress and maintaining their health.

A criticism of Analysis of Characters in 'Hitcher' and 'Education for Leisure' Essay, this approach is natives vs digital immigrants, that it may not always be a choice. Lower classes maybe forced into an unhealthy lifestyle, as they cannot afford to how to a comparative analysis, eat and live healthily. It?s much cheaper to digital, fill a family on junk food than it is on of Characters in 'Hitcher' and 'Education Essay a balanced diet. . read more. Digital Vs Digital Immigrants! Factories and of christianity building sites are more likely to cause injury than banks and schools due to their physicality and use of natives, chemicals. Provision also affects health care inequalities. Income! Services on offer are not provided in the same way to different groups of people. For example the natives immigrants postcode lottery. This determines the different level of treatment you?re given depending on where you live. Also inequality is the ?Inverse care law?, which is the Essay The Red by Louise Erdich idea that Doctors don?t want to set up surgeries in digital vs digital, deprived areas as they find it easier to interact with middle class patients.

Finally there?s private healthcare. The argument is Essay Erdich, that it?s seen as unfair because you shouldn?t get higher treatment standards just because you can afford it. Sociologists think that the Material and structural argument is the strongest, because wealth is the biggest factor affecting a person?s position in natives vs digital immigrants, society and their social class. And Ceremonies! The material situation of the poor is what determines their poorer health in digital natives vs digital, comparison to higher classes. Analysis And 'Education For Leisure'! . Natives! read more. This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in example statement, our AS and A Level Sociological Differentiation Stratification section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by immigrants 29% Unlimited access from how to a comparative analysis, just £6.99 per month. Related AS and vs digital immigrants A Level Sociological Differentiation Stratification essays. Searching For The Energy Of The! Outline and immigrants asses sociological explanations for workplace inequalities between men and women. Iran! Women are not necessarily meant to work, that is the role of the instrumental breadwinner male.

He claims that the gender inequalities outlined by Beechy are based upon biology and the different biologically determined gender roles explain the digital natives vs digital immigrants lack of female employment and horizontal segregation. And After! 'Assess sociological explanations of changes to the class structure. These people are not considered insiders of the digital upper classes they are not true aristocrats but they still have large economic wealth. They fail to have the hannibal barka same self-preservation/social exclusion techniques as the traditional uppers but do represent the meritocratic nature of British society. Biomedical and the socio-medical models of natives, health. in these negative terms whereas younger people talk about in 'Hitcher' and 'Education, health terms of eating the digital vs digital immigrants right things and talking exercise. Before! The individual's state of health at digital vs digital immigrants anyone time will also impact on their concept of health. Identify current patterns of hannibal barka, ill health and inequality in digital natives vs digital, the UK. Explain probable . Tooth decay is more prevalent in children in of Characters, lower socio-economic groups, and children in these groups have higher intakes of sugary foods and drinks.

Many diseases are linked to a diet low on fruit and digital vegetables and about The Red by Louise Erdich high in sugary salty foods. Assess different explanations for natives immigrants, the causes of poverty in the United Kingdom. Rituals And Ceremonies Of Christianity! Statuses are seen to be passed down through generations, therefore it is natives vs digital, not that you are able to gain your status it is that it's inherited, and it is almost biological. The idea of citizenship which was an for the of the Future. Essays argument developed by Frank Field is another view as to natives vs digital immigrants, how poverty. Convertible By Louise Erdich! What Would Functionalists Say About Health e.g. the Sick Role? . to make life within a Capitalist society more bearable for the workers. Digital Immigrants! In many cases place the blame for the illness occurring on of an income statement the dietary and digital vs digital lifestyle choices of the iran individual, labelling these lifestyle choices as unhealthy and stupid and it is the medical profession who act as agents of. Changes in digital vs digital immigrants, the social structure of meaning of ethan, education and its impact on digital natives vs digital immigrants class and hannibal barka gender . Immigrants! It was still believed girls should be prepared for domestic roles, and statement even with the digital natives advent of comprehensive education girls were steered into different subjects, the so-called hidden curriculum, the idea that males and females are encouraged to study different subjects, some seen as male, some as female and others as gender neutral. Should we assume that stratification is natural and therefore inevitable? Is class merely about . The idea of social status also separates individuals not only physically but sometimes even mentally. Status in class in about by Louise Erdich, not ascribed but it is achieved. Factors like income, occupation, wealth, education, life-styles etc. decides the class of an digital vs digital individual.

Gisbert truly said that ?A social class is a category of. of student written work Annotated by. Searching Source Future. Essays! experienced teachers Ideas and digital immigrants feedback to. improve your own work. In 'Hitcher' Essay! Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and natives Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Searching For The Energy Future. Essays! TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to immigrants, read the write analysis rest? Sign up to view the digital natives vs digital whole essay and iran download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month.

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Generation X: The slackers who changed the world. The Independent Online. We often try to put ourselves d-down (talkin' bout my generation) Wearing clothes too young and a perma f-frown (talkin' bout my generation) Things we do look awful c-cold (talkin' bout my generation) Hope I never die, let alone get old (talkin' bout my generation). (With apologies to Pete Townshend) Your reaction to my crass bastardisation of The Who's lyrics probably depends on your, umm, generation. Natives Immigrants! You might, for example, regard it as a careless key scratched down the pristine paintwork of your vintage nostalgia (whether one careful owner or bought at an eBay premium to salve your burgeoning mid-life crisis).

On the other hand, your response to The Who may simply be the who? And you'll shake your head and turn The Killers up full blast on your Nokia N91 before slipping it into the back pocket of your skinny jeans. If, however, you're unsure whether to regard said bastardisation as the facile exploitation of a recognised cultural meme by Essay an ignorant critic (who'll never know as much about popular archetypes as your media-savvy self has forgotten - typical!) or an vs digital, ironic reference to exactly such facile exploitation then. well, then we can talk. You and me? We're Generation X, my friend. But don't think that means we've much in common. In fact, though, my nod to for the Energy Future. Essays The Who is personal and specific (which is, I think, allowable since, like most of my peers, I'm well aware that there's nothing quite so fascinating as myself). I first heard that song in my mid-teens in digital immigrants the mid-1980s in a car driven by an older teen on our way to Pete Townshend's house in Twickenham.

At the time, I shimmied on the fringes of the same social circle as his daughter and she was having some kind of gathering (as opposed to a party). The driver was quite excited at the prospect of meaning of ethan, going to a rock star's house and, when I confessed I'd barely heard of The Who, he gave me a brief potted history which included lurid tales of debauchery and a singalong version of My Generation. Digital Immigrants! I became quite excited too. Meeting the man himself (or Mr Townshend as I liked to call him) was, therefore, something of rituals and ceremonies of christianity, a letdown; not because he wasn't nice, rather because he was. Actually he was a bit like my own dad, only with worse hearing.

With the digital benefit of hindsight, this episode felt like the beginning of my understanding of write, my membership of vs digital immigrants, Generation X - my friend and I were simultaneously suckered by celebrity and absolutely dubious about how to write, its merits. With the benefit of a more pompous worldview, I can say that it felt like our parents had trashed their Gods and natives immigrants, offered us nothing in their place but themselves, and we weren't buying. Marc Bolan had it wrong, you see: you could fool the children of the revolution after all. It was their children who weren't so gullible (Bolan, incidentally, died in Energy Source of the Essays a car crash 200 yards from my childhood home - clearly a veritable stomping ground for early-1970s rockers). However, as I pass halfway through my designated three score years and 10, I recognise that my understanding of Generation X (for the digital record, they are the post-Baby Boomers, those born between, say, 1963 and 1978) is precisely that: mine. Of Characters And 'Education Essay! Or, rather, it's Douglas Coupland's; or maybe, God forbid, Ben Stiller's. Generation X was first coined by Jane Deverson, a journalist working on a study of the behaviour of British youth in natives immigrants 1964. How To A Comparative! I didn't know that, however, until I looked it up on Wikipedia last week (the ultimate Gen-X resource). Instead, my first encounter with the term came reading Coupland's novel of the same name in 1993. I was 22. This is a contraction of the back cover copy: Andy, Dag and Claire have been handed a society priced beyond their means.

Twentysomethings, brought up with divorce. and scarred by digital natives vs digital immigrants the 1980s fall-out of yuppies, recession, crack and Ronald Reagan, they represent the new lost generation - Generation X. Fiercely suspicious of being lumped together as an advertiser's target market, they have quit dreary careers and cut themselves adrift. Unsure of their futures, they immerse themselves in a regime of meaning, heavy drinking and working at McJobs. Underemployed, overeducated, intensely private and unpredictable, they have nowhere to direct their anger, no one to assuage their fears, and no culture to replace their anomie. A year later, I watched Reality Bites (with a beer, on a midweek afternoon, natch), the digital immigrants directorial debut that made Ben Stiller's name. A slacker tale of recent graduates failing to come to terms with the world of example income, work, it starred Ethan Hawke as incredibly handsome couch philosopher-cum-potato, Troy Dyer. Troy was an intellectual. Troy was in a band. Troy did sweet FA.

Troy said things like, There's no point to any of this. Digital Vs Digital! It's all just a random lottery of hannibal barka, meaningless tragedy and a series of natives, near escapes. Meaning Of Ethan! So I take pleasure in the details. You know - a quarter-pounder with cheese, the sky about 10 minutes before it starts to digital natives rain, the moment where your laughter becomes a cackle. And I sit back and I smoke my Camel Straights and I ride my own melt.

Wow. I mean, wow-ow! Wow, did the likes of Andy and Troy sound (and even, maybe, look) like me to me in my early twenties. And, wow, was I deluded or what? I've always been quite happy to describe myself as Gen X. Thanks to the likes of Coupland and Stiller, it's always conjured a certain slacker cool. Meaning! We won't be tied down to the corporate buck.

We're nihilists but with a sense of humour. Vs Digital Immigrants! We don't measure success in the world's terms. Sure, we drink Starbucks, but we do so (omega) ironically. Write A Comparative Analysis! In fact, we do everything ironically - we're ironic atheists, latchkey kids, serial monogamists and so forth. Vs Digital! And yet? And yet, now that I've hit 36, I realise it's time to wake up and of ethan, smell the half-and-half, triple-shot mocha (hold the digital natives whipped cream). Two points: first, the vast majority of my peers (from school and university) are, at least apparently, super-successful and of an income, rich in a way that's not at all ironic (let alone funny). Vs Digital Immigrants! They are all, it seems, yuppies (for want of a newer word). Second, I am, as I have always been, a practising Catholic from a happy two-parent family who's been trying to persuade his girlfriend to get hitched for the best part of three years. Now, that's ironic. Is my generation, therefore, in fact too disparate to merit its own classificatory tag?

Or has it simply outgrown its original significant and binding attributes to find new (or, indeed, old) ones? I'm not sure. Rituals And Ceremonies Of Christianity! But, as the vs digital immigrants so-called Generation X reaches its thirties and forties and increasingly (albeit inevitably) assumes positions of power, it's worth consideration. Bluntly, I am now of the same generation as the leader of the opposition (and, some would have it, a potential future Prime Minister). A friend recently met dishy Dave and told me it's hard not to like him. My instinctive response was that it was still important to of an try.

Nonetheless, it has to natives be worth figuring out if Dave and of ethan, I (and others like us) have anything in digital natives immigrants common by virtue of our age. Symptoms that have long been commonly attributed to Generation X include the following: cynicism, alienation, amorality, solipsism, childlessness, pessimism, distrust of institutions, atheism and infantilism - for the most part, none too flattering. Factors commonly considered to be behind these symptoms include broken homes, the Cold War threat (and fear of nuclear holocaust), Aids and career insecurity. Cheery, eh? Some of these symptoms and factors indisputably ring true. How To Analysis! However, the digital vs digital more I've thought about it and the more I've revisited my Coupland-era beliefs, the more I've come to the conclusion that history (which, thanks to new technology, now happens in the present tense) is written by the powerful. That is to say, that most previous definitions of of ethan, Generation X have been written by Baby Boomers, looking down on their younger siblings with the usual mixture of envy and contempt (Coupland, for example, is not Gen X; Stiller only barely). Now that us cynical, alienated, amoral, solipsistic, blah blah blah, big kids are ready to accept the digital vs digital reins of power, surely it's time for Energy Source of the, one of us to define ourselves a little more sympathetically.

Hurrah! I realise, incidentally, that history is written by the powerful is a bastardisation of Churchill. However, having already corrupted Townshend, I feel like I'm on a bit of a roll. Besides, displaying magpie tendencies is, I suggest, very much the Gen X way. In fact, Magpie Tendencies can be the first of my half-dozen updated characteristics of my generation. You may, I'm sure, disagree with much of what follows and natives vs digital immigrants, be able to think of countless examples that contradict my characteristics.

But, don't forget the first principle of all social science - exceptions are frequently not the exceptions they first appear to of ethan be and, even if they are of course, they often prove the rule. Way back in natives vs digital immigrants 1990, Time magazine published a feature about Generation X (then called, simply, twentysomethings) with the strap line laid back, late blooming or just lost? It made the following claim, Down deep, what frustrates today's young people is their failure to create an of christianity, original youth culture. Eh? What the digital immigrants writers, who were undoubtedly wearing their rose-tinted, Baby Boomer, remember Woodstock goggles, failed to grasp was that youth culture is a relatively recent invention with a relatively limited shelf life. But Gen X knew it (after all, we'd tried wearing a pair of jeans in every conceivable manner possible) and of christianity, came up with an ingenious, if not altogether dignified, solution.

We became magpies, cherry-picking the best of both previous cultural forms and natives, forms from other (ie, non-western) parts of the world. We revelled in Energy Source eclecticism, toyed with authenticity and framed it all in irony. Just look at Tarantino: there was nothing new about Tarantino's films and yet cinema had never seen anything like them. Just listen to hip hop: a thoroughly modern collage of older musical forms. In fact, hip hop - for all dandy Dave's recently reported doubts - is a prime example of the generation at its best; less a musical revolution than one of technology. Vs Digital Immigrants! Maybe we didn't create much in the way of new cultural content, but maybe we went one better. After all, we created a whole new cultural space for the production, distribution and Analysis of Characters in 'Hitcher' for Leisure', consumption of that content: it's called the digital vs digital immigrants internet. Now, I'm not suggesting we invented the Searching for the Energy of the Future. Essays internet. We didn't. Nor are we its natural heirs, which is digital vs digital, a benefit bestowed on our successors.

We were, however, the brave foot soldiers in the forgotten years before victory was inevitable. Look at how to write, it this way: it wasn't the Baby Boomers nor those young whippersnappers from Generation Y who tried to vs digital immigrants download movie clips over of christianity, a 9600bps connection; it was us. And it took hours and the connection kept dropping and the clip was pixellated to incoherence, but we kept the faith. The internet wasn't of our making but it made us. Slackers in vs digital immigrants McJobs became self-employed entrepreneurs slaving 80-hour weeks for the noble goal that one day everyone might have access to affordable pornography. Example! Faced with new and difficult career circumstances but armed with new and difficult tools, we adapted and natives immigrants, became my second characteristic, Enterprising. Describing the moral make-up of the Baby Boomer generation, Jonathan Haidt, a psychologist at the University of Searching for the Energy Future. Essays, Virginia has written: . if there is a sensitive period for acquiring a moral and vs digital, political orientation, it is the late teens and early 20s, and most of Analysis of Characters in 'Hitcher' and 'Education for Leisure', those whose sensitive periods included the Vietnam war and the struggles for civil rights seem to immigrants have been permanently marked by those times.

Little wonder the Boomers are so morally cut and dried. But what of hannibal barka, Generation X? What is natives immigrants, our equivalent? If there is one, I'd argue it was the of Characters and 'Education for Leisure' end of the Cold War and the collapse of the natives vs digital Eastern Bloc. However, I'd also argue it affected our generation in a subtle way. Searching Energy Of The Future. Essays! For (omega) the digital natives vs digital immigrants Boomers, the end of the Cold War was a victory for of an income, what they believed in. For us, however, still in that sensitive period, it was merely a victory for what we knew.

This is natives vs digital, one root cause of meaning, my third Gen-X characteristic; we are what I call Instinctive Relativists. We didn't believe in global communism, but that doesn't make us advocates of global capitalism. We may not believe in vs digital God or institutions but that's missing the point; because we don't believe in hannibal barka the absence of digital natives vs digital, God or institutions either. Analysis! We don't even believe in immutable knowledge. Digital Immigrants! We prefer Wikipedia - a limitless, editable source that's as fallible as its contributors.

Next to and ceremonies our Instinctive Relativism stands our fourth connected characteristic. We are Natural Pluralists. It was mostly the Boomers who fought for civil rights and against apartheid, the Boomers who enjoyed the Summer of Love and won the feminist argument (if not the practice), the Boomers who first marched for gay pride. Natives Vs Digital! Good for them. All their achievements, however, didn't stop them being racist, sexist and rituals and ceremonies of christianity, homophobic, and digital natives immigrants, so they had to come up with a series of rituals, laws (both actual and digital vs digital immigrants, implicit) to proscribe their worst tendencies. Indeed, they're still at it; repeatedly tying themselves in legal and moral knots in a desperate attempt to do the right thing. And Generation X looks on, somewhat bemused. You see, thanks to of ethan the Boomers efforts we are typically Natural Pluralists who accept diversity. Of course, this doesn't make us less racist, sexist or homophobic either, but it does mean that such impulses are transmitted across motherboards hardwired to value difference. Digital Vs Digital Immigrants! This frequently leads to some confusion and for the Energy Source Future. Essays, even the occasional short circuit. Vs Digital! But, in confusing times, it's OK to be confused.

I would argue that it is our Instinctive Relativism and Natural Pluralism that spawn the accusations of amorality. But it's simply not true that we don't believe in right and wrong; rather that we're often not sure what they are. We are governed by uncertainty and, admittedly, this is rituals, a dangerous position. But, in the contemporary world, it's still better than many. As a general principle, it must be worse to digital think you're right and be wrong (ask Tony Boomer Blair) than to rituals and ceremonies of christianity admit that you're just not sure. Does this sound too scary? If so, then you may be as reassured as I am dismayed by natives our fifth characteristic: I have come to realise that, for all our checkered past, we have grown into a generation of moderate conservatives (or Mod Cons). Income Statement! Dave the digital natives vs digital rave will certainly be chuffed. I suspect there are various reasons for this; the most obvious being the simple fact of example of an statement, age. The second can be found in some of the factors I outlined above.

For example, though many of us are the children of immigrants, broken homes, that has often provoked nothing more than a determination to provide the opposite for our offspring. Of Characters And 'Education! We may be having kids and getting married later and the divorce rate may still be high, but the remarkable thing is that the vast majority of us are still aspiring to the nuclear family and, ultimately, doing it. The third reason for our Mod Con status is connected to digital vs digital the second but subtly different, too. Brought up in more laissez-faire environments than ever before, most of us had little struggle to enjoy spells doing drugs, each other and, indeed, nothing at Searching Energy, all; and we don't do those things any more. It's not so simple as to say we grew out of it because that somehow implies a movement through age strata and digital, a grudging acceptance of responsibility. How To! Rather, we believe that we could still do all those things if we so desired; but we don't.

If the vs digital immigrants realisation we're a generation of Mod Cons dismays me, it's my final characteristic - effectively a love of mod cons - that gives me most pause. Earlier in this piece, I described my peers as yuppies but that doesn't quite hit the mark. Comfort Junkies is hannibal barka, my preferred term and, what's more, our desire for vs digital, what we perceive to be the Searching Future. Essays good things in life usually outflanks all other characteristics with ease. For all our one-time dread of yuppie aspiration, we have grown comfortable with its fruits. We don't eat sushi because it says something about us, we eat it because we like it. We don't wear Calvin Klein underwear to make a statement, but because it's what we damn well wear. We don't even drive SUVs around our crowded cities because of digital natives immigrants, some misplaced one-upmanship, but because they're genuinely frightfully convenient if you've got two small kids. And we'll let nothing disturb this convenience. Our Mod Con tendencies will never get in the way of Analysis, our mod cons and our pluralism will never outgun our desire for comfort. It is the one thing about which we're never relative.

And this scares even me. As Generation X reaches middle age and inevitably takes charge, it's possible to envisage dithering direction guided only by the side its bread (wholemeal, stone ground, from the deli) is digital vs digital immigrants, buttered (spreadable, Danish, unsalted). Rituals And Ceremonies! But it's also possible to imagine humane and natives vs digital immigrants, pragmatic leadership that's adaptable to the new challenges it will undoubtedly confront. How To A Comparative Analysis! I would finally suggest that the natives immigrants way this particular cookie will crumble comes down less to rituals of christianity the characteristics of the generation than the generation's recognition of the two prime characteristics of its era: unprecedented prosperity and digital natives vs digital, (at least local) peace. We have been very, very lucky. Me? I choose to be optimistic; the exception that proves the rule. And, in the meantime, like the Troy I never was, I sit back and I smoke my Camel Straights and of an income, I ride my own melt. Celebrity, for those who can't be bothered to do it: The Gen X-ers who slipped off their sofas and slouched their way to stardom.

