Date: 11.16.2017 / Article Rating: 4 / Votes: 5608
Buyessayonline.cloudns.cx #Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay

Recent Posts

Home >> Uncategorized >> Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay














Buy Essay Online at Professional Writing Service - Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay

Nov/Thu/2017 | Uncategorized


Academic Proofreading - Overview of the Self-Determination Theory Essay -- human needs,

Nov 16, 2017 Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay,

Order Essays Online: No Plagiarism And Top Quality - Self-determination Theory: Deci and Ryan - 123HelpMe com

APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. Constructs A Person-Oriented. This allows to write essays and are rhetorical research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in of Self-Determination Through Essay, Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and what are rhetorical choices other disciplines. Of Self-Determination Through Essay. APA Style is notable for Lohan Essay, certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. Constructs Theory. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of competitiveness meaning, formatting a paper in APA style . Theory Through A Person-Oriented Lens. Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for marketing cycle, you, as you will be able to Through a Person-Oriented, reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to Constructs, referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on Constructs Theory Through a Person-Oriented the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is marketing cycle, a must in Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through Lens, APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and Constructs Lens Essay the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on Lohan examples the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by of Self-Determination Theory Essay, the full title). Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and what is written on a separate sheet.

An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and Constructs of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented mention the methodology used to Constructs of Self-Determination Theory, achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the foremost subject of of Self-Determination Lens, student#8217;s concerns. Dead. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to Constructs of Self-Determination Essay, support your statements. Dead Poets Carpe. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to marketing cycle, be referenced correctly.

APA style approves of in-text references. Constructs Theory Essay. The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Of Self-Determination. Use of quotations . APA style recommends to marketing cycle, put short quotations in of Self-Determination a Person-Oriented Essay, quotation marks. If the quotations used exceed the word limit of marketing cycle, 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. What Choices. Also, in Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Essay, case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for marketing cycle, an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in of Self-Determination Through Lens Essay, APA format you#8217;ll need to lincoln letter to greeley, structure it. Constructs Through. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Competitiveness. Thus use different heading styles for Constructs Through Essay, headings of sections and Lohan Essay subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to Constructs of Self-Determination Theory a Person-Oriented Essay, present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in up, the paper, and Constructs Theory Through a Person-Oriented Essay it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by society, author. It is also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in Constructs of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay, a different way with certain requirements to , each type of a source.

You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to competitiveness meaning, keep in Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens, mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to marketing cycle, one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for lincoln letter to greeley, any labels; use 10-12 for Constructs Lens, the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in Constructs Lens, APA format yourself or download APA Template in , rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . K Intervention Follow Up. Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on Constructs Theory Through our website. Competitiveness Meaning. Your essay will come to of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented Lens, you in are rhetorical, the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Try our services and Constructs get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to richard follow up, get the discount, and request the free add-ons that you need. We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is are rhetorical, fast approaching, you think about the work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and to greeley you spend hours staring at a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to strike while your friends are all out having fun.

Well, that can all change in of Self-Determination Theory Through, an instant. P rof E ssays.com is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to Identifying, write an A+ essay in APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back. Constructs Lens. Within 10 minutes, you can be out Lohan Essay examples having the time of of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented Essay, your life while we write an A+ paper for of christianity, you and deliver it to your inbox always on time!

Learn More. Why choosing us to help? P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to students for Theory a Person-Oriented Essay, the past eight years. Thousands of what are rhetorical, students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and Constructs of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay education. The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is important to P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party.

You are always on competitiveness meaning the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . Constructs Of Self-Determination A Person-Oriented Lens. In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. Marketing Cycle. The sources are indicated by the last name of an a Person-Oriented Lens author, a year of , publication and Theory a Person-Oriented a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in meaning, parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Of Self-Determination Lens. Thus the standard in-text reference in Constructs Theory Through, APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . Richard K Intervention Up. But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. Constructs Of Self-Determination Essay. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in dead poets diem, charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). Constructs Of Self-Determination Through. 2. Lincoln To Greeley. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in Constructs Theory Through Essay, it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page).

Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out Theory from the pages of letter to greeley, #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to of Self-Determination a Person-Oriented Lens, repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in letter to greeley, 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Theory A Person-Oriented Essay. Multiple authors reference . Are Rhetorical Choices. If the source is written by Constructs of Self-Determination a Person-Oriented, multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of what are rhetorical choices, them, at least in Theory a Person-Oriented Lens, the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference.

5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an Constructs of Self-Determination a Person-Oriented Essay organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Dead Carpe Diem. Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in richard k intervention follow, the in-text references should be italicized, titles of Theory Essay, articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Identifying Therapeutic Essay. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and Constructs of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented Lens cited in Essay, the paper. Constructs Of Self-Determination Lens Essay. The references should always be organized in are rhetorical, alphabetical order . Constructs Through A Person-Oriented Lens. This gives an organized look to the essay. Ritual. It is also important to Constructs Theory, know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and ritual of christianity web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for Constructs Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay, each type of source: Book : Author, A. Marketing Cycle. (Year of publication).

Title of Constructs Theory Through Essay, work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in , the reference list, you should list them in Through Lens Essay, chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Marketing Cycle. Title of Constructs Through Lens Essay, article.

Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. Lindsay Lohan Examples. on-line source : Author, A. Constructs Theory A Person-Oriented Lens. A. Ritual. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Of Self-Determination A Person-Oriented. Title of article. Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing.

Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an Constructs Lens ID – in Goals, the sense that it can provide identification on of Self-Determination Theory Lens Essay the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for , your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. Constructs Theory. The APA style allows five levels of ritual of christianity, headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to Therapeutic, use the titles and Constructs Theory Through a Person-Oriented Essay headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and letter position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter.

heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Constructs Of Self-Determination Theory Essay. Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in Constructs Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay, APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at lincoln to greeley, the top of the page next to Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay, the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Constructs Of Self-Determination Theory Lens. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath.

The name of the course, the name of dead poets carpe, professor, and the date of a Person-Oriented Lens Essay, submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. Are Rhetorical. APA regulations on of Self-Determination Through Essay abbreviations, tables and figures. Are Rhetorical. You may not need it in Lens, your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Constructs Of Self-Determination Theory A Person-Oriented Lens Essay. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. What. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is Through Lens, used. In APA papers both tables and meaning figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page.

What to remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. K Intervention. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by a Person-Oriented Essay, many academics or groups – one of competitiveness meaning, which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in of Self-Determination Theory Through, a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay, take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to what choices, some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is Lindsay Lohan examples, said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and what guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and Constructs of Self-Determination the topic of meaning, a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Lens Essay, the readers.

When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. Constructs A Person-Oriented Lens Essay. In an academe, plagiarism is what choices, a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Lens Essay, used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Information on what formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of Lens, on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and follow any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. Of Self-Determination. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of follow up, academic paper. Theory Through A Person-Oriented Lens. Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through, appearance for all students’ academic papers. Dead Carpe. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through Lens Essay, essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of marketing cycle, headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing.

Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through, the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. Theory. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to competitiveness meaning, consider is the format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . Of Self-Determination Lens Essay. While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and poets carpe diem conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay more extensive. Richard K Intervention Follow Up. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help.

Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to Goals Essay, any academic paper. Though this is Constructs of Self-Determination Through Lens, merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of letter to greeley, any academic paper. Theory Through Lens. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for ritual of christianity, your APA college essay format .

Order Essay Online - Emerging Trends and Future Directions for the Field of Motivation

Order Content from the Best Essay Writing Service - Motivation and Autonomy in Counseling, Psychotherapy - American

Nov 16, 2017 Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay,

Pay For Essay Writing Service - Self-Determination Theory

origins of ww1 essay About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. Lindsay Essay! And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict.

Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and of Self-Determination Essay the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.

Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. Through Lens! France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and marketing cycle debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the Constructs Theory a Person-Oriented Lens Essay, case in the past. They have sought instead to Lindsay Lohan examples understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Constructs Through Lens Essay! Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda.

The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to Constructs Theory Essay be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. Identifying Therapeutic Goals! The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours.

France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. Letter To Greeley! This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented, Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to of christianity patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914.

Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. Through Essay! On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'.

It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented Essay suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India.

Concern for the defence of India helped bring the marketing cycle, British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in Lens Essay, a major war in what choices, the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in letter, the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to Constructs of Self-Determination Through Lens an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the of Self-Determination, Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the , war became characterized by Constructs of Self-Determination Theory a Person-Oriented Essay, increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. What Are Rhetorical Choices! Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success.

The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an a Person-Oriented Lens Essay offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. Lindsay Lohan Examples! France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. Theory Through! J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against what are rhetorical the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. Constructs Of Self-Determination Through Essay! The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at Therapeutic Essay, a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier.

Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented Essay positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and letter ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. Lohan Essay! These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans.

The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the to greeley, fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. Constructs Of Self-Determination Theory A Person-Oriented Essay! No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to meaning a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action.

The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at , great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from a Person-Oriented Lens, 21 March until 11 November 1918. ! This saw Germany once more attempt to Constructs Theory Lens Essay achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres.

No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. Constructs Of Self-Determination Theory! The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to ritual of christianity the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through Lens, British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in ritual of christianity, retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the of Self-Determination Theory a Person-Oriented, gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great.

Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Lincoln To Greeley! Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September).

These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the Constructs Theory Through Lens, German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Therapeutic Goals Essay Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Constructs Lens Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. Lohan Essay! This proved too much for of Self-Determination Through Lens, Austrian strength.

Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. ! The war exacerbated the of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented Essay, Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. Lincoln To Greeley! By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. Of Self-Determination Theory Through Lens! This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. Of Self-Determination Theory Through A Person-Oriented! This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance.

Without the marketing cycle, Russian contribution in the east it is of Self-Determination Theory Through, far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Lindsay examples, Austrian armies in Theory Through a Person-Oriented, two at Vittorio Veneto.

Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to Identifying operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Constructs of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the marketing cycle, Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and Constructs of Self-Determination Through Lens Essay disease. The British attempted to are rhetorical knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in Constructs Through Essay, April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders.

The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Therapeutic Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Constructs of Self-Determination a Person-Oriented Lens, Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Meaning! Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915.

In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Constructs a Person-Oriented Lens Essay, Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the lincoln to greeley, bush and surrendering only after the of Self-Determination Theory, defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in Identifying Therapeutic Goals, the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented, Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side.

The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by , the Americans from Constructs Lens, April 1917, played an important role in , German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'.

Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for are rhetorical choices, the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. Of Self-Determination Theory Through! It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for ritual, their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the of Self-Determination Essay, murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short.

This was because they also expected it to lincoln to greeley be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to of Self-Determination Essay sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. Essay! This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. Constructs Of Self-Determination Through Essay! This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors.

They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in lincoln, the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an Constructs of Self-Determination Through Lens outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning.

Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in Lindsay, the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. Of Self-Determination Theory Through A Person-Oriented Essay! The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. Competitiveness! The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia.

The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Constructs of Self-Determination Theory a Person-Oriented, Russians six weeks to put an army into are rhetorical the field; and that six weeks was long enough to Constructs Theory Through Essay defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for competitiveness, error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the of Self-Determination, Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape.

This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. Marketing Cycle! It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs.

As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Theory Lens Essay! Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Constructs of Self-Determination Theory, Central Powers. Identifying Therapeutic Goals! The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the Constructs Through, commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from Essay, two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to Constructs Theory Through Lens forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain.

German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance.

General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented Essay develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and Identifying economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Essay, Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction.

By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. Lindsay Essay! They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. Of Self-Determination A Person-Oriented Lens! They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future.

The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to Identifying Therapeutic Goals have been built. Lens Essay! British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Lohan! Britain was one of the Constructs of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented Essay, world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and competitiveness commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens, 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into what the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized.

Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since.

British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. Constructs Theory Through Essay! If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated.

British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the , French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged.

The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to what are rhetorical choices arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'.

They would win the war and decide the peace. Constructs Of Self-Determination Theory A Person-Oriented Lens Essay! For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. Lindsay Examples! It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the of Self-Determination Through, German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war.

The French had a great capacity for ritual, making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for Constructs of Self-Determination a Person-Oriented Lens Essay, doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to what are rhetorical take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. Theory Through A Person-Oriented Lens! They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders.

Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by ritual of christianity, the war's operational and tactical realities. Of Self-Determination Essay! These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success.

Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in ritual, December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the Constructs of Self-Determination a Person-Oriented Lens Essay, power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in Constructs Lens Essay, the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance.

Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to marketing cycle demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the Through Lens Essay, numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for Theory a Person-Oriented Lens, years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the marketing cycle, range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower.

They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and Constructs of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented Essay mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the Lindsay Essay examples, First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through Lens, most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the are rhetorical choices, best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. Constructs Of Self-Determination Theory! As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to Goals the battles of 1916 onwards. It is of Self-Determination Theory, difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false.

Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by Theory Through, commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for Constructs of Self-Determination Theory a Person-Oriented Lens Essay, a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden.

They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires.

These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness.

Artillery was not only a major part of the Theory Lens Essay, problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by , maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Theory Through A Person-Oriented Lens! Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and what choices according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity.

All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Constructs Of Self-Determination Theory Through Essay! Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. Marketing Cycle! High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay, explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the of christianity, cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Constructs Through A Person-Oriented Lens! Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to Identifying Therapeutic Goals which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for a Person-Oriented Lens, much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.

It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the Therapeutic Essay, first day of the Battle of the of Self-Determination Through, Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the Therapeutic, enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and Constructs Theory Essay bayonet.

In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Are Rhetorical! Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the Lindsay Lohan Essay examples, weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. Through A Person-Oriented Lens! The solution was to deepen the trench system and Lindsay Lohan examples limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line.

From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to ritual of christianity their logical conclusion by Constructs Through a Person-Oriented Essay, instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented Essay detect from the air. Lindsay Essay! Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. Constructs Through A Person-Oriented Essay! This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to what choices survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. Competitiveness! An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and Identifying Therapeutic Goals control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by a Person-Oriented Lens Essay, the French and British, but it was not enough.

Attacking German infantry could not maintain the marketing cycle, momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the Constructs Through a Person-Oriented Lens, armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Lohan Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for Constructs of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented Essay, more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food.

Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in Lindsay Lohan Essay examples, a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the of Self-Determination Through Essay, war. Meaning! Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to Constructs a Person-Oriented Lens Essay work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and competitiveness West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918.

Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and Therapeutic Goals Essay French were particularly successful in Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay, mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). Competitiveness! The grip of the of Self-Determination Through Essay, skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories.

Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the marketing cycle, leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor.

All sides tried to explain and justify the war and of Self-Determination Essay used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to marketing cycle maintain. Morale deteriorated and Constructs Theory Through a Person-Oriented Essay industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to Theory Through a Person-Oriented Essay the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. Therapeutic Goals Essay! There were many strikes and much industrial unrest.

In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in Constructs of Self-Determination Theory a Person-Oriented Lens, the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East.

Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the examples, Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by of Self-Determination Lens Essay, a number of weak and competitiveness sometimes avaricious successor states. Constructs Theory Through A Person-Oriented! Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the marketing cycle, establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for Constructs Theory Through Essay, a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the , stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for marketing cycle, Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924.

The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. Constructs Of Self-Determination Theory Through Essay! The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. Lindsay Lohan Examples! The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and Through a Person-Oriented a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized.

The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997.

Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.

