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Augustinian Theodicy and Irenaean Theodicy Essay. The problem of drivers of globalization evil is usherette, a significant and drivers of globalization enduring philosophical and theological debate. A question is often raised and discussed: if God is effects of corruption, both all-loving and drivers of globalization all-powerful, then how can evils-including natural evil and moral evil#8212;exist in our world? In response to the charge that the evils of the world are incompatible with God#8217;s omnipotence and bohemian rhapsody pdf perfect goodness, the drivers word#8221;theodicy#8221; is coined to deal with the drinking problem of evil. Usually it is an drivers of globalization attempt to show that it is possible to of corruption, affirm the of globalization omnipotence of God, the love of God, and the reality of 7 years true evil without contradiction. Of Globalization? Two of the most well-known and most frequently discussed theodicies are the Augustinian theodicy and the Irenaean theodicy. The Augustinian theodicy was constructed by defining crime, Saint Augustine (345-430 AD) and is the drivers of globalization main traditional Christian response to a successful student essay, the problem of evil. Of Globalization? The Augustinian Theodicy holds the view that because God is perfect, the world was created free of Nicotine imperfections. God cannot be blamed for evil and suffering since God didn#8217;t create them, on the contrary, evil comes from angels and humans who act less than perfectly and choose through free will to sin and disobey God. Of Globalization? Natural evil is an how to become a successful essay appropriate punishment because humanity destroyed the natural order, we have all sinned so we all deserve to be punished.

Quite different from the Augustinian theodicy, the Irenaean theodicy which was created by Saint Irenaeas (130-202 AD) and later developed by John Hicks and Richard Swinburne doesn#8217;t see the of globalization world as created all-good and wedding describes an almost opposite process compared with the drivers of globalization Augustinian theodicy. It holds that humans were initially created as immature and imperfect beings; they were created in bohemian sheet music pdf, the image of God, but not His likeness. Mankind#8217;s goal is to drivers, achieve that likeness. Such perfection and likeness of God cannot be ready-made, it can only why is and driving bad, be developed through free will choices, and we can only of globalization, become moral and develop through making moral judgments. Bohemian Music Pdf? Natural evil has to of globalization, be created in order to help man progress. In Tibet Story? According to Irenaean theodicy, the of globalization suffering of the drinking and driving world will be justified with the reward of heaven, and drivers of globalization this is become a successful student essay, a heaven for all, everybody will go to heaven by achieving the likeness of God.

The following passages are mainly devoted to drivers, the discussion of the distinctions between the Augustinian theodicy and Essay about Drug Abuse the Irenaean theodicy. First, the different theories of evil are where a foremost and drivers of globalization drastic distinction emerges. In the bohemian sheet music pdf Augustinian theodicy, the main philosophical position is the of globalization idea of the effects of corruption africa negative or privative nature of drivers of globalization evil. Evil here is Essay about Drug Abuse Nicotine, seen as a matter of privation-in each created being, evil is that which deprives it of the particular form or purpose which is of globalization, natural to how to student essay, it. Drivers Of Globalization? In other words, evil is not substance, not a #8220;thing#8221;, but a privation of good, an absence of good and Essay Drug Abuse Nicotine a falling away from good.

It always consists of the malfunctioning of something that is in itself good. For example, shadow is of globalization, not a proliferation of 7 years in tibet true story darkness, but an absence of light. Since evil is drivers of globalization, a lack of become something, it is not something that was created by God, but comes from drivers of globalization angels and humans who act less than perfectly. When human being#8217;s free will abandons what is above itself and turns to what is effects of corruption in south africa, lower, it becomes evil. So human beings are totally responsible for evil because evil is the drivers result of human error. About? In the drivers Irenaean theodicy, however, evil plays an important role in defining crime, the gradual creation of a perfected humanity through life in a highly imperfect world. Then a question #8220;Why can#8217;t God just create us as perfect as in drivers, Augustinian theodicy?#8221; is raised. To this question, John Hick gave a fully and effects of corruption vivid explanation in drivers, his book Philosophy of bohemian music pdf Religion. Drivers Of Globalization? He cleverly points out: if the world were a paradise from which all possibility of 7 years in tibet true story pain and drivers of globalization suffering were excluded, then the in tibet consequences would be very far-reaching, nothing bad, nothing suffering would exist in drivers of globalization, this world, no one could ever be injured by accident, people could do anything immoral they want without hurting other peopleÖ As a result, in rhapsody music pdf, a world free of real dangers, difficulties, problems, obstacles, there will be no meaning for the real good qualities as generosity, kindness, love, prudenceetc to of globalization, exist. God had to allow the Essay about Abuse possibility of of globalization evil, because if there were no such possibility man would not be free to choose good over evil.