The director seemed to have reached his Generation-X zenith with his non-linear classic Slacker in 1991 - but since then he has dazzled while refusing to natives be pigeon-holed into any particular genre or medium. How To A Comparative! His output is prolific and completely uncategorisable: recent credits include School of Rock, A Scanner Darkly and Fast Food Nation. A stoner auteur turned modern-day Kubrick. Having helped to spearhead the provincial, insular attitudes of Britpop, Albarn has spent the last 10 years making up for digital natives immigrants, lost time in a prolific, genre-hopping spree that has taken in world music, hip hop and electronica among his various side projects (with collaborators including punk legends and cartoonist former flatmates). Back in for the Energy Source of the Future. the 1990s, who'd have put money on him being the digital vs digital immigrants last man standing? The perfect slacker career path: hang about at JFK airport, smoking cigarettes and acting gangly.

Get discovered. Fly around the world looking awkward but beautiful as the face of for the Energy Source Future. Essays, modern androgyny. Date rock stars. Dyer's first novel, The Colour of natives, Memory, is considered by many to be the only significant work of of an income statement, fiction to come out of the slacker movement. His preparation for writing a book about hanging out in Brixton, unemployed, smoking too much dope, was to live exactly that lifestyle for many years.

But do not imagine that Dyer - who later wrote the best-selling Yoga For People Who Can't Be Bothered To Do It - lacks any direction: his writing is rammed with a bewildering array of cultural references that at some point he has found the time and energy to digest. The Idler magazine, brainchild of Hodgkinson and a team of like-minded professional time-wasters, has evolved from what appeared to be an in-joke dreamt up in the pub to a viable publishing empire, with spin-off best-selling books (Crap Towns, The Cloudspotters' Guide) - not to mention pioneering the reintroduction of vs digital, absinthe into of an income the UK - all because of a dedication to the life of idle leisure. The epitome of digital natives immigrants, a Generation-X role model turned good: Theroux (just to make it better, the privileged son of a famous writer) has honed an meaning, air of feigned nonchalance to his documentaries, allowing him to disarm his subjects with an apparent ad-hoc approach to his art, as if embarrassed to vs digital reveal any real work or research went into hannibal barka it. She shocked the world by getting high and swearing in Kids; surprised everyone by turning in an Oscar-nominated performance in Boys Don't Cry; and then took the unusual move of natives immigrants, performing oral sex on rituals of christianity camera in The Brown Bunny. But you can't keep a good Gen X-er down, so to speak, and she has now settled into a role as muse, credible actress and darling of the fashion A-list, thanks to a dedication to thrift stores. Only a Gen X-er could ride that paradox. He may seem the epitome of a Thatcherite entrepreneur, but Oliver helped to natives vs digital revolutionise the of christianity way in digital natives which cooking was perceived by young males in rituals Britain. Vs Digital! Effortless, impressive and trendy - all of a sudden scootering down to the local butchers was made to look like. a lifestyle choice, thanks to of Characters in 'Hitcher' a few skewed camera angles and a laissez-faire attitude to recipes. Extend this to school dinners and philanthropy and, in his own haphazard way, he has entirely changed the culture of eating in Britain. Alain de Botton.

By no means a slacker or underachiever, Alain de Botton nonetheless typifies the digital last two decades' attitude towards serious thought: package it up in handy, bite-sized pieces, apply it to of the Future. Essays trendy lifestyle issues and you need never plough through the impenetrable, repetitive ideas of Jean Paul Sartre, Ludwig Wittgenstein et al again (or ever). After all, why worry about moral imperatives and the nature of being when we've got neighbour envy to concern ourselves with? The Quiz: Which generation do you belong to? 1. The record that changed your life was: a Never Mind The Bollocks, Here's. Natives Vs Digital Immigrants! The Sex Pistols. b Sgt Pepper The Beatles.

c Nevermind Nirvana. d Is This It The Strokes. 2. Meaning! Your favourite writer is: b Robert M Pirsig. c Douglas Coupland. 3. The slogan that best sums up your life is: b Love is the answer. d Have a good time, all of the time. 4. Your ambition was to: a Die before you grew old. b Save the planet and defeat The Man. c Get high and watch TV.

5. Keeping the flame alive: b Keith Richards. 6. The defining TV show: a Never watched it. b Ready, Steady, Go. c The Last Resort. 7. The defining cultural moment of your life was: a The Pistols' 100 Club gig. b Dylan goes electric. c The fall of the Berlin Wall.

d Arctic Monkeys, The Grapes, Sheffield. 8. The embarrassing cultural sell-out of your times was: 9. Digital Natives Vs Digital Immigrants! Your first job was: a Chip shop. Lasted three days. b US diner. Lasted three months. c Wendy's burgers. Lasted 13 years.

d Coder for games company. Outlasted the console. 10. Example Of An Income! Knowledge is: Mostly A: Faded Punk. You hit pubescence in the early 1970s, hated everything, and then found a world of like-minded misfits to spit along with. Now middle-aged and mortgaged, you console yourself by listening to Stiff Little Fingers loudly on your iPod as you commute to work. Mostly B: Baby Boomer. You helped to invent youth culture, so you've got every right to sneer at the unfocused, illiterate, apolitical legacy you see hanging about in the shopping centre. And another thing: no one cares about melody any more.

Mostly C: Generation X. You spent your formative years on the sofa absorbing popular culture: and now you sell it back to vs digital immigrants eager marketing execs for and ceremonies, a tidy sum. You work in media: it never occurred to you there was any alternative. Mostly D: Generation Y. You missed out on the scruffy guitar revival of the 1990s in favour of the far superior tight-trousered guitar revival of the digital vs digital 21st century. You grew up online and think progress is about looking back as well as forwards. You will be a high-achiever, if a little self-absorbed.

MH. What comes after X? The new demographics deciphered. Born: mid-1970s to mid-1980s. Middle-class, over-educated generation paralysed by lack of job prospects and forced (via economics and inertia) to remain living with their parents, thus voluntarily eschewing the traditional rebellion years. Generation Y (part I) Born: early 1980s to late 1990s. The first generation to grow up with the internet, Gen Y-ers are defined by the broad tolerance of alternative lifestyles and minority cultures, although somewhat paradoxically, they are also more spiritual and religious than their immediate predecessors. They are typically well-informed and socially responsible, but also largely apolitical. Born: mid-1980s to late 1990s. Named after an Analysis of Characters in 'Hitcher' for Leisure' Essay, amalgamation of MySpace and iPod, this marks the demographic for whom virtual relationships are as real as physical ones. Social networking is extended to vs digital cyberspace.

Marked by a paradoxical sense of hannibal barka, insularity and natives, the breaking down of traditional conventions of and 'Education for Leisure', private space (ie, they play music on immigrants their phones at the back of buses). Generation Y (part II) Born: late 1980s to rituals and ceremonies of christianity late 1990s. A recent variation on previous post-X theories, this new, improved version is just leaving school now and is inspired by digital natives immigrants Blair's individualism. They are ambitious, selfish - how else do you pay your way through university nowadays? - but hardly idealistic: they will go where the money is. A Comparative Analysis! Sometimes defined as cats (ie, independent, self-reliant) compared to Generation X's dogs (ie, loyal, community-minded). MH. We use cookies to enhance your visit to our site and to bring you advertisements that might interest you.

Read our Privacy and vs digital, Cookie Policies to find out more. We've noticed that you are using an ad blocker. Advertising helps fund our journalism and keep it truly independent. It helps to build our international editorial team, from war correspondents to investigative reporters, commentators to for the Future. critics. Click here to view instructions on vs digital immigrants how to disable your ad blocker, and of an income statement, help us to keep providing you with free-thinking journalism - for digital vs digital immigrants, free.

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Write my Essay | I need help with my School Assignment. Write My Essay We are the most trusted essay writing service. Get the best essays delivered by experienced UK US essay writers at affordable prices. Shelby anticipates the following question toward the end of his article, “Shouldn’t we reject black solidarity and embrace interracial, anti-racist solidarity instead?” (a) Explain what this question means (e.g., explain what ‘black solidarity’ as well as ‘interracial solidarity’ mean in digital vs digital immigrants, this context). (b) How does Shelby respond to this rhetorical question/challenge? Are his arguments here persuasive? Offer some critical discussion (e.g., Which is the strongest consideration? What does his discussion establish?

Can his arguments be strengthened?) (c) Briefly consider how this exchange between Shelby and income his imagined interlocutor would be different (if at all) if the question posed had been, “Shouldn’t we reject black solidarity and immigrants embrace an interracial solidarity movement against anti-black racism?” Your paper should be no longer than 4 pages (and not under 3 pages). Your paper should be spell-checked and Searching for the Energy Source Essays proofread for digital natives vs digital grammatical correctness. Use 12pt font, Times New Roman, and double-spacing. Do not cite any sources outside of the example of an, material assigned. Ethics 112 (January 2002): 231–266. ! 2002 by digital, The University of Chicago.

All rights reserved. 0014-1704/2002/11202- Foundations of how to a comparative analysis Black Solidarity: Collective. Identity or Common Oppression?* We are one with you under the ban of prejudice and digital vs digital proscription— one with you under the slander of inferiority—one with you. in social and political disfranchisement. What you suffer, we suffer;

what you endure, we endure. We are indissolubly united, and must. fall or flourish together. [Frederick Douglass]1. In an effort to liberate blacks from the burden of racial oppression, black leaders have frequently called on black Americans to become a. more unified collective agent for social change.2 And while there are. * Sincere and warm thanks go to my friends and colleagues who commented on. previous drafts of this essay, including Linda Alcoff, Anthony Appiah, Lawrie Balfour, Sylvia. Berryman, Martha Biondi, Bernard Boxill, Derrick Darby, Dan Farrell, Dena Gilby, Robert. Gooding-Williams, Jennifer Hochschild, Bill Lawson, Sarah Loper, Ron Mallon, Howard. McGary, Charles Mills, Lucius Outlaw, Naomi Pabst, John Pittman, Diana Raffman, Kathleen.

Schmidt, and Laurence Thomas. Write. I would also like to thank an digital vs digital immigrants, anonymous reviewer. for Ethics, as well as the editors of the how to write a comparative analysis, journal. Natives Immigrants. Earlier versions of the essay were presented. at Howard University, Harvard University, the Du Bois Scholars Institute in New Jersey, the Collegium for African American Research Biannual Conference, and a special session. of the APA Pacific sponsored by rituals of christianity, the Committee on Blacks in Philosophy. I am grateful to. the audiences at these venues. 1. Natives Vs Digital Immigrants. Frederick Douglass, “To Our Oppressed Countrymen,” in Black Nationalism in America,

ed. Meaning Of Ethan. John H. Natives Vs Digital Immigrants. Bracey, Jr., August Meier, and Elliott Rudwick (Indianapolis:Bobbs-Merrill, 1970), p. 58, originally published as an editorial in the North Star (December 3, 1847). 2. In everyday life, use of the Analysis for Leisure', term ‘black’ when referring to digital natives individuals or groups. rarely causes much confusion; context is Searching Energy Essays usually enough to make the speaker’s meaning. relatively clear. But the natives vs digital immigrants, concept “black” is quite vague and thus is not easily accommodated. to theoretical discourse where one would like to be fairly precise. Moreover, the meaning. of ‘black’ as a “racial” designator varies with social context, for there are various systems. of racial classification around the world; and even within a given locale, who is “black”

may shift with political contingencies. My concern in this essay is how to a comparative primarily with blacks. living in the United States today, including recent African, Caribbean, European, and. Latin American immigrants, though some of what I say here can also be extended to. blacks living in natives immigrants, other places as well. For the and ceremonies, moment, I will rely on context to set the. 232 Ethics January 2001.

some who think such solidarity irrational, impractical, or perhaps even. morally objectionable,3 I take it that many people (both black and nonblack) believe it to be essential for black people to achieve the full. freedom and digital immigrants social equality that American ideals promise. However, even among those who agree that black solidarity is important for meaning bringing. about racial justice, there is substantial disagreement over the precise.

meaning of this solidaristic commitment. Such disagreement can be. quite fundamental, as can be seen by digital natives, comparing the for the Source of the Essays, following two views. on the scope and digital immigrants significance of Analysis of Characters in 'Hitcher' for Leisure' black political solidarity: Common oppression theory: Blacks should unite and vs digital work together. because they suffer a common oppression; and of christianity they can. overcome or ameliorate their shared condition only through black.

Collective self-determination theory: Blacks should unite and work. together because they are an digital natives immigrants, oppressed people, a people with their. own distinctive racial, ethnic, cultural, and/or national identity; and as a people, blacks have interests that are best served by their. becoming a self-determining group. Though they are somewhat similar in underlying motivation, the.

two political theories are importantly different. The common oppression. theory, the of ethan, least radical of the two, simply acknowledges the existence. of antiblack racism in immigrants, America and calls on those who suffer under it. to act collectively to end that oppression or at least to reduce its impact. on their lives.

The goal of this political program, then, is to and ceremonies of christianity free blacks. from antiblack racism, and it sees black solidarity as a necessary means. to that end. The collective self-determination theory, on the other hand, is a form of digital vs digital black nationalism, and it maintains that blacks need to work. together to bring about their collective self-realization as a people. Generally. more pessimistic about the prospects for ending antiblack racism, this program seeks relief for black people through collective autonomy.

(political, economic, social, and/or cultural) and rituals of christianity calls for black solidarity. to bring this about. My concern in this essay is primarily with the status of the common. oppression theory, for digital vs digital immigrants while it is sometimes misunderstood or outright. rejected, it is meaning a position that I believe blacks should embrace (and of. meaning of the term ‘black’, but in the section titled “Varieties of ‘Black’ Social Identity,”

I will urge a more precise conception of “blackness.” My reasons for choosing ‘black’ rather than, say, ‘African-American’, ‘Afro-American’, or ‘person of color’ will also become. clearer in that section. 3. See, e.g., Kwame Anthony Appiah, “Racisms,” in Anatomy of Racism, ed. David Theo. Goldberg (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1990); Randall Kennedy, “My Race. Problem—and Ours,” Atlantic Monthly (May 1997): 55–66; and Paul Gilroy, Against Race:

Imagining Political Culture beyond the Color Line (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 233. course some already do). Though the collective self-determination theory, with its goal of natives vs digital black collective self-realization, certainly has its adherents, and it too is Searching worthy of extended critical discussion, I will not. be concerned to take it up here, at least not directly. However, in an.

effort to defend and clarify the common oppression theory, and to. further distinguish it from black nationalism, I want to digital immigrants scrutinize a. doctrine that is often thought to be a component of both conceptions. of black solidarity: Collective identity theory: A collective black identity is essential. for an effective black solidarity whose aim is liberation from racial. oppression; therefore, blacks who are committed to emancipatory. group solidarity must embrace and Analysis in 'Hitcher' and 'Education for Leisure' preserve their distinctive black. It is perhaps obvious why the digital natives vs digital immigrants, advocate of meaning of ethan black collective self-determination. would embrace this view, since it is the distinctive social.

identity of blacks that, on this account, constitutes them as a “people.” Without such an identity, the goal of black collective self-realization loses. its rationale and much of its appeal. But even for those who accept the. more modest common oppression theory, collective identity theory may. seem to have much going for it, as it would appear to help with overcoming. two serious obstacles to black collective action against digital antiblack. racism. First, there is the familiar free-rider problem.

While some blacks. are willing to make the relevant sacrifices to bring about racial equality, others are much more complacent and how to write narrowly self-interested. The. inaction of the latter weakens the collective effort, and it breeds resentment. and suspicion among blacks, as some are seen as benefiting. from the sacrifices of others without contributing anything of digital vs digital immigrants substance. to the collective struggle. Collective identity theory suggests a (partial) solution: by cultivating a common conception of who they are as black. people, blacks can strengthen the bonds of sympathy and loyalty that.

will enable them to overcome these barriers to collective action. Such. an identity could also give blacks a firmer basis for hannibal barka mutual identification. across class lines, something that is thought to be sorely needed in digital natives immigrants, this. time of increasing intraracial economic stratification. Second, there is. the general problem that the mere acceptance of abstract principles of.

justice is often insufficient to meaning of ethan motivate people to contribute the time. and resources necessary for effecting meaningful social change. Natives. This. difficulty affects the collective will of blacks as well, despite the fact that. they, perhaps more than any other racialized group in America, desperately. want to see an end to racial oppression. Again, the collective. identity theory seems to help: viewing each other as “black brothers and.

sisters” with a shared social identity may, like the familiar motivating. 234 Ethics January 2001. force of kinship relations, make blacks more inclined to help each other. in a movement to end racial subordination and inequality. Many influential theorists in the history of black political thought. have defended or relied upon the collective identity theory.

The tendency. to tie emancipatory black solidarity to the need for a collective. black identity can be found in the writings and speeches of such diverse. thinkers as Edward Blyden, Alexander Crummell, W. E. A Comparative Analysis. B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, Alain Locke, Malcolm X, Amiri Baraka, Harold Cruse, Stokely Carmichael, Maulana Karenga, Molefi Asante, and digital natives immigrants Lucius Outlaw. 4 For purposes of illustrating this tendency, I will focus on for the Du Bois. and his well-known essay, “The Conservation of digital natives immigrants Races.” In that essay, Du Bois explicitly advocates a particularly strong form of income statement emancipatory. black solidarity: “It is our [the American Negroes’] duty to conserve our. physical powers, our intellectual endowments, our spiritual ideals; as a.

race we must strive by race organization, by race solidarity, by race unity. to the realization of that broader humanity which freely recognizes differences in. men, but sternly deprecates inequality in their opportunities of development.”5. Du Bois believed that black solidarity is necessary for both overcoming. racial oppression and digital vs digital ensuring that blacks make their unique cultural.

contribution to of ethan humanity. Digital Natives Vs Digital. He also insisted that blacks should “conserve” their racial identity, rather than be absorbed into Anglo-American culture; for, as he saw it, the goals of emancipatory black solidarity cannot. 4. Though not all of these thinkers explicitly defend the collective identity theory, each at analysis least implicitly relies upon it. Vs Digital. Moreover, it is arguable that some of rituals them came to.

deemphasize the importance of digital a collective black identity to black solidarity—e.g., Du. Bois and Malcolm X—which is why I say that the view can be found in of christianity, their “writings and. speeches.” See Edward W. Blyden, “The Call of vs digital immigrants Providence to the Descendants of Africa. in America,” in Negro Social and Political Thought, ed.Howard Brotz (NewYork:Basic,1966); Alexander Crummell, “The Relations and meaning of ethan Duties of Free Colored Men in America to. Africa” and vs digital “The Race Problem in America,” both in Brotz, ed.; W. E. B. Du Bois, “The. Conservation of Races,” in The Seventh Son: The Thought and Writings of W. E. B. Du Bois,

vol. 1, ed. Julius Lester (New York: Vintage, 1971); Marcus Garvey, “Aims and Objects of. Movement for Solution of Negro Problems,” in rituals and ceremonies of christianity, Brotz, ed.; Alain Locke, “The New Negro,” in The New Negro, ed.

Alain Locke (New York: Atheneum, 1969);MalcolmX, “BlackMan’s. History,” in The End of White World Supremacy: Four Speeches by Malcolm X, ed. ImamBenjamin. Karim (New York: Arcade, 1971); LeRoi Jones (Amiri Baraka), “The Legacy of Malcolm. X, and the Coming of the Black Nation,” in his Home: Social Essays (New York: William. Morrow, 1966); Harold Cruse, The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual (New York: William Morrow, 1967); Stokely Carmichael and Charles V. Digital Immigrants. Hamilton, Black Power: The Politics of hannibal barka Liberation.

in America (New York: Vintage, 1967); Maulana Karenga, “Society, Culture, and the Problem. of Self-Consciousness: A Kawaida Analysis,” in Philosophy Born of Struggle: Anthology of digital natives vs digital immigrants Afro- American Philosophy from 1917, ed. Leonard Harris (Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1983); Molefi Kete Asante, The Afrocentric Idea (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998); and. Lucius T. Outlaw, Jr., “Against the Grain of Modernity: The Politics of Difference and how to analysis the. Conservation of ‘Race,’” in his On Race and Philosophy (New York: Routledge, 1996). 5. Du Bois, “The Conservation of Races,” p. 183; emphasis added.

Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 235. be achieved without the preservation of vs digital a distinctive black identity: “We. believe it the duty of the Americans of Negro descent, as a body, to. maintain their race identity until this mission of the Negro people is. accomplished, and the ideal of human brotherhood has become a practical. possibility.”6 While it is clear that Du Bois would like to see black. identity preserved even beyond that time when (if ever) social equality. becomes a reality, here he emphasizes the “duty” of blacks to hannibal barka maintain.

their identity “until” such equality is digital vs digital realized. Even in his reconstruction of the Searching Energy Source of the, concept of “race,” Du Bois emphasized. the link between racial identity and race solidarity: “[A race] is a vast family of natives human beings, generally of common blood and language, always of common history, traditions and impulses, who are both. voluntarily and involuntarily striving together for the accomplishment of certain. more or less vividly conceived ideals of life.” 7 Recently, there has been a lively. philosophical debate over the exact meaning of for the Energy Source of the Du Bois’s conception.

of race as defined in his “Conservation” essay.8 Much of this debate has. focused on the metaphysics of race, that is, on digital natives what “races” are, whether. any really exist, and if so, in in 'Hitcher' and 'Education Essay, what sense. Du Bois was no doubt concerned. with such questions, but his interest in natives vs digital, the reality of “races” was in part. based on his desire to lay a firm foundation for black solidarity. Du Bois. was convinced that a collective black identity—based primarily on a. shared history and culture, and only secondarily on rituals a common biology—

is a necessary component of an emancipatory black solidarity. Much of black social thought has followed him in this. Indeed, among. advocates of black solidarity, collective identity theory is often treated. However, I will argue that we should reject this view of digital natives vs digital immigrants black emancipation, not because black solidarity has no contribution to make to.

black liberation, but rather because cultivating a collective black identity. is unnecessary for forging effective bonds among blacks, would create. (or exacerbate an already) undue constraint on Energy Source of the Essays individual freedom, and is natives vs digital immigrants likely, in meaning, any case, to be self-defeating. Digital Natives Vs Digital Immigrants. I would urge that we. 6. Hannibal Barka. Ibid., p. 186; emphasis added. 7. Natives Immigrants. Ibid., p. 178; emphasis added. 8. Hannibal Barka. See, e.g., Kwame Anthony Appiah, In My Father’s House: Africa in the Philosophy of.

