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Global Warming's Terrifying New Math. Three simple numbers that add up to global catastrophe - and that make clear who the real enemy is. If the pictures of who discovered those towering wildfires in Colorado haven't convinced you, or the size of your AC bill this summer, here are some hard numbers about climate change: June broke or tied 3,215 high-temperature records across the United States. That followed the warmest May on record for the Northern Hemisphere #x2013; the 327th consecutive month in which the temperature of the entire globe exceeded the barclays, 20th-century average, the odds of which occurring by simple chance were 3.7 x 10-99, a number considerably larger than the number of stars in the universe. Meteorologists reported that this spring was the warmest ever recorded for our nation #x2013; in fact, it crushed the old record by so much that it represented the largest temperature departure from average of any season on who discovered, record. The same week, Saudi authorities reported that it had rained in Mecca despite a temperature of barclays 109 degrees, the hottest downpour in america the planet's history. Not that our leaders seemed to notice. Last month the A Case Animal Testing Essay, world's nations, meeting in Rio for who discovered, the 20th-anniversary reprise of a massive 1992 environmental summit, accomplished nothing. Unlike George H.W.

Bush, who flew in for the first conclave, Barack Obama didn't even attend. It was a ghost of the glad, confident meeting 20 years ago, the British journalist George Monbiot wrote; no one paid it much attention, footsteps echoing through the halls once thronged by multitudes. Since I wrote one of the first books for a general audience about global warming way back in 1989, and since I've spent the intervening decades working ineffectively to slow that warming, I can say with some confidence that we're losing the on Pulmonary is the Blood Clot, fight, badly and quickly #x2013; losing it because, most of all, we remain in denial about the peril that human civilization is america, in. When we think about global warming at all, the arguments tend to be ideological, theological and economic. Definition? But to grasp the seriousness of our predicament, you just need to america, do a little math.

For the past year, an easy and powerful bit of arithmetical analysis first published by like, financial analysts in who discovered america the U.K. Like Water For Chocolate Movie? has been making the rounds of environmental conferences and journals, but it hasn't yet broken through to the larger public. This analysis upends most of the conventional political thinking about climate change. Who Discovered? And it allows us to The Universal Language Essay, understand our precarious #x2013; our almost-but-not-quite-finally hopeless #x2013; position with three simple numbers. I f the movie had ended in Hollywood fashion, the Copenhagen climate conference in 2009 would have marked the culmination of the global fight to slow a changing climate. The world's nations had gathered in the December gloom of the Danish capital for what a leading climate economist, Sir Nicholas Stern of Britain, called the most important gathering since the Second World War, given what is at stake.

As Danish energy minister Connie Hedegaard, who presided over the conference, declared at the time: This is our chance. If we miss it, it could take years before we get a new and america better one. If ever. In the event, of course, we missed it. Copenhagen failed spectacularly. A Case Animal? Neither China nor the who discovered america, United States, which between them are responsible for 40 percent of global carbon emissions, was prepared to offer dramatic concessions, and so the classicism, conference drifted aimlessly for two weeks until world leaders jetted in for the final day.

Amid considerable chaos, President Obama took the lead in drafting a face-saving Copenhagen Accord that fooled very few. Its purely voluntary agreements committed no one to anything, and even if countries signaled their intentions to cut carbon emissions, there was no enforcement mechanism. Copenhagen is a crime scene tonight, an angry Greenpeace official declared, with the america, guilty men and women fleeing to the airport. Headline writers were equally brutal: COPENHAGEN: THE MUNICH OF OUR TIMES? asked one. The accord did contain one important number, however. In Paragraph 1, it formally recognized the scientific view that the increase in global temperature should be below two degrees Celsius.

And in the very next paragraph, it declared that we agree that deep cuts in global emissions are required. so as to hold the increase in global temperature below two degrees Celsius. By insisting on two degrees #x2013; about 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit #x2013; the accord ratified positions taken earlier in 2009 by the G8, and the so-called Major Economies Forum. It was as conventional as conventional wisdom gets. The number first gained prominence, in fact, at a 1995 climate conference chaired by Angela Merkel, then the Language Essay, German minister of the environment and now the who discovered america, center-right chancellor of the nation. Some context: So far, we've raised the definition, average temperature of the planet just under 0.8 degrees Celsius, and who discovered that has caused far more damage than most scientists expected. Is The Ultimate Blood? (A third of summer sea ice in the Arctic is gone, the oceans are 30 percent more acidic, and since warm air holds more water vapor than cold, the atmosphere over the oceans is who discovered america, a shocking five percent wetter, loading the dice for devastating floods.) Given those impacts, in A Case Against Animal fact, many scientists have come to think that two degrees is far too lenient a target.

Any number much above one degree involves a gamble, writes Kerry Emanuel of who discovered MIT, a leading authority on omo detergent, hurricanes, and who discovered america the odds become less and less favorable as the omo detergent, temperature goes up. Who Discovered America? Thomas Lovejoy, once the World Bank's chief biodiversity adviser, puts it like this: If we're seeing what we're seeing today at 0.8 degrees Celsius, two degrees is omo detergent, simply too much. Who Discovered? NASA scientist James Hansen, the planet's most prominent climatologist, is omo detergent, even blunter: The target that has been talked about in international negotiations for two degrees of america warming is actually a prescription for Against Animal, long-term disaster. At the Copenhagen summit, a spokesman for small island nations warned that many would not survive a two-degree rise: Some countries will flat-out disappear. When delegates from developing nations were warned that two degrees would represent a suicide pact for america, drought-stricken Africa, many of them started chanting, One degree, one Africa. Despite such well-founded misgivings, political realism bested scientific data, and the world settled on the two-degree target #x2013; indeed, it's fair to say that it's the only thing about climate change the water, world has settled on. All told, 167 countries responsible for america, more than 87 percent of the world's carbon emissions have signed on to the Copenhagen Accord, endorsing the two-degree target. Only a few dozen countries have rejected it, including Kuwait, Nicaragua and Venezuela.

Even the United Arab Emirates, which makes most of its money exporting oil and gas, signed on. The official position of planet Earth at the moment is that we can't raise the temperature more than two degrees Celsius #x2013; it's become the bottomest of bottom lines. Two degrees. The Second Number: 565 Gigatons. S cientists estimate that humans can pour roughly 565 more gigatons of carbon dioxide into movie, the atmosphere by midcentury and who discovered america still have some reasonable hope of staying below two degrees. (Reasonable, in barclays this case, means four chances in five, or somewhat worse odds than playing Russian roulette with a six-shooter.) This idea of a global carbon budget emerged about a decade ago, as scientists began to calculate how much oil, coal and gas could still safely be burned. Who Discovered America? Since we've increased the Earth's temperature by on Pulmonary is the Ultimate Blood Clot, 0.8 degrees so far, we're currently less than halfway to the target. But, in fact, computer models calculate that even if we stopped increasing CO 2 now, the temperature would likely still rise another 0.8 degrees, as previously released carbon continues to overheat the atmosphere. That means we're already three-quarters of the way to the two-degree target. How good are these numbers?

No one is insisting that they're exact, but few dispute that they're generally right. The 565-gigaton figure was derived from america one of the omo detergent, most sophisticated computer-simulation models that have been built by climate scientists around the world over the past few decades. Who Discovered America? And the number is being further confirmed by the latest climate-simulation models currently being finalized in advance of the The Universal Language of Art, next report by the Intergovernmental Panel on who discovered, Climate Change. Looking at them as they come in, they hardly differ at all, says Tom Wigley, an barclays, Australian climatologist at who discovered, the National Center for of Art, Atmospheric Research. There's maybe 40 models in the data set now, compared with 20 before. But so far the numbers are pretty much the same. We're just fine-tuning things. America? I don't think much has changed over the last decade.

William Collins, a senior climate scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, agrees. For Chocolate? I think the results of this round of simulations will be quite similar, he says. We're not getting any free lunch from additional understanding of the climate system. We're not getting any free lunch from the world's economies, either. With only america a single year's lull in 2009 at the height of the financial crisis, we've continued to pour record amounts of carbon into the atmosphere, year after year. In late May, the International Energy Agency published its latest figures #x2013; CO 2 emissions last year rose to 31.6 gigatons, up 3.2 percent from the year before. America had a warm winter and A Case Against converted more coal-fired power plants to natural gas, so its emissions fell slightly; China kept booming, so its carbon output (which recently surpassed the U.S.) rose 9.3 percent; the Japanese shut down their fleet of who discovered america nukes post-Fukushima, so their emissions edged up 2.4 percent. There have been efforts to use more renewable energy and improve energy efficiency, said Corinne Le Qu#xE9;r#xE9;, who runs England's Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research. But what this shows is that so far the effects have been marginal.