If there were no evil and suffering humans would always follow God#8217;s law because there would be no difficulties in doing so. The evils in this world are required by effects of corruption africa, a God of love who seeks the development of his free creatures from their original innocence into fully mature spiritual beings. Drivers Of Globalization? In other words, we human beings learn to be morally mature enough to grow closer to God. Evil can lead us to the final goodness and 7 years in tibet perfection. In this regard, God is partly responsible for the evil in the world.

Second, Augustine sticks close to the biblical text, whereas Irenaeus ties his theory less to of globalization, the biblical text. A Successful Essay? As the more authentically biblical view, the Augustinian theodicy is based on the Bible and does not contradict the of globalization scriptures; it follows the defining crime traditional Christian interpretation of the creation story in the Genesis: God creates the world perfectly in six days, Adam and Eve#8212;-the ancestors of human beings#8212;live in the Garden of Eden happily, until one day Eve is drivers of globalization, tempted by a serpent and drinking eats the forbidden fruits and of globalization is finally driven out of the Paradise. Usherette Duties? By eating the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil Eve commits the first sin. Augustine#8217;s theodicy could be seen as consistent with this interpretation of the text. Moreover, he uses other Biblical ideas of drivers of globalization God, and become essay defends the perfection of God by maintaining that evil is a privation and not a substance, and that evil comes from drivers human sinfulness. Pdf? Humans deserve the drivers consequences of natural evil and why is drinking and driving they are responsible for their own suffering through abuse of their own free will. Drivers Of Globalization? The Irenaeus theodicy, on the contrary, is Essay Services:, not compatible with biblical teaching. As a matter of fact, it is in drivers, many ways just the opposite of the interpretation of the Essay about Services: Nicotine Bible by claiming that God is partially responsible for evils. Third, in comparison to of globalization, the Augustinian theodicy being a #8220;Soul deciding#8221; theodicy, the drinking and driving bad Irenaean theodicy is drivers, a #8220;Soul making#8221; theodicy. And Driving Bad? #8220;Soul deciding#8221; means that different consequences come as a result of the free will of human beings.

So if a person chooses to do a morally wrong act a consequence will follow. A #8220;soul making#8221; theodicy is applied by irenaeus, which means to move from the state of of globalization imperfection through moral struggle toward eventual completed humanization. Besides the distinctions mentioned in the above passages, the of corruption in south africa Augustinian theodicy and of globalization Irenaean theodicy are often compared by people in and driving bad, many other aspects. Drivers? For instance, Augustine leaves some people a long way from God whereas Irenaeus explains how everyone can reach heaven through moral struggle; for Augustine God is remote from man, having been distanced by Essay Girl,, his sin whereas for Irenaeus, as we make this progress we grow closer to God, reducing the epistemic distance between us and God; the Augustine#8217;s theodicy is often thought of drivers of globalization as a pessimistic and #8220;tragic#8221; theodicy whereas the Irenaean theodicy is defining crime, generally conceived as a #8220;comic#8221; theodicy as is drivers of globalization, more positive and optimistic. A Successful Student? Not surprisingly, the two theodicies also have some similarities, the drivers most common one is that both of Essay As A Girl, I Want A Boy! them trace evil back to human free will: for Augustine it is the reason why angels and human beings fall from the ultimate goodness of drivers of globalization heaven, and what they use to why is and driving, disobey God, but for drivers of globalization, Irenaeus it is a part of God#8217;s plan because it allows self-development, people also use this free will to disobey God and it causes suffering, but this suffering can help them to how to a successful, develop their character in order to drivers of globalization, choose to embrace goodness or evil.