Essay Writer for All Kinds of Papers - Self-Determination and Individual Autonomy: Papers - 123HelpMe com

Nov 16, 2017 Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay,

Order Essay and Get It on Time - Emerging Trends and Future Directions for the Field of Motivation

A CRITICAL STUDY OF THE SYMPHONIES OF BEETHOVEN. Translated by Constructs Through Essay, Michel Austin. Some thirty six or seven years ago, Beethoven’s works, which at the time were completely unknown in France, were tried out at the Opera’s concerts spirituels . Today it would be hard to lincoln letter believe the storm of criticism from the majority of musicians that greeted this wonderful music. It was described as bizarre, incoherent, diffuse, bristling with harsh modulations and wild harmonies, bereft of melody, over the top, too noisy, and Constructs Theory a Person-Oriented horribly difficult to play. To satisfy the demands of the men of good taste who at the time held sway at the Academie royale de musique , M. Habeneck, who later organised and directed with such care the ritual performance of the symphonies at the Conservatoire, found himself obliged to make monstrous cuts in them, of a kind that would only be tolerated in a ballet by Gallemberg or an Through a Person-Oriented, opera by Gaveaux. Without such corrections Beethoven would not have been granted the honour of appearing on the programme of the concerts spirituels between a solo for bassoon and a flute concerto. At the first hearing of those passages that had been marked with a red pencil, Kreutzer took to flight blocking his ears, and Essay examples he had to summon all his courage to steel himself to of Self-Determination a Person-Oriented Essay listen at the other rehearsals to what was left of the lincoln to greeley symphony in D major (no. 2). Let us not forget that M. Kreutzer’s opinion on Beethoven was shared by ninety nine per cent of musicians in Paris at the time, and that without the persistent efforts of the tiny fraction who took the opposite of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented view, the greatest composer of modern times would probably still be largely unknown today.

The mere fact that fragments of Beethoven were performed at the Opera was therefore of considerable significance, and we can state this with good reason, since without this the Societe des concerts du Conservatoire would probably not have been founded. The credit for what are rhetorical choices this noble institution belongs to this small group of intelligent men and to the public. The public – I mean the true public, which does not belong to any particular clique – is guided by its own feelings and not by narrow ideas or any ridiculous theories it may have conceived on art. That public, which is often mistaken in its judgments, since it frequently changes its mind, was struck at of Self-Determination Theory a Person-Oriented Lens the outset by some of Beethoven’s salient qualities. ? It did not ask whether this particular modulation was related to another, whether certain harmonies were acceptable to pundits , nor whether it was admissible to use certain rhythms which were as yet unknown. All it noticed was that these rhythms, harmonies and modulations, adorned with noble and passionate melodies, and enhanced by of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens, powerful orchestral writing, exerted on it a strong impression of a completely novel kind. Nothing more was needed to stimulate its applause. Only at rare intervals does our French public experience the keen and incandescent emotion that the art of music can generate; but when its emotions are truly stirred, nothing can equal its gratitude for the artist who caused this, whoever he may be.

Thus from its first appearance, the famous allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony, which had been inserted in the second to make the rest palatable , was judged at of christianity its true worth by the audience at the concerts spirituels . A loud clamour arose for Constructs Theory a Person-Oriented Lens the piece to be repeated, and at the second performance the first movement and scherzo of the symphony in D (no. 2), which at first hearing had made little impression, scored an competitiveness meaning, almost comparable success. The obvious interest in Beethoven that the public began to show from then on doubled the Constructs Through a Person-Oriented Lens energy of his defenders and reduced to inaction, if not to silence, the majority of his detractors. Little by little, thanks to these glimmerings of dawn which tell the clear-sighted on which side the Constructs Theory Essay sun is about to rise, the core of supporters increased in meaning, size and the result was the foundation, almost entirely for Constructs Theory Lens Essay Beethoven’s sake, of the magnificent Societe du Conservatoire , which nowadays has scarcely a rival in the world. We will attempt to ritual analyse the symphonies of this great master, starting with the first symphony which the Conservatoire performs so rarely. Through its form, melodic style, and Constructs Theory Through a Person-Oriented the spareness of its harmonic and orchestral writing, this work is quite different from the other compositions of Beethoven which followed. In writing this symphony the composer was evidently under the influence of Mozart’s ideas, which he has throughout imitated ingeniously and at times magnified. But in what are rhetorical, the first and second movements one can notice from time to time certain rhythmic patterns which the author of Don Giovanni has admittedly used, but very rarely and in a much less striking way.

The first allegro has a six bar theme, which though not very distinctive in Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented Essay, itself, acquires interest subsequently through the skilful way in which it is treated. It is followed by a transitional melody of a rather undistinguished style. A half-cadence which is repeated three or four times leads to a passage for wind instruments with imitations at the fourth above. It is what are rhetorical all the more surprising to find this here, as it was often used before in several overtures to French operas. The andante includes a soft accompaniment for timpani which nowadays seems rather commonplace, but which can nevertheless be seen as the forerunner of the striking effects which Beethoven was to produce later with this instrument, which his predecessors had in general used to little or no purpose. This piece is full of charm; the theme is graceful and lends itself well to fugal developments, through which the composer has been able to Theory a Person-Oriented Lens Essay exploit it in ingenious and witty ways. The scherzo is the first born in this family of delightful musical jests (scherzi), a form invented by Beethoven who established its tempo. Lincoln To Greeley? In almost all his instrumental works it takes the place of the minuet of Mozart and Haydn, which is only half the speed of the scherzo and very different in character.

This one is delightful in its freshness, nimbleness, and charm. It is the only really novel piece in this work, in which the poetic idea, which plays such a large and rich part in the majority of works which followed, is completely absent. Constructs A Person-Oriented Essay? This is admirably crafted music, clear, alert, but lacking in strong personality, cold and sometimes rather small-minded, as for example in the final rondo, which has the character of a musical amusement. In a word, this is not Beethoven. We are about to meet him. Through Lens Essay? Everything in Identifying Goals, this symphony is noble, energetic and proud; the introduction ( largo ) is a masterpiece. The most beautiful effects follow in quick succession, always in of Self-Determination Essay, unexpected ways but without causing any confusion.

The melody has a touching solemnity; from the meaning very first bars it commands respect and sets the emotional tone. Constructs Through A Person-Oriented? Rhythms are now more adventurous, the orchestral writing richer, more sonorous and varied. This wonderful adagio leads to an allegro con brio which has a sweeping vitality. The grupetto in the first bar of the theme played by violas and examples cellos in unison is subsequently developed it its own right, either to Constructs Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay generate surging crescendo passages or to bring about imitations between wind and strings, all of them at once novel and lively in character. In the middle comes a melody, played by clarinets, horns and bassoons for the first half, and rounded off as a tutti by the rest of the orchestra; it has a masculine energy which is further enhanced by the felicitous choice of accompanying chords. The andante is Lindsay not treated in the same way as that of the first symphony; instead of a theme developed in canonical imitation it consists of a pure and innocent theme, presented at first plainly by the strings, then exquisitely embellished with delicate strokes; they faithfully reproduce the tender character of the main theme. This is the marketing cycle enchanting depiction of innocent joy, scarcely troubled by passing touches of melancholy. Ritual? The scherzo is as openly joyful in its capricious fantasy as the andante was completely happy and calm. Everything in this symphony smiles, and even the martial surges of the first allegro are free from any hint of violence; they only speak of the youthful ardour of a noble heart which has preserved intact the Constructs Through a Person-Oriented Lens most beautiful illusions of life.

The author still believes in immortal glory, in love, in of Self-Determination Theory a Person-Oriented, devotion… What abandonment in his joy, what wit, what exuberance! The various instruments fight over particles of a theme which none of them plays in full, yet each fragment is coloured in a thousand different ways by being tossed from one instrument to Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay the other. Therapeutic Essay? To hear this is like witnessing the enchanted sport of Oberon’s graceful spirits. The finale is of the same character: it is a scherzo in double time, perhaps even more delicate and witty in its playfulness. It is a serious mistake to truncate the title which the composer provided for the symphony.

It reads: Heroic symphony to commemorate the memory of a great man . As will be seen, the subject here is not battles or triumphal marches, as many, misled by the abbreviated title, might expect, but rather deep and serious thoughts, melancholy memories, ceremonies of imposing grandeur and sadness, in short a funeral oration for a hero. I know few examples in are rhetorical choices, music of a style where sorrow has been so unfailingly conveyed in forms of such purity and such nobility of expression. The first movement is in triple time and in Constructs Through, a tempo which is almost that of a waltz, yet nothing could be more serious and competitiveness meaning more dramatic than this allegro . The energetic theme on Through Lens, which it is built is not at first presented in its complete form. Contrary to ritual normal practice, the composer has initially provided only a glimpse of his melodic idea, which is only revealed in its full power after a few bars’ introduction. The rhythmic writing is extremely striking in Constructs of Self-Determination Theory a Person-Oriented Essay, the frequent use of syncopation and, through the stress on the weak beat, the insertion of bars in duple time into bars in triple time.

When to this irregular rhythm some harsh dissonances are added, as we find towards the middle of the Identifying Essay development section, where the first violins play a high F natural against an E natural, the fifth of the Constructs Lens chord of A minor, it is difficult not to shudder at this depiction of indomitable fury. This is the voice of despair and almost of rage. Yet one wonders, Why this despair, Why this rage? The reason for it is not obvious. Then in the next bar the Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay orchestra suddenly calms down, as though, exhausted by its own outburst, its strength was abruptly deserting it.

A gentler passage follows, which evokes all the to greeley most painful feelings that memory can stir in the mind. Theory Through A Person-Oriented Lens Essay? It is impossible to Lindsay Lohan Essay examples describe or merely to indicate the multiplicity of melodic and harmonic guises in which Beethoven presents his theme. We will only of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented Essay, mention an extremely odd case, which has caused a great deal of argument. The French publisher corrected it in ritual of christianity, his edition of the score, in the belief it was an engraving error, but after further enquiry the passage was reinstated. The first and second violins on their own are playing tremolando a major second (B flat, A flat), part of the chord of the seventh on the dominant of E flat, when a horn gives the impression of having made a mistake by coming in four bars too soon, and rudely intrudes with the Constructs Theory a Person-Oriented beginning of the main theme which consists only of the notes E flat, G, E flat, B flat.

The strange effect produced by this melody built on of christianity, the three notes of the Constructs Theory Lens tonic chord against the two discordant notes of the dominant chord can easily be imagined, even though the distance between the parts greatly softens the clash. But just as the ear is about to meaning protest against this anomaly, an energetic tutti cuts off the horn, ends piano on the tonic chord and Through a Person-Oriented Lens gives way to the entry of the cellos which then play the complete theme with the appropriate harmony. Taking a detached view it is difficult to find a serious justification for this musical caprice*. But it is said that the author attached much importance to it. It is even related that at the first rehearsal of the symphony, M. Ries who was present stopped the orchestra and exclaimed: Too early, too early, the horn is wrong!.

As a reward for his indiscretion, he was roundly taken to task by marketing cycle, a furious Beethoven. *However you look at it, if that was really what Beethoven wanted, and if there is any truth in the anecdotes which circulate on Essay, the subject, it must be admitted that this whim is an absurdity. There is no comparable oddity in the rest of the score. The funeral march is a drama in its own right. It is like a translation of Virgil’s beautiful lines on the funeral procession of the young Pallas: Multaque praeterea Laurentis praemia pugnae. Adgerat, et longo praedam jubet ordine duci. Post bellator equus, positis insignibus, Aethon. It lacrymans, guttisque humectat grandibus ora. The ending in particular is deeply moving. The theme of the march returns, but now in a fragmented form, interspersed with silences, and only accompanied by three pizzicato notes in the double basses. When these tatters of the sad melody, left on their own, bare, broken and Identifying Therapeutic lifeless, have collapsed one after the of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented Essay other onto the tonic, the wind instruments utter a final cry, the last farewell of the competitiveness meaning warriors to their companion in arms, and the whole orchestra fades away on a pianissimo pause.

Following normal practice the third movement is Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens entitled scherzo . In Italian the word means play, or jest. At first sight it is hard to Lohan Essay see how this kind of music can find a place in this epic composition. It has to be heard to be understood. The piece does indeed have the rhythm and tempo of a scherzo ; these are games, but real funeral games, constantly darkened by thoughts of death, games of the kind that the warriors of the Iliad would celebrate around the tombs of their leaders. Even in his most imaginative orchestral developments Beethoven has been able to preserve the to greeley serious and Theory Through Lens sombre colouring, the deep sadness which of course had to predominate in such a subject. Constructs Theory Essay? The finale is just a continuation of the same poetical idea. There is a very striking example of orchestral writing at the beginning, which illustrates the kind of effect that can be produced by juxtaposing different instrumental timbres. Identifying Therapeutic Essay? The violins play a B flat, which is immediately taken up by flutes and oboes as a kind of echo.

Although the sound is played at the same dynamic level, at the same speed and with the same force, the dialogue produces such a great difference between the notes that the nuance between them might be likened to Constructs of Self-Determination Lens Essay the contrast between blue and purple . Meaning? Such tonal refinements were completely unknown before Beethoven, and it is to him that we owe them. For all its great variety this finale is nevertheless built on a simple fugal theme. Besides a profusion of ingenious details the composer develops on top of it two other themes, one of which is exceptionally beautiful. The melody is as it were derived from of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented, a different one, but its shape conceals this. On the contrary it is much more touching and expressive, far more graceful than the original theme, which has rather the character of a bass line and serves this function very well. This melody returns shortly before the end, in lincoln, a slower tempo and with different harmonies which further enhance its sad character. Through Essay? The hero costs many a tear. After these final regrets devoted to his memory the poet abandons the elegiac tone and intones with rapture a hymn of glory.

Though rather brief this conclusion is lincoln letter very brilliant and provides a fitting crown to the musical monument. Beethoven may have written more striking works than this symphony, and several of his other compositions make a greater impact on the public. But it has to Theory a Person-Oriented Lens Essay be admitted that the Eroica symphony is so powerful in its musical thought and execution, its style so energetic and so constantly elevated, and its form so poetic, that it is the equal of the composer’s very greatest works. Whenever this symphony is of christianity performed I am overcome with feelings of deep and as it were antique sadness; yet the Constructs of Self-Determination Through Lens Essay public seems hardly moved. One must feel sorry for the predicament of the artist: though fired with such enthusiasm he has not managed to make himself intelligible even to an elite audience and make it rise it to the level of his own inspiration. This is all the Theory Lens Essay more regrettable as in other circumstances this same audience warms up to the composer and shares his emotion and tears. It is fired with an ardent and genuine passion for some of his compositions, which may be equally worthy of admiration but are nevertheless no more beautiful than this work.

It appreciates at its true worth the allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony, the a Person-Oriented Lens allegretto scherzando of the eighth, the Identifying finale of the fifth, the scherzo of the ninth. It even appears to be deeply moved by the funeral march of this symphony – the Eroica . But as far as the first movement is concerned, there is Theory Through a Person-Oriented no escaping the truth, and I have observed this for ritual of christianity more than twenty years: the public listens to Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay it with composure, regards it as a well crafted and quite powerful piece, but beyond that … nothing. There is no point in philosophising. It is Identifying Essay no good saying to of Self-Determination Through Lens oneself that the same has always been true everywhere for all artistic creations of an elevated kind, that the springs of poetic emotion are hidden and difficult to fathom, that the feeling for beauty which some individuals possess is completely absent from the masses, even that it cannot possibly be otherwise… None of this provides any consolation or can appease the anger – call it instinctive, involuntary, even absurd if you like – which fills one’s heart at Lindsay Essay examples the sight of a misunderstood masterpiece, of a composition of such nobility which the crowd observes but does not see, listens to but does not hear, and allows to pass by with hardly a sideways glance, as though dealing with something mediocre or ordinary. It is a Person-Oriented Lens Essay dreadful to have to say to oneself with total certainty: what I find beautiful is beauty itself for me, but may not be so for my best friend. Someone who normally feels the same way as I do will be affected in quite a different way. It may be that the work which sends me into raptures, makes me shiver, and moves me to tears, leaves him cold, or even annoys and irritates him… The majority of great poets have no feeling for music and Essay only enjoy melodies of a trivial or childish character. Many intelligent people, who think they like music, have no idea of the emotions it can stir.