In fact, study after study predicts that carbon emissions will keep growing by roughly three percent a year #x2013; and at that rate, we'll blow through our 565-gigaton allowance in omo detergent 16 years, around the time today's preschoolers will be graduating from high school. America? The new data provide further evidence that the door to a two-degree trajectory is about to close, said Fatih Birol, the IEA's chief economist. In fact, he continued, When I look at this data, the barclays, trend is perfectly in line with a temperature increase of who discovered about six degrees. That's almost 11 degrees Fahrenheit, which would create a planet straight out of science fiction. So, new data in hand, everyone at the Rio conference renewed their ritual calls for serious international action to move us back to a two-degree trajectory. The charade will continue in November, when the next Conference of the Parties (COP) of the U.N.

Framework Convention on Climate Change convenes in Qatar. This will be COP 18 #x2013; COP 1 was held in Berlin in Essay on Pulmonary Embolism Ultimate Blood Clot 1995, and since then the process has accomplished essentially nothing. Even scientists, who are notoriously reluctant to who discovered america, speak out, are slowly overcoming their natural preference to simply provide data. The Universal Of Art? The message has been consistent for close to america, 30 years now, Collins says with a wry laugh, and we have the definition, instrumentation and the computer power required to present the evidence in detail. If we choose to continue on our present course of america action, it should be done with a full evaluation of the evidence the scientific community has presented. He pauses, suddenly conscious of being on the record. I should say, a fuller evaluation of the evidence. So far, though, such calls have had little effect.

We're in the same position we've been in for a quarter-century: scientific warning followed by political inaction. Among scientists speaking off the record, disgusted candor is the rule. One senior scientist told me, You know those new cigarette packs, where governments make them put a picture of someone with a hole in their throats? Gas pumps should have something like that. The Third Number: 2,795 Gigatons. T his number is the scariest of all #x2013; one that, for the first time, meshes the political and scientific dimensions of our dilemma. It was highlighted last summer by the Carbon Tracker Initiative, a team of London financial analysts and environmentalists who published a report in an effort to educate investors about the possible risks that climate change poses to their stock portfolios. The number describes the amount of carbon already contained in the proven coal and marketing oil and gas reserves of the fossil-fuel companies, and the countries (think Venezuela or Kuwait) that act like fossil-fuel companies. In short, it's the fossil fuel we're currently planning to burn. And the america, key point is that this new number #x2013; 2,795 #x2013; is higher than 565. Five times higher.

The Carbon Tracker Initiative #x2013; led by James Leaton, an environmentalist who served as an adviser at the accounting giant PricewaterhouseCoopers #x2013; combed through proprietary databases to figure out how much oil, gas and coal the world's major energy companies hold in reserve. The numbers aren't perfect #x2013; they don't fully reflect the recent surge in unconventional energy sources like shale gas, and they don't accurately reflect coal reserves, which are subject to less stringent reporting requirements than oil and classicism definition gas. Who Discovered America? But for the biggest companies, the figures are quite exact: If you burned everything in the inventories of Russia's Lukoil and America's ExxonMobil, for instance, which lead the list of oil and barclays gas companies, each would release more than 40 gigatons of carbon dioxide into who discovered america, the atmosphere. Which is exactly why this new number, 2,795 gigatons, is such a big deal. Think of classicism two degrees Celsius as the america, legal drinking limit #x2013; equivalent to the 0.08 blood-alcohol level below which you might get away with driving home. The 565 gigatons is how many drinks you could have and still stay below that limit #x2013; the six beers, say, you might consume in an evening. And the 2,795 gigatons? That's the three 12-packs the Essay on Pulmonary, fossil-fuel industry has on the table, already opened and ready to pour.

We have five times as much oil and coal and gas on america, the books as climate scientists think is safe to burn. We'd have to omo detergent, keep 80 percent of those reserves locked away underground to avoid that fate. Before we knew those numbers, our fate had been likely. Now, barring some massive intervention, it seems certain. Yes, this coal and gas and oil is still technically in the soil. But it's already economically aboveground #x2013; it's figured into share prices, companies are borrowing money against it, nations are basing their budgets on america, the presumed returns from their patrimony. It explains why the big fossil-fuel companies have fought so hard to prevent the regulation of carbon dioxide #x2013; those reserves are their primary asset, the holding that gives their companies their value. It's why they've worked so hard these past years to figure out omo detergent, how to america, unlock the oil in Canada's tar sands, or how to drill miles beneath the sea, or how to frack the Appalachians. If you told Exxon or Lukoil that, in order to The Universal Language of Art, avoid wrecking the climate, they couldn't pump out who discovered, their reserves, the value of their companies would plummet. John Fullerton, a former managing director at JP Morgan who now runs the Capital Institute, calculates that at barclays marketing, today's market value, those 2,795 gigatons of carbon emissions are worth about america, $27 trillion. Which is to like water online, say, if you paid attention to the scientists and kept 80 percent of it underground, you'd be writing off $20 trillion in america assets.

The numbers aren't exact, of course, but that carbon bubble makes the housing bubble look small by comparison. It won't necessarily burst #x2013; we might well burn all that carbon, in which case investors will do fine. But if we do, the planet will crater. Classicism? You can have a healthy fossil-fuel balance sheet, or a relatively healthy planet #x2013; but now that we know the numbers, it looks like you can't have both. Do the math: 2,795 is five times 565. That's how the who discovered, story ends. S o far, as I said at the start, environmental efforts to tackle global warming have failed. The planet's emissions of carbon dioxide continue to soar, especially as developing countries emulate (and supplant) the marketing, industries of the West. Even in rich countries, small reductions in emissions offer no sign of the america, real break with the status quo we'd need to omo detergent, upend the iron logic of america these three numbers. Testing? Germany is one of the who discovered america, only big countries that has actually tried hard to change its energy mix; on one sunny Saturday in late May, that northern-latitude nation generated nearly half its power from solar panels within its borders.

That's a small miracle #x2013; and it demonstrates that we have the technology to solve our problems. On Pulmonary Embolism Is The Clot? But we lack the will. So far, Germany's the exception; the who discovered america, rule is A Case Against, ever more carbon. This record of failure means we know a lot about what strategies don't work. Green groups, for instance, have spent a lot of time trying to who discovered, change individual lifestyles: the barclays, iconic twisty light bulb has been installed by the millions, but so have a new generation of energy-sucking flatscreen TVs. Most of us are fundamentally ambivalent about going green: We like cheap flights to warm places, and we're certainly not going to give them up if everyone else is still taking them. Since all of us are in some way the beneficiaries of america cheap fossil fuel, tackling climate change has been like trying to build a movement against yourself #x2013; it's as if the gay-rights movement had to be constructed entirely from evangelical preachers, or the abolition movement from water slaveholders. People perceive #x2013; correctly #x2013; that their individual actions will not make a decisive difference in who discovered america the atmospheric concentration of CO2; by 2010, a poll found that while recycling is widespread in America and 73 percent of those polled are paying bills online in order to save paper, only four percent had reduced their utility use and only three percent had purchased hybrid cars. Against Testing? Given a hundred years, you could conceivably change lifestyles enough to matter #x2013; but time is precisely what we lack.

A more efficient method, of course, would be to work through the political system, and who discovered america environmentalists have tried that, too, with the same limited success. Classicism Definition? They've patiently lobbied leaders, trying to convince them of our peril and assuming that politicians would heed the warnings. Sometimes it has seemed to work. Barack Obama, for instance, campaigned more aggressively about climate change than any president before him #x2013; the who discovered america, night he won the nomination, he told supporters that his election would mark the moment the rise of the barclays marketing, oceans began to slow and the planet began to heal. And he has achieved one significant change: a steady increase in the fuel efficiency mandated for who discovered, automobiles. It's the kind of A Case Essay measure, adopted a quarter-century ago, that would have helped enormously. But in light of the numbers I've just described, it's obviously a very small start indeed. At this point, effective action would require actually keeping most of the carbon the fossil-fuel industry wants to burn safely in the soil, not just changing slightly the speed at which it's burned. And there the president, apparently haunted by the still-echoing cry of Drill, baby, drill, has gone out of america his way to frack and Language Essay mine. His secretary of interior, for instance, opened up a huge swath of the Powder River Basin in Wyoming for coal extraction: The total basin contains some 67.5 gigatons worth of who discovered america carbon (or more than 10 percent of the available atmospheric space).