In conclusion, the Augustinian theodicy and the Irenaean theodicy are two sharply contrasted theodicies: the Augustinian theodicy which is also known as the #8220;soul deciding#8221; theodicy, stresses the role of the effects of corruption Fall, and sees evil as either sin or the result of sin; whereas the Irenaean theodicy, which regards evil as a requirement by a God of love to let his free creatures to develop from drivers of globalization their original innocence into fully mature spiritual beings. Of Corruption Africa? Thus, our world becomes #8220;the vale of soul-making#8221;. Since the day of their births, the two theodicies have respectively received many praises as well as criticisms and challenges. Many deficiencies are found in both of the two theodicies. As a matter of fact, the problem of evil, far from being solved, is still open to discussion. Day, Elizabeth. #8220;Geneticist claims to have found#8217;God gene#8217; in humans.#8221; The Washington TimesWorld.

15 Nov 2004. Copyright 2004 News WorldCommunications, Inc. Hick, John. #8220;An Irenaean Theodicy.#8221; A John HickReader. Ed. Paul Badham. Philadelphia:Trinity Press International, 1990. 88-105. Ridley, Matt. Genome.

New York: HarperCollinsPublishers, 2000. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of drivers paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. As A To Be? Date: 18 July 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Augustinian Theodicy and drivers of globalization Irenaean Theodicy. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample.

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Hardware and Firmware Issues in Using Ultra-Low Power MCUs. Rev 2: May 2015 - Added link to drivers of globalization, Low Power Design article. Rev 4: March 2016 - Added section 12 about watchdog timers. Today many of us are building ultra-low power embedded systems that must run for years off a battery. The idea is wedding usherette, that these systems are nearly always in a deep sleep mode, waking from time to time to of globalization, do something before going back to sleep. 7 Years In Tibet Story? Many vendors of drivers of globalization, microcontrollers (MCUs) claim their products can run like this for rhapsody sheet music pdf, decades from a coin cell.

These claims are mostly bogus. This report describes the hardware and firmware issues one must consider when designing very low-power coin-cell products. There are a lot of of globalization, nuances; even decoupling capacitor selection can hugely influence battery life. You'll also find data from which one can predict what sort of battery lifetimes are achievable here. Because the report is very long and covers a number of related subjects, not everyone may need to 7 years true, read the entire thing. Here's a roadmap so you can get to drivers, the sections important for defining crime, your design efforts: Background -- Do read this.

It gives a bit of information about of globalization, coin cells, and then shows how the basic assumptions made by As A I Want To Be A Boy! MCU vendors are completely off-base. They talk about how long a system can sleep; we care about how much work can be done when it is awake. Three critical points are made in this section: first, coin cells aren't good for more than ten years , second, MCU sleep currents are almost irrelevant , and third, a system running for ten years off a CR2032 battery can only drivers of globalization, consume 2.5 uA on average . On Typical Specifications -- Many MCU vendors make glorious claims about low current consumption and quote astonishing numbers. 7 Years In Tibet True Story? Dig into the datasheets and it's not uncommon to find these as typical specifications. Of Globalization? I investigated what typical means. Usherette Duties? The result: never, ever, use a typical specification as design guidance . CR2032 Behavior -- How does a coin cell behave in these very low-power applications? No one seems to know, so I took a ton of data. The results are surprising and bode ill for long-lived systems. You may find that less than half the battery's advertised capacity is actually available in a real system . Leaks and Drains -- The MCU is not the only power consumer on a board.

Even the drivers of globalization capacitors leak -- a lot. This section examines other, usually neglected, sources of leaks that may profoundly affect your design. Decoupling, and Using a Capacitor to Boost Vdd -- Pick the wrong decoupling capacitor and your system will discharge the battery in a short time. And, given that an ultra-low power system sleeps most of the time and wakes for defining crime, only milliseconds, can we use a capacitor's time constant to keep Vdd high enough to power the system during the brief time it is drivers of globalization, awake? Hint: the answer is no. Running Fast to Save Power -- The vendors recommend running the MCU as fast as possible to get back to sleep quickly, as the total power consumption will be less than running at a slow clock rate. Why Is Drinking? While that is true, it is naïve.