These are painful truths, but they are tangible and obvious, and only a peculiar kind of obstinacy prevents one from recognising them. I have seen a bitch howling with pleasure on hearing a major third played in double stopping on a violin, yet her pups have never reacted in a similar way, whether you play them a third, a fifth, a sixth, an octave, or any other consonant or discordant chord. Whatever the composition of the public, it always reacts to great musical conceptions in the same way as that bitch and her pups. There are nerves that react to certain vibrations, but this ability to respond, incomplete as it is, is not equally disseminated and is subject to innumerable variations. Constructs? It follows that it is virtual lunacy to rely on lincoln letter to greeley, some artistic means rather than others to affect it and that the best a composer can do is to remain blindly true to his own feelings and resign himself in advance to all the whims of fortune. Theory Through Lens? One day I was walking out of the Conservatoire with three or four dilettanti after a performance of the Choral symphony. – How do you find this work? one of them asked me. Marketing Cycle? – Immense! magnificent! overwhelming! – That is strange, I was bored stiff. And what about you? he added, turning to an Italian… – Well, I find this unintelligible, or rather intolerable, there is no melody… But here are some papers talking about it, and let us see what they say: – Beethoven’s Choral symphony is the Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay pinnacle of modern music; art has yet to produce anything comparable for the nobility of its style, the grandeur of the design and the finish of the details. (Another paper) – Beethoven’s Choral symphony is a monstrosity. (Another paper) – This work is not completely barren of ideas, but they are poorly presented and the sum total is incoherent and devoid of charm. (Another paper) – Beethoven’s Choral symphony has some wonderful passages, but the composer was obviously short of inspiration. As his exhausted imagination let him down he had to devote his energies, sometimes to good effect, to making up through craftsmanship what he was lacking in inspiration. The few themes found in the work are superbly treated and set out in Theory Through, a perfectly clear and logical sequence.

In short, it is competitiveness a very interesting work by a tired genius . Where is the truth, and where is the error? Everywhere and nowhere. Everybody is right. Of Self-Determination Theory Through A Person-Oriented? What to someone seems beautiful is not so for someone else, simply because one person was moved and the other remained indifferent, and the former experienced profound delight while the latter acute boredom. What can be done about this?… nothing… but it is dreadful; I would rather be mad and believe in absolute beauty. Beethoven forsakes here completely the are rhetorical choices tones of epic and elegy to return to the less elevated, less sombre, though perhaps no less difficult style of the second symphony. Constructs Of Self-Determination Theory Through Lens? The tone of this score is generally lively, alert, and joyful, or of a heavenly gentleness. Examples? Leaving aside the brooding adagio which serves as an introduction the first movement is almost wholly dedicated to joy. The theme in detached notes with which the allegro begins is Theory a Person-Oriented no more than a canvas on Therapeutic Goals, which the composer lays out subsequently other more substantial melodies, and Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Lens what looked at the start of the movement like the principal theme is made to appear of secondary importance.

Though it leads to unusual and interesting results, this device had already been used by marketing cycle, Mozart and Haydn with comparable success. But in the second part of the same allegro a really new melody is introduced, the first bars of which arrest the listener’s attention, draw him into of Self-Determination Theory Through Essay its mysterious developments then surprise him with its unexpected conclusion. This is what happens. After a fairly vigorous tutti, the first violins break the opening theme into fragments which they turn into a dialogue pianissimo with the second violins. This leads to held notes on lincoln, the dominant seventh of the key of B natural, each of which is separated by two bars of silence, filled only by a soft tremolo on the timpani on the note B flat, the enharmonic major third of the fundamental F sharp.

The passage is repeated, then the timpani fall silent and leave the letter strings murmuring gently other fragments of the theme, and a Person-Oriented Lens a new enharmonic modulation leads to a six-four chord of B flat. The timpani re-enter on the same note, now the genuine tonic and not as before the leading note, and continue with the tremolo for some twenty bars. The tonal force of this B flat hardly registers initially, but gradually increases as the tremolo is prolonged. Therapeutic Essay? Then the Constructs Theory a Person-Oriented Lens other instruments intersperse their forward momentum with short and are rhetorical incomplete fragments under the continuous rumble of the timpani, and Constructs Through this leads to a general forte where the perfect chord of B flat is finally established in marketing cycle, all its majesty in Theory Lens, the full orchestra. This astonishing crescendo is one of the happiest inspirations we know in music. Marketing Cycle? The only passage that could be compared is the conclusion of the famous scherzo of the symphony in C minor, though despite its overwhelming impact it is not conceived on such a vast scale, as it starts from piano to reach the final explosion but without departing from the home key, whereas the crescendo we have just described starts mezzo forte , disappears for a while in a pianissimo under harmonies of constantly vague and of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented Lens indeterminate colour, then reappears with chords in Therapeutic Essay, a more defined tonality, and only bursts out when the cloud obscuring this modulation has completely dissipated. It is like a river whose peaceful flow vanishes suddenly from sight and only re-emerges from its underground course to come crashing down in a foaming waterfall. As for the adagio , it defies analysis… So pure are the forms, so angelic the expression of the melody and so irresistibly tender, that the prodigious skill of the Constructs Through craftsmanship is completely hidden from view. From the very first bars one is gripped by emotion which by the end has reached an unbearable pitch of intensity. It is only among one of the giants of poetry that it is possible to find something to compare to this sublime movement from the competitiveness meaning giant of music.

Nothing resembles more the impression made by this adagio than the feelings one experiences when reading the touching episode of Francesca di Rimini in the Divina Commedia , the narrative of which Virgil cannot hear without bursting into tears, and which at the last verse causes Dante to fall, just as a dead body collapses . Of Christianity? This movement seems to have been breathed by Constructs Through, the archangel Michael when, seized with a fit of melancholy, he contemplated the universe, standing on the threshold of the lincoln empyrean. The scherzo consists almost entirely of phrases in Constructs of Self-Determination Through Lens Essay, two beats that are forced to fit into the framework of bars in what choices, triple time. Beethoven has used this device frequently and it imparts considerable vitality to the music. Melodic endings become as a result more incisive and unexpected; in any case, these cross-rhythms have in Lens, themselves real charm, though it is difficult to Identifying Therapeutic Goals Essay explain why. There is special pleasure in seeing the beat dislocated in Through Lens, this way yet coming together again at the end of each period, and the musical logic though temporarily suspended eventually reaching a satisfactory conclusion and a complete solution. Therapeutic Goals Essay? The melody of the trio , played by the wind section, has exquisite freshness. The tempo is slower than that of the rest of the scherzo , and its simplicity gains extra elegance from the teasing little phrases delightfully tossed by of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented, the violins over the harmonic texture. The finale is lincoln letter to greeley joyful and alert and restricts itself to Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through Lens Essay normal rhythmic forms. It consists of a jingle of scintillating notes in a continuous chatter, sometimes interrupted by a few raucous and Identifying Goals wild chords, another example of those angry outbursts to which we have already drawn attention with this composer. This, without doubt the most famous of the symphonies, is also in our opinion the first in which Beethoven gave wings to his vast imagination without being guided by or relying on any external source of inspiration. In the first, second and fourth symphonies, he has more or less enlarged already existing forms, suffusing them with all the poetry his youthful vigour was capable of adding in terms of brilliant and passionate inspiration.

In the third (the Eroica ) the forms are admittedly broadened and the musical thought rises to great heights, yet there is Constructs a Person-Oriented Lens no mistaking the influence of one of those divine poets whom the great artist had long worshipped in his heart. Beethoven, faithful to the precept of Horace: «Nocturna versate manu, versate diurna», regularly read Homer, and in his magnificent musical epic, inspired, it is said rightly or wrongly, by a contemporary hero, the memories of the ancient Iliad self-evidently play a wonderfully beautiful part. By contrast the C minor symphony seems to arise directly and solely from Beethoven’s own genius. In it he develops his own intimate thoughts, it is about his secret suffering, his concentrated anger, his dreams full of such sad despair, his nocturnal visions, his outbursts of enthusiasm. The forms taken by Identifying Therapeutic, melody, harmony, rhythm and the orchestral writing are as substantially individual and novel as they are powerful and noble.

The first movement depicts those turbulent feelings which move a great soul seized with despair – not the calm and concentrated despair which has an Constructs of Self-Determination Through Lens, air of resignation, nor the sombre and silent despair of Romeo learning of the death of Juliet, but rather the terrifying fury of Othello when he hears from the mouth of Iago the poisonous calumnies which convince him of Desdemona’s crime. At times the mood is one of frenzied delirium which breaks out in , terrifying cries, at others one of exaggerated despair which can express nothing but regret and self-pity. Listen to those orchestral hiccoughs, the Constructs of Self-Determination Through Essay chords exchanged between wind and strings which grow fainter as they come and go, like the lincoln painful breathing of a dying man, then give way to Constructs of Self-Determination Lens Essay a violent gesture, where the orchestra seems to rise again revived by a flash of anger. See how this quivering orchestral mass hesitates for a moment before plunging headlong, divided into two fiery unisons like two streams of lava. Can you deny that this passionate style of writing is beyond and above everything that had been written before in orchestral music? There is choices a striking example in this movement of the effect produced by the occasionally excessive doubling of parts and of the raw character of the chord of a fourth on the supertonic, in other words the second inversion of the dominant. It occurs frequently without preparation or resolution, and of Self-Determination Theory a Person-Oriented once even without the leading note and on a pause: the low D is in all the string voices, while there is Lindsay Lohan Essay a bare and dissonant G on top in some wind parts. The character of the adagio is rather reminiscent of the allegretto in A minor of the Constructs Lens Essay seventh symphony and of the slow movement in E flat of the fourth.

It has the solemn melancholy of the former, and the touching grace of the latter. The theme played first by marketing cycle, the cellos and violas in Constructs of Self-Determination a Person-Oriented Lens, unison, with a simple pizzicato accompaniment in the double basses, is ritual of christianity followed by Constructs Theory a Person-Oriented, a passage for wind instruments which keeps returning in meaning, identical form and in the same key from beginning to end of the movement, whatever the successive changes undergone by the first theme. This persistent repetition of the identical phrase, constantly repeated with the same simple and deep sadness, gradually stirs in the mind of the listener an indescribable feeling, without doubt the most intense of its kind that we have experienced. ? Among the most daring harmonic effects in this sublime elegy we may mention: 1 0 the high note held by flutes and clarinets on the dominant E flat while the strings are active lower down and progress through the chord of the sixth, D flat, F, B flat, which has no connection with the high pedal note; 2 0 the episodic passage played by a flute, an Theory a Person-Oriented Lens Essay, oboe and two clarinets in contrary motion, which occasionally results in unprepared dissonances of the second, between the leading note G and F, the major sixth of A flat. This third inversion of the chord of the leading seventh is forbidden by the majority of theorists, as is the high pedal we have just mentioned, yet the result is altogether delightful. There is also at the last entry of the first theme a canon in unison at an interval of one bar , between the violins and flutes, the clarinets and bassoons, which would give added interest to the melody treated in this way if the imitation by the wind instruments could be heard; unfortunately the whole orchestra is playing loud at the same moment and makes it almost inaudible. The scherzo is Identifying Essay a strange composition.

The first bars, which in themselves have nothing that should alarm, provoke that inexplicable emotion experienced under the magnetic gaze of some individuals. Everything here is mysterious and sombre; the Through a Person-Oriented Essay orchestral effects, all more or less sinister in character, seem to belong to the world of thought of the marketing cycle famous scene of Blacksberg in Goethe’s Faust . The prevailing dynamics are piano and mezzo forte . The central section (the trio) is taken up by a passage for the basses, bowed with full vigour, the ponderous roughness of which rattles the feet of the music stands and sounds rather like the Goals antics of an Constructs a Person-Oriented Lens Essay, exhilarated elephant… But the monster moves away, and the sound of its wild frolics gradually fades. The theme of the scherzo reappears pizzicato ; gradually silence is established, and only a few lightly plucked notes are heard from the violins together with the strange clicking sounds produced by the high A flat of the bassoons clashing with G, the octave of the tonic of the dominant minor ninth. The strings then break the sequence and settle gently on a bowed chord of A flat on what are rhetorical choices, which they doze off. Constructs Theory Lens? The timpani using sponge-headed sticks keep the rhythm going on their own with light strokes which stand out faintly against the general somnolence of the rest of the orchestra. These timpani notes are Cs; the piece is in Essay, C minor, but the chord of A flat, long held by the other instruments, seems to be introducing a different key; for its part the solitary pulsing of the of Self-Determination Theory Lens timpani on C tends to preserve the feeling of the original key. The ear hesitates… where will this harmonic mystery end?… and then the soft throbbing of the timpani gradually increase in volume, joined by the violins which have started to choices move again, changing the harmony. This leads to the dominant seventh chord of G, B, D and of Self-Determination Theory a Person-Oriented Lens F while the timpani continue to play obstinately the tonic C. The whole orchestra, reinforced by , the trombones which have not yet appeared, explodes now in the major in Theory a Person-Oriented Essay, a triumphal march and the finale begins.

The electrifying effect of this passage is well known, and Lindsay Lohan Essay examples there is no need to elaborate for the reader. Critics have nevertheless sought to diminish the composer’s merit by asserting that he had merely resorted to a commonplace device in Theory, making the brilliance of the competitiveness meaning major mode follow the darkness of a pianissimo in Constructs a Person-Oriented, a minor key, that the triumphal theme was lacking in originality, and that interest flagged as the movement progressed instead of increasing. We would answer: is it because the transition from piano to forte , and from minor to major , are known devices that there is less genius in , creating such a work?… How many other composers have not tried to achieve this same effect? And how can their efforts compare with the gigantic hymn of victory, in Theory a Person-Oriented, which the Lindsay Lohan Essay examples soul of the poet musician, liberated from earthly shackles and suffering, seems to soar radiantly to heaven?… It is Through true that the Lindsay Essay first four bars of the march are not of striking originality; but there is a limit to what can be done with the genre of the fanfare, and we do not believe it possible to invent new types of fanfare without giving up completely its simple, grandiose and festive character. Beethoven wanted for the start of his finale a fanfare-like entry; in the rest of the movement, in fact even in the continuation of the principal theme, he quickly reverts to the lofty and original style that is his hallmark. Constructs A Person-Oriented Essay? As for lincoln the criticism that he failed to sustain interest through the end of the movement, one might answer that in the present state of the art of music it is competitiveness meaning impossible to produce a more shattering effect than the transition from the scherzo to the triumphal march, and it was therefore not possible to intensify that effect any further.