He's doing the same thing with Arctic and definition offshore drilling; in fact, as he explained on the stump in March, You have my word that we will keep drilling everywhere we can. That's a commitment that I make. The next day, in a yard full of oil pipe in who discovered Cushing, Oklahoma, the president promised to work on wind and solar energy but, at barclays marketing, the same time, to speed up fossil-fuel development: Producing more oil and gas here at who discovered, home has been, and will continue to Embolism is the Blood Clot, be, a critical part of an america, all-of-the-above energy strategy. That is, he's committed to finding even more stock to add to A Case Against Animal Testing, the 2,795-gigaton inventory of unburned carbon. Sometimes the irony is almost Borat-scale obvious: In early June, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton traveled on who discovered, a Norwegian research trawler to see firsthand the growing damage from climate change. Many of the predictions about warming in the Arctic are being surpassed by the actual data, she said, describing the classicism, sight as sobering. But the discussions she traveled to Scandinavia to have with other foreign ministers were mostly about how to make sure Western nations get their share of the estimated $9 trillion in oil (that's more than 90 billion barrels, or 37 gigatons of carbon) that will become accessible as the Arctic ice melts. Last month, the Obama administration indicated that it would give Shell permission to start drilling in sections of the Arctic.

Almost every government with deposits of hydrocarbons straddles the same divide. Canada, for instance, is a liberal democracy renowned for its internationalism #x2013; no wonder, then, that it signed on to the Kyoto treaty, promising to cut its carbon emissions substantially by who discovered, 2012. Testing Essay? But the rising price of oil suddenly made the who discovered america, tar sands of Alberta economically attractive #x2013; and since, as NASA climatologist James Hansen pointed out in May, they contain as much as 240 gigatons of carbon (or almost half of the available space if we take the 565 limit seriously), that meant Canada's commitment to Kyoto was nonsense. In December, the Canadian government withdrew from the treaty before it faced fines for failing to barclays marketing, meet its commitments. The same kind of hypocrisy applies across the ideological board: In his speech to the Copenhagen conference, Venezuela's Hugo Chavez quoted Rosa Luxemburg, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Christ the Redeemer, insisting that climate change is undoubtedly the most devastating environmental problem of this century. Who Discovered? But the next spring, in the Simon Bolivar Hall of the state-run oil company, he signed an The Universal, agreement with a consortium of america international players to develop the vast Orinoco tar sands as the most significant engine for A Case Animal Testing Essay, a comprehensive development of the america, entire territory and Venezuelan population.

The Orinoco deposits are larger than Alberta's #x2013; taken together, they'd fill up the whole available atmospheric space. S o: the paths we have tried to Essay Embolism Clot, tackle global warming have so far produced only gradual, halting shifts. A rapid, transformative change would require building a movement, and movements require enemies. As John F. Kennedy put it, The civil rights movement should thank God for Bull Connor. He's helped it as much as Abraham Lincoln.

And enemies are what climate change has lacked. But what all these climate numbers make painfully, usefully clear is that the planet does indeed have an enemy #x2013; one far more committed to who discovered america, action than governments or individuals. Given this hard math, we need to water online, view the fossil-fuel industry in a new light. It has become a rogue industry, reckless like no other force on Earth. It is Public Enemy Number One to america, the survival of barclays marketing our planetary civilization. Lots of america companies do rotten things in the course of barclays marketing their business #x2013; pay terrible wages, make people work in sweatshops #x2013; and we pressure them to change those practices, says veteran anti-corporate leader Naomi Klein, who is at work on a book about the climate crisis. But these numbers make clear that with the fossil-fuel industry, wrecking the planet is their business model. Who Discovered America? It's what they do. According to the Carbon Tracker report, if Exxon burns its current reserves, it would use up more than seven percent of the available atmospheric space between us and the risk of two degrees. BP is just behind, followed by the Russian firm Gazprom, then Chevron, ConocoPhillips and Shell, each of which would fill between three and four percent. Definition? Taken together, just these six firms, of the 200 listed in who discovered the Carbon Tracker report, would use up more than a quarter of the remaining two-degree budget.

Severstal, the Embolism, Russian mining giant, leads the list of coal companies, followed by firms like BHP Billiton and Peabody. The numbers are simply staggering #x2013; this industry, and this industry alone, holds the power to change the who discovered america, physics and chemistry of our planet, and they're planning to use it. They're clearly cognizant of global warming #x2013; they employ some of the Animal, world's best scientists, after all, and who discovered america they're bidding on all those oil leases made possible by the staggering melt of Arctic ice. And yet they relentlessly search for more hydrocarbons #x2013; in omo detergent early March, Exxon CEO Rex Tillerson told Wall Street analysts that the company plans to spend $37 billion a year through 2016 (about $100 million a day) searching for who discovered, yet more oil and classicism definition gas. There's not a more reckless man on the planet than Tillerson. Late last month, on the same day the Colorado fires reached their height, he told a New York audience that global warming is who discovered america, real, but dismissed it as an engineering problem that has engineering solutions. Such as? Changes to omo detergent, weather patterns that move crop-production areas around #x2013; we'll adapt to that. This in a week when Kentucky farmers were reporting that corn kernels were aborting in record heat, threatening a spike in global food prices. The fear factor that people want to who discovered, throw out there to say, 'We just have to stop this,' I do not accept, Tillerson said.

Of course not #x2013; if he did accept it, he'd have to The Universal Language, keep his reserves in the ground. Which would cost him money. It's not an engineering problem, in other words #x2013; it's a greed problem. You could argue that this is simply in who discovered the nature of these companies #x2013; that having found a profitable vein, they're compelled to keep mining it, more like efficient automatons than people with free will. Barclays Marketing? But as the Supreme Court has made clear, they are people of a sort. In fact, thanks to the size of its bankroll, the fossil-fuel industry has far more free will than the rest of who discovered america us.

These companies don't simply exist in a world whose hungers they fulfill #x2013; they help create the boundaries of that world. Left to our own devices, citizens might decide to regulate carbon and stop short of the brink; according to a recent poll, nearly two-thirds of Americans would back an international agreement that cut carbon emissions 90 percent by 2050. But we aren't left to our own devices. Like For Chocolate? The Koch brothers, for instance, have a combined wealth of $50 billion, meaning they trail only Bill Gates on the list of who discovered america richest Americans. They've made most of their money in hydrocarbons, they know any system to A Case Essay, regulate carbon would cut those profits, and they reportedly plan to who discovered, lavish as much as $200 million on this year's elections. In 2009, for the first time, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce surpassed both the Republican and Democratic National Committees on political spending; the following year, more than 90 percent of the Chamber's cash went to GOP candidates, many of A Case Testing whom deny the existence of america global warming.

Not long ago, the Chamber even filed a brief with the EPA urging the agency not to regulate carbon #x2013; should the world's scientists turn out to be right and movie the planet heats up, the Chamber advised, populations can acclimatize to warmer climates via a range of behavioral, physiological and technological adaptations. As radical goes, demanding that we change our physiology seems right up there. Environmentalists, understandably, have been loath to make the fossil-fuel industry their enemy, respecting its political power and hoping instead to convince these giants that they should turn away from coal, oil and gas and transform themselves more broadly into energy companies. Who Discovered? Sometimes that strategy appeared to A Case Essay, be working #x2013; emphasis on appeared. Around the turn of the century, for instance, BP made a brief attempt to restyle itself as Beyond Petroleum, adapting a logo that looked like the sun and sticking solar panels on some of its gas stations. But its investments in alternative energy were never more than a tiny fraction of its budget for hydrocarbon exploration, and after a few years, many of those were wound down as new CEOs insisted on returning to the company's core business. In December, BP finally closed its solar division. Shell shut down its solar and wind efforts in america 2009. The five biggest oil companies have made more than $1 trillion in profits since the like water movie, millennium #x2013; there's simply too much money to who discovered america, be made on oil and gas and coal to go chasing after zephyrs and sunbeams. Much of that profit stems from a single historical accident: Alone among businesses, the for chocolate online, fossil-fuel industry is allowed to dump its main waste, carbon dioxide, for free. Nobody else gets that break #x2013; if you own a restaurant, you have to pay someone to cart away your trash, since piling it in the street would breed rats.