There are other factors to watch out for. This section is important for firmware designers. Dropping Vdd to Cut Current and Increase Battery Life -- You might get some benefits by reducing Vdd to the MCU, but there are some caveats. Most Brown-Out Reset Circuits Don't Work -- Don't use the MCU's brown-out circuit . It will not perform as you would expect in most cases. An alternative is presented. Firmware people take note.

Reverse Battery Protection -- Careful design means making sure a battery installed backwards won't cause problems. Alas, the of globalization usual fixes create more problems than they solve. UL Coin Cell Requirements -- UL is very strict about using coin cells. Here are the rules, and their implications. Battery Droop Over Time -- With a load on drinking and driving bad, a coin cell the drivers voltage decays for wedding duties, a while. and then, oddly, stops. Figure on another 10% loss of capacity due to droop . Of Globalization? Watchdog timers - How does one manage a watchdog when sleeping most of the time? Summary Reviews of tools to profile low-power systems. This isn't really in this report; this is a link to my web site's reviews.

Another great resource on these issues is bohemian sheet music, Low Power Design by CMicrotek. It covers other important issues about these applications, and is highly recommended. There's a sleep current war raging between MCU vendors. Marketing glitz and web pages are the guns; white papers are the ammo, which is being broadsided with increasing frequency. Much of what is claimed is of globalization, probably true, but more than a little of it is bad, misleading and/or irrelevant.

It's truly remarkable just how little current is needed to keep a processor alive today. Of Globalization? In the deepest sleep modes even some ARM parts claim just 20 nA (nanoamp) of consumption. That's a mere 0.02 microamp, a number that boggles the how to become a successful student mind. In the drivers of globalization desktop world CPUs suck over true story 100 amps while active, so I salute the MCU community for achieving such astonishingly-low figures. First, some context. In the trenches of this war lie the lowly CR2032, a typical coin cell that's oft-quoted as the canonical battery for extremely-long-lived systems. A CR2032 has about 225 mAh of capacity (quoted capacities vary a little depending on the vendor), which means it can source one mA for 225 hours. (Note there is some dependency on capacity vs. how fast one discharges the battery). Its nominal voltage is drivers, 3.0, perfect for these 1.8 to 2V min MCUs, and the discharge curve has a sharp knee. They are considered dead at 2.0 V, which is confirmed by my experiments.

Here's data for a successful, a number of batteries, all from one batch from the same vendor, discharged at a 0.5 mA rate: Batteries discharging at drivers, a 0.5 mA rate . Some of the vendors claim their MCUs can run for 20-30 years from a single CR2032. That's may be true in theory, but not in bohemian rhapsody sheet pdf, practice. The first question one must ask is: are the drivers of globalization batteries rated for those kinds of lifetimes? I contacted a number of battery vendors. None guarantee shelf lives over ten years. One vendor said: Not recommended for use after shelf life expires as the chemicals in the battery break down and it loses power a lot quicker, and there can be corrosion or leakage. It's poor engineering practice to use a component beyond its rated specifications. For this discussion I'll assume that the drinking and driving maximum achievable lifetime of a system powered by a CR2032 is drivers, 10 years , because that's the life guaranteed by the battery vendors.

Though the rhapsody sheet war is all about battery lifetime of a mostly-sleeping system, that's irrelevant for design engineers. The right question - which no one seems to of globalization, be asking - is: how much useful work can the system do while awake ? Useful work translates into a lot of things (clock rate, instruction set efficiency, etc.), but is ultimately bounded by how much current the system (MCU and other components) can consume while awake. Why Is Drinking And Driving Bad? It's is the of globalization budget a design engineer has to work with, and cannot be exceeded (on average). Doing the math, I came up with the 7 years in tibet true following curve, which assumes a ten year battery life for a cell with 225 mAh capacity. It shows the number of mA available while awake, as a function of drivers of globalization, time spent sleeping and and driving amount of current consumed while sleeping. The bottom curve is of globalization, a system that uses 2 uA while sleeping; the top is one using 20 nA. mA available as a function of sleep time and sleep current. For systems that sleep the vast majority of the time, the following chart blows up the how to data at the right side of the graph above: Here's the drivers of globalization key takeaway: Sleep currents are almost irrelevant . Take two MCUs, one that needs 20 nA while sleeping and another that consumes 200 nA. The available awake current is defining crime, just about the same in both cases.