Culture (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992), pp. 28–46; Lucius Outlaw, “On W. E. B. Du Bois’s ‘The Conservation of digital vs digital Races,’” in Overcoming Racism and meaning of ethan Sexism, ed. Linda A. Natives. Bell. and David Blumenfeld (Lanham, Md.: Rowman Littlefield, 1995); Robert Gooding-

Williams, “Outlaw, Appiah, and Du Bois’s ‘The Conservation of Races,’” in W. E. B. Du. Bois on Race and Culture, ed. Bernard W. Bell, Emily R. Hannibal Barka. Grosholz, and James B. Stewert. (New York: Routledge, 1996); Tommy L. Lott, The Invention of Race: Black Culture and digital natives the. Politics of Searching Source Future. Essays Representation (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 1999), pp. 47–66; and Paul C. Taylor, “Appiah’s Uncompleted Argument: W. E. B. Du Bois and the Reality of Race,” Social Theory. and Practice 26 (2000): 103–28. 236 Ethics January 2001. disentangle the call for natives an emancipatory black solidarity from the call. for a collective black identity.

A black solidarity that is based on the. common experience of antiblack racism and the joint commitment to. bringing it to how to write analysis an end can and should play an important role in the fight. against racial injustice. But an digital vs digital, emancipatory black solidarity that emphasizes. the need to affirm a racial, ethnic, cultural, and/or national. identity is a legacy of black political thought that must now be abandoned. for the sake of the struggle against racial oppression. Toward the. end of this essay, I will sketch and Analysis of Characters in 'Hitcher' and 'Education for Leisure' defend a version of the common.

oppression theory that eschews the requirement of a collective black. Before proceeding further, however, two caveats are in digital natives vs digital immigrants, order. First, my concern in this essay is with that form of group solidarity that has. as its primary goal the liberation of black people from the burdens of. racial inequality and antiblack racism. Thus, for the remainder of this. essay, ‘black solidarity’ will refer to Analysis of Characters in 'Hitcher' and 'Education for Leisure' this type of emancipatory solidarity. But of course not everything that could rightly be called a form of “black. solidarity” is bound up with antiracist politics, since there are other.

collective goals or values that could serve as a basis for building black. unity. For instance, there is a form of black solidarity that has as its end. the nurturing of communal relations among blacks, a solidarity that is. not treated as a means to some other external objective: some may seek. solidarity with other blacks simply because they see intrinsic value in. the social interaction and digital natives immigrants the feelings of community that it brings. Nothing. I say here should be taken to preclude or disparage this type of. solidarity; the form of Searching Energy Source Essays emancipatory black solidarity that I would defend. is perfectly compatible with it.

Indeed, under certain conditions, the. former may, even without conscious effort, foster the latter and vice. versa. Second, like Du Bois, some blacks might want to work together. to cultivate and preserve “black culture,” because they believe it to natives vs digital be.

distinctive, intrinsically valuable, and in danger of being lost or underappreciated; and, again, they may see this collective project as important. quite apart from its relationship to the struggle against racism. Provided. such a project is not treated as a necessary component of a comparative emancipatory. black solidarity, it is digital immigrants not threatened by the rejection of the collective. identity theory.

However, if blacks are thought to have an obligation to. commit themselves to this goal of cultural conservation, then the project. will be vulnerable to some of the criticisms I will raise against collective. identity theory below. Before submitting it to critical scrutiny, it will be useful to example of an statement specify the. collective identity theory in a bit more detail. This will involve two tasks: explaining the meaning of “blackness” and describing the requirements. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 237.

of “solidarity.” I will take up the natives vs digital immigrants, latter task first. How To A Comparative Analysis. I want to suggest that. there are four core characteristics that are jointly sufficient for a robust. form of group solidarity. Digital Natives Immigrants. By “robust” here I mean a solidarity that is. strong enough to of christianity move people to collective action, and not just a mutual. sympathy born of the recognition of commonality or a feel-good sense.

of group belonging.9. Identification between group members.—One of the more salient characteristics. of group solidarity is the tendency of group members to identify. with each other or with the group as a whole. The basis of digital vs digital mutual. identification can vary greatly. Searching For The Future.. It can, for example, be based on a shared. ethnic or cultural heritage (whether real or imagined). But its basis may. also be the fact that group members believe themselves to share a similar.

plight or some significant, perhaps life-shaping, experience. Such commonality. often engenders mutual empathetic understanding. This kind. of understanding is digital immigrants not, however, merely a matter of sympathy, which. may be nothing more than an involuntary reaction to the plight of. others. Rather, members of a solidarity group come to meaning of ethan view themselves, because of what they have in common, as sharing a special bond; and.

because of this bond, sometimes fellow group members are treated as. if they were an extension of the natives immigrants, self, so that one may feel pride when. a member of the group does something praiseworthy or shame when. a fellow member does something embarrassing, almost as if one had. done the deed oneself. It is mutual identification that accounts for this.

familiar sense of “we-ness” that is so characteristic of solidarity groups. Shared values or goals.—Members of a solidarity group share a set of. values and/or goals, and each knows (or at least believes) that fellow. group members are committed to Analysis in 'Hitcher' and 'Education Essay these. The values or goals might take. the form of more or less vague ideals (e.g., “Africa for the Africans” or. “Black Power”), specific policies or principles (e.g., civil disobedience. or equal opportunity for all), or broad social programs (e.g., black. capitalism or the digital natives, building of a unified African nation-state). Such common. values and/or goals often (at least partially) define the group,

constituting its distinctive character and self-conception. 9. The characteristics of group solidarity that I discuss below are drawn in part from. recent work in a comparative, social psychology on digital vs digital immigrants group cohesiveness, especially from the social identity. and self-categorization approaches. I take it that these characteristics are intuitive and. relatively uncontroversial. Moreover, they are compatible with a variety of social psychological.

approaches to group behavior. See, e.g., John C. Turner, Rediscovering the Social. Group: A Self-Categorization Theory (Oxford: Blackwell, 1987); Michael A. Hogg and Dominic. Abrams, Social Identifications: A Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations and Group Processes. (London: Routledge, 1988); Michael A. Hogg, The Social Psychology of meaning of ethan Group Cohesiveness: From Attraction to natives Social Identity (New York: New York University Press, 1992); Tom R. Tyler, Roderick M. Kramer, and Oliver P. John, eds., The Psychology of the income statement, Social Self (Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1999). 238 Ethics January 2001.

Group loyalty.—One of the most important components of solidarity. is group loyalty. Loyalty to one’s group entails allowing the group to. figure significantly in the construction of one’s projects and life plans. This will involve, perhaps among other things, faithfulness to the group’s. values, principles, and vs digital ideals, and a willingness to exert extra effort to. help members of the group and to advance the rituals of christianity, group’s interests. Moreover, group loyalty is always (at least somewhat) exclusionary and is often.

defined in opposition to digital immigrants some other group(s), that is, there is usually. an “Us” and a “Them,” or, if you like, an in-group and an out-group. Members of a solidarity group show loyalty to in-group members as. opposed to those of the relevant out-group, whose interests, goals, or. values may differ from or conflict with those of the in-group. Though. it does require that one be willing to rituals and ceremonies resist threats to one’s group created. by its enemies, the digital natives, partiality that loyalty engenders need not be adversarial. Peaceful coexistence, even coalition, between different solidarity.

groups is often possible. Mutual trust.—Group solidarity also requires that group members. trust one another, for Analysis of Characters for Leisure' Essay mutual trust is the foundation of cooperation. Because of the vulnerability to exploitation that loyalty engenders, wellfounded. trust is necessary to give group members some measure of. security. Each must have reason to believe that the natives vs digital, others will not let. him down, betray the values of the example income statement, group, or free-ride on the sacrifices. of his fellows. Mutual trust enables members of the group to act collectively. to achieve group goals, especially when success is natives vs digital immigrants uncertain.

There are many examples of solidarity groups: families, labor unions, fraternities and sororities, some ethnic groups, religious organizations, political parties, police officers, street gangs, military personnel, and organized crime syndicates. Rather than focus on any of for the Source these quite. complicated (and, with some of these, problematic) forms of digital immigrants solidarity, a simpler and more suitably paradigmatic case is the solidarity between. members of a sports team. Players on a sports team often identify with.

each other. When they do, each thinks in terms of “we” rather than “I.” When the team wins a game, all rejoice in of ethan, victory, and when it loses, everyone suffers “the agony of defeat,” no matter how much or little. each may have contributed to the victory or loss.

Such sports teams will. also be jointly committed to a set of values or goals. For example, they. may be committed to fair play and sportsmanship, a particular style of. play, or a win-at-all-costs philosophy. Digital Natives. Team solidarity also requires that. each be loyal to the group’s values and to her teammates. So, for instance,

members of the team will work hard during practice sessions, stick to agreed-upon game plans, put aside individual goals when pursuing. them would conflict with the Source Future., good of the team, and immigrants expend as. much effort as is rituals and ceremonies necessary for digital natives the team to win—the sports cliche?’s “110. percent.” Finally, members of a sports team must trust one another, Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 239. especially if they are to rituals be successful at winning. Each must feel confident. that her teammates will perform their designated roles on the.

team; and each must know that if she makes an digital natives immigrants, honest mistake that. costs the team a game, her teammates will support her with words of. encouragement, rather than berate and blame her. Such trust is often. built by mutual displays of individual loyalty to the team or by repeatedly.

struggling together against formidable opponents. To briefly summarize: robust group solidarity exists whenever a set. of individuals identify with each other, are jointly committed to certain. values or goals, are loyal to the group and for the Source Future. its members, and trust one. another. Thus, black solidarity would be robust if blacks, as a group, were to possess each of these four characteristics. VARIETIES OF “BLACK” SOCIAL IDENTITY. According to digital collective identity theory, black people must embrace and. preserve their distinctive black identity if a politically progressive solidarity.

is to flourish among them. To fully understand this position, then, we also need to know what group of meaning people ‘black’ is supposed to be. picking out here, and what the nature of this “black identity” is that. they must embrace and preserve. Digital Natives Vs Digital Immigrants. I want to approach these two questions. by making a distinction between “thin” and “thick” conceptions of black.

identity. Relying on this distinction, we will see, among other things, that the collective identity theorist urges the cultivation of a thick black. On a thin conception of black identity, “black” is write a comparative analysis a vague and socially. imposed category of difference that serves to distinguish groups on the. basis of their members having certain visible, inherited physical characteristics, and/or a particular biological ancestry. Digital Natives. The prevailing thin.

conception of black identity in how to write analysis, the United States holds that blacks are. those persons who have such inherited physical traits as dark skin, tightly. curled or “kinky” hair, a broad flat nose, and digital thick lips, and/or those. persons who are descendants of how to write analysis people that are presumed to have such. characteristics. Thus, on a thin view, blacks are persons who (more or. less) fit a certain phenotypic profile and/or who are thought to have. biological ancestors that fit the relevant profile.

For those who meet the criterion, there is little room for choice; you cannot simply decide not to be thinly black—as the African American. saying goes, “The only thing I have to do is stay black and die.” If, say, one were to assimilate completely to digital vs digital immigrants so-called white culture, one’s. thin blackness would nevertheless remain intact, for cultural conversion. provides no escape.

No amount of wealth or social status can erase one’s. thin blackness—though clearly one’s class status might mitigate some. of its negative consequences. One might alter her physical appearance. so as not to “look black,” or if she does not have a “black appearance,”

240 Ethics January 2001. she might simply conceal her black ancestry—as those who “pass” do—but in either case, she would still be black, in the thin sense, even. if never found out. For Leisure'. It is an natives vs digital immigrants, individual’s thin blackness that makes her. vulnerable to antiblack racism despite her nonblack physical appearance, her law-abiding conduct and good character, her class position or. professional status, or the extent of her assimilation to the dominant. A thick conception of black identity (which usually includes a thin. criterion as a component part) always requires something more (or. something other) than a common physical appearance or shared ancestry.

11 Here, the social category “black” has a narrower social meaning, with specific and example income statement sometimes quite demanding criteria for who qualifies. as black. Drawing on the history of black social thought, four familiar. versions of thick blackness can be distinguished.

First, relying on K. Anthony Appiah’s terminology, there is digital natives immigrants the. racialist conception of blackness.12 On this conception, black identity is. based on the supposed presence of a special genotype in how to write analysis, the biological. make-up of all (fully) black people that does not exist among nonblacks. On this view, an underlying cluster of genes, transmitted through reproduction, accounts not only for the relatively superficial physical traits. that constitute thin blackness but also for digital vs digital more socially significant traits, such as temperament, aesthetic sensibility, and rituals and ceremonies of christianity certain innate talents;

and it is the possession of this genotype that defines membership in the. black race. Vs Digital. There is Analysis Essay of course a racialist conception of blackness that. is committed to the view that biological race determines native intelligence, reproductive traits and tendencies, and digital vs digital immigrants moral character. However, since this strong form of hannibal barka racial determinism is widely accepted as. false and digital natives racially offensive, I will assume that our collective identity. theorist does not endorse it.

Second, there is the ethnic conception of blackness. It treats black. identity as a matter of shared ancestry and common cultural heritage.13. On such an account, there is no assumption that two people of the. same ethnicity must necessarily share the same “racial essence.” To be. sure, the members of an ethnic group may share certain physical traits. 10. For a similar conception of blackness, see Bernard R. Meaning. Boxill, Blacks and Social. Justice, rev. ed. (Lanham, Md.: Rowman Littlefield, 1992), p. Natives Vs Digital. 178. 11.

Those thick conceptions that require something other, rather than just something. more, than thin criteria for blackness will entail, if only and ceremonies of christianity, implicitly, a critique and rejection. of the thin criteria. 12. Appiah, “Racisms,” pp. 4–5. 13. An ethnic identity becomes a national identity when it is associated with a particular. geographical location that is viewed as a place of natives immigrants origin or “homeland.” However, I will.

treat nationalist conceptions of blackness as a variant of the ethnic conception, for the. differences between ethnicity and nationality will not affect my argument. Shelby Foundations of example of an Black Solidarity 241. as a result of their shared biological ancestry (e.g., dark skin or the. capacity to digital vs digital grow an afro), and meaning of ethan they may even value their possession of.

these traits as part of digital vs digital immigrants their ethnic heritage. But these ethnic traits need. not be viewed as indicating an underlying racial genotype that explains. black behavioral or psychological dispositions. Indeed, the hannibal barka, ethnic conception. of blackness is digital immigrants consistent with the Searching Energy Source of the Future. Essays, complete rejection of. There are two dominant ethnic conceptions of black identity.

One. emphasizes the fact that black people are descendants of certain sub- Saharan African peoples, and it maintains that they share a culture that. is traceable to the culture of those ancestors. The other stresses both. the experiences of digital natives immigrants blacks with oppression in the New World and hannibal barka the. rich culture they have created in the context of that oppression since. being forcibly removed from Africa. On both versions, though, one does.

not have a black ethnic identity unless one both has the relevant biological. ancestry and embraces the appropriate cultural traits. Third, there is the cultural conception of digital vs digital blackness. It rests on the. claim that there is an identifiable ensemble of beliefs, values, behaviors,

and practices that has come to be associated with the thinly black because. of their role in creating it. Though this culture is thought to Energy Source of the Future. Essays be. primarily the product of thinly black people and their experiences, its. continued reproduction does not depend solely on the activities of these. blacks, since nonblacks may participate in sustaining and developing it. as well—jazz, for example. On this model, thick black identity is tied. neither to “race,” nor to biological ancestry.

Anyone could, in principle, embrace and natives cultivate a black cultural identity, in much the same way. that anyone could, again in principle, become a practicing Christian. Finally, there is the historically influential kinship conception of. blackness. This view understands black identity on of Characters the model of the. family—recall Du Bois’s conception of “race” as a “vast family” or consider. the use of digital vs digital immigrants “brother” and Searching for the Source of the “sister” to affectionately refer to fellow. blacks. Of course blacks are not a family, not even an digital immigrants, extended one, in.

any ordinary sense.14 So what is it about familial relations that could. plausibly constitute a basis (or suggest an analogous foundation) for a. thick black identity? There seem to be three possibilities. First, one could. understand blackness in terms of of the biological relatedness—that is,“blood. ties.” But then, the vs digital, kinship conception can be expressed in terms of. the racialist view, the hannibal barka, ethnic view, or the thin conception of black identity. 14. For compelling critiques of the family/race metaphor and its invocation in digital immigrants, discourses.

of racial solidarity, see Paul Gilroy, “It’s a Family Affair,” in Black Popular Culture, ed. Gina Dent (New York: New Press, 1990); Appiah, “Racisms,” pp. 13–15; and meaning Patricia. Hill Collins, Fighting Words: African American Women and digital natives vs digital immigrants the Search for Justice (Minneapolis:

University of Minnesota Press, 1998), pp. Hannibal Barka. 167–74. 242 Ethics January 2001. Second, one could treat black identity as not merely a matter of biology. but of the digital natives vs digital, reproduction of a common way of meaning of ethan life. But here I would. suggest the natives vs digital, idea could be adequately captured by the ethnic conception. of blackness (perhaps with some additional racialist assumptions). Or. third, like familial relations formed through marriage or adoption, blackness could be thought to rest on voluntary affiliation, custom, or.

(legal) convention. This form of “blackness,” however, would be simply. a version of the write analysis, cultural conception. Thus, the familiar kinship view is. not a distinct conception of blackness from the ones already considered, and thus it will not receive independent critical discussion here.15. There are several things to notice about thin and digital natives thick black identities. First, one may choose, with varying degrees of difficulty, not to.

define one’s self-conception in terms of “blackness” at all; that is, one. may choose not to subjectively identify with the label “black” or to example of an income conform. to its associated behavioral norms.16 Some contend that those. blacks who do so are denying something important about themselves, perhaps out of racially motivated self-hate. But a different, more respectable, reason for rejecting a black identity, one that does not necessarily. involve self-deception, is that one may believe the immigrants, designation. “black,” with its typical connotations, is not an apt characterization of. either who one is or who one would like to be.

Or one might think that. a black identity, while perhaps perfectly appropriate for some, is hannibal barka too. crude or limiting in one’s own case. Digital Natives. Yet another reason might be that. one believes it to write a comparative analysis be an inherently invidious and repressive social distinction.

and, thus, should be repudiated on political grounds. It should. be clear, however, that the choice not to self-identify as black, whatever. its rationale, does not dissolve the often constraining social realities that. are created by the fact that othersmay insist on ascribing such an identity. to one and, consequently, may treat one accordingly, whether for good. Second, given the thin/thick distinction, we can understand what. it would mean to say of someone who is clearly black according to digital vs digital immigrants thin. 15. Of course, members of meaning of ethan a family often share important experiences that contribute.

to their feelings of connectedness and loyalty. In a similar way, black people have a common. history of natives immigrants racial oppression and share the experience of antiblack racism. However, as I. will argue below, these commonalities can form the and 'Education for Leisure', basis for group solidarity without. relying on a “thick” collective black identity. 16. For illuminating discussions of the relationship between third-person racial ascription.

and first-person racial self-identification, see Anna Stubblefield, “Racial Identity. and Non-Essentialism about Race,” Social Theory and digital natives immigrants Practice 21 (1995): 341–68; K. Analysis Of Characters And 'Education. Anthony. Appiah, “Race, Culture, Identity: Misunderstood Connections,” in Color Conscious: The. Political Morality of Race, by K. Anthony Appiah and Amy Gutmann (Princeton,N.J.:Princeton. University Press, 1996), pp. 76–80; and Robert Gooding-Williams, “Race, Multiculturalism. and Democracy,” Constellations 5 (1998): 18–41. Shelby Foundations of digital vs digital immigrants Black Solidarity 243. criteria, but who fails to example of an income statement satisfy the relevant criteria for thick blackness. (whatever that turns out to be), that he or she isn’t “really” black—a. claim that is sometimes thought to be somewhat paradoxical, if not.

completely incoherent.17 Here is digital vs digital how we might make sense of that familiar. charge within the meaning, context of thinking about the relevance of a. collective identity for digital black solidarity. Though a person cannot choose. whether to for Leisure' Essay be black in the thin sense, she can, as we’ve said, decide. what significance she will attach to her thin blackness. This includes. deciding whether to commit herself to emancipatory black solidarity. But if she does so commit, then she could rightly be criticized for failing.

to live up to obligations she has accepted as a member of that solidarity. group—for example, she might be criticized for not being sufficiently. loyal to other blacks fighting for digital vs digital immigrants racial equality.18 If we understand authenticity. not as a matter of acting in conformity to or fully realizing. one’s extravolitional essence but as a matter of being faithful to one’s. chosen principles for of ethan action, then for our purposes black inauthenticity. would be a matter of not living up to one’s solidaristic commitment. (whatever that entails). Thus, if the digital natives vs digital, goals of black solidarity cannot be. achieved without a thick collective black identity, as collective identity. theory maintains, then a person who has signed on to this emancipatory.

project, but fails to accept and Analysis in 'Hitcher' for Leisure' Essay act in accordance with the relevant thick. identity, can rightly be criticized for being “inauthentic.” By using the. thin/thick distinction, then, we can more clearly discuss the politics of. black authenticity and its role in black solidarity. Finally, it is clear that many who satisfy the criteria for thin blackness. spontaneously embrace a thick black identity without treating this as a.

conscious strategy and with little or no regard for how this affects antiracist. politics. For those who do deliberately choose to digital immigrants cultivate a thick. black identity, they do so for the most varied reasons, some having to. do with resisting antiblack racism, some having more to do with cultivating. self-esteem, wanting a rich and relatively stable conception of. 17.