But the fossil-fuel industry is different, and for sound historical reasons: Until a quarter-century ago, almost no one knew that CO2 was dangerous. Who Discovered? But now that we understand that carbon is heating the planet and Essay on Pulmonary Embolism Blood Clot acidifying the oceans, its price becomes the central issue. If you put a price on america, carbon, through a direct tax or other methods, it would enlist markets in online the fight against global warming. Once Exxon has to pay for the damage its carbon is doing to the atmosphere, the price of who discovered its products would rise. Consumers would get a strong signal to omo detergent, use less fossil fuel #x2013; every time they stopped at the pump, they'd be reminded that you don't need a semimilitary vehicle to go to the grocery store. Who Discovered America? The economic playing field would now be a level one for A Case Against Animal Testing Essay, nonpolluting energy sources. And you could do it all without bankrupting citizens #x2013; a so-called fee-and-dividend scheme would put a hefty tax on coal and america gas and classicism definition oil, then simply divide up the proceeds, sending everyone in the country a check each month for their share of the who discovered, added costs of classicism carbon.

By switching to cleaner energy sources, most people would actually come out ahead. There's only who discovered one problem: Putting a price on carbon would reduce the profitability of the fossil-fuel industry. After all, the answer to classicism, the question How high should the price of carbon be? is who discovered america, High enough to like water for chocolate movie, keep those carbon reserves that would take us past two degrees safely in the ground. The higher the price on carbon, the more of those reserves would be worthless. America? The fight, in the end, is about whether the industry will succeed in its fight to keep its special pollution break alive past the point of climate catastrophe, or whether, in the economists' parlance, we'll make them internalize those externalities. I t's not clear, of course, that the power of the Animal Testing, fossil-fuel industry can be broken. The U.K. Who Discovered America? analysts who wrote the Carbon Tracker report and A Case Against Testing drew attention to these numbers had a relatively modest goal #x2013; they simply wanted to remind investors that climate change poses a very real risk to the stock prices of energy companies. America? Say something so big finally happens (a giant hurricane swamps Manhattan, a megadrought wipes out Midwest agriculture) that even the political power of the Essay, industry is inadequate to restrain legislators, who manage to america, regulate carbon. Suddenly those Chevron reserves would be a lot less valuable, and Language Essay the stock would tank. Who Discovered America? Given that risk, the Carbon Tracker report warned investors to lessen their exposure, hedge it with some big plays in alternative energy. The regular process of economic evolution is that businesses are left with stranded assets all the time, says Nick Robins, who runs HSBC's Climate Change Centre.

Think of like water movie online film cameras, or typewriters. The question is not whether this will happen. It will. Pension systems have been hit by the dot-com and credit crunch. They'll be hit by this. Still, it hasn't been easy to convince investors, who have shared in the oil industry's record profits. The reason you get bubbles, sighs Leaton, is who discovered america, that everyone thinks they're the best analyst #x2013; that they'll go to omo detergent, the edge of the who discovered america, cliff and then jump back when everyone else goes over. So pure self-interest probably won't spark a transformative challenge to fossil fuel.

But moral outrage just might #x2013; and that's the real meaning of this new math. It could, plausibly, give rise to a real movement. Once, in recent corporate history, anger forced an industry to Essay is the Ultimate Blood Clot, make basic changes. That was the campaign in the 1980s demanding divestment from companies doing business in South Africa. It rose first on college campuses and then spread to america, municipal and state governments; 155 campuses eventually divested, and by the end of the movie online, decade, more than 80 cities, 25 states and 19 counties had taken some form of binding economic action against who discovered america companies connected to the apartheid regime. The end of apartheid stands as one of the classicism definition, crowning accomplishments of the who discovered, past century, as Archbishop Desmond Tutu put it, but we would not have succeeded without the help of international pressure, especially from the divestment movement of the 1980s. The fossil-fuel industry is obviously a tougher opponent, and even if you could force the marketing, hand of particular companies, you'd still have to figure out a strategy for dealing with all the who discovered america, sovereign nations that, in effect, act as fossil-fuel companies.

But the link for college students is even more obvious in Against Testing Essay this case. Who Discovered? If their college's endowment portfolio has fossil-fuel stock, then their educations are being subsidized by investments that guarantee they won't have much of marketing a planet on which to make use of their degree. (The same logic applies to who discovered america, the world's largest investors, pension funds, which are also theoretically interested in barclays the future #x2013; that's when their members will enjoy their retirement.) Given the severity of the america, climate crisis, a comparable demand that our institutions dump stock from companies that are destroying the planet would not only be appropriate but effective, says Bob Massie, a former anti-apartheid activist who helped found the A Case Against Testing, Investor Network on Climate Risk. The message is simple: We have had enough. We must sever the ties with those who profit from climate change #x2013; now. Movements rarely have predictable outcomes. But any campaign that weakens the fossil-fuel industry's political standing clearly increases the chances of retiring its special breaks. Consider President Obama's signal achievement in the climate fight, the large increase he won in mileage requirements for who discovered america, cars. Like Movie? Scientists, environmentalists and engineers had advocated such policies for decades, but until Detroit came under severe financial pressure, it was politically powerful enough to america, fend them off. If people come to understand the cold, mathematical truth #x2013; that the fossil-fuel industry is like movie online, systematically undermining the planet's physical systems #x2013; it might weaken it enough to matter politically. Exxon and their ilk might drop their opposition to a fee-and-dividend solution; they might even decide to become true energy companies, this time for real.

Even if such a campaign is who discovered america, possible, however, we may have waited too long to start it. To make a real difference #x2013; to keep us under a temperature increase of classicism two degrees #x2013; you'd need to who discovered america, change carbon pricing in Washington, and then use that victory to Embolism is the Ultimate Clot, leverage similar shifts around the world. At this point, what happens in the U.S. is most important for how it will influence China and India, where emissions are growing fastest. (In early June, researchers concluded that China has probably under-reported its emissions by america, up to Animal Testing Essay, 20 percent.) The three numbers I've described are daunting #x2013; they may define an essentially impossible future. But at least they provide intellectual clarity about the greatest challenge humans have ever faced. We know how much we can burn, and we know who's planning to burn more. Climate change operates on a geological scale and time frame, but it's not an impersonal force of nature; the more carefully you do the math, the more thoroughly you realize that this is, at who discovered, bottom, a moral issue; we have met the enemy and they is Shell. Meanwhile the tide of numbers continues. The week after the Rio conference limped to its conclusion, Arctic sea ice hit the lowest level ever recorded for that date. Last month, on a single weekend, Tropical Storm Debby dumped more than 20 inches of rain on Florida #x2013; the earliest the omo detergent, season's fourth-named cyclone has ever arrived. At the america, same time, the largest fire in omo detergent New Mexico history burned on, and the most destructive fire in Colorado's annals claimed 346 homes in Colorado Springs #x2013; breaking a record set the week before in Fort Collins. Who Discovered America? This month, scientists issued a new study concluding that global warming has dramatically increased the Against Animal Testing, likelihood of severe heat and drought #x2013; days after a heat wave across the Plains and Midwest broke records that had stood since the Dust Bowl, threatening this year's harvest.

You want a big number? In the course of america this month, a quadrillion kernels of classicism corn need to pollinate across the grain belt, something they can't do if temperatures remain off the charts. Just like us, our crops are adapted to the Holocene, the 11,000-year period of climatic stability we're now leaving. in the dust. This story is from the August 2nd, 2012 issue of Rolling Stone. Sign up for our newsletter to receive breaking news directly in your inbox.

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marraige essay The Injustice Involving Same-sex Marriage. Northern Illinois University. The legalization of same-sex marriage has been a battle that has been raging since the who discovered late twentieth century. By not allowing same-sex marriage, the United Sates is creating discrimination against same-sex couples. People of faith are the biggest advocates against A Case Animal, same-sex marriages.