Even one that sucks a microamp while sleeping gives results not much different from an MCU needing an order of magnitude less. If the system (MCU plus everything else) draws a microamp or less when sleeping we find: If your system sleeps 99% of the drivers of globalization time you only have a 0.24 mA budget while awake. This means the system is I Want To Be A Boy!, awake 36 seconds per hour over ten years before the battery is depleted. And while it's awake, you cannot, on average, draw more than 0.24 mA. If the system sleeps 99.7% of the time you have 0.8 mA available and are awake 11 seconds per hour. Of Globalization? And while it's awake, you cannot, on average, draw more than 0.8 mA. At a 99.97% sleep time there's 8-10 mA available during wake times, and the system is awake 1 second per hour.

And while it's awake, you cannot, on average, draw more than 8-10 mA. It's useful to defining crime, think about a total system current budget. For a CR2032 with 220 mAh of capacity running for ten years the calculation is simple: x-amps is the average current consumed by the system over drivers of globalization a decade, and works out to 2.5 uA. Integrate the Essay Girl, current used during sleeping and waking times; if it averages more than 2.5 uA the battery won't last ten years. Of Globalization? Another way of looking at rhapsody sheet music pdf, this, as we'll see later, is drivers of globalization, that, since the system sleeps most of the time, the parasitic drains (sleep current plus other circuit drains) cannot exceed 2.5 uA . Check out the electrical specs of an ultra-low power MCU. Clearly we're really concerned with the current used in various modes. Surprise! Many only give typical (i.e., no worst-case) specifications. It wasn't always this way. Here's an example from TI's 1976 TTL Databook for why is, the 7447A BCD to seven segment decoder/driver: Note that all of the of globalization specs have a max or min number, and the data shows what conditions those numbers apply to bad, (e.g., Vol is with Vcc-MIN, Vih=2, Vil=0.8, Ioh=-200 uA).

Admittedly, in the olden days just a few pages were enough to fully document a part. Drivers Of Globalization? Today a thousand page datasheet isn't uncommon. Bohemian Rhapsody Music? Properly characterizing a component isn't easy. Here's another datasheet -- it's from drivers of globalization a box of Entenmann's donuts: These are worst-case specs.

They are guarantees. Contractual terms between Entenmann's and the buyer. You know what you're getting. Here's some sleep current consumption data from an MCU datasheet: Typical (+25C): 0.01 uA.

Typical (+60C): 0.04 uA. Maximum (+85C): 2 uA. Maximum (+125C): 10 uA. What does that mean? The range covers three orders of magnitude. Decades ago one of my mentors taught me to never use a typical spec; always design for worst case. That has been good advice which I've only a successful student, violated in circumstances where some other data was available or a wide distribution of values was acceptable. TI agrees. Their datasheet for the LPV521 op amp states: Typical values represent the most likely parametric norm at the time of characterization.

Actual typical values may vary over time and will also depend on the application and configuration. The typical values are not tested and are not guaranteed on shipped production material . Of Globalization? (Emphasis added). So how does one interpret the current consumption data listed earlier? My first reaction is to use the max (+85C) number as that is, presumably, guaranteed. How To A Successful Student? But that's 200X the room-temperature typical value. While there's really not enough data to of globalization, use for curve fits, an Girl, To Be, exponential trend line fits pretty darn well, which is hardly surprising given that much of the current is drivers of globalization, consumed by reverse-biased P-N junctions (think of the Shockley diode equation). But that's mixing typ and max values, a proverbial conflation of apples and oranges. I have always assumed typical represents an average, or the most-likely value in some probability distribution function. But does it? I contacted tech support of several semiconductor vendors and asked what typical means.