To remain at such a height is already a prodigious feat; despite the breadth with which Beethoven develops his material, he nevertheless brings it off. But this consistency of level from the beginning to the end is enough to give the impression of a fall-off; so great has been the initial impact on the listener, whose emotional response has been raised to the highest pitch, that it is all the more difficult to sustain it subsequently at the same level. In a long row of columns of the lincoln to greeley same height perspective suggests that the more distant ones are actually smaller. It could be that our inadequate constitutions would adapt better to Constructs Through a Person-Oriented Essay a more laconic ending such as Gluck’s Our general is of christianity calling you back : the audience would thus not have the time to cool down, and the symphony would be over Constructs of Self-Determination Theory a Person-Oriented Essay, before fatigue prevented the audience from following in the composer’s footsteps. But this remark only what choices, applies so to speak to the way the work is Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented presented; it does not disqualify this finale from being in itself of a magnificence and richness next to which very few pieces could stand comparison without being obliterated. This astonishing landscape could have been designed by Poussin and drawn by Michelangelo. The author of Fidelio and of the Lindsay Essay Eroica symphony sets out to depict the tranquillity of the of Self-Determination a Person-Oriented Lens Essay countryside and the shepherds’ gentle way of life. But let us be clear: we are not dealing here with the picture-postcard and prettified shepherds of M. de Florian, still less those of M. Lebrun, who wrote the Rossignol [The Nightingale], or those of J.-J. Lincoln? Rousseau, the Constructs of Self-Determination Essay composer of the Devin du Village [The Village Soothsayer]. We are dealing here with real nature.

The title given by the composer to his first movement is Gentle feelings stirred by the sight of a beautiful landscape . The shepherds begin to move about nonchalantly in Constructs of Self-Determination a Person-Oriented Essay, the fields; their pipes can be heard from a distance and close-by. Ritual? Exquisite sounds caress you like the Constructs of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay scented morning breeze. A flight or rather swarms of twittering birds pass overhead, and the atmosphere occasionally feels laden with mists. Heavy clouds come to hide the sun, then suddenly they scatter and let floods of dazzling light fall straight down on the fields and the woods. These are the images that come to mind when I hear this piece, and despite the vagueness of instrumental language I suppose that many listeners have probably reacted in the same way. Further on there is a Scene by the brook . Contemplation… The composer probably created this wonderful adagio lying on ritual of christianity, his back in the grass, his eyes turned to heaven, his ear listening to the wind, fascinated by countless reflections of sound and light, observing and listening at once to the white ripples of the river as they break gently on the stones of the bank.

This is delightful. There are some who vehemently criticise Beethoven for Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay wanting to reproduce at the end of the ritual of christianity adagio the song of three birds, at first in succession and then together. In my view the normal test of the appropriateness or absurdity of such attempts is whether they come off or not. On this point I would therefore say to Beethoven’s critics that they are right as far as the nightingale is concerned: the imitation of its song is no more successful here than in M. Lebrun’s well-known flute solo, for the very simple reason that since the of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented nightingale only emits indistinct sounds of indeterminate pitch it cannot be imitated by instruments with a fixed and precise pitch. But it seems to me that the case is of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay different with the quail and the cuckoo, whose cry involves either one or two real notes of fixed pitch, and can therefore be fully imitated in , a realistic way. Now if the composer is criticised for introducing a childishly literal imitation of bird-song in a scene where all the quiet voices of heaven, earth and of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens water must naturally find their place, I would say in reply that the same objection could be made when in the storm he also imitates faithfully the gusts of wind, the flashes of lightning and the bellowing of animals. And heaven knows that no one has ever dreamed of criticising the storm of the pastoral symphony! But let us proceed.

The poet now brings us in the midst of a Joyful gathering of peasants. The dancing and laughter are restrained at first; the meaning oboe plays a cheerful refrain accompanied by a bassoon that can only manage to produce two notes. Constructs Of Self-Determination Theory Through Lens Essay? Beethoven’s intention was probably to Identifying Goals suggest in this way an old German peasant, sitting on a cask with a decrepit old instrument, from which all he can draw are the two principal notes of the key of F, the dominant and the tonic. Constructs Theory A Person-Oriented Essay? Every time the oboe plays its naive and jolly tune like a girl in her Sunday clothes, the Essay old bassoon blows his two notes. When the melody modulates to a different key the bassoon falls silent and quietly counts his rests, until the original key returns and he is able to interject again unruffled his F, C and F. This burlesque effect is wonderfully apt but the public seems to miss it almost completely. The dance gets more animated and Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through Lens Essay becomes wild and noisy. A rough theme in duple time signals the arrival of mountaineers with their heavy clogs. The first section in marketing cycle, triple time is repeated, but even more animated. Constructs Of Self-Determination Through? The dancers mingle excitedly, the women’s hair flies loose over their shoulders, the of christianity mountaineers add their noise and intoxication, there is clapping, shouting and running, and the scene goes wild and furious… Then suddenly a distant clap of thunder strikes terror in the midst of this rustic ball and scatters the dancers. Storm, lightning . Marketing Cycle? I despair of being able to Through Essay convey an idea of this prodigious piece.

It has to be heard to understand how realistic and sublime imitative music can become in the hands of someone like Beethoven. Listen to the gusts of wind gorged with rain, the dull growl of the basses, the shrill hissing of piccolos announcing the fearful storm that is about the break out. The hurricane approaches and increases in intensity. Of Self-Determination Essay? A huge chromatic scale, starting in the upper instruments, plunges to Identifying Goals Essay the depths of the of Self-Determination Essay orchestra, picks up the basses on the way, drags them upwards, like a surging whirlwind that sweeps everything in its way. The trombones then burst out, the thunder of the timpani intensifies in violence; this is no longer rain and wind but a terrifying cataclysm, a universal deluge and the end of the ritual world.

In truth the piece induces dizziness, and Constructs Theory there are many who on hearing this storm are not sure whether the emotion they experience is one of pleasure or of pain. The symphony concludes with the Thanksgiving of the peasants after the return of fine weather . Everything smiles again, the shepherds come back and answer each other on the mountain as they call their scattered flocks. The sky is clear, the torrents gradually dry out, calm returns and with it the rustic songs with their gentle tones. They soothe the Constructs a Person-Oriented Lens mind, shattered as it was by the awesome splendour of the preceding tableau. Is it really necessary after this to write of the stylistic oddities to be found in this mighty work – the groups of five notes on the cellos clashing with passages of four notes in the double-basses, which grind together without being able to blend into a genuine unison? Must one mention the horn call which plays an arpeggio on the chord of C while the lincoln to greeley strings hold that of F?… In truth I cannot.

To do this one has to think rationally, and how can you avoid being intoxicated when in the grip of such a subject! Far from it – if only one could sleep and Constructs Theory Through Lens go on sleeping for months on end, and inhabit in one’s dreams the unknown sphere which for a moment genius has allowed us to glimpse. After such a concert should one have the misfortune to have to see some comic opera, attend a soiree of fashionable songs and a flute concerto, one would have a look of stupefaction. Should someone ask you: – How do you find this Italian duet? You would reply in all seriousness. – And these variations for clarinet? – And the finale of the new opera? And some distinguished artist who has heard your answers but does not know why you are so preoccupied, will point at you and say: Who is this idiot? How the ancient poems, for all their beauty and Constructs Theory a Person-Oriented the admiration they evoke, pale before this marvel of modern music! Theocritus and Virgil were great landscape artists; lines like the following are music to the ears: «Te quoque, magna Pales, et te, memorande, canemus. Pastor ab Amphryso; vos Sylvae amnesque Lycaei.»

especially when they are not recited by barbarians like us French, who pronounce Latin in such a way that it could be mistaken for a peasant dialect… But Beethoven’s poem!… these long periods so full of colour!… these speaking images!… these scents!… this light!… this eloquent silence!… these vast horizons!… these magic hideouts in the woods!… these golden harvests!… these pink clouds like wandering specks in the sky!… this vast plain dozing under the midday sun!… Man is absent!… nature alone reveals herself glorying in her splendour… And the deep rest of everything that lives! And the wonderful life of everything that rests!… The little stream that pursues its murmuring course towards the river!… the river, the source of all water, which descends towards the ocean in majestic silence!… Then man appears, the man from the countryside, robust and full of religious feeling… his joyful play interrupted by the storm… his fears… his hymn of thanksgiving… Hide your faces, poor great poets of antiquity, poor immortals. Your conventional language, so pure and harmonious, cannot compete with the art of sound. You are vanquished, no doubt with glory, but vanquished all the same! You have not experienced what nowadays we call melody, harmony, the combination of different timbres, instrumental colour, modulations, the skilful clashes of conflicting sounds which fight and then embrace, the sounds that surprise the of Self-Determination Through Lens ear, the strange tones which stir the innermost recesses of the soul. The stammering of the childish art which you referred to as music could not give you any idea of this. For cultured minds you alone were the great melodists, the masters of harmony, rhythm, and expression. But these words had a very different meaning in your vocabulary from what we give them now.

The art of sound in its true meaning, independent of anything else, was only born yesterday. It has scarcely reached manhood, and Identifying is barely twenty years old. It is beautiful and all-powerful: it is the Pythian Apollo of modern times. We owe to it a world of emotion and feeling which was closed to you. Yes, great venerated poets, you are vanquished: Inclyti sed victi . The seventh symphony is famous for its allegretto *. It is not that the three other movements are less worthy of admiration – far from it. But the public usually judges a work on the effect it produces, and only measures that effect by the volume of the applause. Consequently the movement that always receives the loudest applause is invariably thought to be the most beautiful (even though there is a certain kind of priceless beauty that is not liable to excite noisy approval). And then, to enhance even further the object of such partiality everything else is sacrificed to it. In France at Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through Lens Essay least that is are rhetorical invariably the custom. That is why when talking of Beethoven one refers to the Storm of the pastoral symphony, the finale of the symphony in C minor, the andante of the symphony in A, etc., etc. *Which is always referred to as the adagio or andante . It has apparently not been established whether this work was composed after the Pastoral and the Eroica , and lincoln letter to greeley a number of people believe on the contrary that it preceded them by some time.

If this opinion is well founded, then the number which identifies it as the seventh would only be that of its sequence in the order of publication. The first movement opens with a broad and majestic introduction where melody, modulations and the orchestral writing successively hold the examples listener’s attention. It begins with one of those instrumental effects of which Beethoven is of Self-Determination Theory a Person-Oriented Essay indisputably the creator. The whole orchestra plays a loud and sharp chord, and the ensuing silence reveals the slender voice of an exposed oboe, whose entry was disguised by the orchestral tutti and now develops the melody on its own. There could hardly be a more original way of starting. At the end of the letter to greeley introduction the note E, the dominant of A, returns after a series of excursions into neighbouring keys and forms the subject of a series of exchanges between violins and flutes, similar to the effect found in Constructs of Self-Determination Theory, the opening bars of the finale of the Eroica symphony . Ritual Of Christianity? The E comes and goes for six bars without accompaniment, changing its appearance every time it passes from strings to of Self-Determination Through Essay wind.

Finally it is taken over by flute and lincoln letter oboe and serves as bridge between the introduction and the allegro : it becomes the first note of the main theme, whose rhythmic outline it gradually sketches. I have heard this theme ridiculed for of Self-Determination Theory Lens Essay its rustic simplicity. Had the composer written in large letters at the head of this allegro the Lindsay Lohan examples words Dance of peasants , as he has done for the Pastoral symphony, the charge that it lacks nobility would probably not have been made. Constructs Essay? This shows that while some listeners do not like to be forewarned of the subject treated by lincoln, the composer, there are others on the contrary who are inclined to react unfavourably to any theme that comes in an unfamiliar guise, if the explanation for the anomaly is not provided in advance. Given the Theory Through a Person-Oriented Essay impossibility of deciding between such conflicting views the best course for a composer in such circumstances is to follow his own instinct instead of pursuing the vain delusion of universal approval. This theme has a strongly characterised rhythm, which permeates the harmony and shows up in a multitude of forms without ever interrupting the forward momentum of the music up to the end of the movement. The use of an ostinato rhythmic pattern has never been attempted so successfully. Lincoln Letter? The ample developments of the allegro constantly revolve around the same idea, and so incredible is the skill with which it is written, so frequent and ingenious the variations in tonality, so novel the chordal progressions and their grouping, that the movement is over before the attention and warm response generated in the listener can lose any of their keenness.

The harmonic effect which champions of academic rigour criticise most vehemently is also the happiest: the resolution of the Essay examples dissonance in the six-five chord on the subdominant of the key of E natural. This dissonance of a second on a very loud tremolo in ritual, the upper parts between the Constructs Through a Person-Oriented first and second violins is resolved in a completely novel way. One might have sustained the ritual E and raised the F sharp to G, or sustained the F and brought the E down to D: but Beethoven did neither, and without changing the Constructs of Self-Determination Theory a Person-Oriented Lens Essay bass he merged the two dissonant parts into an octave on F natural, by moving the F sharp a semitone lower and the E down by a major seventh. The chord of a fifth and major sixth thus becomes a minor sixth without the fifth which has dissolved into F natural. The sudden transition from forte to piano at the exact point in this unusual harmonic transformation gives it an even stronger character and enhances its charm. Before passing on Identifying Therapeutic Essay, to the Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens following movement let us not omit to mention the striking crescendo through which Beethoven brings back his favourite rhythm which he had momentarily left aside. This is lincoln letter done by means of a two bar phrase (D, C sharp, B sharp, B sharp, C sharp) in the key of A major, which is repeated eleven times in the lower register by the basses and violas, while the wind instruments sustain an E at the top, bottom and middle of the range in quadruple octaves, and the violins sound a bell-like phrase, the of Self-Determination Essay three notes E, A, E, C, repeated in increasingly fast figuration and competitiveness combined in such a way as to present always the dominant when the basses play D or B sharp, and the tonic or its third when they play C. This is completely novel, and fortunately no imitator has tried, I believe, to squander this beautiful invention. As in the first movement though in a different form, a simple rhythm is again the principal cause of the extraordinary effect produced by the allegretto . The rhythmic pattern consists merely of a dactyl followed by Constructs Through Lens, a spondee played relentlessly, either in three parts, or in only one, then in all parts together.

Sometimes it serves as an accompaniment, but frequently it focuses attention on itself, and Identifying Essay also provides the starting point for a small fugal episode with two subjects played by the strings. It appears first in of Self-Determination Through, the lower strings – violas, cellos, double-basses – played piano , then is repeated soon after in a pianissimo full of melancholy and mystery. Competitiveness Meaning? From there it passes to the second violins while the cellos sing a kind of lament in the minor mode. The rhythmic pattern rises from octave to octave, reaches the first violins who then pass it in a crescendo to the wind instruments at the top of the orchestra, where it bursts out in its full force. Sounded with even greater vehemence the melody now assumes the character of an anguished lament. Conflicting rhythms clash painfully with each other; these are tears, sobs and supplications, this is the expression of limitless grief and all-consuming suffering… But a ray of hope appears: these heartbreaking sounds are followed by a transparent melody, pure, simple, gentle, sad and Through Lens Essay resigned like patience smiling to suffering . The basses continue on their own with their inexorable rhythm under this melodic rainbow; to borrow yet another quotation from to greeley, English poetry, « One fatal remembrance, one sorrow, that throws. Its black shade alike o'er our joys and our woes. » After a similar alternation of anguish and resignation, the orchestra, as though drained by such a painful struggle, plays only of Self-Determination Theory a Person-Oriented, fragments of the marketing cycle main theme and collapses in exhaustion.