With the belief that marriage is the foundation for procreation, same-sex couples, without the ability to america, have their own child, should not be allowed the right of marriage. Classicism Definition? Seeing that there are many rights and responsibilities associated with marriage, same-sex couples are denied these and are being discriminated against. Same-sex couples are denied the right to make decisions regarding their partners health and medical treatment. This emotional trauma, as well as the inability to who discovered america, adopt one anothers children, is experienced by same-sex couples every day. Although many states have adopted civil unions, they are separate and unequal.

Same-sex marriage should be legalized to create equality and eliminate the injustice involving same-sex couples. a. The Universal Of Art? Marriage is a basic human right for every individual. Same sex marriage should be legalized in Illinois. a. History of same sex marriage. i. Same sex marriage in early years.

ii. Who Discovered? Ancient civilizations. iii. Rise of Christianity. iv. First laws against same sex relationships. v. National awareness and rise of the Gay Movement.

b. For Chocolate? Religion and same sex marriage. 1. Having children is main reason for marriage. ii. Artificial insemination. 1. Other alternatives for having children. iii. Marriage ceremonies involving the who discovered church.

1. Church blessing. iv. The church does not marry people. The Universal Essay? The church has blessed many other things that involve destruction. v. Organization of bill. 1. Who Discovered? The bill could be crafted in a way so the church is not involved. Marriage would take place in a courtroom. i. Denied rights. 1. Marriage is a right every individual is entitled to. a. Social Security benefits upon death, disability or retirement of spouse, as well as benefits for minor children, workers' compensation protections for the family of a worker injured on the job, exemptions from estate taxes when a spouse dies, exemptions from water movie online, federal income taxes on america spouse's health insurance are all denied to same sex couples.

ii. Emotional trauma. 1. Hospital visits, decisions regarding loved ones life, custody of children. iii. Classicism Definition? Ideal image of a family. a. America? Father and mother figure. b. Like Water Movie? Parents would still rather see their children find someone who loves them and who discovered, be happy.

d. Classicism Definition? Civil unions versus marriage. i. America? Civil unions are separate and unequal. 1. Heterosexual people can be in A Case Testing Essay a civil union but homosexual people cannot get married. 2. There are no benefits associated with a civil union. 3. Civil unions are not recognized state to state. a. Who Discovered America? The battle over same-sex marriage will be forever ongoing. b. Same-sex marriage has been in history for decades. c. Language Of Art Essay? Design of the bill. d. Restate Main arguments as well as counterarguments.

e. Legalizing same-sex marriage will create equality. The Injustice Involving Same-sex Marriage. In early times, same-sex marriage was not considered taboo and in many cultures, it was encouraged. Random History (2011) explains that in the early civilizations of Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, the union between couples of the who discovered same-sex was recognized by the kingdom. During Greeks early years, attraction between a man and another man was normal and was considered an expression of love. The main considerations in same-sex relationships in like for chocolate movie online early history were often love, beauty, and excellence of character rather than gender (Random History, 2011, p.1). Same-sex marriages were often believed to be more pure than a heterosexual marriage. Marriage was believed to who discovered, be the union of two people based on Language of Art love. A marriage consisting of two males or two females, if women had the right to get married, was not frowned upon.

It was not until the rise of Christianity that a negative attitude towards same-sex marriage became introduced. The belief that marriage was based on procreation and america, any relationship that was non-procreative began to increase in many societies. Random Historys 2011 research describes how Eastern religions varied in their views about homosexual marriages. Japanese Buddhism records the most tolerant attitude toward homosexuality, praising it for its mystery. Today, there are no religious or political limitations on Embolism Clot homosexual behavior in Japan. Sexuality is considered a private matter and lacks any restrictions. The sacred texts in the Hindu tradition, the Vedas, did not restrict homosexuality, but rather viewed it as perverse (Random History, 2011, p.1).

Other things, such as mixed race relationships were considered more offensive than homosexuality. Random History (2011) also explains how in who discovered the thirteenth century, the first laws banning sodomy were introduced and were strictly enforced. A Case Against Animal Testing? Through the next centuries, homosexual behavior became deviant and was punished. Who Discovered? Due to the belief that homosexual behavior was wrong, the belief that heterosexual relationships were normal became popular among the majority of countries. By the like nineteenth century, heterosexuality became the most believed standard for relationships.

Although the debate for same-sex marriage became noticeably public in the late twentieth century, it was not until 1993 during a Hawaiian case, that the issue became national news. Who Discovered? The ruling of the case stated that the restriction of A Case Animal Essay marriage and its benefits to opposite-sex couples were unconstitutional. The Defense of Marriage Act, which was introduced in who discovered america 1996, was almost a direct response to the Hawaiian case, declared that no state would be required to recognize a same-sex marriage from another state, and also defined marriage as a union between one man and one woman (Axel-Lute, 2002, p.1). By that same year, a majority of omo detergent states passed laws prohibiting same-sex marriage. Since then, states have defined their own definition of marriage. Despite the fact that the debate over same-sex marriage is relatively new in the United States, five states have made same-sex marriage legal, as well as Washington D.C. According to the Floridas Domestic Partnership (2010), currently, there are only two states that recognize same-sex marriages, New York and California. In California, the marriage is only recognized if it was before proposition 8. Who Discovered America? Ballot Pedias 2008 research explains how proposition 8 is a statewide ballot proposition in California.

The people of California voted for the illegalization of same-sex marriage. Though some people are against same-sex marriages for religious reasons, not allowing same-sex marriages is discrimination. Same-sex marriages should be legalized because the discrimination same-sex couples receive is omo detergent emotionally traumatic, and unfair. The most influential reason against same-sex marriage is based on religion. Many people believe that procreation is the ideal reason for marriage. Their belief is that same-sex couples do not have the capability to who discovered, produce children which is the basis for marriage. However, when two of the most influential religious icons discussed marriage, child bearing was not a reason for two people to get married. Marketing? It is highly significant that Jesus and Paul, while both referring to america, the creation story, never once mention procreation or physical sexual difference in Testing Essay their teaching about marriage (Sullivan, 1997, p.79). Both men stressed how the quality of america a relationship was the A Case Against Animal Testing most important aspect for marriage.

If marriage is reserved for having a child, then same-sex marriages are not an issue. There are countless ways to have a child. Not all of them amount to doing the who discovered same thing (Meilander, 1996). Omo Detergent? Many same-sex couples employ artificial insemination to conceive a child. Liz Tracys 2011 article interviews Maria and Vivian, a lesbian couple who were married in New York last year. The two have a 21 year old daughter by artificial insemination. During a marriage ceremony, the who discovered churchs only engagement is to omo detergent, give its blessing. The church does not, in fact, marry anyone. People marry each other. The state, not the church, defines the nature of legal marriage (Sullivan, 1997, p.68). Sullivan (1997) also states how the church has blessed fields when crops have been planted, MX missiles, new houses, and warships whose sole purpose is to kill and destroy. There is no reason the church should not bless a relationship in which two people vow to be faithful and love each other for all eternity. Supporters of same-sex marriage believe the bill to allow same-sex marriage should be crafted in a specific way that will help win votes from who discovered america, people of faith. The measure would not force religious organizations to grant marriages to same-sex couples, a move that would make the government benefits of marketing marriage equal for who discovered, gay and straight couples but still allow the sacrament of marriage to definition, be defined by churches (Groeninger, 2012, p.2).

If the bill was written and carried out in a certain way, the church would not have any association with same-sex couples getting married because the process would be carried out in a courtroom. The American gay rights movement, which became heated in the 1970s, defined marriage as oppressive, sexist, and a heterosexual institution, according to the National Organization of Womens 2012 studies. By the government prohibiting same-sex couples from who discovered, getting married, they are denying them rights that every other American has. Marketing? Marriage is a unique legal status conferred by and recognized by governments all over the world. Who Discovered America? It brings with it a host of reciprocal obligations, rights and protections (National Organization of Women, 2012, p, 1). There are numerous rights and Against Testing Essay, responsibilities that are associated with marriage.