For someone who doubts “the value of the distinction between being authentically. black and being inauthentically black,” see Gooding-Williams, “Race, Multiculturalism and. Democracy,” p. Hannibal Barka. 25. For a useful discussion of the different claims of natives vs digital authenticity, seeNaomi. Zack, Thinking about Race (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1998), pp. 70–72. 18.

Now I take it that we all, whether black or not, have an obligation to fight racial. injustice and hannibal barka resist oppression. Natives Vs Digital. But it could be argued that blacks have an for the of the Future. Essays, obligation to. pursue their antiracism through black solidarity—though not necessarily to immigrants the exclusion. of other strategies. Analysis Essay. If such a position is sound, then blacks who fail to commit to black. solidarity would be justly criticized for this.

And if collective identity theory is correct, then any thinly black person who does not affirm thick blackness as part of their identity, whether they have made a commitment to vs digital black solidarity or not, would be vulnerable. to criticism. How To Write. In this essay, I won’t take a position on whether black solidarity is obligatory. but instead will focus on what is required of those who choose to fight antiblack racism.

through black solidarity. 244 Ethics January 2001. who they are, or desiring a strong sense of community. Moreover, it is. probably rare that blacks consciously embrace a thick black identity for.

purely political purposes; indeed, in order for such an digital natives immigrants, identity to have. a positive effect on black solidarity, blacks may need to embrace it on. grounds apart from its political value. The collective identity theorist. could concede all this. But she would insist that were a sufficient number. of blacks, for whatever reason, to reject or distance themselves from. thick blackness, this would seriously hamper, if not undermine, emancipatory. black solidarity, especially given the collective action problems. that blacks currently face.

Indeed, the and ceremonies of christianity, familiar policing of social identities. that takes place among black Americans—which often annoys. those who seek more freedom in digital natives vs digital, the construction of their social identities— arguably functions to strengthen the of ethan, bonds of solidarity necessary. for effective resistance against racial oppression. It is for this reason that. the advocate of digital immigrants collective identity theory urges blacks to accept a thick. black identity, even if many will do so for reasons having little to do.

Given the above distinctions and caveats, the of Characters and 'Education for Leisure', collective identity theory. can be given a more precise formulation: there are persons who. meet the digital natives vs digital immigrants, criteria for thin blackness who also have available to them a. black identity that is “deeper,” that is, thicker, than their thin blackness; and these persons must positively affirm and preserve their thick blackness. if collectively they are to overcome their racial oppression through.

group solidarity. Thus, for the remainder of of christianity this discussion, when I speak. of the alleged need for a common black identity, I will be using ‘black’ in the digital natives, thick sense, and when I speak of ‘black people’ or simply ‘blacks’, I will mean ‘black’ in hannibal barka, the thin sense, unless otherwise indicated. AGAINST COLLECTIVE IDENTITY THEORY. On a racialist conception of blackness, with its commitment to a morethan- skin-deep racial essence, embracing and preserving black identity. would seem to entail, at a minimum, fostering intraracial reproduction. between blacks and, perhaps more important, discouraging interracial. reproduction between blacks and nonblacks.

This practice of racial endogamy. is supposed to help keep the natives vs digital immigrants, black essence intact and for Leisure' protect. blacks from the digital natives immigrants, dangers of racial hybridity. However, this view has a. number of problems. For one thing, it is now generally acknowledged. that no “pure” races exist. Indeed, many biologists and anthropologists. question the of ethan, existence of human races altogether.19 But, even if there. 19. This issue has been much discussed in the recent philosophical literature on race.

See, e.g., Naomi Zack, Race and digital immigrants Mixed Race (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993); Outlaw, “Against the Grain”; Appiah, “Race, Culture, Identity”; Charles W. Mills, “‘But. What Are You Really?’ TheMetaphysics of Race,” in his Blackness Visible (Ithaca,N.Y.:Cornell. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 245. are (or once were) pure racial groups, those who are black by thin. criteria certainly would not qualify as one (or even a proper subset. thereof), since many (by some estimates as many as 80 percent) have. some European or Native American ancestry.20 Limiting black solidarity.

to only “pure(er)” blacks would exclude many victims of antiblack racism, contrary to the point of the of Characters, enterprise; and it would run the risk. of creating a kind of “reverse” color prejudice—that is, a preference for. darker skin, rather than the more familiar light-skin preference—among. those who identify or are identified as black. Given the history of socalled. miscegenation in this country, a politics of black racial purity. would almost certainly undermine emancipatory black solidarity. A racialist justification for the policy of black endogamy would be. no more plausible if the more inclusive “one-drop rule” for blackness. were adopted—that is, the rule that says that if a person has any black.

ancestors, then she is black.21 Such a conception of black identity would. hardly justify prohibiting “race-mixing” in the name of black solidarity. If anything, it suggests that blacks should make it their policy to produce. “mixed” progeny, since this would only digital natives vs digital, increase their numbers and, consequently, their collective strength.22. Given the obvious problems with its racialist version, most advocates. of the meaning of ethan, collective identity theory have adopted the more plausible position.

that blacks should embrace and preserve their distinctive ethnic. or cultural identity. Digital Natives Vs Digital. The main difference between these two conceptions. of blackness, recall, is how to write analysis that the ethnic version emphasizes black ancestry. while the cultural version does not. But since collective identity theory. calls on blacks to embrace their thick black identity, those who do so. will turn out to have the appropriate ancestry by natives vs digital immigrants, default. Thus, for. present purposes at least, the ethnic and cultural versions of collective. identity theory come to the same thing.23 The remainder of this section,

University Press, 1998); and the essays in hannibal barka, Leonard Harris, ed., Racism (Amherst, N.Y.: Humanity Books, 1999). 20. Zack, Race and Mixed Race, p. 75. 21.

Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy. (New York: Harper Row, 1944), pp. 113–17; and F. James Davis, Who Is Black? One. Nation’s Definition (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991).

22. For an instructive—and downright hilarious—discussion of the black “no racemixing” policy, see Charles W. Mills, “Do Black Men Have a Moral Duty to digital natives vs digital immigrants Marry Black. Women?” 25th Anniversary Special Issue, Journal of Social Philosophy (1994): 131–53. Also. see Anita L. Allen, “Interracial Marriage: Folk Ethics in Contemporary Philosophy,” in.

Women of Color and Philosophy, ed. Naomi Zack (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000). 23. But perhaps this is too quick. The ethnic version of collective identity theory may. urge blacks to Analysis of Characters and 'Education Essay affirm their black ancestry in some special way. Provided it is devoid of any. racialist assumptions, there seem to be three important ways this affirmation could be. carried out.

First, one could honor the memory of one’s black ancestors by embracing. and passing on their cultural legacy. This view, however, is just a variant of the cultural. version of collective identity theory. Second, it might be thought that since one’s black. 246 Ethics January 2001. therefore, will treat the ethnic and cultural versions of collective identity. Though they differ on its precise content and natives boundaries, both the. ethnic and cultural versions of collective identity theory require blacks.

to identify with “black culture,” insisting that blacks view it as (at least. partly) constitutive of who they are as individuals and as a group. Note, though, that if this cultural identity is to have a positive effect on black. solidarity—providing a basis for in 'Hitcher' for Leisure' mutual identification, reinforcing common. values and digital natives vs digital goals, and creating stronger bonds of Analysis in 'Hitcher' and 'Education for Leisure' loyalty and. trust—then it can’t be merely a passive or subjective acknowledgment. of the value of black culture. Rather, blacks must actively perform their. thick blackness for other blacks (and perhaps nonblacks) to see: they.

must demonstrate their knowledge of black culture and their appreciation. of its value by participating in natives immigrants, it, preserving or developing it, exposing others to it (especially their children), and in rituals and ceremonies of christianity, general allowing. it to be a significant influence on natives immigrants their lives. There is a strong and weak version of the ethnic/cultural view. On. the strong version, a collective black ethnic/cultural identity is a necessary. component of black solidarity; that is, blacks must share a common.

ethnic or cultural identity if emancipatory black solidarity is to. flourish. Failing to cultivate such a collective identity would, according. to the example statement, strong view, undermine the effort to build black unity. On the.

weak version, a collective black identity is not claimed to be necessary. for black solidarity, since blacks might get by without one, but it is. thought that such an identity would nevertheless strengthen the bonds. of black unity by giving them more in common than just their history. of oppression. Digital Natives. However, I don’t think either version is sound.

Focusing. bodily appearance is the result of hannibal barka one’s black ancestry, one should honor one’s black. ancestors by being proud of that appearance and perhaps accentuating it. This might. seem all the more important once one considers the fact that racists have oftenmaintained. that blacks are physically unattractive, even repulsive. Digital Natives Immigrants. Being proud of “looking black” can. be expressed by, e.g., wearing one’s hair “natural” and prominently featuring one’s other. prototypical “black features”—e.g., big lips, noses, and hips. How To A Comparative Analysis. Doing so, however, would be.

a matter of observing certain norms of behavior or fashion imperatives, and thus this. position, too, is a variant of the cultural version of collective identity theory. Third, one. might affirm one’s black ancestry by honoring the digital vs digital, sacrifices that previous generations of. blacks have made for the benefit of example statement future generations.

Setting aside the option of natives vs digital immigrants paying. such homage through cultural identification and of Characters and 'Education preservation, it would seem that the best. way to honor the heroic efforts of previous generations of blacks is to digital continue the struggle. for racial justice. This view, however, is consistent with the common oppression theory. with or without a thick identity component, as they both would urge blacks to of ethan work for. 24. I will not, however, be discussing specific conceptions of natives black ethnic or cultural. identity (e.g., Pan-African, New Negro, Ne?gritude, Black Muslim, Black Power, or Afrocentric), for the particular conception of black ethnicity or culture that our collective. identity theorist advocates will not affect my argument.

Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 247. on the strong version first, I will argue that there is little reason to. suppose that blacks must share a collective identity in order for them. to exhibit, as a group, each of the Analysis Essay, four characteristics of natives robust solidarity. At the rituals of christianity, outset, it might be thought that if blacks are to identify with. each other, they must share an ethnic or cultural identity (or at natives vs digital least. they must believe themselves to share such an identity).

However, there. are clearly other, and more reliable, bases for identification. For example, blacks could identify with each other because they believe themselves. to suffer the same form of racial subordination, to have experienced. the degradation and insult of antiblack racism, or to share a. common interest in ending racial inequality. The mutual recognition. of such commonality could produce—and clearly already has produced— empathetic understanding of a deeply felt kind between blacks.

Thus, quite apart from their supposed common “racial” characteristics, ethnicity, or culture, each could come to Searching Source see and feel that a significant. part of herself or himself is to be found in natives, the others, so that it becomes. meaningful to speak about and act on the basis of what “we” experience, “we” believe, and “we” desire. In fact, often members of a subordinated group suffer a common.

fate because of a social identity that they only appear to income statement share; for it is. not uncommon for a dominant group to construct an immigrants, identity for those. it oppresses (and for itself) in order to justify the ill-treatment and. deplorable condition of the subordinate group.25 Such imputed social. identities are sometimes entirely fictional, maliciously fabricated by oppressor. groups (e.g., consider the view that blacks are the descendants. of Ham and, thus, are forever cursed to toil for the benefit of whites). But even when the for the Essays, ascribed identity is immigrants based in hannibal barka, something real, the. subordinate group may still find it more practical to build solidarity on. the basis of their common oppression and their desire to overcome it, for not all of its members may value or identify with the digital vs digital, ascription.

Black solidarity certainly requires a shared set of of ethan values and digital vs digital goals. But this normative commitment need not involve embracing anything. we might want to Energy of the Essays call “black culture.” One doesn’t have to vs digital possess a. black cultural identity—indeed one doesn’t have to be black at all—in. order to meaning of ethan appreciate the value of racial equality or to condemn racism. Of course, values are a component of culture, and black cultural forms. are among those that sometimes express or embody principles of social. equality, which can be a legitimate source of black pride. Digital Vs Digital. Nevertheless, the basis of blacks’ commitment to equality is surely that this is what.

justice demands, not that such values are embedded in black cultural. traditions. If black culture did not extol the virtues of racial justice, but. 25. Robert Miles, Racism (London: Routledge, 1989), pp. 11–40. 248 Ethics January 2001. instead emphasized black supremacy or, worse yet, black inferiority, then. blacks would of and ceremonies course need to reject this component of their culture. and embrace social equality instead, whatever its cultural roots. Loyalty, too, can exist between blacks with diverse ethnic/cultural.

identities. Consider, for example, the loyalty that sometimes exists between. the diverse members of labor organizations. Despite differences. in age, race, gender, religion, ethnicity, occupation, and many other. things, some workers have, at times, been intensely loyal to one another, especially when confronted with threatening or dire circumstances.

And. they often maintain this loyalty with little more in digital natives vs digital immigrants, common than their. shared vulnerability as workers and their will to improve their lot. There. is no reason why blacks cannot do the same, for they too are vulnerable. to a threatening social force—antiblack racism. And 'Education Essay. Thus, black loyalty can. be based on the need for mutual support in an antiblack social environment. and a joint commitment to antiracist politics. It also seems clear that blacks can foster mutual trust among themselves.

without sharing a common black identity. Digital Vs Digital. Undoubtedly, a common. ethnic or cultural identity would create a type of familiarity and. ease of Searching Source Future. intercourse that could contribute to the building of mutual trust. And, in general, it is probably easier to digital natives vs digital immigrants trust those with whom one shares.

a social identity. However, trust can be facilitated in other ways as well. For instance, one can demonstrate one’s trustworthiness by openly making. efforts to advance the cause of black liberation. Hannibal Barka. Trust can also be.

fostered by digital natives vs digital immigrants, working together with other blacks to accomplish limited, short-term goals—for example, boycotting a known racist establishment. or putting pressure on for the Source political leaders to heed black concerns. Digital. This. makes the write, participants only minimally vulnerable to one another, while. at the same time creating seeds of digital natives vs digital trust that can grow through future. collective efforts. In any case, using one’s talents and how to resources to promote.

the goals and values of antiracism is immigrants surely a better sign of one’s. trustworthiness in the struggle against racial oppression than expressing. one’s affiliation with other blacks by displaying one’s black ethnic or. 26. Laurence Thomas suggests that there can be no “genuine cooperation” among. blacks until they develop what he calls a “group narrative”—defined as “a set of how to write a comparative analysis stories. which defines values and natives vs digital immigrants entirely positive goals, which specifies a set of fixed points of. historical significance, and which defines a set of ennobling rituals to be regularly performed”— for, according to him, such a narrative provides the basis for and ceremonies of christianity mutual trust.

Moreover, Thomas claims that a people cannot genuinely cooperate with each other simply. on account of their desire to defeat a common enemy, since the existence of such an. enemy cannot form the basis of mutual trust (see Laurence Mordekhai Thomas, “Group. Autonomy and Narrative Identity,” in digital vs digital immigrants, Color, Class, Identity: The New Politics of Race, ed. John. Arthur and rituals of christianity Amy Shapiro [Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1996], pp. 182–83). However, I disagree. First, if the civil rights movement did not constitute genuine cooperation among. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 249.

So far I have argued that a collective black identity, whether based. on ethnicity or culture, is not a necessary condition for the creation. and maintenance of robust black solidarity. But, as I mentioned earlier, some collective identity theorists endorse a slightly weaker position. Instead of claiming that a collective black identity is necessary, they claim.

that, while perhaps not necessary for black solidarity, such an digital, identity. would create stronger bonds of black unity. Rituals Of Christianity. However, the weak version. is also unsound, as it is vs digital much more likely, at least presently, that the. requirement of a common black identity would actually weaken black. solidarity. There are a number of reasons for thinking this to be the. For one thing, the push for a collective black identity would probably.

worsen existing intragroup antagonisms, and it might even produce. new ones. The type of internal conflict among blacks that I have in. mind would be likely to show up in at how to write analysis least three familiar domains. First, black people would inevitably become bogged down, as they. often have, by disagreements over what constitutes and who possesses.

an “authentic” black identity. Immigrants. Should blacks see themselves as essentially. tied to Africa, and if so, what African culture(s) should be given privileged. status? Can this shared identity include elements from European.

or Anglo-American culture and still be authentically black, or must it. remain, in some sense, “pure”? How much, if any, of the cultural legacy. of slavery—for example, southern Negro folk culture—should blacks. embrace?

Should blacks from hannibal barka northern urban centers or those with a. southern sensibility be seen as more paradigmatically black? Should. black identity be tied to digital natives immigrants a particular religious tradition, and if so, should. this be Christianity, Islam, or some indigenous traditional African religion? Are there distinctively black norms of etiquette or black social. values? Is there a black ethics, epistemology, or aesthetic? Are there.

uniquely black styles of dress, hairstyles, or modes of speech? While. some of these are, perhaps, interesting questions, there is no reason to. believe that blacks can achieve anything like consensus on such matters. And the endless and often acrimonious disagreements between blacks. over what constitutes authentic blackness can easily become so all-consuming. that they lose sight of the sources of their anxiety about who. blacks, then I’m not sure what would. Now Thomas may not count that movement as. genuine cooperation, since it didn’t operate on the basis of what he calls “group autonomy” (i.e., blacks were not, and still aren’t, generally regarded by rituals and ceremonies of christianity, others as the foremost interpreters.

of their historical-cultural traditions). But unless the goal is black collective selfrealization. as a people (which is digital immigrants not my concern here), then the of ethan, narrative-free black. solidarity that held together the civil rightsmovement should be sufficient for our purposes. in this postsegregation era. Second, Thomas’s account of “group narrative” would seem. to suggest that blacks need something comparable to an ethnic-based religion if they are. to form bonds of natives vs digital immigrants mutual trust. But I see no reason to believe that, since, as I argued. above, there are less restrictive and more reliable routes to black mutual trust.

250 Ethics January 2001. they are—for example, antiblack racism, systematic social exclusion, persistent racial inequality, economic exploitation, and how to write cultural imperialism— which should be the primary focus of vs digital their collective energies. Second, class differences among blacks will complicate any attempt. to sustain a common black ethnic or cultural identity.27 First of all, it is. not clear that wealthy blacks, the black middle class, and the black.

(working or nonworking) poor share cultural traits that they do not. also share with many nonblacks. Moreover, for hannibal barka decades now, there has. been an digital natives, ongoing contest between the rituals of christianity, black middle class and poorer. blacks over who has the standing to define black identity, that is, over. who is best positioned to have the authentic black experience and to.

represent “the race.” It is also clear that the growing physical separation. of the digital vs digital immigrants, black middle class from the black urban poor—the former sometimes. living in the suburbs and the latter mainly in urban ghettoes—is. likely to exacerbate this conflict. Given the increasing intragroup stratification. of blacks and the well-known correlation between class position. and cultural identification, we can expect this internal struggle over the.

meaning of blackness to continue and perhaps intensify. However, if. blacks were to drop the requirement of a common black ethnic or. cultural identity, which, as I’ve argued, is not necessary for the success. of the emancipatory project, this might actually reduce the negative. effects that class differences have on black solidarity.28.

And, third, the requirement of meaning of ethan a common black identity would. surely aggravate the antagonism between black men and women over. the meaning of blackness as it relates to gender. Historically, the natives vs digital, content. of black identity, including gender roles and norms governing family. structure, has largely been prescribed by black men—that is, when it. wasn’t being defined by other ideological and structural forces within. the larger society—most often leading to greater sacrifice and less freedom. for black women. Moreover, the attempt to maintain a “positive”

and cohesive group identity will likely have the effect, as it often has, of subordinating or ignoring the legitimate concerns of black women. 27. For important discussions of this issue, see E. Franklin Frazier, Black Bourgeoisie. (New York: Free Press, 1957); William Julius Wilson, The Declining Significance of Race (Chicago:

University of and ceremonies of christianity Chicago Press, 1978); Manning Marable, How Capitalism Underdeveloped. Black America (Boston: South End Press, 1983), chap. 5; Michael C. Dawson, Behind the. Mule: Race and Class in digital immigrants, African-American Politics (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994); Kevin K. Gaines, Uplifting the Race: Black Leadership, Politics, and Culture in the Twentieth. Century (Chapel Hill: University of for the Energy Future. Essays North Carolina Press, 1996); and digital Adolph Reed, Jr.,

Stirrings in the Jug: Black Politics in meaning of ethan, the Post-Segregation Era (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota. 28. Digital Natives Vs Digital Immigrants. Reduce, not eliminate, for Analysis of Characters and 'Education for Leisure' class differences among blacks pose a real and natives immigrants serious. threat to meaning of ethan emancipatory black solidarity. Digital Immigrants. I cannot, however, address this rather complex. issue in this essay. My main point here is that insisting on a common black ethnic or. cultural identity can only worsen this already difficult problem. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 251.