Flutes and oboes pick up the theme in of Self-Determination Essay, a dying voice, but do not have the strength to finish it, which the violins do with a few barely audible pizzicato notes. At this point the wind instruments, reviving like the flame of a candle on the point of extinction, utter a deep sigh on an unresolved harmony and… the rest is silence . This mournful cry, which begins and Constructs Through a Person-Oriented Lens ends the andante , is Identifying Goals Essay produced by a six-four chord, which always tends to resolve itself onto another one. Ending on an unresolved harmony is the only way to conclude, by leaving the listener in suspense and thereby increasing the of Self-Determination impression of dreamy sadness into which everything that came before must have plunged him. The theme of the scherzo modulates in a very novel way. It is in F major, and instead of concluding at the end of the first phrase in C, B flat, D minor, A minor, A flat, or D flat, like the majority of pieces of this kind, the modulation reaches the key of A major, a major third above the tonic. The scherzo of the Pastoral symphony , also in F, modulates to D major, a third below. There is of christianity some similarity of colour in these key sequences; but other resemblances can also be observed between the two works. The trio of the seventh symphony ( presto meno assai ), in which the Constructs of Self-Determination a Person-Oriented Lens violins hold the dominant almost continuously, while oboes and clarinets play underneath a bright rustic melody, is very much in the spirit of landscape painting and the idyll. Yet another new type of crescendo can be found there, played in the lower register by the second horn, who repeats softly the notes A and G sharp in duple time, though the main beat is in triple time, with emphasis on Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Lens Essay, the G sharp though A is the lincoln letter real note.

The public always seems taken by of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay, surprise on hearing this passage. The finale is at least as rich as the preceding movements in new combinations, incisive modulations and lincoln to greeley delightful flights of fantasy. The theme has some similarities with that from Gluck's overture to Armide , though only in the disposition of the opening notes, and these are more obvious to the eye than to the ear: in Constructs Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay, performance the what are rhetorical two themes could hardly be more different. The freshness and elegance of Beethoven’s theme, very different from the chivalrous dash of that of Gluck, would make a greater impression if the chords played in the high register by the wind instruments did not cover so much the first violins playing in the middle range, while second violins and violas underneath accompany the melody with a tremolo in double-stopping. Constructs Lens? Throughout this finale Beethoven has achieved effects as graceful as they are unexpected with the Lindsay sudden transition from the key of C sharp minor to that of D major. Among his most daring and Therapeutic felicitous harmonic inventions is without doubt the long pedal on the dominant E, decorated with a D sharp of equal value as the main note. The chord of the seventh is sometimes brought about in the upper part, with the result that the D natural of the Therapeutic Goals Essay upper parts coincides precisely with the Constructs Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens D sharp of the Identifying Therapeutic basses. Constructs Theory A Person-Oriented Lens Essay? One might imagine that the result would be a dreadful dissonance, or at least a lack of harmonic clarity; yet this is not the choices case, and the tonal thrust of this dominant is such that the D sharp does not disfigure it in any way, and Constructs Theory a Person-Oriented Lens that only the buzzing E registers. Beethoven did not write music for the eyes . The coda, launched by this threatening pedal, has extraordinary brilliance, and is fully worthy of bringing this work to its conclusion – a masterpiece of technical skill, taste, imagination, craftsmanship and inspiration. This symphony is also in F, like the Pastoral , though it is Constructs of Self-Determination Theory a Person-Oriented Lens designed on a more modest scale than the preceding symphonies.

Yet though it hardly exceeds the first symphony (in C major) in the breadth of its forms, it is at choices least far superior to it in three respects – instrumental writing, rhythm and melodic style. The first movement has two themes, both of them gentle and peaceful in of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented Lens, character. The second and in our view the more striking of the two always seems to avoid the Lindsay Essay perfect cadence, by modulating first in a completely unexpected way (the phrase begins in D major and ends in C major), and then dissipating itself inconclusively on the diminished seventh chord of the subdominant. Constructs Of Self-Determination Through Lens Essay? This capricious turn in the melody gives the listener the are rhetorical choices feeling that the composer, inclined at first towards gentle feelings, has suddenly been distracted by a sad thought which interrupts his joyful song. The andante scherzando is one of those creations for which there is neither model nor counterpart: it drops from heaven complete into the composer’s imagination; he writes it at a single stretch and we are amazed to hear it. The role of the wind instruments is Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented Essay here the opposite of their normal one: they accompany with repeated chords, played pianissimo eight times in every bar, the airy dialogue a punta d’arco between violins and basses. This has a gentle innocence which is delightful in its nonchalant manner, like the ritual of christianity song of two children picking flowers in of Self-Determination Theory Through, a field on a fine spring morning. The main theme consists of two sections of three bars each, the of Self-Determination Essay symmetry of which is broken by the silence which follows the basses’ reply; as a result the first section ends on the weak beat and the second on the strong. The harmonic ticking of the oboes, clarinets, horns and bassoons so captivates the listener that he does not notice the lack of symmetry in are rhetorical, the strings’ melody which results from the Theory Through additional silent bar. Are Rhetorical Choices? The function of this bar is evidently to leave exposed for longer the delightful chord over which the lively melody flutters. This example shows once more that the law of symmetry can sometimes be broken to good effect.

But it is hard to believe that this exquisite idyll should end with the commonplace which Beethoven disliked most, namely the Italian cadence. At the moment when the instrumental dialogue of the two small orchestras of wind and strings is at its most enchanting, the composer, as though suddenly obliged to stop, makes the Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Essay violins play tremolo the four notes G, F, A, B flat (sixth, dominant, leading note, tonic), repeat them several times in a hurry, exactly as when the Italians sing Felicita , and then come to an abrupt halt. I have never been able to make sense of this musical joke. Marketing Cycle? At this point a minuet, similar in design and tempo to those of Haydn, takes the Constructs Through a Person-Oriented Lens place of the scherzo in triple time which Beethoven invented and which he has used in all his other symphonic works in such an ingenious and striking way. In truth this is a rather ordinary piece, and the old-fashioned form seems to Lohan Essay have stifled musical thought. The finale by contrast sparkles with wit; the musical material is brilliantly original and richly developed. It has diatonic progressions in two parts and in contrary motion, through which the composer achieves a crescendo of huge dimension which brings the work to Theory Lens a most effective conclusion. The harmonic writing does however contain a few rough edges caused by passing notes which are not resolved quickly enough on the right notes and which sometimes even pause on a silence. At the cost of some violence to the letter of musical theory it is easy to explain away these passing dissonances, but in performance they always grate on the ear to a greater or lesser degree. But consider the high pedal held by the flutes and oboes on F, while the timpani underneath repeat the of Self-Determination Through Essay same note in octaves at marketing cycle the return of the theme, and the violins play the notes C, G and B flat from the dominant seventh chord, preceded by the third F, A from the tonic chord.

This sustained high note may not be allowed by theory, since it does not always fit into the harmony, but it does not cause any offence. On the contrary, thanks to of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay the skilful layout of the instruments and the character of the musical phrase, the result of this bunching of sounds is excellent and competitiveness meaning remarkably smooth. Before concluding we cannot omit mentioning an orchestral effect which perhaps more than any other takes the listener by surprise when this finale is performed: the note C sharp played very loud by of Self-Determination Through, the mass of the orchestra in unison and in octaves after a diminuendo which has faded out in the key of C major. Of Self-Determination A Person-Oriented Lens? The first two times this rasp is immediately followed by , the return of the theme in F, and it becomes clear that the C sharp was simply an enharmonic D flat, the flattened sixth of the Constructs of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay main key. Therapeutic Goals? But the Constructs Theory a Person-Oriented Lens Essay third appearance of this strange entry has a very different character. The orchestra, after modulating to C as before now plays a real D flat followed by a fragment of the theme in D flat, then a real C sharp, followed by another fragment of the theme in C sharp minor, and finally repeats this C sharp three times over with increased force, and the whole theme now returns in F sharp minor . The note which initially played the role of a minor sixth becomes on Constructs Theory Through Lens Essay, its last appearance successively the flattened major third , the ritual of christianity sharpened minor third , and finally the dominant . This is Constructs of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented very striking. To analyse such a work is difficult and daunting task which we have long hesitated to undertake.

The excuse for such a foolhardy venture can only lie in our persistent efforts to see the work through the composer’s eyes, to penetrate its intimate meaning, to experience its impact, and to study the impressions it has made so far on a few who are gifted with exceptional sensitivity, as well as on the general public. Among the many diverse views that have been expressed on this score there can hardly be two that are in agreement. Constructs Of Self-Determination Theory A Person-Oriented Essay? Some critics regard it as a monstrous insanity ; others can only see in it the fading glimmers of a dying genius ; more cautiously a few declare they find it at the moment completely unintelligible, but do not despair of achieving at least an approximate understanding of it later; the majority of artistically minded people regard it as an extraordinary conception, though some of its parts nevertheless remain unexplained or without apparent purpose. A small number of musicians who are temperamentally inclined to examine carefully anything that might enlarge the realm of art, and who have thought deeply about the general layout of the Choral symphony after studying the score and listening to it attentively on several occasions, assert that this work seems to them the most magnificent expression of Beethoven’s genius: we believe we have said at some earlier point that this is the choices opinion we share. Without enquiring what purely personal ideas the composer might have wanted to express in this vast musical poem – a subject wide open to individual conjecture – let us see whether the novelty of the form is not justified in this case by of Self-Determination Theory Through Essay, an intention that is quite independent of any philosophical or religious thought, which might seem equally reasonable and beautiful to lincoln anyone, be he a fervent Christian, a pantheist or an atheist, in short by an intention of a purely musical and poetic kind. Beethoven had already written eight symphonies before this one.

To progress beyond the point he had already reached solely with the resources of orchestral instruments, what further means were available? The answer is the of Self-Determination a Person-Oriented Lens addition of voices to instruments. But in order to observe the law of crescendo , and enhance in the work itself the power of the additional resource he wanted to provide to the orchestra, it was surely necessary to allow the Lohan examples instruments to figure on their own in the first section of the musical canvas he intended to display… Granted this premise, it is easy to see that he must have been led to search for Constructs Theory a Person-Oriented Lens a mixed musical genre to serve as link between the two major articulations of the symphony. The instrumental recitative was the bridge he had the audacity to throw between the chorus and the orchestra, over which the instruments crossed to go and join the voices. What Choices? The transition once established the composer must have wanted to announce and motivate the fusion that was about to take place. That is the point where speaking through the chorus leader, he exclaimed, to the sound of the instrumental recitative he had just introduced: Friends!

No more sounds like these, but let us intone more pleasant songs, more filled with joy! That is, so to speak, the treaty of alliance concluded between chorus and Constructs Theory a Person-Oriented orchestra; the same theme of the recitative, used by both orchestra and chorus, seems to constitute the oath formula. Thereafter it was up to ritual of christianity the composer to select the text for his choral composition: for this Beethoven turned to Schiller and took over the Ode to Joy . He coloured it with countless nuances which poetry on its own could never have conveyed, and Theory Through Essay it progresses to the end acquiring ever more splendour, grandeur and brilliance. Such is the rationale, it may be suggested more or less plausibly, for the general scheme of this immense work; let us now study its individual parts in detail. The first movement has a sombre majesty and is like no other piece written by Beethoven before. The harmony is at times excessively daring: the are rhetorical choices most original patterns, the most expressive gestures crowd in and criss-cross in Constructs of Self-Determination Through Essay, every direction, but without causing any obscurity or congestion. On the contrary the result has perfect clarity, and the numerous orchestral voices that plead or threaten, each in its own way and its own special style, seem to form a single voice, such is the emotional charge that drives them. This allegro maestoso , written in D minor, begins nevertheless on the chord of A without the third, in other words on the notes A and marketing cycle E sustained as a fifth, and played as an arpeggio above and below by the first violins, violas and double-basses. The listener is Constructs of Self-Determination Through therefore not sure whether he is Lindsay hearing the chord of A minor, or of A major, or that of the dominant of D. This prolonged tonal ambiguity gives great power and character to the entry of the full orchestra on Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens, the chord of D minor. At the end of the movement there are moments that move the soul to competitiveness meaning its depths.

It would be hard to hear anything more profoundly tragic than the song of the wind instruments beneath which a chromatic phrase played tremolo by the strings swells and rises gradually, like the roar of the sea before an approaching storm. This is a passage of magnificent inspiration. On several occasions in of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens, this work we will be drawing attention to clusters of notes which cannot possibly be described as chords, and ritual we will be forced to admit that the reason for Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented Essay these anomalies escapes us completely. For example on page 17 of the Essay examples wonderful movement we have been describing there is a melodic passage for clarinets and bassoons, which is accompanied as follows in the key of C minor: the bass plays first an F sharp supporting a diminished seventh, then an A flat supporting a third, fourth and augmented sixth, and finally G over which flutes and oboes play the notes E flat, G, C which gives a six-four chord. This would be an excellent resolution of the previous chord if the second violins and violas did not add to the harmony the two notes F natural and Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented A flat which disfigure it and lincoln letter cause a most unpleasant confusion which fortunately is of short duration.

This passage is lightly scored and completely free from any roughness; I cannot therefore understand this quadruple dissonance which is so strangely introduced and completely unmotivated. One might suppose there is an engraving error, but a careful inspection of these two bars and those that precede dispels all doubts and one remains convinced that this is really what the Constructs Through composer intended. The scherzo vivace which follows contains nothing of the same kind. Admittedly there are a number of pedal notes on the tonic in Lohan examples, the upper and middle voices which are sustained through the dominant chord. But I have already stated my position on these pedal notes that are foreign to the harmony, and this new example is not needed to demonstrate the excellent use they can be put to when they arise naturally from the musical logic. It is particularly through the use of rhythm that Beethoven has managed to make this delightful banter so interesting.

The theme with its fugal response four bars later is full of vitality, and sparkles with wit when the response then comes a bar earlier and follows a ternary instead of the initial binary rhythm. The central part of the scherzo is taken up with a presto in duple time full of rustic joy. The theme is deployed over what choices, an intermediary pedal note which is either the tonic or the dominant, accompanied by a counter-subject which harmonises equally well with either of the held notes, the dominant and the tonic . The melody is finally brought back by a phrase of delightful freshness in the oboe; after staying poised for Theory a Person-Oriented Lens a moment over the dominant major chord of D it finally blossoms in the key of F natural in a way that is as graceful as it is unexpected. This is another echo of the Identifying Therapeutic Essay gentle impressions that Beethoven loved so much, impressions that are aroused by the sight of a radiant and of Self-Determination a Person-Oriented Essay peaceful landscape, pure air and the first rays of dawn in spring. In the adagio cantabile the principle of unity is marketing cycle so little observed that one might think of it as two separate movements rather than one. Constructs A Person-Oriented Lens Essay? The first melody in B flat in Identifying Essay, quadruple time is Constructs Through a Person-Oriented Essay followed by a completely different melody in D major in triple time. Of Christianity? The first theme, slightly altered and varied by the first violins, appears for the second time in the original key and leads to the return of the melody in triple time, unchanged and without embellishments but in the key of G major. After this the of Self-Determination Theory Lens Essay first theme finally establishes itself and no longer allows the rival theme to compete for the listener’s attention. Lindsay Lohan Examples? Repeated hearings of this wonderful adagio are needed to get completely used to such a peculiar design.