Same-sex couples are being discriminated against who discovered america, because they are not allowed any of these rights. The National Organization of Womens 2012 research details many of the 1,138 federal rights, protections and responsibilities that come along with marriage, which same-sex couples are denied. Social Security benefits upon Against Animal Essay, death, disability or retirement of america spouse, as well as benefits for minor children, workers' compensation protections for the family of a worker injured on Essay on Pulmonary Embolism is the Ultimate Blood the job, exemptions from america, estate taxes when a spouse dies, exemptions from federal income taxes on spouse's health insurance are all denied to A Case Animal Essay, same-sex couples. The discrimination and denial of marriage and its benefits of same-sex couples can be emotionally traumatic at times. Because literally hundreds of important legal, economic, practical, and social benefits and protections flow directly from marriage, the exclusion from this central social institution wreaks real harm on real life same-sex couples everyday (Sullivan, 1997, p. 129). Same-sex couples are denied the america right to make decisions regarding their partners health or medical treatment.

Sullivan (1997) also explains how same-sex couples are not allowed to adopt their partners children or how lesbian mothers are often denied custody of their children. One of the most common arguments against same-sex marriage is societys image of the ideal family. The public acceptance of omo detergent homosexuality subverts the stability and self-understanding of the heterosexual family (Sullivan, 1997, p.146). Conservatives believe that the america ideal family includes one father and one mother. Both of the parents influence their children in a certain way. Many believe that a same-sex couple cannot raise a child properly because the child is not raised with both fatherly and motherly qualities.

However, Sullivan (2012) also discusses how even though some parents may be disappointed that their child will not produce a grandchild, they would still prefer to A Case Essay, see their child find someone to love and who discovered america, live with and share his or her life with. Of Art? If a child is surrounded by two parents who love them, they will develop and grow as any other child would. Many states have legalized civil unions since 2000. Although civil unions provide legal protection to same-sex couples, they are only america, recognized at the state level. A Case? Many believe legalizing same-sex marriage is not an urgent issue because civil unions are becoming legal in more states. America? Giving same-sex couples the omo detergent right to visit a loved one in america the hospital, make end of life decisions and inherit property through civil unions was considered the middle ground (Groeninger, 2012, p.1). There is a vast amount of differences in a marriage and civil union.

Debatepedias 2011 research explains how civil unions are separate and unequal because people in a heterosexual relationship have access to civil unions, yet same-sex couples do not have access to marriage. Civil unions are unequal because they are not recognized state to state. A same-sex couple in a civil union is omo detergent denied the all of the rights that come with marriage. Also, civil unions do not receive any federal benefit. Because the federal government does not respect civil unions, a couple with a civil union will be in a kind of america limbo with regard to A Case Against Essay, governmental functions performed by both state and federal governments, such as taxation, pension protections, provision of who discovered america insurance for families, and means-tested programs like Medicaid ( National Organization of Women, 2012, p.1). The debate over same-sex marriage will forever rage until it becomes legalized. Same-sex relationships have been a part of on Pulmonary Embolism Blood Clot history since the ancient times.

Not allowing same-sex marriage is discrimination. Couples are denied financial benefits heterosexual couples receive. Same-sex marriage should be legalized so couples will have the right to america, make decisions regarding their partners health and medical treatment as well as allowing them to The Universal Language, adopt one anothers children. Designing the who discovered america bill a certain way will enable to church to stay uninvolved, since religious reasons are the most common reason for people being against same-sex marriage. Legalizing same-sex marriages will create equality for Against Essay, all people in a relationship and defeat the who discovered injustice among same-sex couples.

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11 Reasons You Need to who discovered america Write a Book NOW. This week we#8217;re celebrating the new year. Embolism Is The Clot. Well, at america least I am. When the clock hit twelve on Saturday night, something happened to me. Like For Chocolate Online. Nothing weird like I turned into a werewolf or vampire or something, but more of an overwhelming feeling that I was free from the insanity that was 2016.

While 2016 was completely crazy, it was also extremely productive for me as I writer. Last year, I was able to finish writing THREE books. THREE. In one year. Sounds kind of crazy in hindsight. 11 Reasons You Should Write a Book. Through writing those three books, I learned a ton. And today I#8217;ve compiled a list of all the who discovered america, reasons you should write a book too. You#8217;ve got a story and classicism definition, it needs to be told.

You may think that your story has been told, or it has been told similarly, but like Joe taught me a few years ago: You offer a unique perspective, formed by your experiences and the way you see the world, that only you can share. You need to america write a book to classicism definition share those with the rest of us. America. Last year I learned about Language, misogi and it changed my life. In short, modern-day misogi is to embrace a challenge that you#8217;re most likely going to fail for the purpose of radically expanding your idea of america, what is possible. For some, the misogi is physical, like running a 5K underwater without an oxygen mask while carrying a boulder. A Case Against Animal Testing. For others, it is mental, like writing a book. The idea behind the america, task is to challenge yourself to Essay do something you can#8217;t actually imagine you can do and who discovered america, see what is possible. You need to write a book because it#8217;s unbelievably difficult and embarking on A Case Against Animal, such a difficult journey will show you that you are much more capable than you ever imagined yourself to be. When I look at my writing from 2015, I am deeply embarrassed. Honestly, it was bad.

Not bad in the cute, modest way, but in america, the plain, old, messy, inexperienced-writer way. That is what I was, thoughan inexperienced writer. And you don#8217;t become an experienced writer overnight by reading Stephen King#8217;s On Writing memoir. A Case Against Animal. (Trust me, I#8217;ve tried it.) You become a better writer by writing. So, the third reason you need to write a book is to become a better writer. You will only get better by practicing, failing, and writing bad writing anyways.

Did you know that right now is the perfect time to write a book? I#8217;ll let you in on a secret: there will never be the perfect time to write a book. I promise you, it will never come. Who Discovered. You need to write a book now because no better time is coming. Whether you are writing nonfiction, a memoir, or fiction, writing a book is definitely like free therapy. When you are alone with yourself for an extended period of time, trying to Essay Embolism Blood make sense of your thoughts, you are going to learn a lot about yourself. Learning about yourself is good. Write a book.

We live short lives. Who Discovered. Fleeting moments and breaths are all we have. Strangely, though, we have found a way to immortalize ourselves and for chocolate movie, our stories. We write them down. Who Discovered. The greatest way to leave a mark on the world is to leave behind a legacy of stories. When you write a book, you are giving yourself and your words the opportunity to last longer than your own life. I hate that we need money to live, but we do. That#8217;s just how it works. Marketing. So if you#8217;re going to have to make a living for yourself, why not do part of that (or all of who discovered, that) through writing and selling your books? Isn#8217;t that the dream? Sure, writing and publishing a book can be a lot of work, but to generate real income with your creative work is every writer#8217;s goal.

Plus, you can sell your books the barclays marketing, rest of who discovered, your life. You won#8217;t be able to on Pulmonary Embolism Blood sell any books if you don#8217;t write them, though. You know whom I#8217;m talking about. For me, it#8217;s my eleventh-grade English teacher who told me I just didn#8217;t #8220;have it#8221; as a writer. It#8217;s the boss who told you that you were wasting your time with #8220;that novel of who discovered, yours.#8221; Don#8217;t listen to classicism definition everyone who told you that you can#8217;t. I wrote three books last year and america, I#8217;m telling you that I know you can. One of the greatest feelings I have ever experienced is holding a book I#8217;ve written. It is an indescribable feeling to look back on the journey that you took while writing the book, to remember the late nights, the hard work, and water for chocolate online, of course, the tears. It brings an incredible sense of awe, disbelief, amazement, and who discovered america, confidence that you can accomplish even more. This is a feeling you need to experience as a writer. Really.

How long have you wanted to like water for chocolate write a book? If you#8217;re like me, maybe you#8217;ve wanted to write a book your entire life. You have got to stop putting it off. The list of excuses you could come up with are endless, but in the end, they#8217;re also all weak and illusory. One of the biggest reasons you need to write a book now is because you#8217;ve run out of excuses why you can#8217;t. 11. Because you are a writer and you can. In my opinion, the biggest, most important reason why you need to write a book is because you are a writer.

What do writers do? Well, they write. And no, not all writers write books, but I believe it would be beneficial for all writers to attempt a book. Why? Because writing a book is hard. It will challenge you. America. It will grow you as a writer. You need to write a book because you can.

There is like for chocolate movie, a unique ability within you to create something from nothing. To take an idea and transform it into a story and then a novel. So write a book because you are a writer and because you can. Write a book because your story matters. Write a book because it#8217;s hard. Write a book to become a better writer and because the time is right now. Write a book because you want to. America. Do you want to write a book? What#8217;s holding you back? Let us know in the comments. We#8217;ve put together a free video lesson on the four essentials to finishing your book.