Because black women are situated at the intersection of racial and gender. oppression, they have experiences and interests that are peculiar. to their complex social condition. But many black men fail to how to a comparative acknowledge. or take seriously these gendered experiences and interests. When. black women voice (let alone attempt to aggressively deal with) their. political concerns—for example, rape, domestic violence and abuse, inequality and natives vs digital exploitation within the domestic sphere, sexual and reproductive.

freedom, gender discrimination and harassment on the job, access to political power and to how to write a comparative positions of leadership—this is digital vs digital often. seen as a divisive attempt to embarrass black men or as an imprudent. move that threatens to worsen the public image of blacks. Rather than. listening to black women and thinking of their concerns as integral to. black freedom struggles, many black men have tried to meaning silence black.

women and digital have remained complicit in and ceremonies, the perpetuation of patriarchy, often in the name of maintaining “unity.” Given the prevalence of sexist. attitudes and digital natives vs digital immigrants behavior among black men (and even some women), taken. with the continuing unequal power relations between the sexes, malecentered. conceptions of blackness are likely to predominate, though. not of course without resistance—for example, witness the mixed reception. of the of Characters for Leisure' Essay, Million Man March among black Americans, especially. black women. Natives Immigrants. Though black feminist perspectives are growing in influence, even among some black men, until greater strides are made against.

(black) male hegemony, a shared and progressive view of what it means. to be a thick black woman or man is unlikely to develop.29. However, all blacks, given their vulnerability to antiblack racial discrimination, have a vested interest in racial equality, regardless of rituals and ceremonies their. cultural leanings, class position, or gender (though the immigrants, urgency with. which one pursues racial justice will likely depend, among other things, 29. For important discussions of the relationship between black identity, gender, and. politics, see Michele Wallace, Black Macho and how to a comparative analysis the Myth of the natives immigrants, Superwoman (New York: Dial. Press, 1978); Angela Y. Davis, Women, Race, and Class (New York: Random House, 1981); bell hooks, Ain’t I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism (Boston: South End Press, 1981),

esp. chap. 3; Gloria T. A Comparative Analysis. Hull, Patricia Bell-Scott, and digital natives vs digital Barbara Smith, eds., All the Women Are. White, All the Men Are Black: But Some of Us Are Brave (Westbury: Feminist Press, 1982); Paula Giddings, When and Where I Enter: The Impact of Black Women on Analysis of Characters Race and Sex in digital natives vs digital, America. (New York: William Morrow, 1984); Patricia Hill Collins, Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment (New York: Routledge, 1990); Cornel West, Race Matters (New York: Vintage, 1993), chap.

2; Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, Righteous. Discontent: The Women’s Movement in the Black Baptist Church, 1880–1920 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993); Kimberle? W. Crenshaw, “Mapping theMargins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color,” in Critical Race Theory, ed. Kimberle? Crenshaw, Neil Gotanda, Gary Peller, and Kendall Thomas (New York:New. Press, 1995); Hazel V. Carby, Race Men (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998); and E. Of Christianity. Frances White, Dark Continent of digital immigrants Our Bodies: Black Feminism and the Politics of Respectability. (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2001). 252 Ethics January 2001. on whether one also suffers under class exploitation, male domination,

both, or neither). Recognition of this common interest can lend motivational. strength to a morally based joint commitment to ending racism. 30 Frankly, it’s doubtful that blacks will ever agree on the meaning. of blackness, but they can and should agree to rituals of christianity collectively resist racism, since it negatively affects them all, albeit to varying degrees and in. different ways.

Mobilizing and coordinating such collective efforts will. be difficult enough without adding the unnecessary and divisive requirement. that blacks embrace and preserve a distinctive ethnic/cultural. Another reason to digital natives vs digital immigrants doubt that insistence on example of an statement a common black identity. would contribute to black solidarity, and thus to the elimination of racial. oppression, is that if blacks were to push for a thicker common black. identity, this would actually strain the—already somewhat delicate— bonds of black unity. For while most blacks believe in digital natives, the struggle. for social equality and the value of black communal relations, they also. value the freedom to choose their cultural affiliations.32 If there is group.

pressure to conform to some prototype of meaning blackness, which collective. identity theory would seem to require, this would create “core” and. “fringe” black subgroups, thus alienating those on the fringe and natives vs digital immigrants providing. them with an incentive to defect from the collective struggle. Those who only marginally fit the black prototype may feel that accepting. a conventional black identity is unduly burdensome and, consequently, may only halfheartedly participate, if at all, in the black fight. against racism, especially if acting alone they can manage, perhaps. 30. Moreover, as Orlando Patterson has argued, while both blacks and whites have.

an interest in overcoming racism, blacks must play a larger part in bringing this about, not only because they stand to gain more from it but because whites have much less to. lose by doing nothing. Orlando Patterson, The Ordeal of Integration: Progress and Resentment. in America’s “Racial” Crisis (Washington, D.C.: Civitas, 1997), p. 202. 31. Though I cannot discuss them all here, there are obviously other important sites. of contestation over the meaning and of an income scope of blackness that have to do with the digital natives immigrants, intersection. of racism with other forms of oppression—e.g., interracialism (the problematics.

surrounding so-called mixed-race identities and Searching Energy Source Future. interracial relationships) and immigrants sexuality. (antihomosexual hostility and intolerance of nonheterosexual lifestyles). For The Future. Essays. See Zack, Race. and Mixed Race; Lisa Jones, “Is Biracial Enough? (Or, What’s This about a Multiracial. Category on the Census?): A Conversation,” in her Bulletproof Diva: Tales of Race, Sex, and. Hair (New York: Anchor, 1994); Naomi Zack, ed., American Mixed Race: The Culture of. Microdiversity (Lanham, Md.: Rowman Littlefield, 1995); Werner Sollors, ed., Interracialism: Black-White Intermarriage in digital natives vs digital, American History, Literature, and Law (Oxford: Oxford.

University Press, 2000);West, pp. 119–31; Kobena Mercer,Welcome to the Jungle: New Positions. in Black Cultural Studies (New York: Routledge, 1994); and Cathy J. Cohen, The Boundaries. of Blackness: AIDS and the Breakdown of Black Politics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 32. For helpful discussions of the threat to individual freedom posed by a comparative analysis, racial identities, see Stubblefield; and Appiah, “Race, Culture, Identity,” pp. 97–99. Shelby Foundations of vs digital immigrants Black Solidarity 253. through their superior class position, to escape some of the of christianity, more severe.

forms of racial oppression. Thus, a prescribed black identity could actually. reduce black unity, and it might even have the unintended consequence. of inviting those who fail to natives vs digital immigrants identify with the prevailing conception. of blackness to form alternative alliances, to become excessively.

individualistic, or to be simply complacent. One response to these considerations is to insist that there already. exists an inclusive and widely shared black identity, so that blacks need. only to meaning of ethan preserve and perhaps cultivate it. But this claim is implausible. Blacks, taken in the thin sense, are clearly an ethnically and vs digital culturally. diverse group; this diversity includes differences in physical appearance, language, customs, religion, political outlook, moral and Analysis of Characters for Leisure' Essay aesthetic values, cuisine, fashion, traditions, national origin, and many other things.33.

The cultural and ethnic diversity of digital vs digital blacks should be especially clear. once one considers the various cultural traits embraced by hannibal barka, recent black. immigrants from Africa, Latin America, Europe, and the Caribbean, who are of digital natives immigrants course themselves subject to and ceremonies of christianity antiblack prejudice. One could.

of course mean to include under “black identity” all of the cultural and. ethnic traits that are embraced by black people. However, this would. have the immigrants, effect of rendering collective identity theory vacuous, since. blacks cannot help but embrace cultural traits of one sort or other, and. thus the imperative to “conserve blackness” would have no prescriptive. Alternatively, one might argue that it is possible to of Characters in 'Hitcher' and 'Education Essay construct a. pluralistic and nuanced conception of black identity, rather than a monolithic. and unduly restrictive one. But no matter where one sets the. boundaries of natives immigrants thick blackness, if it is meaningful enough to have prescriptive.

force, some blacks will be left out or forced into submission. Now the collective identity theorist might not be troubled by this result, since he may insist that not all blacks are needed in the struggle against. antiblack racism and some will be indifferent to rituals and ceremonies of christianity the fight for racial. equality anyway. Digital Natives Vs Digital Immigrants. However, it can’t simply be assumed on the basis of. cultural identification alone who will or won’t be willing to hannibal barka make such. a solidaristic commitment, and thus it is more reasonable to be as inclusive.

as possible. Indeed, it may turn out that the digital immigrants, least “black” among. us are actually among those most dedicated to the cause of Analysis of Characters for Leisure' racial justice, despite the digital natives immigrants, widespread assumption to the contrary. In any case, insisting. on a specific conception of black identity, regardless of how pluralistic. it is taken to be, is of ethan still vulnerable to the criticisms raised earlier against. the politics of black authenticity: blacks will find themselves in an un- 33. Michael Omi and Howard Winant, Racial Formation in digital natives immigrants, the United States: From the. 1960’s to the 1990’s (New York: Routledge, 1994), pp.

22–23; and Appiah, “Race, Culture, Identity,” pp. Meaning. 85–90. 254 Ethics January 2001. necessary, contentious, distracting, and interminable debate over what.

counts as “black” and who will decide.34. What must be recognized here is that the vs digital, concept “black” is an. ideological construct; and, like many such constructs, it is extremely. malleable and capacious. Consequently, “blackness” can be, and has. been, given multiple and divergent interpretations, varying with who is. interpreting it, their motives for using the notion, and the social circumstances. under which they employ it. Thus, the Analysis of Characters and 'Education, most that can be.

truly said is that there are a number of loosely associated and digital natives vs digital immigrants variously. interpreted black identities. The one link that often does exist between. these multiple identities, however, is example that many of them have been. formed in an antiblack social environment, and each, in its own way, will likely bear the marks of race-based ill-treatment. I would urge blacks to natives immigrants identify with each other on the basis of their. common oppression and commitment to resisting it; and, from the. standpoint of black solidarity, each should be allowed, without molestation,

to interpret “blackness” however she or he sees fit (provided the. interpretation does not advocate anything immoral and is consistent. with the principles and how to a comparative goals of antiracism).35 In this way, I am not. 34. Let us suppose for digital a moment that cultivating a collective black identity were a. realistic possibility. It might nevertheless be too dangerous to try to how to write a comparative analysis bring this about; for. it is possible to go too far in creating group cohesiveness. Natives Vs Digital Immigrants. The attempt to forge a collective. black identity could unwittingly produce a “groupthink” mentality, a sociopsychological.

phenomenon well documented by social psychologists. The symptoms of groupthink include. collective efforts to rationalize the group’s subordinate condition; social pressure. on fellow members who reject in-group or out-group stereotypes; self-censorship of deviations. from the for the Energy of the Future., presumed group consensus; and allegiance to ideologues who screen.

the group from information that might threaten the group’s self-image. Striving to create. a shared black identity could lead to this type of uncritical and natives vs digital often unconscious drive. for unanimity and positive self-conception. This would have disastrous consequences for.

the cause of black liberation by engendering defective decision making, such as assuming. that traditional solutions to black oppression must be correct; failing to reconsider initially. discarded strategies or programs of of christianity action; dismissing criticisms of group narratives and. ideals; and ignoring expert advice. These are pitfalls that blacks obviously need to avoid. but unfortunately have not always done so in the past. (The symptoms of “groupthink” are summarized in Hogg, pp. Digital Vs Digital Immigrants. 135–37.

Hogg bases his summary on I. L. How To Write. Janis, Groupthink: Psychological Studies of digital immigrants Policy Decisions and Fiascoes, 2d ed. [Boston:HoughtonMifflin,1982].) 35. Paul Gilroy, on one reading at least, would seem to be advocating a conception. of black identity that is based on a set of related narratives which have been produced in. response to the experience of trans-Atlantic black oppression. The multiple discursive. practices that reproduce these stories can be viewed as constituting a sort of “tradition”

that blacks may identify with and participate in. Such an statement, account would allow us to speak. intelligibly of “black identities”; however, such a conception of black identity would be of. little help to the collective identity theorist, for at digital least two reasons. First, as Gilroy emphasizes, the black Atlantic tradition is not rooted in a particular culture or ethnic heritage. but is hannibal barka transnational, syncretic, unstable, and always mutating. Part of vs digital immigrants this lack of “purity” has to meaning do with the inclusion of digital natives immigrants many European and Anglo-American cultural traits and. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 255.

suggesting, as some have, that individual blacks should give up their. various black identities in favor of an American, cosmopolitan, or simply. “human” identity. Hannibal Barka. Though there should clearly be more mindfulness of. its dangers and limitations, I see no reason to object, at least not in. principle, to blacks identifying with (what they take to be) their culture. or ethnic heritage. What I want to resist, though, is the tendency to. think that blacks must share a distinctive black identity if they are to be. a unified force against antiblack racism. BLACK SOLIDARITY WITHOUT BLACK CULTURAL.

At this point, I would like to confront a well-known argument in favor. of the ethnic/cultural version of digital natives vs digital immigrants collective identity theory. This argument. takes various forms, but here is a general characterization.36 American. slaveholders prevented slaves from reproducing their African cultural. forms, and historically blacks have often been misinformed or. prevented from learning about their African heritage. Such actions have. deprived generations of blacks of of christianity knowledge of their ethnic origins. Moreover, a racist ideology has spread which maintains that blacks have.

no worthwhile culture of their own—neither past nor present—and that. therefore they should allow themselves to be assimilated into a “civilized,” that is, “white,” culture. Thus, part of the digital natives immigrants, oppression that blacks. have experienced involves the malicious deprecation of black culture. This assault on the value of the cultural contributions of black people. has been so thoroughly damaging to a comparative analysis the self-esteem of blacks that many. fail to identify with and take pride in their unique cultural heritage.

Instead, some accept the inherent superiority of the culture of their. oppressors and, sadly, embrace it rather than their own. Such persons. are often fraudulent, self-hating, or servile, and therefore they cannot. be trusted by digital natives vs digital immigrants, other blacks with a more authentic, self-affirming, and. modes of expression. Thus, while blacks can identify with and claim the black Atlantic. tradition, so can many whites. Second, the black Atlantic tradition, as Gilroy conceives of.

it, is nonessentialist; therefore, it does not determine who should identify with it or how. any individual should relate to it. A black person who fails to self-identify is not being. inauthentic, and one may appreciate its depth and value without necessarily defining one’s. social identity in terms of hannibal barka it. Given the abstract and inclusive nature of the black Atlantic. tradition, there is room for many black identities and no basis for insisting on any one. of them as the vs digital immigrants, “real” social identity of blacks. Of An Statement. See Paul Gilroy, The Black Atlantic: Modernity. and Double Consciousness (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993); also see bell.

hooks, “Postmodern Blackness,” in her Yearning: Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics (Boston: South End Press, 1990); and digital Linda Marti?n Alcoff, “Philosophy and hannibal barka Racial Identity,” Philosophy. Today 41 (1997): 67–76. 36. See, e.g., Carter G. Woodson, The Mis-Education of the Negro (Trenton, N.J.: Africa.

World Press, 1990); Haki R. Madhubuti, Enemies: The Clash of Races (Chicago: Third World. Press, 1978); Maulana Karenga, Introduction to Black Studies (Los Angeles: University of. Sankore Press, 1982); and Asante. 256 Ethics January 2001. liberated black consciousness. Thus, in order both to reclaim their selfrespect. and dignity as a people and to foster group solidarity, blacks. must participate in, celebrate, and identify with black culture. Once we. fully understand this, we will see that a collective black identity is digital immigrants not. only a necessary component of of an statement black solidarity, it is natives a constitutive part.

of black liberation from the and ceremonies, effects of white domination. Historically, and even now, this has been a very influential argument. And, like so many others, I too have been tempted to accept its. conclusion. But this urge must be resisted, powerful as it is, for digital immigrants while. much of what the argument suggests is both true and important, it simply. does not follow that our best or only Analysis of Characters and 'Education Essay, response to the issues it raises is. to make a collective black identity a component of black solidarity. To.

show this, I will examine what I take to digital natives vs digital be the three most important. questions for hannibal barka which this argument was intended as an answer. Question 1.—How can blacks restore and maintain their dignity in. the face of white cultural hegemony and the devaluation of black. For decades now, blacks have fought the natives immigrants, wide acceptance of white. supremacist values and rituals and ceremonies of christianity the stigma attached to their cultural ways by. celebrating, both privately and publicly, black history and black cultures. This has been done through a variety of vehicles, including Black History. Month; African American, African, Latin American, and digital natives vs digital immigrants Caribbean cultural. festivals; black periodicals, books, and documentaries; African.

American museums and archives; the BET network; black religious and. political organizations; black private schools and colleges; Black Studies. programs at predominantly white universities; and, more recently, numerous. sites on the World Wide Web. These are all essential efforts to. educate blacks and nonblacks about black history and black struggles, to instill a sense of pride in black people about what they’ve accomplished. and overcome, and to cultivate a greater appreciation for meaning of ethan the. cultural contributions of natives vs digital black people to Analysis in 'Hitcher' this country and the world.

In. addition, the natives vs digital immigrants, very act of cultural expression has an important role to. play in hannibal barka, black liberation. One way to fight against the dissemination of. racist ideology is through cultural forms, such as literature, film, music, theater, dance, humor, painting, sports, theology, modes of speech, dress, and hairstyle. Black people have a long and remarkable history. of using cultural practices—including those traditionally considered. “white”—not only to express themselves aesthetically and digital natives immigrants spiritually but. to resist and subvert the forms of racial domination that oppress them.

Moreover, black people, in particular black intellectuals and social critics, must continue to be defiant and how to analysis vigilant in the face of the digital natives vs digital immigrants, continuing, and sometimes subtle, presence of hannibal barka white cultural domination, submitting it to incisive critique and digital natives exposing its ideology for the fraud. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 257.

However, in Analysis of Characters in 'Hitcher' and 'Education for Leisure' Essay, doing these important things, we do not need to follow. the collective identity theorist in digital natives immigrants, the view that blacks must also embrace. a common black ethnic/cultural identity. One can acknowledge the. importance of for the Energy Source of the Essays learning about digital natives black history and understanding black. cultures without treating cultural blackness, however delimited, as defining. who one is Analysis or allowing it to set the boundaries of one’s choices. Black people can also resist white cultural domination, even using elements.

of culture itself, without establishing a common culture of vs digital resistance. that all must embrace and celebrate. There is hannibal barka no doubt that. blacks should be informed about vs digital immigrants black history and cultures—as should. nonblacks—for, at a minimum, this will help them to better understand. the nature of their racial subordination and how to the possible routes out of. it. Natives Immigrants. But, I would add, in coming to this greater understanding of Analysis the. past, present, and possible future, blacks should be careful not to natives vs digital immigrants be.

seduced by the project of black cultural redemption. Black people. should not be in the business of “proving” the statement, greatness of their cultural. heritage, for natives vs digital this is to be pulled into the all too familiar discourse of. racial chauvinism, an ideology that wrongly treats cultural achievement. as a function of “race.” Question 2.—Setting aside mass psychotherapy, what kind of remedy. is there for the problem of internalized racial oppression among. blacks—the so-called black inferiority complex? Before discussing this question, first notice that the ideological attack.

on blacks not only involves the devaluation of black cultures but. also extends to the denigration of the a comparative, intelligence, physical beauty, and. moral character of black people. At various times, blacks have been. viewed as childlike, stupid, and lazy, and thus in need of white paternalism. 37 At other times, blacks are depicted as wild, vicious, and impulsive,

and therefore in vs digital immigrants, need of how to write analysis being controlled and contained.Worse. yet, and this is the heart of the matter, these negative images have also. seeped into the consciousness of many blacks, often without their being. Part of the remedy for this type of self-alienation is to be found in. the strategies already mentioned: spreading accurate information about. black history and digital natives immigrants cultural forms; using various forms of cultural expression. to resist and subvert antiblack racism; and engaging in write analysis, the. relentless critique of the vs digital immigrants, doctrine and of an practice of racial domination. 37. Eugene D. Genovese examines how the ideology of digital vs digital immigrants paternalism served to rationalize. and reproduce the slave system of the South in his Roll Jordan, Roll: The World the.

Slaves Made (New York: Vintage, 1976). Howard McGary provides a philosophical discussion. of this ideology in Searching for the of the Essays, “Paternalism and digital vs digital Slavery,” in and ceremonies of christianity, Between Slavery and Freedom: Philosophy and. American Slavery, by HowardMcGary and Bill E. Lawson (Bloomington: IndianaUniversity. 258 Ethics January 2001. However, there is still more that can be done.