As for the beauty of all these melodies, the infinite grace of the ornaments which decorate them, the feelings of sad tenderness, passionate despair and religious reverie they express, if only my words could give even an approximate idea of them, then music would have found in the written word a rival which even the greatest of poets will never be able to oppose to it. It is an immense movement, and once the listener has succumbed to its powerful charm, the only answer to the criticism that the composer has violated here the law of unity has to be: so much the worse for the law! We are now close to the moment when the voices are about to join the orchestra. Cellos and double-basses intone the recitative we mentioned above, after a passage for the wind instruments as harsh and Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Lens violent as a cry of anger. The chord of the major sixth, F, A and D, with which this presto begins, is altered by , an appogiatura on B flat, played simultaneously by flutes, oboes and clarinets; the sixth of the Constructs Through Essay key of D minor grinds dreadfully against the dominant and produces an excessively harsh effect. This does indeed express fury and of christianity rage, but here again I cannot see what motivates such feelings, unless the composer, before making the Constructs Through a Person-Oriented Essay chorus leader sing the words: Let us intone more pleasant songs , had wanted in a strangely capricious way to vilify the orchestral harmony. Yet he seems to regret it, since in between each phrase of the recitative of the basses, he repeats, like so many memories that are dear to his heart, fragments of the three preceding movements. What is more, after this first recitative, he puts in the orchestra, in the midst of exquisitely chosen chords, the beautiful theme which is about to be sung by all the voices on Schiller’s ode. This theme, gentle and calm in character, becomes increasingly animated and brilliant as it moves from the basses which play it first to letter the violins and the wind instruments.

After a sudden interruption, the whole orchestra plays again the furious ritornello mentioned above which now introduces the vocal recitative. The first chord is again built on an F which is supposed to carry the third and Constructs Lens Essay the sixth and does indeed do so, but this time the composer not content with the ritual appogiatura of B flat adds those of G, E and C sharp, with the result that ALL THE NOTES OF THE MINOR DIATONIC SCALE are played at once and Constructs Theory Lens Essay produce the hideous assembly of notes: F, A, C sharp, E, G, B flat, D. Forty years ago, the French composer Martin, known as Martini, wanted to produce in his opera Sapho a similar howl for the orchestra, and did so by using at once all the diatonic, chromatic and Therapeutic Essay enharmonic intervals of the scale at the moment when Phaon’s mistress hurls herself into the sea – but he did not ask himself whether his attempt was appropriate and whether it enhanced or assaulted the dignity of art, though admittedly there could be no mistaking his intentions. But in this case my efforts at discovering Beethoven’s purpose are completely in Through a Person-Oriented, vain. I can see a formal intention, a deliberate and calculated attempt to produce a double discordance, both at the point which precede the appearance of the recitative, instrumental at first and later vocal. Letter To Greeley? I have searched hard for the reason for this idea, and I have to admit that it is unknown to me. The chorus leader, after singing his recitative on of Self-Determination Essay, words by Beethoven himself, as we have mentioned, introduces on Therapeutic Essay, his own the theme of the Ode to Joy , with a light accompaniment of two wind instruments and of Self-Determination a Person-Oriented Lens the strings playing pizzicato . This theme recurs to the end of the symphony and examples is always recognisable, though its appearance keeps changing. A study of these diverse transformations is all the more absorbing as each of them brings out a new and distinctive nuance in are rhetorical choices, the expression of a single feeling, that of joy. At first this joy is Constructs of Self-Determination Lens Essay full of gentleness and peace; it becomes somewhat livelier when the voice of women is heard. The beat changes; the theme, sung initially in quadruple time, returns in 6/8 time in syncopated style and now takes on letter to greeley, a more robust and agile character that has a martial quality.

This is the song of a departing hero who is confident of victory; you can almost imagine his shining armour and hear the rhythmic tread of his step. A fugal theme in which the examples original melody can be recognised, serves for Constructs Theory a Person-Oriented Lens a while as subject for a lively orchestral development, which recalls the ritual bustling activity of a crowd full of ardour… But the chorus soon re-enters and sings energetically the Theory a Person-Oriented Essay joyful hymn in its original simplicity, supported by chords of the wind instruments which shadow the Identifying Therapeutic melody, and Constructs of Self-Determination Through Lens Essay criss-crossed by a diatonic passage played by the whole mass of strings in unison and octaves. The andante maestoso which follows is a kind of chorale intoned first by the tenors and basses of the chorus, in unison with a trombone, the cellos and examples double-basses. Joy here assumes a religious dimension and becomes solemn and immense. The chorus falls briefly silent then resumes less emphatically its spacious chords, after a passage of great beauty for orchestra alone which has an organ-like quality.

The imitation of the majestic instrument of Christian churches is produced by flutes in the lower register, clarinets in the chalumeau register, the Constructs of Self-Determination Theory a Person-Oriented Essay lower notes of the bassoons, the violas divided into two parts, upper and lower, and the cellos playing on their open strings G and D, or the low C (open string) and the C in of Self-Determination Theory Lens, the middle range, always in competitiveness, double-stopping. This piece starts in G, moves to C, then to F, and ends on a pause on the dominant seventh of D. There follows a great allegro in 6/4 where from the start are combined the Constructs Theory Through Essay beginning of the first theme, already used frequently with such variety, and the chorale of the preceding andante . Lindsay Examples? The contrast between these two ideas is made even more striking by Constructs of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay, a fast variation of the lincoln to greeley joyful theme, on Constructs of Self-Determination Theory a Person-Oriented, top of the long notes of the chorale, played not only by the first violins but also by the double-basses. Now it is impossible for double-basses to perform a succession of notes at that speed, and once again it is Lens hard to understand how a composer as familiar as Beethoven with the art of orchestration could have committed such a lapse in writing a passage like this for this unwieldy instrument. There is letter less fire and grandeur, and greater lightness in the style of the Through following piece: its keynote is that of innocent joy, expressed first by four solo voices and then given greater warmth through the ritual addition of the chorus. Moments of tenderness and religious feeling alternate twice with the joyful melody, then the ritual tempo becomes increasingly precipitate. The whole orchestra bursts out, the percussion instruments – timpani, cymbals, triangle, bass drum – strike emphatically the of Self-Determination Theory a Person-Oriented strong beats of the bar. Joy resumes her sway, a popular and tumultuous joy which might look like an orgy if at the end the voices did not pause once more on a solemn rhythm to letter to greeley send, in an ecstatic cry, their final greeting of love and respect for Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay religious joy. The orchestra ends on its own, but not without interspersing its headlong rush with fragments of the first theme which the listener cannot get tired of. A translation as accurate as possible of the lincoln German poem set by Beethoven will convey to the reader the stimulus for Constructs a Person-Oriented Essay this profusion of musical combinations, masterly supports of unceasing inspiration and Therapeutic Goals Essay obedient tools of a powerful and tireless genius * . « Joy!

Fair spark of the gods, daughter of Elysium, we enter your sanctuary intoxicated with your fire! Your magic power unites again those whom earthly customs have forcibly separated. All men will be brothers again under your gentle wing. « Who has had the of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens good fortune to be the Identifying Goals friend of a friend, who has won a noble wife, let him mingle his joy with ours! Yes, any who can call even one soul on earth his own. But who cannot, let him steal away in tears from this gathering. « All beings drink joy on the breast of nature; all good and all evil men follow a path strewn with roses. She gave us kisses and vintage, a friend who is true unto death. The worm receives the joy of life and the cherub stands before God! « Glad like the suns that fly through the glorious fields of heaven, hurry, brothers, on your way, joyful like a hero hastening to victory. Constructs Theory Through A Person-Oriented Lens? « Millions, be embraced! This kiss to the whole world! Brothers, above the starry heaven, a dear father must have his dwelling. « You fall prostrate, o you millions?

World, do you sense the creator? Seek him above the starry heaven! He must dwell over the stars! « Joy! Fair spark of the gods, daughter of Elysium, we enter your sanctuary intoxicated with your fire! « Daughter of Elysium, joy, fair spark of the Lindsay Essay gods!! » Of all the composer’s symphonies this is the most difficult to perform; it requires patient and repeated study, and in particular a good conductor. Lens Essay? It also requires a body of singers all the larger since evidently the chorus must cover the orchestra in many places. In addition, the way the music is written for the words and the excessive height of some of the choral parts make voice production very difficult and reduce considerably the volume and power of the sound.

Be that as it may, when Beethoven had finished his work and could contemplate the majestic dimensions of the of christianity monument he had just built, he must have said to himself: «Death may come now, but my task is accomplished.» * Note: the following is our own translation of Schiller's German text. The Hector Berlioz Website was created by Michel Austin and Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Lens Essay Monir Tayeb on 18 July 1997;

Essay Writing Service - Emerging Trends and Future Directions for the Field of Motivation

Nov 16, 2017 Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay,

Write My Paper - Motivation and Autonomy in Counseling, Psychotherapy - American

essay of argument Sure, you’re a lover not a fighter. I am too. But that doesn’t mean that you can avoid writing your argumentative essay! Since you have to write an argumentative essay, you might as well learn how to write it well, right? I’ve said it time and Through a Person-Oriented Essay time again—there’s nothing worse than staring at a blank page.

Putting together an Therapeutic Essay, argumentative essay outline is the perfect way to turn your blank document into a ready-to-use template. All you have to do is fill in the blanks! In this blog post, I’m going to share with you how to create an argumentative essay outline. At the ritual end, I’ll give you a downloadable skeleton outline you can use to get started. Structure of the Argumentative Essay Outline. That’s not so bad! There’s really nothing to be afraid of. Here’s how your argumentative essay outline would look if you turned it into a pretty picture: Each of these four sections requires some important elements.

Let’s break those down now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 1: Your Intro. Your introduction is where you lay the foundation for your impenetrable argument. It’s made up of a hook, background information, and a thesis statement. 1. Hook. Your first sentence is Essay comprised of a “hook.” Don’t know what a hook is? A hook is a sentence that grabs your reader’s attention just like a good Jackie Chan movie grabs the attention of a martial arts fan. Let’s say I’m writing an argumentative essay about why American people should start eating insects. My hook could be, “For those interested in improving their diets and the environment, say ‘goodbye’ to eating chicken, fish, and beef and meaning ‘hello’ to eating silk worms, crickets, and caterpillars.” If you’re having trouble coming up with a good hook, I recommend reading my blog post How to Write Good Hook Sentences. 2. Background information.

The next part of your intro is dedicated to offering some detailed background information on your topic. Try answering the following questions: What is the Theory Through Lens issue at hand? Who cares? Where is lincoln this issue prevalent? Why is it important? For example, “Insects are abundant, nutritious, and environmentally sustainable. Currently, people in Therapeutic Goals, the United States shun the idea of eating insects as part of their diets, favoring instead less nutritious and Lindsay examples environmentally destructive food options, such as beef and pork. The UN recently issued a statement calling for more world citizens to embrace the many benefits of eating insects.”

3. Thesis. Your thesis typically makes up the last sentence of your intro paragraph. This is where you clearly state your position on of Self-Determination Theory Essay, the topic and give a reason for your stance. For example, “A diet of insects can help fix problems related to lincoln letter to greeley, starvation, obesity, and climate change, and therefore, United States citizens should learn to Theory Essay, rely on what choices, a variety of insects over chicken, beef, and fish as their main source of protein and nutrition.” Notice the word “should” in my thesis statement?

Using this word makes it clear I’m taking a stance on the argument. You’ll also notice that my thesis statement sets up the Constructs a Person-Oriented Lens three claims I’m going to expand on later: a diet of insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and climate change. Let’s talk about marketing cycle adding those claims to our argumentative essay outline now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 2: Developing Your Argument. Now that you have filled in the general points of your topic and outlined your stance in Constructs of Self-Determination Lens, the introduction, it’s time to Lindsay Essay, develop your argument. In my sample outline, I show three claims, each backed by three points of evidence. Offering three claims is just a suggestion; you may find that you only have two claims to make, or four. The exact number of claims you choose to include doesn’t matter (unless, of course, your teacher has given you a specific requirement). What matters is that you develop your argument as thoroughly as possible.

1. What is a claim? A claim is of Self-Determination Through Lens Essay a statement you make to support your argument. For example, “Bugs are highly nutritious and eating them can fix the problem of hunger and malnutrition in competitiveness meaning, the United States.” Great! So I’ve made my claim. But who’s going to believe me? This is where evidence comes into play. 2. What is of christianity evidence?

For each claim you make, you need to provide supporting evidence. Evidence is factual information from reliable sources. It is meaning not personal knowledge or anecdotal. For example, “Researchers at the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United States state that ‘Termites are rich in protein, fatty acids, and Constructs Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay other micronutrients. Fried or dried termites contain 32–38 percent proteins.’“ My outline shows three pieces of evidence to marketing cycle, support each claim, but you may find that each claim doesn’t necessarily have three pieces of evidence to back it.

Once again, the exact number doesn’t necessarily matter (unless your teacher has given you instructions), but you need enough evidence to make your claim believable. Once you have gathered your evidence to support your claims, it’s time to add the next important element of your argumentative essay outline: refuting your opponents’ arguments. Let’s talk about that now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 3: Refuting Opponents’ Arguments. In this section, you state your opponents’ views and then offer a rebuttal. For example, “Opponents of insect eating from the Beef Council of America say that it is too difficult and time consuming to Constructs Through a Person-Oriented, catch crickets, so it is what choices not easy to gather enough food for a meal, whereas a cow is large and contains a lot of meat for many meals.” Oh diss!

We know the Beef Council just wants us to keep eating McD’s hamburgers and Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through skip the cricket soup. (By the way—I just made that up. The Beef Council did not say that. In your essay, make sure to Lindsay Essay, use real facts.) Now it’s time to set the opponents straight with a refutation that is full of hard evidence and that will bring them to Theory Lens, their knees. For example, “According to researchers Cerritos and are rhetorical choices Cano-Santana, the of Self-Determination Theory Through best time to harvest crickets is to catch them in meaning, the hour just before sunrise when they are least active. What’s more, it is easy to of Self-Determination Theory Through Essay, develop the infrastructure to , farm crickets in a way that is more sustainable than cattle farming.”

Booyah! The Beef Council has been served (crickets). Once you have refuted your opponents’ viewpoints, it’s time to sail to the finish line with your conclusion. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 4: Conclusion. In your conclusion, you are going to accomplish two important tasks. 1. Restate the importance of your issue. Similar to are rhetorical choices, what you did in your introduction, you want to restate why this topic is critical. For example, “Simply by incorporating insects into their diets, U.S. citizens can improve the of Self-Determination Essay sustainability and nutrition of the American diet.” 2. Paint a picture of the world if your argument is (or is not) implemented. In the Constructs Through a Person-Oriented Essay final part of your conclusion, make your audience think about the ramifications of your argument. What would happen if people started eating insects as a staple of their diets?

For example, “The world would be a better place if more people ate insects as a part of their diets. Fewer people would go hungry, more people would get the vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients they need to live healthy lifestyles, and competitiveness meaning our planet would be relieved of the burden of an unsustainable food system. Closing with a clear picture of the world as you would like it to be can leave your reader convinced that your argument is valid. Download the Argumentative Essay Outline Template. Download this skeleton Argumentative Essay Outline to get started.

Before you go off into the sunset and Through a Person-Oriented Lens use my outline template, make sure that you are following the guidelines specific to your course. While this is a pretty standard outline, there are other ways to outline your argumentative essay. If you’re interested in Identifying Therapeutic Goals Essay, learning more about argumentative essays, I suggest reading The Secrets of a Strong Argumentative Essay. Want even more knowledge? Check out this argumentative essay infographic! If you’re looking for some ideas, check out these argumentative essay examples. When you have your argumentative essay and outline ready to go, you can always have one of our awesome editors give it a second look.

Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Naomi Tepper is of christianity a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd. wow this was really help full. Super! I’m really happy to help. #128578; Hi I have a 20 minute presentation to do on the history of cognitive-behaviour therapy. Don’t know where to begin.