Watch the seven-minute video lesson and complete the definition, assignment at the end of the lesson. Post your assignment in who discovered america, the comments, and leave some feedback for your fellow writers. Great article. There is like water movie, no better time than right now. Who Discovered America. Write that book! I am. :o) You#8217;re absolutely right, Joe, and here#8217;s another reason: the publishing world continues to omo detergent morph so radically that we as writers can invent the launch strategy that works for us. We need to grab this brave new world by the horns and who discovered, make it our own. Onward! It was actually Kellie McGann who wrote this article; not Joe. #128521; Thanks, Charlotte #8212; #8220;You#8217;re absolutely right, Kellie#8230;#8221; This has to be the attitude. Barclays. At some point, you have to decide that THIS WILL HAPPEN. Who Discovered. And then make the necessary choices to water online do it.

For me, that meant eliminating television for 6 months. I decided that I wasn#8217;t going to watch other people#8217;s stories until I had finished mine. That was a great decision to america cut out tv and force yourself to create. I did the same thing with passive social media scrolling. Until I write each day a certain amount, no mindless scrolling. Like. My problem isn#8217;t writing the who discovered, book. It#8217;s doing the additional chores like linking the TOC to the chapter headings. Today I solved that by sending the Essay on Pulmonary Blood, book to a friend who does that kind of work. It will be worth the little bit of money it will cost. Who Discovered America. I#8217;m relieved.

Sigh#8230; I found this article uplifting and barclays, inspiring thank you. This is the perfect time because it#8217;s the america, beginning of a new year. Now to figure out which stories I want to tell. Water. I write in French but I am not a frenchman. I have written seven novels but I have published none, problem of finance.

As far as money is concerned I behave like a richman without a penny. That reminds a quotation of who discovered america, Gabriel Garcia Marquez #8221; Love in time of cholera#8221; : I am a poor man with a lot of money#8221; . Water For Chocolate Movie. If that character is poor with a lot of money, by my determination to write I feel rich with no money. People feel at who discovered america ease with me because I feel at omo detergent ease with myself, thanks to who discovered america writing. Do not pay too much attention to my English. Thank you so much for sharing this. Though only in high school, I am already extremely serious about my writing future.

For me, it all started with that one diary in definition, second grade, like it does for many little girls and who discovered, boys. Even before I could actually read or hold a pen correctly I wrote stories. Sure, they were based on the pictures of other books, and may have been a series of squiggly lines with a stick figure on Essay on Pulmonary Embolism is the Ultimate Blood Clot, the cover of my homemade #8220;book,#8221; but they fed into my interest. Even back then I remember being so proud of the #8220;story#8221; created, even if it wasn#8217;t in any real language known to america man. I continued to write in my journal (and have finished nearly 25 notebooks with my thoughts and school drama at definition this point), but I have gotten tired of writing about myself. I long to tell the stories of others. Whether they physically exist or not. One of my 2017 Resolutions is to america carry around a notebook with me during the day and write in Essay is the Blood Clot, it at who discovered america least once every day.

Just to write SOMETHING every day because, like you said, it is extremely important. Classicism. It#8217;s also immensely beneficial towards your health, which is a fun little bonus feature. This year I am going to make it MY YEAR, even if it isn#8217;t. One of the first resolutions on my short list is #8220;FINISH THE FIRST DRAFT OF MY NOVEL.#8221; It may be the toughest at the moment, but it#8217;s also the america, most important to me. I really needed to read this article to remind me why.

So thank you. I#8217;ll part with a quote from The Universal of Art, #8216;Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows#8217; that comforts me on a personal level as a writer. Hopefully it may help you, as well. Who Discovered. -#8220;Is this real? Or has this been happening inside my head?#8221; -#8220;Of course it#8217;s happening inside your head, [Harry], but why on earth should that mean that it#8217;s not real?#8221; What a wonderful article. Definition. I want to write to let the world see what I see. And, it#8217;s not because it is a new year.

It is who discovered america, because I have something that I want to write. Thank you. You are so encouraging. I subscribe to a zillion blogs, but most go unclicked in water movie, my inbox. #8220;The Write Practice#8221; is who discovered, refreshing to see and clicked a lot! I#8217;m disappointed with my writing. I got out my novel, and in Language Essay, a happy, want-to-do mood, decided to start editing. After I read and edited the first chapter, I put it aside, realising how poor my writing is.

At the moment I#8217;m discouraged. I must improve. I must improve. Otherwise, I should give up my dream to edit and publish my novel. I wish all members the best of luck with their writing projects. Thanks, Kellie! I love #2. It#8217;s liberating to who discovered enter the project thinking, you know, this might just totally flop, but I#8217;ll do it anyway. Classicism Definition. If the goal is to learn, the success is up to me and not someone else#8217;s opinion. I think that#8217;s my big fear with this next project.

Love these gems of insight and inspiration, Kellie! Certainly engenders confidence to move forward. My favorite motto that I#8217;ve created myself is: Resistance invites persistence. Wishing all joy, inspiration and productivity in 2017!

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Essay on City Life vs. Village Life (2465 words) Essay on City Life vs. Village Life! One of the most striking features of industrial age is the growth of city life. In ancient times the people mostly lived in villages being engaged in agriculture.

Cities arose here and there as centres of trade or seats of government. Today in all industrialized countries the who discovered america, situation has been reversed. The urban population in England and the United States has expanded continuously over the rural population. New facilities of transport and communication have brought thousands of Essay on Pulmonary is the Ultimate people nearer to each other and made it convenient for them to live together in large aggregations. The growth of cities is a special feature of modern age and as the city grows the whole character of society undergoes a change. There is america, a sharp difference between the city and village life though with the expansion of urban influence on is the Ultimate Clot the village this difference is becoming more and more a matter of degree.

However, in spite of the recent trends of urbanisation the villages still retain many of their traditional features and present a sharp contrast with the urban life. In rural community the force of traditional mores and the bonds of family solidarity are more dominant than in who discovered the urban community. According to Biesanz and Biesanz, In the rural community custom is the king, the folkways and mores control most of behaviour, The sense of group responsibility which tends to be more and more dissolved in the growth of the city prevails in village life. The type of village family is generally patriarchal in which the status of the classicism, individual is the status of his family. There is less individual questioning and rebellion. The family determines as to whether and whom the individual should marry for america, the maintenance of family name. There is lesser freedom in the selection of life partner.

There are few love-marriages. Not only Animal Testing Essay, marriage but also religion, recreation, occupation pre determined by family traditions. Any deviation from the establish-id family traditions especially in sex matters, is regarded an offence against family unity and hardly tolerated. The life of all men and america, women is like for chocolate online, merged in who discovered america family life. In short, family dominates individuals life in Against Animal village community. Moreover, the village community is too small to support a missionary society, like a Rotary Club. The family is the only organisation which performs the task of who discovered america aid and protection. For such functions there is no formal organisation with a president and secretary. On the other hand, in the city community life is conspicuous by the absence of family life. The anonymous character of the city frees the urban dweller from close moral control. Social control becomes the activity of specialized agencies.

Family control is lessened. Police and omo detergent, courts, teachers and social workers take over the regulatory functions of the family circle. A free lance detached from who discovered america, family bonds is looked askance at in the village while such a person, even his norms of conduct, sexual and otherwise may pass unnoticed in the city and be admitted to those places where high class gentry goes. If a person violates family marriage customs he- is barclays marketing, not boycotted by the urban community, an who discovered, impersonalized world. According to Davis, He can escape the oppressive control of any primary group when he wishes, simply by disappearing into the sea of strangers. It may also be noted that the urban life is omo detergent, more regulated by the State than the rural life is regulated. Even minor matters like disposal of garbage and america, refuse cannot be left to voluntary action. The government acquires many functions, some of which are community housekeeping duties. Thus, in a city as opposed to the village the mores and folkways are least counted on Essay on Pulmonary Embolism Ultimate Blood to handle the situation. In other words, the larger the city, the greater becomes the problem of who discovered control and the more complex the Language of Art, agencies of secondary control.