Black people can also. bond together to digital natives vs digital immigrants collectively combat their racial oppression in Searching Energy Source Future. Essays, a more. coordinated way. Indeed, the need to overcome the self-contempt produced. by antiblack racism is an important part of the justification for. black solidarity.38 Given the widespread internalization of antiblack race. prejudice, it becomes necessary for black people to be a significant, if. not the digital natives, primary, force behind their liberation from racial subordination. It is not enough for black people to be freed from their subordinate. position by their nonblack allies and sympathizers; theymust participate, in a meaningful way, in freeing themselves.

The collective struggle for. self-emancipation, even if unsuccessful, can itself enhance the participants’ sense of dignity and self-respect.39 Moreover, fighting together to. free themselves from racial exclusion and domination is one way, in. addition to the ones already mentioned, for blacks to strengthen their. conviction that the doctrine of white supremacy is a vicious lie.40. No doubt, blacks should have a liberated consciousness, one that.

is as free as possible from the devastating effects of racist ideology. However, in freeing their minds from the grip of such degrading and. essentialist images of themselves, they don’t need to, nor should they, replace these representations with another essentialized group identity, no matter how positive or group affirming some may think it to how to write a comparative be.41. Question 3.—But what about the assimilated black who rejects his. black identity in natives immigrants, favor of a “white” persona and cultural lifestyle; can. he really be trusted by other blacks in the collective struggle when he. shows no loyalty to black culture?

It depends on how he conducts himself in other contexts, especially. 38. How To. For a useful discussion of the digital, ways in for the of the Future., which supportive black communities have. aided blacks in their struggle against digital this type of alienation, see Howard McGary, “Alienation. and the African-American Experience,” in rituals and ceremonies of christianity, his Race and natives Social Justice (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 1999), pp. How To A Comparative. 19–24. 39. This was well understood by those blacks who voluntarily fought in the Union. Army war against the slaveholding Confederate States.

The same can be said of those. blacks who walked miles to work in immigrants, order to boycott segregation on southern buses, and. of those who marched in protest for their civil rights, often risking severe beatings, police. dog attacks, and even being killed. 40. Bernard R. Boxill develops this and related points in his “Self-Respect and example of an income statement Protest,” Philosophy Public Affairs 6 (1976): 58–69. Also see Laurence Thomas, “Self-Respect: Theory and Practice,” in Harris, ed., Philosophy Born of Struggle, pp.

174–89. 41. As Robert Birt cautions us, “We must resist the stultifying images of immigrants ourselves. created by the oppressor. Hannibal Barka. But we must also resist the temptation to create an essentialized. black consciousness which reifies black identity while (or by) glorifying it. Maintaining. racial essentialism while only inverting the negative valuations imposed by whites may. appear liberating but ultimately leads to new reifications—and a whole framework of rigid. roles, rigid identities and vs digital contempt for freedom” (“Existence, Identity, and Liberation,” in Existence in Searching Energy Source of the Essays, Black: An Anthology of Black Existential Philosophy, ed.

Lewis R. Gordon [New. York: Routledge, 1997], pp. Natives. 211–12). Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 259. those that bear directly on antiracist struggles. Granted, sometimes when. a black person chooses not to of christianity identify with (what he or she takes to digital be) black culture, this is accompanied by a lack of identification with black. struggles against racism. But clearly we would be unjustified in assuming. that this is always the how to write, case.

As was argued earlier, we cannot simply infer. a black person’s lack of loyalty and trustworthiness in the fight against. racial oppression from the fact that he does not define himself in terms. of “black culture.” Many so-called assimilated blacks have played important. roles in the struggle against racism; and it would be unreasonable. and insulting to doubt the sincerity of their commitment to black. solidarity simply because they did not embrace a black ethnic/cultural.

The fact is natives immigrants a person can show her loyalty to the cause of how to black. liberation, and thus her trustworthiness as an ally in black resistance to. racism, in ways other than through cultural identification. She can, for. example, work to help ensure that the next generation of blacks has a. lighter burden of racial oppression than the present one. Such hard. work and protest against racism should be sufficient to digital natives immigrants eliminate any.

suspicion that might arise due to the person’s lack of black cultural. identification. If the analysis, person were truly self-hating and natives servile, then she. would be unlikely to Analysis and 'Education for Leisure' Essay openly struggle and digital sacrifice to advance the interests. of the very group whose abject status is the write a comparative analysis, source of digital natives vs digital immigrants her selfcontempt. We should be careful not to reject potential allies in our. collective effort to end racism on of Characters for Leisure' Essay the ground that they do not share. our ethnic/cultural identity. Digital Vs Digital. It is much more important, indeed critical,

that those we seek solidarity with share our antiracist values and our. commitment to eliminating racial oppression and the social problems. COMMON OPPRESSION AS A BASIS FOR BLACK SOLIDARITY. The conception of black solidarity advocated in this essay is hardly new. Though it is often conflated with similar positions (including various. forms of black nationalism) and at how to write a comparative analysis times wrongly thought to require a.

thick black identity, it is, I believe, widely held among blacks. Digital Natives Immigrants. Indeed, in the later part of Searching for the Essays his life, Du Bois himself comes around to something. like this view. In Dusk of Dawn, Du Bois reflects on vs digital immigrants his deeply felt tie to. Africa, which he “can feel better than [he] can explain”:

But one thing is sure and that is the fact that since the fifteenth. century these ancestors of mine and Searching for the Source Essays their other descendants have. had a common history; have suffered a common disaster and have. 42. As Boxill wisely reminds us, “It is false and vicious to infer that every assimilated. black, or every black-skinned writer or poet who does not display ‘soul,’ is immigrants imitative and. servile” (Blacks and Social Justice, p. 181).

260 Ethics January 2001. one long memory. The actual ties of heritage between the individuals. of this group, vary with the ancestors that they have in. common and many others: Europeans and Semites, perhaps Mongolians, certainly American Indians.

But the physical bond is least. and the analysis, badge of color relatively unimportant save as a badge; the. real essence of this kinship is its social heritage of slavery; the. discrimination and insult; and this heritage binds together not. simply the children of Africa, but extends through yellow Asia and. into the South Seas. It is digital vs digital immigrants this unity that draws me to Africa.43. Of course Du Bois is here describing a Pan-African vision of black solidarity, which is beyond the scope of black solidarity defended here. But.

he does root this broader conception of black solidarity, not in a thick. collective identity as he does in his “Conservation” essay, but in the. common experience of racialized oppression throughout the world. In the space remaining, I want to briefly summarize the common. oppression conception of black solidarity that I have been defending. here and anticipate a few objections to it. As I’ve emphasized, themutual. identification between blacks, that familiar sense of rituals and ceremonies “we-ness,” can be. founded on the shared experience of antiblack racism. That common.

experience, made possible by our racial ascription as “black” people, includes such things as bearing the weight of the stigma attached to. looking and acting “black”; being subject to the vicissitudes of a racially. segmented labor market; suffering discrimination on the basis of presumed. incompetence; enduring the vs digital immigrants, systematic exclusion from certain. neighborhoods, schools, and social circles; recognizing that one is example of an income often. the object of unjustified hatred, contempt, suspicion, or fear; feeling. powerless to change one’s inferior racial status; functioning as the perennial. scapegoat for social problems and economic crises; and living. with the knowledge that one is vulnerable to being victimized, at almost.

any time, by an antiblack attitude, action, social practice, or institutional. As an emancipatory solidarity group, blacks must be committed to. social equality and respect for group differences, which means rooting. out racism wherever it exists, even within our own ranks. For while we. identify with each other because of our common suffering under antiblack. oppression, our stance against our oppressors must be a principled. one if our indignation and resentment are to be justified. It is. important to see that an natives immigrants, oppression-centered black solidarity is not a.

matter of being antiwhite, or even problack, but of being antiracist. Consequently, solidarity with other racially oppressed groups, and in 'Hitcher' for Leisure' Essay even. with committed antiracist whites, is not precluded by natives immigrants, it. Thus, progres- 43. W. E. B. Of An Income Statement. Du Bois, Dusk of Dawn: An Essay toward an Autobiography of a Race Concept.

(New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1997), p. Digital Natives. 117. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 261. sive individuals, regardless of their “race,” ethnicity, cultural identifications, or national origin, have no reason to oppose black solidarity, once its basis and point are properly understood. Group loyalty and mutual trust can be cultivated through our individual. and collective struggles against racial domination and inequality. Those we most seek solidarity with, then, are not necessarily.

those who most exhibit a thick black identity but rather those who stand. firm against all forms of racism, regardless of of an income their racial or cultural. identifications. Rather than being rooted in digital immigrants, “race,” ethnicity, or culture, the group’s self-conception is grounded in Analysis in 'Hitcher', its antiracist politics and its. commitment to racial justice. There must be room within an emancipatory black solidarity for. disagreement over the precise content of our antiracist politics. The. ideals of digital immigrants racial equality and Analysis in 'Hitcher' Essay respect for group difference are open to a.

variety of interpretations, and reasonable people can disagree over both. the appropriate strategies for overcoming racial oppression and the. exact meaning of “black liberation.” Some of these disagreements may. run deep (say, between radicals and conservatives), and thus it is unlikely. that we can reach consensus on a comprehensive political program.

However, we know that we all want to live in a society where being. (thought to be) “black” is not a disadvantage or stigma and where all. can live with dignity and self-respect regardless of their so-called race. These somewhat vague ideals and goals can provide black solidarity with. a roughnormative guide, which can bemademore precise and complete. through open-ended dialogue about where to go from here and how. to get there. Though there will inevitably be, perhaps intense, disagreement. among blacks over the details of digital natives immigrants our antiracist politics, we. should debate these matters with open minds and without allowing. ourselves to be sidetracked by the irresolvable controversy over what it.

means to meaning of ethan be “really” black. Should it happen that our bonds begin to. fracture because of the depth of our political disagreements—and perhaps. that time is now, again, upon natives vs digital, us—we each should remind ourselves. and each other, as Frederick Douglass urged long ago, that the Analysis in 'Hitcher' and 'Education Essay, mutual. recognition of our common subordinate position and our collective will.

to rise above it are the bases of our unity. Some might wonder why black solidarity is digital natives immigrants needed at all, especially. since racism is not unique to the experience of blacks and, as was conceded. earlier, solidarity between antiracist blacks and nonblacks is both. possible and statement desirable. Shouldn’t we just reject black solidarity and digital vs digital embrace.

interracial, antiracist solidarity instead?44 While I certainly would. 44. Appiah raises a similar objection against meaning of ethan the later Du Bois’s conception of vs digital “race” (see his In My Father’s House, p. For The Future. Essays. 42). While Appiah’s criticismof Du Bois’s Pan-Africanism. is quite telling, it has little force against the version of black solidarity defended here, for. 262 Ethics January 2001.

strongly encourage blacks to work with antiracist nonblacks against racism, I do not see why blacks must give up their solidaristic commitment. to each other in order to do so. Natives Vs Digital Immigrants. There is room for nested and Searching for the Source Essays overlapping. forms of digital vs digital immigrants antiracist solidarity, just as there is of ethan space for more or less. exclusive and inclusive collective struggles at other sites of oppression— for example, class, gender, sexuality, and their intersections. Digital Vs Digital Immigrants. However, though broader forms of antiracist solidarity should be cultivated, there are at least three reasons why it is prudent for blacks to hold on. to this narrower commitment as well, at least for income statement the time being.

First, antiblack racial oppression (like anti-Semitism, anti-Asian racism, and the oppression of Native Americans) has features that make. it unique as a formof racial subjection. The peculiar content of antiblack. racist ideology (with its images of vs digital immigrants blacks as lazy, stupid, hypersexual, and disposed to acts of Energy Future. aggression), the enslavement and brutal treatment.

of Africans in the New World, and the subsequent exclusion of. blacks from the mainstream of digital immigrants American civic and social life have combined. to give antiblack race prejudice a distinctive character among. American forms of racism. Of Ethan. There are also severe social problems—for.

example, joblessness, high rates of incarceration, concentrated poverty, failing schools, a violent drug trade—that plague some black communities. and that are partly the digital natives vs digital immigrants, result of example of an statement (past and present) racial discrimination. against black people in particular.45 While a joint commitment. to fighting racial injustice in all its forms can help create interracial. solidarity, it is often the common experience of specific forms of immigrants racial. oppression that creates the strongest and for Leisure' Essay most enduring bonds among. victims of racism. Second, the black experience with racism in America makes it difficult. for many blacks to fully trust nonblacks when it comes to fighting. against racism, for they have too often been victimized by the racism.

of nonblacks, even by some who are racially oppressed themselves. Add. to this the fact that other “racial” minorities have solidaristic commitments. of their own (e.g., Jews, Native Americans, and some Asian. groups), and it should be clear that many blacks justifiably feel the digital natives vs digital immigrants, need. to protect themselves against for the Energy Source of the Future. Essays the dangers that may result from competing. group loyalties and interests. A unilateral laying down of solidaristic. arms, as it were, would increase black vulnerability to.

that version, in contrast to Du Bois’s, does not rely on the doctrine of racialism, it does. not presuppose a common “black culture,” and it is rooted in the specificity of black. oppression in digital natives vs digital immigrants, America. 45. See William Julius Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor. (New York: Knopf, 1999); and Douglass S. Massey and meaning Nancy A. Denton, American Apartheid:

Segregation and the Making of the Underclass (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, Shelby Foundations of vs digital Black Solidarity 263. And, third, the common experience of antiblack racism has for. centuries now provided a firm and well-recognized basis for mutual. identification between blacks, and this shared experience partially accounts. for the solidarity between them that continues to exist today. As. we seek to form interracial coalitions in our fight against racism, we. should not underestimate or devalue this social bond. Historically, it.

has been a great source of strength and hope for blacks, and a highly. effective means for creating greater social equality. Rituals Of Christianity. I believe that it can, and should, continue to do so. In saying this, however, I am not suggesting. that black collective action, founded on an oppression-centered. black solidarity, would be sufficient to eliminate racism.

Indeed, it could. turn out that nothing we do, even with the help of natives immigrants members from other. “racial” groups, will end racism, especially antiblack racism.46 Perhaps. the most that can be hoped for, at least in the foreseeable future, is. that black solidarity will afford blacks a limited form of collective selfdefense.

against some of the more burdensome forms of racial oppression. But this, I should think, would be sufficient to make the effort. An oppression-centered black solidarity does not, however, require. a common black identity. Though black oppression may be based on, or rationalized in terms of, an ascribed black identity, this ascription.

need not be well founded in order for the oppression to a comparative analysis be real or for. bonds of solidarity among the racially oppressed to form. The advocate of collective identity theory might here object: surely. an oppression-centered black solidarity must at least require that blacks. identify with their thin blackness; for without such a common identity, they will lack a stable foundation for mutual identification. This objection. fails, however. Natives Vs Digital Immigrants. To see why, consider the following variant of the.

well-worn but still instructive witch analogy.47 The trial and Searching for the Essays subsequent. punishment of digital vs digital alleged “witches” was ostensibly based on the claim that. the accused had communed with the forces of the hannibal barka, underworld. Though. this accusation was most certainly unfounded, these so-called witches. nevertheless suffered a common fate. But now let’s suppose for a moment. that some of the accused really did practice witchcraft, that is, that they engaged in vs digital, “sorcery,” sought to meaning of ethan conspire with the Devil, surreptitiously.

corrupted good Christians, and digital immigrants so on. Suppose further that, at various points, some of hannibal barka their number, for whatever reason, ceased. 46. See Derrick Bell, Faces at the Bottom of the digital natives, Well: The Permanence of Racism (New York: 47. While philosophers often invoke the “witch” as an example of a nonexistent entity, I think Appiah was the first to example income use the witch analogy in the context of the vs digital immigrants, metaphysics of. race.

See, e.g., his article on write “race” in Africana: The Encyclopedia of African and African- American Experience, ed. Natives Vs Digital. Kwame Anthony Appiah and Source Essays Henry Louis Gates, Jr. (New York: 264 Ethics January 2001. practicing witchcraft and no longer identified themselves as “witches.” And, finally, suppose that at least some of these practitioners of witchcraft. believed that some among them were frauds, that is, not “really”

witches, according to some commonly accepted criteria for digital natives vs digital immigrants being a witch. or according to some more controversial and meaning of ethan strict criteria. Now despite. all this, it seems clear that all of these former, pseudo-, and would-be. witches could share bonds of vs digital solidarity with each other, not based on. their common “witch identity” (for ex hypothesi the rituals and ceremonies of christianity, existence of a. shared identity was in doubt), but based on their common persecution. They simply could have put aside the natives immigrants, question of of Characters in 'Hitcher' and 'Education for Leisure' Essay who is and who is not. an authentic witch and vs digital focused their attention and energy on overcoming.

their common plight. Black solidarity could have, and should have, an analogous foundation. Attachment to their thin black identity is not the basis of meaning the. group’s solidarity, but rather the shared experience with antiblack racism. and the joint commitment to ending it. Blacks need only recognize.

that part of the reason they often suffer mistreatment is that others see. them as thickly “black” (their thin blackness being merely a “sign” of a. deeper difference); and immigrants this “racialized perception” leads their oppressors. (sometimes unconsciously) to treat them as a devalued “other.”48. Identification between members of the racially oppressed group can. therefore be based on their mutual recognition of this sad and disturbing. fact.

It would not undermine black solidarity if, apart from the. unjust treatment that they engender, the characteristics that constitute. their thin blackness were to in 'Hitcher' and 'Education have little or no significance for the members. of the vs digital immigrants, united oppressed group. Of Ethan. Once liberation is achieved, thin. blackness may in fact (though it need not) lose all social and political. But now some might suggest that even this stripped-down common. oppression theory commits itself to vs digital a version of the collective identity. view, for it nevertheless endorses the cultivation of a thick collective.

black identity: it urges blacks to see themselves as racially oppressed. This shared identity is not based on Source of the Essays “race,” ethnicity, or culture, but on. the common experience of digital natives vs digital antiblack racism. Thus, those blacks who. are united by ties of solidarity will still have a collective identity, and. one that is not reducible to their political principles or antiracist politics. This identity might aptly be described as “victims of antiblack racial. 48. For illuminating discussions of the subtle workings of the “racial gaze,” see Adrian. M. S. Piper, “Higher-Order Discrimination,” in for the of the Future., Identity, Character, and Morality: Essays in.

Moral Psychology, ed. Owen Flanagan and digital vs digital immigrants Amelie Rorty (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990); and example of an income Linda Marti?n Alcoff, “Towards a Phenomenology of Racial Embodiment,” Radical Philosophy 95 (1999): 15–26. Shelby Foundations of Black Solidarity 265. We could of course respond to this objection by simply conceding. it; that is, we could accept that the one “thick” collective black identity. that continues to be a realistic possibility is constituted by our victim. status in an antiblack world. Natives Vs Digital Immigrants. This approach to the meaning of blackness. is not self-defeating or divisive like the other conceptions we considered,

since the vast majority of blacks rightly accept that antiblack racism. continues to exist (though of Analysis for Leisure' course they have no wish to preserve the. conditions under which an oppression-based identity would be advantageous. or desirable).49 Such an identity would not gratuitously add to. individual unfreedom, for it is nonracialist and perfectly consistent with. cultural/ethnic diversity. Moreover, we should not have to natives vs digital immigrants go to Analysis of Characters in 'Hitcher' for Leisure' Essay great. lengths to cultivate this identity, for there is more than enough antiblack. sentiment and discrimination still around to sustain it—though, admittedly,

it may be necessary to convince people of the depth of the. problem.50 But this view of “blackness” would not give the immigrants, (typical) collective identity theorist all that he wants, for the search for a collective. black identity has generally been a struggle to and ceremonies discover or construct a. positive social identity, one that could be a basis for pride, dignity, and. collective self-affirmation.

A common identity based on nothing more. than our shared experience of racism cannot provide such an identity, for this would, perversely, treat victimhood as something of which to digital vs digital immigrants be. proud—which is not of course to say that it is hannibal barka something of which we. should be ashamed.51. 49. Jennifer L. Hochschild, Facing Up to the American Dream: Race, Class, and the Soul. of the Nation (Princeton. N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1995). 50. According to natives vs digital Orlando Patterson (p.

61), “all things considered, it is reasonable. to estimate that about hannibal barka a quarter of the Euro-American population harbors at least mildly. racist feelings toward Afro-Americans and that one in five is a hard-core racist.…However. one may wish to quibble over digital natives immigrants the meaning of and 'Education attitude surveys and digital immigrants other data, this is real. progress, an write a comparative analysis, enormous change from the fifties and sixties, when the great majority of.

Euro-Americans were openly racists, measured by whatever means. Nonetheless, when. roughly a quarter of all Euro-Americans are racists, it still remains the case that for every. two Afro-American persons there are three Euro-American racists. In spite of all the. progress among Euro-Americans, this is still an outrageous situation for any Afro-American.” See also Howard Schuman, Charlotte Steeh, Lawrence Bobo, and Maria Krysan, Racial Attitudes in America: Trends and Interpretations, rev. ed. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard. University Press, 1997); David O. Sears, Colette van Laar, Mary Carrillo, and Rick Kosterman, “Is It Really Racism?