Is this the Constructs of Self-Determination Theory a Person-Oriented Lens same as doing an argument. This sounds more like an expository essay. An expository essay (or presentation in your case) has the goal of informing the audience on a specific topic. Usually you don’t take an argumentative stance for or against these topics. For more information on Lohan Essay, expository writing visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-expository-essay/ hi i need some help on an argument . The topic is internet a guide or a distraction. i hope u can help. Do you think the internet is a guide or a distraction?

I would suggest writing a thesis statement like this: You could focus on arguing for Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens, the internet: “The internet is lincoln letter to greeley a useful guide as shown by Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Lens Essay evidence 1, evidence 2, and what choices evidence 3.” OR you could focus on arguing against the internet: “The internet is an Constructs of Self-Determination Essay, annoying distraction as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.” OR, and this is the best option, you could focus on arguing how to best use the internet: “The internet can be both a useful guide as shown by evidence 1 and evidence 2, but it can also be an lincoln letter to greeley, annoying distraction as shown by evidence 3 and evidence 4. It is Lohan important to set personal limits on Constructs of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented Lens, web use including solution 1, solution 2, and solution 3.” Personal limits could include things such as limiting yourself to competitiveness, viewing only specific websites during work/study hours, limiting overall time online, and other things like that! Hi Liz, well first you need to pick a side.

What do you think? Should they have their licenses revoked? Then you need to come up with a few reasons for of Self-Determination Theory Through Lens Essay, why you think this. Can you find any examples of how this tactic has worked (or hasn’t worked). What about Identifying Goals people who lose their licenses for other (criminal) reasons, is this type of punishment effective? Why or why not? Come up with approx three claims to Theory Through a Person-Oriented Essay, support your side. Find some evidence to support your claims. Lay out how each of the two authors approach the what choices topic of the Crusades. What do they have in common?

What is different? Super happy to help! thank you so much for this! You are welcome so much! Thanks for reading. #128578; Hi, I am writing an , argumentative essay on freedom of speech rights and of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented the 1st amendment and I have two sides of the argument. I am for freedom of speech if it doesn’t harm other people and I have some cases where the supreme court are avoiding the laws stated in the amendment but I’m on the court’s side of restricting inappropriate speech in of Self-Determination, a school environment. How should I start out my argument?

I think you need to combine your two perspectives into one focused argument. Do you, perhaps, want to argue that inappropriate speech in a school environment is actually harmful to lincoln letter, other people? That way, it falls into Constructs of Self-Determination Essay your first argument (pro-free speech as long as it’s not harmful) quite nicely. Good luck! it has helped a lot …… great work.

Thanks! Glad you liked it. #128578; Thank you very much :)) You are welcome! Thanks for competitiveness, reading #128578; HI, I am writing an argumentative essay on how different governments should provide additional funding to increase awareness of human trafficking, prevent human trafficking, and help victims who have been trafficked. I am not sure where to marketing cycle, start from. Hi–some of these example essays on human trafficking may give you ideas on how to get started: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/human%20trafficking. Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on how is social media like Facebook or Twitter beneficial or harmful to its users? I am not sure how to start from there. Hi Rosie– you might find inspiration on how to get started by reviewing some of these example essays on social media: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/social%20media.

Hi, i was wondering if in the conclusion of the essay you need to end it with a question, something for the reader to continue to think about after reading or is it unnecessary? Great question! Asking a larger question is definitely one great conclusion technique. Some teachers/profs really like this, while others prefer that you tie everything up with a neat little bow. I recommend you check out Constructs Through this post on the topic of conclusions: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/

This helped a lot! Thanks, love how its broken down. I have a question though. Should the conclusion have its own paragraph or can I include the conclusion with opponents argument? I definitely recommend giving your conclusion its own paragraph. You don’t want to leave your readers hanging on to just your opponent’s argument! You can learn more about writing conclusions in this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ Helped me to help my students #128578; I was wondering if you can show a sample essay with these elements in use? Thank you #128578; Awesome!

I love to hear that. That’s a really great idea… and one that I intend to Through a Person-Oriented Lens, implement in upcoming blog posts. However, at this time I don’t readily have access to a knock out example. –Naomi. HELP. I am having a hard time with my argumentative research essay on drug testing to receive state benefits a.e. T.A.N.F, food stamps.. I’m getting so frustrated and letter to greeley I dont have any idea where to begin.. I found it very useful!

Thanks a lot #128512; You’re welcome a lot! Thanks for reading. #128578; thanks helped me a lot luv your work 3. can u do a website on argumentiv wtiting starters plz im a begener. OMG. THX so much this helped a ton. You are so welcome!

Thanks for reading. #128578; You’re welcome! Wow that’s a great idea for an essay. Very intriguing. is this guide ok for an eight grader test. Yasss…This blog is reliable…Thanks ? Woot!

Glad you like it. #128578; I’m happy to hear it. #128578; Thanks for your comment. I have to write an argumentative. research essay about the career of my choice, which is sports marketing. I’m not sure what type of arguments I need to make. Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about it’s importance in the world? It’s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to Essay, write an argumentative paper about it. I have to Constructs Through a Person-Oriented Lens, write an argumentative research essay about the career of my choice, which is sports marketing. I’m not sure what type of arguments I need to make. Am I defending my choice of careers?

Am I talking about it’s importance in the world? It’s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about it. Hi there–I’d double check your assignment for clues on how to approach this. If there really aren’t any additional clues, I would go with your first instinct to defend your choice of careers. Why are you interested? Is the pay worth it? What makes you cut out for this career in particular? A thesis statement might look like: Sports marketing is the perfect career choice for me as it will allow me to use my strengths in XYZ, make a decent income, all while keeping me interested and engaged. Then use the rest of your essay to fill out those key points. Thanks!

That’s helpful. Here’s what the assignment says: “In your argumentative research essay, you will a) conduct research about a successful and realistic career of your choice, b) use this research and Essay accompanying commentary and rhetoric to lincoln letter to greeley, create an argument that you will eventually present and defend to a group of peers. This assignment serves to create a foundation for ritual of christianity, personal statements, resumes and CVs, and even interviews in Constructs a Person-Oriented Essay, which you will be asked about your chosen career path and its significance to you. The evidence you collect during your research should support and justify your pursuit of any given career.” Do you think I will be on track if I use your suggested thesis? Yes–I do. You’ll also want to find some hard facts and statistics to of Self-Determination a Person-Oriented Lens Essay, support your claims. For example, dig up how much it will cost for you to get your degree and weigh that against your potential income. You’ll want to start with a clear thesis statement. I assume that when you say you are pro-Hungary this means that you feel the country shouldn’t be required to accept refugees? If so, your thesis statement might look something like this:

Hungary should not be required to accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Or–if you think the country should help. You would start with a thesis like this: Hungary should be required to accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Glad to Constructs of Self-Determination Theory a Person-Oriented, help! Thanks for your comment.

Hi ! I need help in writing a good thesis statement on the advantages and disadvantages of using a cell phone. Please help. I need to submit it on Therapeutic Goals, thursday. Plz Plz help. This one is pretty straightforward. You can frame it like this: Cell phone use has many advantages such as A, and of Self-Determination Theory a Person-Oriented Essay B, but some disadvantages such as C. Or you could flip it: Cell phone use has many disadvantages such as A, and Lohan Essay B, but some advantages such as C. Fill in A, B, and C with your actual research.

Thank you so much Naomi. This is a great help. Hi ! I need to of Self-Determination Theory, write a thesis statement on the topic, ‘Element of hamartia in Hamlet, Love song of J Alfred and Agamemnon. I need a thesis statement on this. I have written – Unable to take the Constructs of Self-Determination Theory a Person-Oriented correct decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end.

To be able to make that correct decision one must have the confidence otherwise it can have a tragic end as it happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon and The Love song of J. Alfred. Do you think this is of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay ok, if not can you help me please in writing a good thesis statement. Thank you. I think you have the of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented right idea, but your version is unclear and Essay examples a bit repetitive. How about this edit? Being unable to make the right decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end, which is Constructs Theory Through exactly what happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon, and The Love song of J. Alfred. Thank you Naomi so very much. This is letter to greeley great. I can go ahead now.

You’re welcome, Rachel! First you’ll need to Constructs of Self-Determination, come up with a thesis statement. For example: Public schools should be divided by sex because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Then choose reasons that you can support with evidence from your research. this really works thanks. Glad it worked for marketing cycle, you, Rose! Thanks for your comment. Thanks but I’m having trouble coming up with a good topic that is strong and Constructs a Person-Oriented Lens worthy to Lindsay, be argued but not boring.

I want to do something that isn’t a popular topic like is texting and driving bad anu advice. thank you so much. I have to write an argumentative essay on Constructs Theory Lens, Poverty and Illiteracy. I have already looked up my citations. But I don’t know how to break down my citations. Could you help me please? I’m not sure whether you need to are rhetorical choices, write APA, MLA, or some other type of citation, but I have some blog posts that can help: MLA is how I need to write it. Oh lordy this blog is ammmaaazzzinnnng.

Why thank you! I appreciate you readinnnnnng! can you send me your project on of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented, my email [emailprotected] Ikr like wowww …I am so grateful to reach up on it. can u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] . I’m supposed to are rhetorical choices, create an argumentative essay that Rome was a superior society to Han China.

Thank you so much. I think this is Constructs a Person-Oriented Lens super helpful. Now my next problem is to greeley if I can fit it all onto one page. (That’s the limit our teacher gave us. he wants to see if we can make brief statements that speak many words with little words written) Funny–is that a common assignment this month? You’re not the first student to ask me about this Romans v Hans. A topic that large is Constructs Lens going to be very difficult to explore in ritual of christianity, a single page–but hey, it’s a good exercise in concision. In any case–at the Theory a Person-Oriented Lens Essay risk of sounding sales-y–the Kibin editing team is Theory Through Essay really good at meticulously cutting an essay down to size if you end up going over that one-page limit. You can learn more about our editing service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. I really don’t understand the refuting part. When you refute something, you take your opponent’s argument and rip it to of Self-Determination Theory Through Lens Essay, shreds.

So for example, say your opponent’s biggest argument is that Donald Trump is the best candidate for U.S. president, you could counter that argument by pointing out that he has zero experience in politics. hello again. I don’t know if you got my resent reply but I was trying to ask and see if you could give me a little advice on some good resources involving work laws for of Self-Determination Theory Through Lens Essay, teens. This is really helped a lot. I was able to do my argumentative essay after reading this. It also explained clearly what I was looking for.

Thank you! 3. You are so welcome! Glad to help. #128578; thanks a lot! this helped me create my english paper! Sweet! Love to hear that. #128578; Thank you so much. You saved my last semester of college! (From a French canadian currently having English Classes)

Hey! Thanks for of Self-Determination a Person-Oriented, the great comment. You really made my day! I wish you the very best in your English classes. Woot! Happy to help. #128578; Fantastic! So happy to hear it. #128578; I’m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to of Self-Determination Theory Through Lens, the knowledge of health practitioners. Please hook me up!!

Love this blog. What email address I can sent my essay to get fix? And how long do I have to wait to get it back. Thank you. Hi Trinh Le, I love that you love it. #128578; Thanks for the comment. To have an essay edited, please visit us here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading.

Our editors can have your essay back in as few as 3 hours (depending on word count). I’m in love with this blog. I was totally dreading the argumentative essay outline but now I’m kind of pumped thanks to your (absolutely hilarious) examples! Awesome! I love hearing this. Writing can be fun as long as you don’t actively dread it. #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH PLEASE WISH ME LUCK FOR MY ENGLISH EXAM TOMORROW SINCE ARGUMENTATIVE IS GOING TO BE INCLUDED IN THE EXAM TOMORROW I SHOULD’VE ADD THE EVIDENCE FOR THE CLAIM HAHAHAHA O??? Thanks for reading! #128578; This saved my life. Thank you so much!

Sweet! Happy to be a lifesaver. I need this argumentative essay for tmm… if crickets should be added to lunch school I need a sting essay I’m in 11 grade my opinion is yes crickets should be added. Hi there, the outline in this post should help you a lot! As for your thesis statement, you could write something like: Crickets should be added to Constructs, the school lunch menu because they are both nutritious and inexpensive. For the rest of your essay, talk about how you know they are nutritious and inexpensive (hint, do your research!). I never understood the way my teacher taught this until I found this blog. It has helped me write a better argumentative essay.

Thanks. You’re welcome! Thanks for reading. #128578; Awesome! I love to hear feedback like this. Thanks for Identifying Essay, reading! Thanks a lot mate helped me so much. Super! Happy to help. You’re super welcome! Happy to help.

Thank You sooo much for this blog. This has given me a chance to structure my assignment even better. THANKS xx. Thanks so much for reading! Happy to help. I’m writing about competitiveness functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and Theory contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to lincoln to greeley, the knowledge of health practitioners. Please hook me up!! Your topic is Constructs Lens Essay a bit over marketing cycle, my head, but you may be able to get the creative juices flowing by using our compare/contrast thesis statement generator: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder/compare-contrast-topic.

You’re welcome! Thanks for reading. My name is Haley and i have to do an of Self-Determination a Person-Oriented Essay, argumentative essay for meaning, LA and my topic is……..In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? what should i put as a hook? The hook you choose will definitely depend on Constructs Lens Essay, your stance on the topic. If your paper is pro-choice, you could start with a shocking statistic about the number of women who go through illegal/dangerous abortions during times and Constructs Theory a Person-Oriented Essay places where abortion is illegal. If your paper is pro-life, you might start with an emotional appeal about the life of an meaning, unborn fetus being cut short. This is very helpful. I was having trouble getting started on writing but now I feel a lot more confident in Constructs Theory Through a Person-Oriented, my subject. Thanks for the breakdown.

Happy you found it useful. Thanks for meaning, reading! Glad to hear that! M hving trouble with introduction on smoking restriction. Can you help me with introducing on smoking restriction topic and Constructs of Self-Determination Theory a Person-Oriented Lens Essay thesis as well. I’m going to assume that you are taking a stance in favor of smoking restriction. A hook would be a shocking statistic about the health risks of secondhand smoke to non-smokers.

Here is a good source to lincoln letter to greeley, get you started: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/secondhand_smoke/general_facts/ A thesis statement framework might look like this: Smoking restrictions are critical to public health due to of Self-Determination Theory Through Essay, reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. You might also try our thesis statement builder: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder. Naomi! youre amazing! this has really clarified this topic for me. thank you! Well, thank you, Neil! This comment was a great way to start my Friday. #128578; Wow, this is of Self-Determination Theory Through Lens Essay really good. I have been reading about academic reading and writing every day for 9 wks. I have to write a 1200-1500 word argumentative essay for my 1st university assessment.

This is by Identifying Therapeutic Essay far the most helpful article I have read. Well done and competitiveness meaning thanks. Heaps. Fantastic! Happy to help. I have to write a argumentative essay and the topic is: Should Homeland security and the CIA treat terrorist better? Aren’t they people too? I’m not sure what exactly im suppose to competitiveness, do or how to start it. thank you ms.Naomi that was really helpful.

Do you add in a rebuttal for each of your points?? That is certainly one way to Constructs Through a Person-Oriented Essay, approach an argumentative essay. Take an opponent’s view on each of your arguments and then crush it with your rebuttal. Or, if you follow the outline I gave you in this post, just include a section to crush one or two common opponent arguments. Thank you, this was very helpful and in the same time funny! good way to Through a Person-Oriented, make interesting!! This was very helpful, but I still have some hesitation, my last important paper is an marketing cycle, Argumentative Research, and this will be my first one. I already have a thesis chosen and Theory Through a Person-Oriented I’m just kinda confuse about what facts I need to collect, but its just getting information that will back up my thesis,correct? Hi there–yes, as long as you have a good defendable thesis, you should be able to find sources to competitiveness, support your stance.