Secondly, a village community is marked by immediate contacts between its members. There is a strong we-feeling in the rural community. We find members in who discovered a village community helping each other and sharing the joys and sorrows of each other. In the village everybody is known to everybody. Their relations are personal. Customers are not mere strangers but persons with whom all are acquainted. From such contacts each person knows a great deal about his neighbours, their activities, preferences and attitudes. Status of classicism definition each one in the village community is well known. Written contracts are less important than a word of honour. Crime in village community is rare.

Since there is little secrecy, stolen goods cannot be used and are difficult to dispose of. Things are done by mutual understanding. In city life, on the other hand, nearness counts much less. America! The inhabitants of omo detergent a city hardly know each other. Sometimes, they do not know even their next-door neighbour nothing to speak of who discovered influencing their activities. In a big city like Bombay people living in the lower storey do not know the people living in the third or fourth storey. There is an definition, atmosphere of who discovered indifference and callousness in a city. In a city like Calcutta, an inhabitant may spend a whole day in the street and never see a person he knows, though he may see tens of thousands of people. Even friend are likely to be known only in a particular context and in a particular segment of omo detergent life. In the words of Gist and Halbert, The city encourages impersonal rather than personal relationships. Most of the relations are indirect. Competition has a far greater velocity in the city than in the village.

Life in a village community is simple and uniform. There are few ambitious men and fewer excitements. The villagers lead a uniform life tilling land and rearing animals. Their standard of living is lower than that of the town because the means of earning money are limited. Who Discovered America! They view land as the most substantial of all heritages. Agriculture is their major occupation. When oppressive taxes or other measures threaten their ownership of land, they align themselves with radical movements as happened in Soviet Russia. The standard of living of the urban people is omo detergent, higher. They are more prodigal than the village people.

Country life suggests save, City life suggests spend. The poor turning rich overnight or the rich being reduced to beggary in one day are cases unknown in the village. Who Discovered! The man of enterprise and adventurous spirit has no place in rural community. The city dweller becomes indifferent to extremes of all kinds. Indeed the distinction between public and private, between what is shown and what is concealed, is much sharper in the city. It is the public behaviour that the city regulates, the private behaviour it ignores. Another contrast between village and urban community is concerning the modes of production. The Universal Language! In the village as a rule, only who discovered, a predominant type of occupation, Le., agriculture prevails. Each family bakes its own bread and classicism definition, does its own washing, for all the who discovered america, environment, physical as well as social, is the same. The city, on the other hand, is the place for all, the semiskilled worker, the skilled artisan, the paper-expert, the technician, the artist, the barclays marketing, banker, the teacher, the social reformer and many others.

It is a heterogeneous group of people engaged in who discovered america various pursuits. The city tasks are divided and sub-divided to such an extreme that even the work of unskilled labour becomes specialized. The trend in the urban world is clearly in the direction of a larger percentage of specialized work leading to a multiplicity of organisations, economic and social. The residents of Blood a city become affiliated with a number of organisations. America! Their social relations are mostly indirect and secondary. Members of a single family frequently belong to different organisations. Essay On Pulmonary Blood Clot! Since these various organisations have different customs and procedures, there is opportunity for confusion and lack of understanding. The process of selection for the specialized work is keener.

The management selects those who are best specialized in the work and ruthlessly reject all those who fall below the competitive standard. Who Discovered! The owner of special ability has greater chances of quick promotion. Classicism! The individual is rated more in terms of who discovered accomplishments than he is rated in the rural community. The city sifts and segregates all of the members according to their ability and finds a fit place for each. It provides public schools for the wealthy and private schools for the poor. It also provides distinctive schools for elementary, higher, technical, cultural and professional education. It even provides separate schools for defective persons, e.g. Deaf and Dumb school. The city requires and promotes great social mobility. It lays emphasis on achievement rather than the ascription of status. Classicism Definition! The urban dweller can raise or lower his status to a remarkable degree during his life time.

The caste element in social stratification is minimized. Status centres on america the occupation, on Essay on Pulmonary is the the nature and competence of the activity, rather than on the accident of birth. As opposed to the village in a city social climbing is most prevalent. Sorokin and Zimmermann have written, The rural community is similar to calm waters in a pool and the urban community to boiling water in a kettle. Stability is the typical trait for america, the one mobility is the typical trait for the other. Specialization is also seen in the physical structure of the omo detergent, city. Distinctive areas are marked for different activities.

Chandigarh, the capital of Punjab State, has been divided into different sectors, each sector with marked peculiarities. In the western world specialization of america areas has been carried to a greater extent than in India. The structure varies from city to city in accordance with the size, site and needs, of the city, but generally everywhere in Essay Blood the western world there is a clear division of space into zones of business activity, of low rentals and residential congestion, of who discovered america transitory abode, of middle-class residence, of industrial concentration, and so forth. Specialization in the city has also influenced the life of women. If the social life had remained predominantly a village life, women would have been the drudges in the household. Industrialization and specialization have brought women to The Universal Language Essay workshop and factory. They have entered into the wider life which has altered their outlook and habits and liberated them from the exclusiveness of domesticity. As MacIver observes, The individualization of women has been fostered by urban life and the resulting freer reciprocity of relationship between men and women, as individuals, is exercising and will doubtless continue to exercise, since the process is still advancing, a significant influence on the whole structure of society. The city community evokes in man the qualities which stand in sharp contrast with those demanded by rural community. The village calls for persistence, a more stern and dogged fidelity to who discovered america the way of A Case Against Essay life.

He is fatalistic and is in constant contact with nature. He sees nature as the practical worker who must wrest a living from the america, soil. He sees nature as friend and enemy, as the ripened of crops and Essay, sender of rains. The forces of nature are beyond his control and reckoning. Who Discovered America! He is omo detergent, attached to- rituals and becomes superstitious and religious. The city requires alertness and quicker responses to changing situations. The city dweller is more tolerant in matters of religious beliefs, modes of life, tastes and opinions. Who Discovered! According to Bogardus, Rural people are frank, open and genuine; they scorn the artificiality or many phases of city life.

The city is ruled by impersonality of law and the caprice of fashion. In a rural community the rural moral codes are fixed and strict. Any violation of them leads to bitter estrangements and sometimes to personal tragedies. In a rural community there is much mutual aid. If a house is to be mud plastered, a feast given or a sickness nursed, the neighbours come in to help. There is an atmosphere of kindliness. There is a good deal of visiting, several times daily, between the people.

In an for chocolate online, urban community there is no strong we feeling. The absence of a common mode of occupation and the great impersonality of city life narrow the urbanites attachments and detract from his feeling of identification with the whole community. The secondary and voluntary character of urban association, the multiplicity of opportunities, and the social mobility all force the individual to make his own decisions and to plan his life as a career. The city instead of suppressing the individuality emphasizes it. The competitiveness of the city places the individual over against everyone else he is not inexorably tied to any particular relationship or cause. Who Discovered! He leaves one city to live in omo detergent another city and does not feel any loss; but a countryman when uprooted from his village surroundings sheds tears from his eyes. Economic advancement and abundance of opportunities are common incentives of the city. Who Discovered! The young men and women leave the rural community for urban community because the latter affords those more opportunities for Essay on Pulmonary Embolism Ultimate Clot, employment and profits. But sometimes the men coming from the who discovered, village may have to face disappointment and despair in the city.

So one should leave the village for city after a deep and careful thought. The above are then the features that distinguish rural from urban life. Omo Detergent! In the city opposite conditions are found, aggregation ; instead of physical isolation; associations of who discovered america many kinds supplementing or supplanting the functions of family or categorical relationships; contacts with human beings and civilization diversity superseding contacts with nature; differentiation of economic classes and specialization of economic tasks, ranking and grading men in ways often unknown in the country; limited and intensified work, with its endless varieties and disparities of opportunity and of fortune creating an intricate design of competitive living traditionally alien to the rural sense. It may, however, be pointed out that urbanization of the rural population has reduced the differences between rural and urban community. The urban influence on the rural people can be seen in matters like social organisation, family organisation, food habits, standard of living, dress habits, cosmetics, religion, rituals, beliefs etc. The rural people are taking over the urban modes of life and as this has been happening, the The Universal Language of Art, rural way of life has been withering away. The more the who discovered, villages are linked with the city through modes of transport and communication, the faster will be the urban influence on the rural life. This may lead to assimilation of the rural people into the urban way of life thereby eliminating the attitudinal and other cultural differences between townsmen and countrymen. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.

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