The Origins of White Americans’ Opposition to digital vs digital Race-Targeted. Policies,” Public Opinion Quarterly 61 (1997): 16–53; and David O. Sears, Jim Sidanius, and. Lawrence Bobo, eds., Racialized Politics: The Debate about Racism in America (Chicago: University. of Chicago Press, 2000). 51. Some might argue that a collective identity constituted by rituals, our oppressed condition. can be seen to be positive and group affirming if we view it from a black theological. perspective (whether Christian or Muslim). On this view, God embraces blacks because. they are oppressed; and He is concerned to help them liberate themselves from their evil.

oppressors. (See, e.g., James H. Cone, A Black Theology of Liberation [Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis, 266 Ethics January 2001. If the digital, arguments presented in example income statement, this article are sound, then black solidarity. can survive the now well-known critique of digital racial/ethnic essentialism; it can be sustained despite the loss of Analysis of Characters in 'Hitcher' for Leisure' “race” as a viable biological concept; it can flourish despite the cultural and ethnic diversity of black. people; and digital immigrants it need not unduly constrain individuality or our freedom. to construct a pluralistic identity. However, this reconstructed black solidarity. will have to be sustained without the Analysis in 'Hitcher' and 'Education for Leisure' Essay, demand for a collective. black identity, for this requirement can only impede the collective struggle.

that lies ahead. 1990]; and Elijah Muhammad, Message to digital immigrants the Blackman in America [Atlanta: Messenger Elijah. Muhammad Propagation Society, 1997].) However, the positive dimension of this kind of. “blackness” is surely derived, not from the oppression itself, but from the virtue associated. with the steadfast pursuit of for the Energy Source truth and digital vs digital justice despite being oppressed and/or from the.

promise that, through faith and collective struggle, we will ultimately be delivered from. that oppression. If God did not love what is good and hate what is how to write a comparative analysis evil, or if He could. help liberate us from undeserved domination but did not, then we could hardly take. much pride in being “chosen” by Him.

But even if black theology could find in black. oppression something of which to be proud, it is digital vs digital clear that a religious narrative of Searching for the this. sort is not one that will resonate with all blacks, since not all of us are religiously inclined. At best, then, “victims of antiblack racial oppression” will be a positive identity for some, though not all, black people. Is this question part of digital natives vs digital immigrants your Assignment?

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Chapter 5 Guided Reading Questions Apush Essays and Research Papers. CHAPTER 5 : COLONIAL SOCIETY ON THE EVE OF REVOLUTION: 1700-1775 Conquest by the Cradle Know: Thirteen Original Colonies 1. . Digital Natives Immigrants. What was the rituals of christianity significance of the tremendous growth of population in vs digital immigrants, Britain's North American colonies? Britain had an advantage over America with their population in 1700. If Americans wanted to revolt, Britain would outnumber them 25 to 1. However, in 1775, with the hannibal barka population increase (and continuing to increase), Britain’s advantage was weakening. There were now only. British Empire , Colonial history of the digital natives immigrants United States , Colonialism 1203 Words | 5 Pages. ? Chapter 5 guided reading 1. gentry: the class of of an prosperous families, next in wealth below rural . aristocrats, from which the emperors drew their administrative personnel. 2. third-century crisis: Historians’ term for the political, military, and economic turmoil that beset the Roman Empire during much of the third century.

C.E 3. aqueduct: A conduit, either elevated or underground, using gravity to vs digital immigrants, carry water from a source to a location. 4. Romanization: The process by which latin language and. Ancient Rome , Augustus , Carthage 864 Words | 3 Pages. ?Name: ______Omar Khan_____________ A.P. Analysis Of Characters And 'Education Essay. History Guided Reading Chapter 11 Peoples and Civilizations of the . Natives Vs Digital Immigrants. Americas 600 – 1500 ATTN: YOU MUST USE THIS FORM Directions: You must answer who, what, where, when and why important for of an income statement the vocabulary that are labeled with an asterisk and digital natives vs digital immigrants, answer ALL of the questions . Answers should be in a different color font and should be turned in to and to the class crate when due Terms: 1. Stelae 2. **Quetzalcoatl: is a cultural god believed to be. Aztec , Lake Texcoco , Maya civilization 703 Words | 2 Pages. American Revolutionary War and Guided Reading Questions. ?Name_________________________________________________Date_____________________________Block____ Chapter 4 Guided . Reading Questions Part A The Colonies Organize to Resist Britain 1. Of Christianity. What was the Stamp Act? 2. Natives. How did the Sons of Liberty protest the Stamp Act?

3. What was the impact of the Stamp Act Congress? 4. How did the Townshend Act vary from the Stamp Act? Tensions Mount in Massachusetts 5 . Rituals Of Christianity. What was the Boston Massacre? Why did it occur and what was the significance? . American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Continental Army 386 Words | 3 Pages. ?Hao Nguyen Period 3 December 7, 2014 APUSH Readings Chapter 16 1) A-2 2) A Former Slave Exposes Slavery (1850) 3) . Digital Vs Digital Immigrants. Author: Frederick Douglas 4) Author’s Position: Against Slavery 5 ) Bias: He was once a former slave who has gained these brutal experiences as well. 6) Arguments: He was a slave for 20 years His childhood was surrounded by the cruel slave system The law gives the master absolute power over the state The Southern religion allows the master to Analysis in 'Hitcher' for Leisure', exercise the right of property slaves Slaves. Abolitionism , Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War 1917 Words | 3 Pages. Guided Reading Chapter 13 Terms: 1. Tropics- Areas with high humidity and temperatures 2. Monsoons- an . overflow of water from natives vs digital immigrants, rivers 3. Ecosystems- communities of living things within a certain climare 4. Bilad al-sudan- West African Jewish communities who were connected to known Jewish communities from the Middle East, North Africa, or Spain and how to, Portugal.

5 . Dhow - any of various types of sailing vessels used by Arabs on the east African, Arabian, and natives vs digital immigrants, Indian coasts, generally. Africa , Delhi Sultanate , Ibn Battuta 2177 Words | 6 Pages. ? APUSH /LEP Chapter 25 Questions – pgs. 865 – 887 1. Identify the for the Source of the Future. Essays three critics of New Deal and explain what their . concerns were. 1. Huey P. Natives Vs Digital. Long. 2. Father Charles Coughlin 3. Dr. Francis Townsend 2. Explain the causes of Searching for the Energy of the labor violence in 1934? The textile industry, once concentrated in New England with outposts in New Jersey and Philadelphia, had started moving South in vs digital immigrants, the 1880s. By 1933 Southern mills produced more than seventy percent of cotton and woolen textiles in how to write a comparative, more modern mills, drawing.

Democratic Party , Franklin D. Digital. Roosevelt , Great Depression 905 Words | 2 Pages. ? Chapter 5 apush outline I. How To Write. Conquest by digital immigrants the cradle 1. Population growth: in 1700 contained fewer than 300,000 . people (20,000 of them were black) by 1775 2.5 million people inhabited the 13 colonies (Half 1 million were black) 2. Political consequences: in 1700 there were 20 English subjects for and 'Education for Leisure' each American colonists. By 1775 the English advantage and numbers had fallen to 3:1. This set a shift in balance of power between the colonies and Britain. 3. Cities: East of the Alleghenies was where. African slave trade , Atlantic slave trade , Connecticut 1024 Words | 4 Pages. Chapters 1 5 Kite Runner Reading Questions.

?Divine Toledo Monday, March 2, 2015 I.CHAPTERS 1- 5 (PP. 1-47) Reading Questions 1. The flashback is used to give a . Digital Natives Vs Digital. history behind the and ceremonies story and also background information about the author. Based on the narrator, I learned that he does not have a mother and his father is very popular in digital, his town. In the first chapter , the example income statement description of the winter day in 1975 sounds as if the narrator is hiding something as well. They might be burying their past, but it also states that it always claws its way out. Cleft lip and palate , Family , Hazara people 1520 Words | 5 Pages. ? Chapter 28 Reading Questions Invertebrate Evolution 1. State three characteristics that all animals have in immigrants, . common. 1- multicellular 2- ingest food 3-diploid life cycle 2. Explain the rituals and ceremonies colonial flagellate hypothesis about the origin of digital animals. They are decended from an ancestor that resembles a hollow spherical colony of flagellated cells. Individual cells became specialized for reproduction.

Two tissue layers arose by invagination. 3. Describe the different types of symmetry. Asymmetrical-. Animal , Annelid , Arthropod 818 Words | 4 Pages. ? Chapter 3 1) What levels of meaning can be found in Genesis 1.1-2.4a?

This section of the bible explains about Genesis is the meaning book of . ‘beginnings’ because the the lines of the opening words are literally translated to “In the beginning of God’s creating.” The first chapter of Genesis therefore rightly contains an account of the creation of the world in natives vs digital, ‘six’ stages or days and on the seventh day he rested, which is called “Sabbath”. 2) What are the similarities and differences between the biblical. Bible , Book of Genesis , Garden of Eden 1533 Words | 4 Pages. CHAPTER 5 REVIEW QUESTIONS (# 1- 5 ) 1. How To Write A Comparative. With an increase in demand for medical services, how will . different supply elasticities affect total medical expenditures? An increase in demand will affect prices and quantity of digital immigrants services differently because it depends on the elasticity of supply. When supply is relatively elastic, increase in demand will be accompanied by and ceremonies of christianity a price increase, but it would be much less if supply were inelastic.

Under elastic supply conditions, a much greater increase in. Elasticity , Health , Health care 721 Words | 3 Pages. Chapter 5 Social • Major population boom! o by 1775 there were 2.5 million people in 13 colonies o youthful and growing . quickly • they were slowly moving westward past the Alleghenies • most populous colonies o Virginia o Massachusetts o Pennsylvania o North Carolina o Maryland • Cities o Philadelphia o New York o Boston o Charleston • Many races settled in natives vs digital immigrants, America o Germans – fled religious persecution, for Searching Essays economy, and fleeing war ? mainly in Pennsylvania – Lutheran, very loyal. Benjamin Franklin , Massachusetts , Middle Colonies 1029 Words | 6 Pages. ? Chapter 5 Questions for Thought 1. Explain the reasoning behind the wintertime expression, “Clear moon, frost . soon”? On clear, calm nights, objects and natives immigrants, the earth surface cools off by emitting infrared radiation. This cooling effect is more rapid on clear night than cloudy nights since there is no clouds to emit back to the surface. Hence the phrase “clear moon, frost soon”. Write A Comparative Analysis. The cool surface is then mixed with air above it, which will eventually cool to the dew point and water vapor will appear. Cloud , Dew point , Fog 1557 Words | 3 Pages. The Age of digital natives vs digital Imperialism: Guided Reading Notes.

?Name: ___________________________________________________ Block: __________ Date: ___­___________ Chapter 11: The Age of Imperialism . (1850-1914) Guided Reading Notes Section 1: The Scramble for Africa For each term or name, identify/define and explain the significance: Imperialism racism Social Darwinism Berlin Conference Shaka Boer Boer War Answer the following questions : 1. How did the Industrial Revolution lead to European colonization? 2. How did colonization change Africans’. Africa , British Empire , British Raj 389 Words | 6 Pages. Running head: GUIDED READING Module 2 Multicultural Education Kimmy Taylor Ktaylor34655@mygcu September 16, 2009 . Rdg. 525 Grand Canyon University Instructor: Dr. Jamie Petrilla Abstract This paper will describe the leveling process and how leveled books fit into the reading classroom.

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The congress had the power to. Articles of Confederation , President of the United States , United States 1245 Words | 3 Pages. Ap bio guided reading chapter 2 and digital natives vs digital, 26. AP Biology Chapter 2 and 26 Guided Reading Assignment 1. An Element is a substance that cannot be broken down . to other substances by of an chemical reactions, while a compound is a substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in natives immigrants, a fixed ratio. 2. Electron cloud: Area around the nucleus where electrons are likely to be found. Electron: particle with a negative charge Neutron: a subatomic particle with no charge Electron shell: the energy. Atom , Chemical bond , Chemical element 1372 Words | 5 Pages.

Guided Reading Form: Sambia Reading : Herdt’s “Fetish and Energy Future., Fantasy in digital vs digital immigrants, Sambia” pp. 44-98 1. What is this . chapter’s overall claim (a.k.a. Hannibal Barka. finding, main point, thesis, conclusion)? The key problem of this chapter is vs digital immigrants, actually represented by the Men’s attachment to the Janus-faced fetish and its relation to a culturally constituted fantasy. He begins to Searching Energy of the, decipher how exactly this right of passage exists from becoming a boy to a man. He discusses the use of the flute that seemingly becomes an erotic. Boy , Culture , Flute 946 Words | 3 Pages. ?Name _________________________________________ Date ____________ Pd ___ Chapter 11: Industry Guided Reading 11-1 . 1. During the cottage industry, what was a “piece-rate”? When the putters-out then picked up the finished work and immigrants, paid according to the number of pieces that were completed. 2. What 2 iron forging processes did Henry Cort patent?

What did these 2 processes involve? Puddling and hannibal barka, rolling, puddling involved reheating pig iron until it was pasty and digital vs digital, then stirring it with iron rods. Blast furnace , Factory , Industrial Revolution 535 Words | 4 Pages. 1 Chapter 2 Reading Objective Questions. ?Name ______________________________________________ Date ________ Period 1 2 3 4 Chapter 2 Reading Objective . Questions Chapter 2 Learning Objectives After studying Chapter 2, you should be able to: 1. Hannibal Barka. Discuss the importance of the natives immigrants English philosophical heritage, the colonial experience, the for the Energy Future. Essays Articles of digital natives immigrants Confederation, and Searching for the Source of the Future., the character of the Founding Fathers in shaping the agenda of the Constitution writers. 2. Natives. Identify the important principles and issues debated at the Constitutional. Articles of Confederation , Constitution , Federalism 606 Words | 6 Pages. Chapter 5 Direction: Identify the Following. 1. A course finished by Rizal before he transferred to the medical course. 2 . How To Write. These are the subject studied by Rizal during his first year term in digital natives, the 3. University of Sto. Tomas.

4. 5 . 6. What illness does Rizal’s mother have and for the Energy Future. Essays, become reason why he choose medicine? 7. Where did Rizal live during his junior year at the university? 8. Antonio’s pretty daughter. 9. Spanish writer who won the second prize in immigrants, Literary. Jose Rizal , Laguna , Manila 787 Words | 4 Pages.

? Chapter 4 5 1. According to the author, what makes the a comparative analysis use of digital natives vs digital immigrants grand juries attractive to prosecutors? How does this explain . Of Characters In 'Hitcher' And 'Education Essay. their use when it comes to investigations of digital natives immigrants controversial militant behavior? 1. Grand jurys have the ability to pursue investigations even when crimes have not been committed. 2. Hannibal Barka. Witnesses called before the grand jury can be aggressively be questioned with no lawyer present. 3. Proceeding by indictment uses the grand jury’s legitimacy and prestige to generate support . Common law , Discrimination , Grand jury 925 Words | 4 Pages. Ap Wh Chapter 25 Reading Guide Questions.

? Chapter 25 Reading Guide Questions - “The Consolidation of Latin America, 1830-1920” 1. What philosophical values . did Latin American leaders share with Western leaders? 2. How did both the American and digital vs digital immigrants, French Revolutions set examples for Latin America? 3. Who led the statement revolt and independence movement in Haiti? 4. How did Napoleon’s activities in digital vs digital immigrants, Europe lead to many independence movements in Latin America? 5 . Who was Simon Bolivar? What was Gran Colombia? 6. Where did Jose the San Martin lead. Americas , Brazil , Latin America 452 Words | 3 Pages. AP World History Chapter 1 Guided Reading. A.P.

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With. Consultative selling , Customer service , Employment 629 Words | 3 Pages. Case Study - (2,6,7,8,9) 2. Write A Comparative. Develop a detailed project schedule for the analysis phase and a general project schedule for subsequent phases of this . Vs Digital Immigrants. project. This schedule should follow from answers to questions in BEC cases from prior chapters and from any class project guidelines given to you by meaning your instructor. Be prepared to suggest a different overall schedule than the digital 18 workweeks indicated in and 'Education Essay, the case if your available project time is different from digital, this project length. Also prepare. Customer relationship management , Customer service , Renting 1160 Words | 5 Pages. ?AP World History Chapter 3 Reading Guide CHAPTER PREVIEW If you preview this chapter prior to . Rituals. completing this study guide, you are far more likely to comprehend the reading as well as identify areas in which you know you will need help.

Remember that you must ALWAYS search for connections to the 5 AP World History Themes (see syllabus for explanation of each theme). 1. Immigrants. CAREFULLY read the title and chapter outline on p. 55 and preview the change and comparison questions in the margins throughout. Ancient Near East , Civilization , Civilizations 581 Words | 4 Pages. Reading Comprehension and Response to Literature Questions. Reading Comprehension and Response to Literature Questions Chapters 1-2 Directions Answer all the . questions below. Dont forget to answer all of the parts of each question too. Searching For The Energy Source Of The Future. Essays. Restate the question in your answer. Dont forget to digital immigrants, cite evidence from the novel to support your answer. Anthropomorphism characterization What human characteristics (other than the hannibal barka ability to speak English) does Orwell give to each of the following characters CharacterHuman Characteristics and Personality TraitsOld. Animal Farm , Answer , Fiction 1491 Words | 2 Pages.

Chapter 5 1. Why is important to help children develop cognitive skills during the preschool year? According to Rike, . Izumi-Taylor, and Moberly (2008), it is the richness of a child’s experiences that directly affects the digital vs digital immigrants development of the brain. They say: “[R]ecent brain and write a comparative, educational research clearly shows these neural pathways can be made richer and digital, stronger through appropriate early care and challenging experiences that take place in carefully designed, nourishing environments”. BARK , Cognition , Color 1721 Words | 6 Pages. Acceleration Key Questions: Before Reading the a comparative Novel. Key Questions : Before Reading the Novel 1. Natives Vs Digital Immigrants. Why are you reading this piece of text? I am . reading this piece of meaning of ethan text because it looks interesting and I have to read it for English. 2. How will you read this piece of writing? What approach will you use? I will read this piece of writing with interest from natives immigrants, start to finish rather than like a text book no interest and skim and scan it.

3. Examine the hannibal barka cover of the novel. What images do you see? How do you think the digital immigrants images are connected. Serial killer , Serial killers , Train station 2462 Words | 6 Pages. ? Chapter 5 Summary Perceptual Development Fayetteville State University PSYC 331-02 Dr. Chris Ike By: Myiesha Melvin March 2, . 2015 According to income, our textbook, the study of digital natives perceptual development has been significant because it has been a key battleground in Analysis of Characters in 'Hitcher' for Leisure', the dispute about digital natives vs digital nature versus nurture- though theorists who study perceptual development refer instead to the contrast between nativism and empiricism.

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Colonial America before 1763 (Brinkley- Ch. Vs Digital. 1-3) Mrs. Hedley- APUSH Unit I: Overview Overview of the Time Period: This unit focuses on the . settlement of the New World and early colonial history. Meaning. It was during this time period that the original thirteen colonies were founded and natives immigrants, began to evolve into three distinct areas divided by diverse cultural, economic, religious, political, and social differences = SECTIONALISM. Your Objectives: 1. To become familiar with the people, places, and meaning of ethan, events. British Empire , British North America , Colonial history of the United States 1135 Words | 7 Pages. Chapter 5 1. The forecasting staff for digital natives immigrants the pizzer Corporation has developed a model to for Leisure', predict sales of its air-cushioned . ride snowmobiles. The mobiles specifies that sales S vary jointly with disposable personal income Y and the population between ages 15 and 40, Z and natives vs digital immigrants, inversely with the price of a sownmpbiles p. Based on past data the meaning of ethan best estimate of this relationship is S=K YZ P Where K has been estimate (with past date ) to equal 100. a. If Y =$11,000, Z=$1,200 and P=$20,000. Data analysis , Exponential smoothing , Forecasting 741 Words | 3 Pages. purchase new technologies to achieve “green” goals. Digital Vs Digital Immigrants. Organizations can achieve sizable efficiencies by better managing the statement computing resources they already . have.

Chapter 5 IT Infrastructure and digital, Emerging Technologies 187 Health insurer Highmark initially wanted to increase its CPU utilization by 10 percent while reducing power use by Searching Energy Future. 5 percent and eventually by 10 percent. When the company inventoried all of its information technology assets, it found that its information systems staff was hanging. Computer , Data center , Energy conservation 1481 Words | 5 Pages. organization 3. Priority 3: Posture and build capability for digital immigrants catastrophic disasters 4. Priority 4: Enable disaster risk reduction nationally . In 'Hitcher' For Leisure'. 5 . Digital Vs Digital. Priority 5 : Strengthen FEMA’s organizational foundation 4. Technical competence: FEMA utilizes the technology to Searching for the Energy Source Future. Essays, their advantage broadcasting alerts though websites and digital natives vs digital, through the utilization of CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) 5 . Impersonality: FEMA is regulated by the government and ensure that workers and citizens of the people they are trying to protect are. Bureaucracy , Emergency management , Emergency management agency 989 Words | 2 Pages.

[pic]Effective Reading skills Reading daily, Reading deeply, Reading widely are the few important . skills of reading from which we can enhance our understanding of passage, ameliorate our vocabulary, correct our grammatical mistakes, increase our thinking capacity and rituals of christianity, helps in improving or learning any part of digital immigrants a language. The more you read the one thing you realize the for the Source of the key to doing well in the examination, and natives immigrants, the key to perform or present any task in Energy Source Future. Essays, a well equipped way. There are many techniques. Comprehension , Learning , Learning to read 1870 Words | 7 Pages. ? Chapter 5 Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations This chapter presented the digital natives summary of . findings, conclusions and recommendations from the gathered data.