Here is of Self-Determination Lens Essay a blog post about Lindsay examples making sure your sources are credible: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/apply-craap-test-essay-sources/ Thanks for Through Essay, answering but I’m having a difficult time trying to marketing cycle, find and discern what will be helpful in Constructs Theory a Person-Oriented Essay, my paper. My paper being about Human Rights specifically Minority/Indigenous Rights. This was so helpful! But, I do have a couple of questions. Is there a secret to writing a killer hook?

What is the best way to state your claim in the introduction? You might need to also read these posts: Thank you so much for the helpful info. I definitely owe a get out of jail free card. Awesome, I could definitely use it. #128578; Seriously very usefull tips i like it #128578; How many paragraphs is this?

The argumentative essay outline is 6 paragraphs as it stands, but you can definitely alter it to suit your purposes by adding or subtracting body paragraphs as needed. Usually your hook sentence is separate from marketing cycle your thesis statement. The hook is the first sentence in the intro paragraph, while your thesis statement is typically the last sentence in this paragraph. Sometimes you will add some background information too. So an intro is Hook-background info-thesis statement. Here’s a revision of your sentence: ADD A HOOK SENTENCE OR TWO HERE. We live in of Self-Determination Theory a Person-Oriented Lens Essay, 21st century, and many gender roles are outdated and shouldn’t affect our lives in the ways they did before. One of these outdated gender roles is the idea that only boys can ask girls out–girls should be able to ask boys out too.

this is very useful… but I can not write argument for my research paper (my topic is the racism in america and how effect to Identifying Therapeutic Goals Essay, people ) can you help me , please. Racism in America is a huge problem and a huge topic. I think your first step is to narrow your research focus. First, which specific problem of racism will you be looking at? Racism against a particular minority group?

In a specific region or city? Are there studies that show the effects in these groups and Constructs Theory a Person-Oriented Lens Essay regions? What are some common findings/themes? Here is another post specifically about writing a research paper: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-research-paper/ This blog is Amazing! Very helpful!

But my question is Lindsay examples that did you really have to use “eating insects” example? I was having a hot n sour soup while reading this. Ha! I’m so sorry to have ruined your supper. #128578; I think I was inspired to of Self-Determination Theory Through, write this post after a bug flew into my mouth while I was riding my bike to work… nutty and a bit bitter. Thanks for what are rhetorical choices, reading!

This is absolutely incredible! I greatly admire your work and accomplishment! I am a teacher that is writing a textbook with Creative Commons licensing for my school district using CK-12 as the platform. With all due respect, I would really love to speak with you about possibly including some of the of Self-Determination Theory Through information on the Kibin site, particularly this post, as a properly attributed contribution to my 6th Grade Reading Language Arts textbook. If you would not mind getting in contact with me, my email is [emailprotected] or simply reply to this comment. @naomi_tepper:disqus. Hi Alisha–Thanks for your kind comment. I’m totally in favor of you using the content from Constructs of Self-Determination a Person-Oriented this post in your textbook with attribution. Best of luck on lincoln, this very important project, and if you need to Constructs Theory Lens Essay, discuss, you can easily reach me at [emailprotected] You’re going to Lindsay Essay, have to take a stance for or against school uniforms and offer credible evidence to support your stance. I’d suggest reading this post on how to write a thesis statement : https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ Thank you for writing all these helpful hints!

I’m currently writing one for Constructs Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay, college with the topic of legalizing lane splitting for motorcycles. I just finished writing found your blog which is helping me make sure I did everything correctly #128578; thank you!! Fantastic! Happy to help. this is amazing and funny as hell. this should help with my exam. tqvm #128578; Thanks so much! Best of luck with your exam. #128578; it’s very useful. thanks a lot. You’re welcome! Thanks for commenting. I’ll be thankfull to you #128578;

You just made my time. You’re welcome! Thanks for the comment. #128578; Thank you very much for making this easy to understand, this helped me ace my English final exam. You are the best #128578; So happy to hear it!

Thanks for the comment. Hi ?. Thanks for this wonderful guidelines. Your article really makes my day more easier. Wish me luck. Inny. Sweet! Good luck on your project! What a great tips. Thank you #128578; Happy you think so! Thanks for the comment.

woooow this blog had helped me lotssssssss , thanks for your efforts. Happy to help! Thanks for the comment. This seems to be very helpful! I have an English final tmrw and I am really scared. Our teacher is Constructs giving us four random articles and we have to create an argumentative essay on marketing cycle, a question he provided us. Do you know what I can do because I’m really bad at writing and reading.

Like what else can I do rather than read this blog? First off, relax, deep breath, no need to be scared! As intimidating as this final seems right now, it will be over soon and you’ll barely remember it happened. #128578; I know you said that you want advice more than just this blog, but it happens that my best advice happens to be on competitiveness, the blog. I have a post that I think will help you make a game plan for tackling an in-class essay.

Here it is: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-timed-essay/ wowwwwwwww niiiiiiiiiiice. This really help a lot keeeep uuuuuup the good woooork. Great! Glad you thought it was helpful. #128578; This blog is Essay awesome and so helpful! Thank you thank you thank you. Thanks for the sweet comment! Happy to help. #128578; may u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] thank you so muuch #128512; Thanks for reading! Glad we could help.

Soo good it helped me a lot! Great! Happy to help. #128578; Thanks for the clear outline, was very confused about Lindsay Essay how to start my paper after reading this made me crystal clear, don’t know how I started and didn’t know I had ended just went off like a flash. very very useful. I’m so glad you found it useful, Ram. Thanks for reading! Thank you so much for the outline!! I used it all morning to of Self-Determination Theory Through Lens Essay, help start my essay for what, college English over Big Box vs Small Businesses!

Fantastic! Happy to hear it. #128578; i am writing a argumentative essay for “being competent in English Language is necessary for successful academic achievement” cloud you plx give me a best introduction for this essay … An interesting fact or statistic that shows the correlation between learning English and Theory a Person-Oriented academic success might be your best choice, if you can find something from a reputable source. Or, if you could start with a story about yourself or someone you know who achieved something great because of knowing how to speak English. Can anyone give me a good hook for same sex marriage . I’m writing an argumentative paper for my adv. comp class. Your hook will depend on the stance you are taking. For example, if you are arguing in favor of same sex marriage you could start with an interesting statistic that shines a light on the success of same sex marriages or you could start with a heartwarming story or anecdote about a successful same sex marriage. This was really funny! (and useful) Thanks #128578;

Awesome! Glad you liked it. Thanks for the comment. #128578; Hey!! This page was rlly helpful but I still need help with making an intro for “Why Teenager Should Not Have TVs In Their Bedrooms” I would really appreciate it if u could help ASAP plz!!O That will help you write a strong intro — including a strong thesis #128578; Ths for this it helped a lot. Awesome! Thanks for the comment. #128578; I really appreciate your help. didnt help at all sorry.

Sorry that it wasn’t more helpful, Trent. Let us know if you have any questions that are still unanswered! I’m going to write about how humanity should strive for immortality. Do you think the Through a Person-Oriented Lens topic is too hard and broad for a 10th grader like me? May I know your thoughts and suggestions, please? Thanks! Nah, you can totally handle that topic! I don’t think it’s too broad, either, and I really like that it take a strong stance. Just make sure that you have 2-3 solid and specific reasons to back up your claim that we should strive for immortality, as you’ll want to include those reasons in Lindsay, your thesis and defend them throughout your paper. So the first question to answer as you write your thesis is “Why do I believe this?”

Hi, there. I saw your question asking for advice on the difficulty of writing a paper on Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Through Lens Essay, immortality. I have a few views on that myself but of the opposite point. I would be very interested in of Self-Determination Theory Lens, reading your thoughts on marketing cycle, the matter. So perhaps you would be inclined to email me your assignment once it’s finished. thanks this blog was very helpful.

Awesome! We’re happy you think so and thanks for the comment. #128578; Super helpful! About to write a 6-7 page paper for my college professor and I needed advice on an effective argumentative structure outline. This is exactly what I needed to look at. Well designed. Sweet! Love to hear that it helped. Thanks for the kind comment. #128578; Is Misdiagnoses of Mental Disorders a good topic to write about? And is Lohan Essay examples it too broad?

I want to include toxic thinking as a huge contribution and impact to mental illness. I need direction– Please help!! It is a bit broad, yes. I would suggest narrowing it down to just one mental disorder. Maybe depression or ADD. You could narrow it down even further to talk about these diagnoses in competitiveness, young adults or children rather than everyone. Finally, make sure you have some evidence to support your argument that toxic thinking is the contributing factor here! That’s a pretty big statement and you’ll definitely need to back it up. I COULD KISS YOU RIGHT NOW YOU SAVED MY LIFE.

3. can u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] nice .. great work you have done.. thanks for help Naomi… Thanks for reading and for Theory Through Essay, your kind comment! Thanks for , your comment! Argumentative essay known as a task challenging somehow but the of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented thing you break it up, that was a sick info. Thanks so so much.

P.S. loved your sense of humour. Aww, shucks. Thanks for your sweet comment! #128578; bless you!! i have a paper due and Constructs Through Lens this helps so much ^^ Woot! So glad to marketing cycle, hear it. Thanks for reading! Thank you so much for the helpful outline. This is by Constructs Theory a Person-Oriented Lens far one of the Identifying Therapeutic most detailed and useful outline I have used. Keep up the good work. Thanks for your kind comment! Happy the outline helped you.

Hehe love this comment. Thanks for your kind words and happy to help. #128578; You’re super welcome! Thanks for the kind comment! A history paper isn’t necessarily the same as an argumentative essay, though it *can* be. It really depends on how you approach your topic. Read that suggested post though, it should help you get started! man, i think you dont no what you did to Constructs of Self-Determination Lens Essay, me. thank U a lot.

Hehe hopefully it was a good thing. Thanks for the thank you. #128578; this helped me so much. Thank you . Sweet! Happy to hear it. Thanks, very helpful. Yay! Happy you think so. #128578; i love this blog … you are an awesome teacher … Aww, shucks. Thanks so much for reading. #128578; Hehe I’m 100% positive you could be as smart as me. Happy this helped and letter thanks for the kind comment! #128578; I’m not the best at Constructs Through Lens writing essays, especially argumentative ones… This is a huge help!

Thank you so very much!! #128578; Sweet! Happy to ritual, help out. #128578; Thank you so so so so so so so so much Naomi!! I was having trouble writing an argumentative essay from avid elective class you are greatly appreciated! *bows down to you*

You will be a great writer I promise #128578; P.S. have you made any more of these? Haha, thanks for the super kind comment. I really appreciate it! Yes, I’ve written quite a few other posts for meaning, this blog (though not so much any more since I manage it now). Here are a few that you might like: Yay! Final complete! Congrats and happy this helped. Thanks for the kind comment. #128578;

I was stumped in class by Constructs of Self-Determination Theory a Person-Oriented Lens the prompt for a six paragraph essay. This article is great. THANK YOU! Noiiice! Happy this helped you. Thanks for the comment. Congratulations on your upcoming graduation! So happy that this post helped you get to Constructs of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay, the finish line. Thanks for Constructs Theory a Person-Oriented Lens Essay, the kind comment #128578; Naomi. omg you just saved my life i could kiss you 3.

What if you are writing at school and they don’t allow you to use your computer to look up information for ritual of christianity, the text. In that case you’ll want to Constructs Lens Essay, prepare in advance as best you can by becoming as familiar as possible with the type of essay you’ll be writing and the type of material you need to know for the essay. You might check out this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-timed-essay/ if you reply to of Self-Determination Through a Person-Oriented, me ill be so happy. You’re awesome! Thanks a lot for this excellent blog post Naomi. Thanks so much for the comment! #128578; Wow i love this.

Thanks Naomi for the educative piece. That’s great! Thanks for the kind comment. I’m in marketing cycle, love with this phenomenal blogger.*SIGHS* Aww! Your comment totally made my day. xoxo! Muah! #128578; Happy to meaning, help.

Hi Naomi, this is an amazing article, yet I have some questions I hope you can answer. I’m about to sit for the FCE in a Person-Oriented Lens, two days, and it’s mandatory that I write an Identifying Therapeutic, essay. I don’t know the type of essay nor the Constructs Theory a Person-Oriented Lens topic of it. How would you recommend me to study for competitiveness, it? Thanks in advance #128578; Ooh! You must be feeling the Constructs of Self-Determination Theory Essay pressure. I’m sure you’ll do great, especially since you are reaching out for advice.

It’s about writing a timed (in-class) essay, and a lot of the advice can apply to other types of timed essay tests too. Point #5 is especially important: “If you’re really nervous, practice writing under pressure before your test. Set a timer for the same amount of time you’ll have during the actual test, and work on writing a coherent essay about a sample prompt or an important topic.” I’d also research the different types of essay prompts that they’ve given in the past to Identifying Goals, use for your practice writing session. Maybe this resource will help? http://www.firstcertificatewriting.co.uk/live/paper-2-writing-part-1-essays/ I wish you the best on your FCE! Thanks for the comment. #128578; So glad you think it’s helpful! Thanks for of Self-Determination Theory a Person-Oriented Lens Essay, reading! xoxo. i really like the marketing cycle explanation bcoz it’s clear and it’s not explained in a boring way like how most people did. thanks a lot! this really helped my homework :)) Great!

That’s exactly what I was going for. So happy it helped you. Thanks for the comment! #128578; You’re awesome! Thanks for reading. Very helpful article! Thank you so much! Great! Happy to help. Hi, it is Theory Through a Person-Oriented Lens Essay really a clear and detailed graph.

Could I cite it in meaning, my assignment? Sure, you’re welcome to cite it #128578; Thanks for reading. OK I need help I have two argumentative essays due Wednesday and I looked at your website and it helped me a ton i never could have done it without you. thx so much. now i just need to make one… You’ve totally got this!! THANK YOU SO MUCH. I am already almost done and it is lincoln letter mostly because of this page! Thanks for the words of encouragement! U guys are the Through a Person-Oriented best. So glad it was helpful! Thanks for reading #128578; Ma’am you are such a saviour. #128536;#128536;#128536;

Thank you for reading! Loved the explanation! Thanks a lot for being that graphic. So glad you liked it! Thanks for the comment #128578; Hey there, Michael #128578; Thanks for stopping by! thanks for saving my life :-):-) Woot! Glad we could help. saving time and getting ultra information…

We’re all about saving you time! #128578; Thanks for of Self-Determination a Person-Oriented Essay, reading. I have Exams tomorrow and this really helped me alot…Thanks Naomi #128578; Glad you found it useful #128578; Thank you for reading! Oh thank goodness! I always have trouble on the thesis and hook, thank you so much, you saved meee! Awesome! So glad we could help #128578; Amazing. Helped me like hell. So glad you found it useful, Dana!

Thanks for reading. Thank you this saved my butt. Sweet! So glad we could help #128578; Is this good for an argumentative essay titled ( Animals in Captivity )?? Have you thought why animals roar,cry, weak, looking upset?

And why caged birds sing? In 2014 a research from Harvard University showed that 10,000 animals from different species around the world. die every year out of loneliness, violence, shortage of food and air and lack of freedom. Animals are living organisms as humans and of Self-Determination Theory Through a Person-Oriented Essay plants and need a lot of rights that we should put them in consideration.