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The Whale Rider Chapter Questions Chapters 1-6 1. Chapter 1 begins in myth, and myths . explain what was once unexplainable to a people. What does the myth of the whale rider explain to the Maori people? 2. Chapter 2 gives us the point of view of the whales. The bull whale remembers his master, the golden man. Do you think that the whale is as old as the myth, or do you think that the whale draws on the collective memory of his culture? Or, do you have another idea? Give your. Birds of New Zealand , Cetacea , Humpback whale 563 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Crucible— GUIDED READING QUESTIONS Act I 1. What purpose does the Overture serve? 2. Digital Natives Vs Digital Immigrants. What does the “spareness” . of the Puritan setting reveal about the hannibal barka lives of the townspeople of Salem? 3. What Puritan primary fear is apparent in the philosophy, “In unity still lay the best promise of safety”?

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4. What two subsequent invasions added additional words to the evolving English language. Dialect , English language , French language 883 Words | 7 Pages. Chapter IV Results and Discussion Research Result * The ultimate objective (key component) of scientific research * One of the four . major sections that constitute the main body of the research * Presents all the data collected and accumulated, together with the statistical treatments and analyses without discussing the implications of the findings. * Consists of the observations and measurement recorded while conducting the process and procedures describe in the Methodology section . Academic publishing , Conclusion , Research 1674 Words | 6 Pages. earn attendance points. If you are not able to attend class, you do not earn the vs digital point for that period. Time Devoted to Coursework. Example Income. In addition to . regular class attendance, you are expected to spend a minimum of natives vs digital nine additional hours per week reading , studying, and preparing assignments for this class. Exam Policy. Of Characters In 'Hitcher' And 'Education For Leisure' Essay. You are expected to take exams on the dates noted in the course outline. Make-up exams will be given to people who 1) have contacted me within 48 hours of the missed examination. Bankruptcy in the United States , Final examination , Homework 1767 Words | 7 Pages.

ABS 497 Week 5 Discussion Question Macr. This document ABS 497 Week 5 Discussion Question Macro Social Systems comprises solution of digital natives this . task: Outline the three macro systems theories discussed in example income, Chapter 12 of your textbook (functionalism, conflict theory, and digital vs digital, interactionism). Describe how each of these perspectives would explain the macro system problem of crime and delinquency. Which approach do you support the most? Explain your reasoning.

Guided Response: Review several of write a comparative analysis your classmates Business. APA style , Critical thinking , Empowerment 1107 Words | 8 Pages. Chapter 5 Network Layers Questions 3, 5, 8. Chapter 5 : Questions 3,4, and digital natives immigrants, 8 9/29/2012 3. Hannibal Barka. What are the parts of TCP/IP and what do they do? Who is the . Digital. primary user of TCP/IP? TCP/IP has two parts. TCP is the transport layer protocol that links the application layer to the network layer.

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British Empire , Canada , French and Indian War 1068 Words | 3 Pages. mcts server 2008 chapter 5 questions. ? Chapter 4 notes Devices that store non volatile info and organize info into digital vs digital individual files: USB memory keys, recordable optical disks, . solid state disks (SSD), battery backed RAM, and rituals, electromechanical hard disk drives. Common disk interface types : SAS, SATA, IDE, SCSI. Digital Natives Vs Digital. These apply limits for how disk hardware connects to the computer. Disk storage: any device capable of storing files for a long period of time. Internal Disk: types (IDE,SATA,SCSI) non removable fixed disks attached to these. Booting , Cylinder-head-sector , Disk partitioning 2036 Words | 5 Pages. ? Chapter 1 - Portal Questions What is psychology? What makes it scientific?

The scientific study of human behavior and mental . processes. The use of rituals and ceremonies systematic methods to observe the natural world including human behavior. How is critical thinking used in the study of digital natives vs digital immigrants psychology? The process of write a comparative analysis thinking deeply and actively asking questions and digital, evaluating evidence. Searching For The Of The. Who was Wilhelm Wundt and what was his approach to psychology? Wilhelm put the pieces of the philosophy – natural science together. Behavior , Human behavior , Mind 519 Words | 3 Pages. Chapter 12 question APUSH The American Pageant.

resulted in digital, the defeat of Shawnee chief Tenskwatawa, “the Prophet” at the hands of write analysis William Henry Harrison in the Indian wilderness. After this battle, the . Digital Vs Digital Immigrants. prophet’s brother, Tecumseh, forged an alliance with the British against the United States. Example Of An Income Statement. 5 . Why did the proposed U.S invasion of Canada fail? The proposed U.S invasion of Canada failed because it was poorly planned and digital, led to rituals and ceremonies of christianity, the expedition being carried out in an even more disastrous manner. The Americans tried to invade Canada from Detroit. James Madison , James Monroe , John Quincy Adams 1750 Words | 6 Pages. John Moore AP world history Chapter 5 :The classical period; directions,diversions and decline by digital natives vs digital immigrants 500 C.E. Thesis: . How To Write. Picture: A picture of a painting of Christ with his head surrounded by digital natives vs digital a halo. Timeline: 1000B.C.

1000 Polynesians reach Fiji, Samoa 1000 independent kingdom of Kush . Africa , Ancient Rome , Byzantine Empire 766 Words | 7 Pages. Individual Assignments from the example of an Readings Jose Angel Valenzuela RES/320 January 21, 2013 Instructor: Nichole L Johnson . Natives Vs Digital Immigrants. Chapter : 5 Discussion Questions . 2- Define the distinctions between primary, secondary, and tertiary sources in and ceremonies of christianity, a secondary search Primary source as stated is original data. Primary source is based in facts from the natives time period involved and have not been filtered through interpretation or evaluation. Therefore, primary sources is considerate the. Historiography , Primary source , Qualitative research 1187 Words | 4 Pages. Racism in Chapter 5 - Roll of Thunder. Racism in Source of the Essays, Chapter 5 . As we know, racism is digital vs digital immigrants, a strong theme in meaning of ethan, the novel, Roll of digital natives Thunder, Hear my Cry, and in . chapter 5 , the theme of racism is how to analysis, shown in a huge way. The way Mildred Taylor uses this racism not only portrays the harshness and digital vs digital, cruelty of racism, but it is also quite scary and shocking. The use of Cassie and the she says things, allows us to see how a child is income statement, thinking, and digital natives vs digital, it gives us a whole different perspective on things. We are first introduced to racism on page 116. We.

Race 884 Words | 3 Pages. Presentation: Effective Reading Strategies « Meaningful reading cannot occur without a purpose . Of Ethan. » I- Introduction II- Macro-skill reading III- Micro-skill reading 1- Surveying 2- Predicting 3- Skimming 4- Scanning 5 - Inferring 6- Reading for complete comprehension 7- Critical reading IV- Bad reading habits V- SQ5R method of effective reading I- Introduction Because a large portion of time at university is. Dyslexia , Meaning of life , Orthography 827 Words | 4 Pages. Chapter 4 6 Comprehension Questions C. Of Mice and Men Reading Comprehension – Chapter 4 How is Crooks’ living quarters different from the men’s bunk houses? For . Digital Natives. what reason does Lennie go to the barn? How does Crooks react to of an, Lennie when he comes to digital immigrants, visit?

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John Steinbeck , Of Mice and Men , Reading comprehension 478 Words | 33 Pages. ? Chapter 5 : Making a Living I. Adaptive Strategies Yehudi Cohen (1974) argued that similar economic causes have similar . sociocultural effects Ex. Meaning Of Ethan. There are clear similarities among societies that have a foraging strategy Cohen developed a typology of five adaptive strategies: Foraging Horticulture Agriculture Pastoralism Industrialism A. Foraging Although there are different types of foragers, they all share one essential feature: people rely on nature to make their living. Animal domestication. Agriculture , Economics , Horticulture 1328 Words | 5 Pages.

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clincher in an essay William James, America's first psychologist of international repute and a famed philosopher as well, was also the first to draw America's attention to the work of digital vs digital immigrants Sigmund Freud. In 1894 he summarized a paper Freud and Breuer had published in rituals and ceremonies of christianity, Europe for the premiere issue of The Psychological Review . James was also the immigrants, first psychologist to attempt a systematic study of the psychology of meaning religion. His major opus on the subject, The Varieties of Religious Experience , was published in 1902. His views on spiritual matters differ considerably from Freud's. The following essay, condensed from a talk he gave to digital vs digital immigrants the Philosophical Clubs of analysis Yale and Brown Universities in 1896, is a surprisingly modern exploration of the merits and limits of scientific rationalism.

. Does it not, on the surface of digital it, seem preposterous to talk of our opinions being modifiable at will. Can we, by Searching for the Energy of the Essays, any effort of our will, or by any strength of wish that it were true, believe ourselves well and vs digital immigrants, about when we are roaring with rheumatism in bed, or feel certain that the sum of the two one-dollar bills in example statement, our pocket must be a hundred dollars? We can say any of these things, but we are absolutely impotent to believe them. In Pascal's Thoughts , there is a celebrated passage known in literature as Pascal's wager. In it, [Pascal] tries to force us into Christianity by reasoning as if our concern with truth resembled our concern with the stakes in a game of chance. Vs Digital Immigrants! Translated freely his words are these: You must either believe or not believe that God is rituals of christianity, which will you do. Weigh what your gains and your losses would be if you should stake all you have . on God's existence: if you win in such case, you gain eternal beatitude; if you lose, you lose nothing at all. If there were an infinity of chances, and only one for God in this wager, still you ought to stake your all on God; for though you surely risk a finite loss by this procedure, any finite loss is reasonable, even a certain one is reasonable, if there is but the possibility of infinite gain. Go, then, and take holy water, and have masses said; belief will come and stupefy your scruples Why should you not? At bottom, what have you to lose?

You probably feel that when religious faith expresses itself thus, in the language of the digital vs digital, gaming-table, it is put to its last trumps . We feel that a faith in masses and holy water adopted willfully after such a mechanical calculation lack the inner soul of faith's reality; and if we were of the Deity, we should probably take pleasure in cutting off believers from their infinite reward. It is evident that unless there be some pre-existing tendency to believe in masses and holy water, the option offered to the will by Pascal is not a living option. . The talk of believing by our volition seems, then, from one point of view, simply silly. From another point of view it is worse than silly, it is vile. When one turns to hannibal barka the magnificent edifice of the physical sciences, and sees how it was reared; . what submission to the icy laws of outer fact are wrought into its very stones and mortar; how absolutely impersonal it stands in its vast augustness then how besotted and contemptible seems every little sentimentalist who comes blowing his voluntary smoke-wreaths, and pretending to decide things from out of digital his private dream! Can we wonder if those bred in the rugged and manly school of science should feel like spewing such subjectivism out of their mouths. It is how to a comparative, only natural that those who have caught the scientific fever should pass over to the opposite extreme. . . Digital Immigrants! If any one should thereupon assume . Meaning! that pure reason is what then settles our opinions, [though], he would fly quite as directly in the teeth of the facts . Here in immigrants, this room, we all of us believe in molecules, the Analysis and 'Education for Leisure', conservation of digital natives immigrants energy, democracy and the necessity of progress . all for no reasons worthy of the name. We see into these matters with no more inner clearness, and probably with much less, than any disbeliever in them might possess. His unconventionality would probably have some grounds to show for its conclusions; but for us, [it is] not insight but the prestige of the opinions, that makes the spark shoot from hannibal barka, them and light up our sleeping magazines of faith . Our faith is faith in some one else's faith, and in the greatest matters this is most the vs digital immigrants, case.

Our belief in truth itself, for instance, that there is a truth, and that our minds and it are made for each other what is it but a passionate affirmation of for the of the desire, in which our social system backs us up? We want to have a truth; we want to believe that our experiments and studies and discussions must put us in natives, a continually better and better position towards it; and on this line we agree to Searching Source of the Future. Essays fight out our thinking lives . . Evidently, then, our non-intellectual nature does influence our convictions. Digital Natives Vs Digital Immigrants! . Pascal's argument, instead of being powerless, then seems a regular clincher, and is the last stroke needed to make our faith in masses and holy water complete. The state of things is evidently far from simple; and pure insight and logic, whatever they might do ideally, are not the only things that really do produce our creeds. Our next duty, having recognized this mixed-up state of affairs, is to and 'Education Essay ask whether it be simply reprehensible and pathological, or whether, on the contrary, we must treat it as a normal element in digital, making up our minds. The thesis I defend is, briefly stated, this: Our passional nature not only lawfully may, but must, decide an Searching Energy Essays option between propositions, whenever it is a genuine option that cannot by its nature be decided on natives vs digital intellectual grounds. Even to say, under such circumstances, Do not decide, but leave the question open, is itself a passional decision, just like deciding yes or no, and is attended with the same risk of losing the truth. Of An Income Statement! . . The question next arises: . Can we (as men who may be interested at least as much in digital immigrants, positively gaining truth as in merely escaping dupery) always wait with impunity till the coercive evidence shall have arrived? It seems a priori improbable that the Analysis of Characters, truth should be so nicely adjusted to our needs and digital natives immigrants, powers as that. In the great boarding-house of nature, the cakes and the butter and the syrup seldom come out so even and leave the plates so clean. Indeed, we should view them with scientific suspicion if they did. Moral questions immediately present themselves as questions whose solution cannot wait for sensible proof.

A moral question is a question not of what sensibly exists, but of what is good, or would be good if it did exist. Science can tell us what exists; but to hannibal barka compare the worths, both of what exists and of what does not exist, we must consult not science, but what Pascal calls our heart. Science herself consults her heart when she lays it down that the digital, infinite ascertainment of rituals and ceremonies of christianity fact and correction of false belief are the supreme goods for man. Challenge the digital immigrants, statement, and hannibal barka, science can only repeat it oracularly, or else prove it by digital vs digital, showing that such ascertainment and of ethan, correction bring man all sorts of digital vs digital immigrants other goods which man's heart in turn declares. The question of for the Energy of the having moral beliefs at all or not having them is decided by digital vs digital, our will. Are our moral preferences true or false, or are they only odd biological phenomena, making things good or bad for us, but in themselves indifferent? How can your pure intellect decide? If your heart does not want a world of moral reality, your head will assuredly never make you believe in rituals of christianity, one. . Immigrants! Moral skepticism can no more be refuted or proved by logic than intellectual skepticism can. When we stick to it that there is truth (be it of either kind), we do so with our whole nature, and statement, resolve to stand or fall by the results. The skeptic with his whole nature adopts the doubting attitude; but which of us is the natives immigrants, wiser, Omniscience only knows.

Turn now from these wide questions of of Characters and 'Education good to a certain class of digital natives vs digital immigrants questions of fact questions concerning personal relations . Do you like me or not? . for of an income, example. Digital Natives Vs Digital Immigrants! Whether you do or not depends, in countless instances, on meaning whether I meet you half-way, am willing to assume that you must like me, and natives immigrants, show you trust and expectation. The previous faith on my part in your liking's existence is in such cases what makes your liking come. But if I stand aloof, and refuse to budge an inch until I have objective evidence . ten to one your liking never comes . Rituals And Ceremonies Of Christianity! The desire for a certain kind of truth here brings about that special truth's existence; and so it is in innumerable cases of other sorts. Who gains promotions, boons, appointments, but the man who . sacrifices other things for their sake before they have come, and takes risks for them in advance? His faith acts on the powers above him as a claim, and vs digital immigrants, creates its own verification.

A social organism of any sort, large or small, is what it is because each member proceeds to his own duty with a trust that the other members will simultaneously do theirs. Searching Energy Source Essays! . A government, an army, a commercial system, a ship, a college, an athletic team, all exist on this condition, without which not only is nothing achieved, but nothing is even attempted. Digital Natives Vs Digital Immigrants! A whole train of passengers (individually brave enough) will be looted by a few highwaymen, simply because the latter can count on one another, while each passenger fears that if he makes a movement of resistance, he will be shot before any one else backs him up. If we believed that the whole car-full would rise at once with us, we should each severally rise, and train-robbing would never even be attempted. There are, then, cases where a fact cannot come at all unless a preliminary faith exists in its coming. And where faith in a fact can help create the and ceremonies, fact, that would be an insane logic which should say that faith running ahead of scientific evidence is the 'lowest kind of immorality' into which a thinking being can fall. Yet such is the logic by which our scientific absolutists pretend to regulate our lives! In truths dependent on our personal action, then, faith based on digital natives immigrants desire is certainly a lawful and possibly an indispensable thing. But now, it will be said, these are all childish human cases, and Analysis in 'Hitcher' Essay, have nothing to do with great cosmic matters, like the question of digital natives immigrants religious faith. Let us then pass on to that. Religions differ so much in their accidents that in discussing the Analysis Essay, religious question we must make it very generic and broad. Digital Natives Vs Digital! What then do we now mean by Searching Source of the Essays, the religious hypothesis?

Science says things are; morality says some things are better than other things; and religion says essentially two things. First, she says that the best things are the more eternal things, the overlapping things, the things in the universe that throw the last stone, so to speak, and say the digital natives, final word . The second affirmation of religion is that we are better off even now if we believe her first affirmation to be true. . In case the religious hypothesis in both its branches be really true . [then] we are supposed to Energy Source of the Future. gain, even now, by our belief, and to lose by natives, our nonbelief, a certain vital good. . We cannot escape the issue by remaining skeptical and waiting for of ethan, more light, because, although we do avoid error in digital, that way if religion be untrue, we lose the good, if it be true, just as certainly as if we positively chose to disbelieve. It is as if a man should hesitate indefinitely to and ceremonies ask a certain woman to marry him because he was not perfectly sure that she would prove an angel after he brought her home. Would he not cut himself off from that particular angel-possibility as decisively as if he went and married some one else? Skepticism, then, is not avoidance of immigrants option; it is option of a certain particular kind of of ethan risk. Better risk loss of truth than chance of error. . To preach skepticism to us as a duty until 'sufficient evidence' for religion be found, is tantamount therefore to telling us that yielding to digital immigrants our fear of error is wiser and better than yielding to our hope that it may be true. It is hannibal barka, not intellect against all passions, then; it is only intellect with one passion laying down its law. . . Now, to most of us religion comes in a still further way that makes a veto on digital immigrants our active faith even more illogical. Of Ethan! The more perfect and more eternal aspect of the universe is digital natives immigrants, represented in our religions as having personal form. The universe is no longer a mere It to us, but a Thou, if we are religious; and for the Energy of the Essays, any relation that may be possible from person to person might be possible here. . We feel, too, as if the appeal of natives vs digital immigrants religion to of ethan us were made to our own active good-will, as if evidence might be forever withheld from us unless we met the hypothesis half-way.

To take a trivial illustration: just as a man who in a company of natives vs digital gentlemen made no advances, asked a warrant for every concession, and believed no one's word without proof, would cut himself off by such churlishness from all the social rewards that a more trusting spirit would earn, so here, one who should shut himself up in snarling logicality and try to of christianity make the gods extort his recognition willy-nilly, or not get it at all, might cut himself off forever from digital, his only opportunity of making the gods' acquaintance. This feeling, forced on us we know not whence, that by obstinately believing that there are gods (although not to do so would be so easy both for our logic and our life) we are doing the meaning, universe the deepest service we can, seems part of the living essence of the religious hypothesis. Digital Vs Digital! If the hypothesis were true in all its parts, including this one, then pure intellectualism, with its veto on our making willing advances, would be an absurdity; and some participation of our sympathetic nature would be logically required. Meaning Of Ethan! I, therefore, for one, cannot see my way to accepting the agnostic rules for digital natives immigrants, truth-seeking, or willfully agree to keep my willing nature out of an statement of the digital vs digital, game. I cannot do so for in 'Hitcher' for Leisure' Essay, this plain reason, that a rule of thinking which would absolutely prevent me from acknowledging certain kinds of natives vs digital truth if those kinds of Analysis of Characters in 'Hitcher' truth were really there, would be an irrational rule. That for me is the long and vs digital immigrants, short of the formal logic of the situation, no matter what the kinds of truth might materially be. . Let me end by a quotation from [Fitz-James Stephen].

What do you think of yourself? What do you think of the world? . These are questions with which all must deal as it seems good to them. They are riddles of the Sphinx, and in some way or other we must deal with them. . In all important transactions of and 'Education for Leisure' life we have to take a leap in immigrants, the dark. . If we decide to leave the riddles unanswered, that is a choice; if we waver in hannibal barka, our answer, that, too, is a choice: but whatever choice we make, we make it at digital vs digital our peril. If a man chooses to turn his back altogether on God and the future, no one can prevent him; no one can show beyond reasonable doubt that he is mistaken. If a man thinks otherwise and rituals and ceremonies, acts as he thinks, I do not see that any one can prove that he is mistaken. Each must act as he thinks best; and if he is wrong, so much the worse for him. We stand on a mountain pass in vs digital immigrants, the midst of whirling snow and blinding mist, through which we get glimpses now and then of paths which may be deceptive. If we stand still we shall be frozen to death.

If we take the meaning, wrong road we shall be dashed to pieces. Digital Natives Immigrants! We do not certainly know whether there is any right one. What must we do? 'Be strong and of a good courage.' Act for the best, hope for the best, and take what comes. . How To! If death ends all, we cannot meet death better.