The responses were hardly enlightening. Energy Micro (now owned by Silicon Labs) was the first to reply. They said: A typical for Energy Micro's specs is the mean value of the devices measured. So [it's] not really dependent on the standard deviation. Music Pdf? Most CMOS characteristics have a normal distribution, so mean and of globalization median are pretty much the same thing. That mirrors my expectation, but since bigger standard deviations implies a wider range of why is bad, values the mean doesn't tell us much about what to expect.

Yet the datasheets for Energy Micro's ultra-low power MCUs offer (as of this writing) only typical current consumption values. TI weighed in soon after. Drivers? 'Typical' values in datasheets are not taken from defining crime probability functions. These are taken from multi-lot characterization testing with the mode being considered the 'typical' for a give[n] set of characterization parameters (temperature, Vcc, etc). That's interesting but not terribly helpful. The mode alone tells us nothing about what kind of values one can expect. And TI, like most vendors, only lists the typ value (no min or max) for some parameters on at least some of their MCUs so we don't get even a sense of the distribution that can be expected. Microchip responded: Typical' is the average of our characterization data. They then referenced a datasheet that says These parameters are characterized but not tested. Data in 'Typ' column is at of globalization, 3.0V, 25C unless otherwise stated.

These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested. Freescale replied with a link to a Kinetis data sheet. Section 3.8 reads: A typical value is wedding duties, a specified value for a technical characteristic that: * Lies within the range of values specified by the operating behavior. * Given the typical manufacturing process, is representative of of globalization, that characteristic during operation when you meet the typical-value conditions or other specified conditions. Given that typical is representative of that characteristic one might assume this means one can expect the Essay Girl, I Want A Boy! part to behave much like the of globalization specified typ data. But the example shown on that datasheet just a few lines later rates a current with a min of 10, typ of 70, and max of 130 uA. The standard deviation is enormous. The typ value teaches nothing about the range of values to expect (though, in that example, the become student essay min and max tell us everything we need to know; wise engineers will create a design that works properly over that entire range).

March 2015 Update: Freescale's latest datasheet for their KL02 Cortex M0+ MCUs now states: “The maximum values stated in drivers, the following table represent characterized results equivalent to 7 years story, the mean plus three times the standard deviation (mean + 3 sigma)” The listed power consumption numbers are given as max values. That's useful engineering data! Kudos to drivers, Freescale. NXP told me: We have not seen a universal definition of 'typical', though it has been one of the most commonly used terms in the industry and sheet music product. One interpretation would be that 'typical'#157; represents 'material that comes from our production process under standard SPC (statistical process control.)' Again, this is interesting and useless, at least for practicing design engineers. In 2013 an FAE from a large semiconductor vendor told me some of their typical numbers are really marketing tools.

Does that mean they can change with the competitive landscape? Our competitor just dropped their typ specs; we better do the same! The bottom line is that the drivers meaning of a typical spec is devoid of engineering value. If a spec isn't guaranteed, it's not a spec, it's an As A I Want, aspiration. Min/max specs are guarantees. Typical is drivers of globalization, not. It's time for defining crime, us to rise up and demand better data! Power to the processors! (Well, I guess we want to minimize power to drivers of globalization, the processors in these applications). Some vendors take their MCU's sleep currents and divide those into a CR2032's capacity to get huge and improbable lifetimes. But how do coin cells really behave in these low-power applications? No one knows!

Even the battery vendors provide only the slimmest amounts of data for systems that go from how to student essay a deep sleep to drivers of globalization, needing power for a handful of true story, ms. So, I discharged many CR2032s with complex loads applied for short periods of time and have acquired millions of data points. Nine-cell battery profiler using an ARM controller board. Transistors switch different loads on each battery to drivers, run various current and time profiles. Loads are low tempco, 1% resistors. An A/D reads battery voltages and Vce of the transistors. A precision reference and software calibrates the entire analog path.

The following results are for 42 batteries from and driving bad Duracell, Energizer and Panasonic (including other experiments detailed later, I discharged roughly 100 coin cells). Drivers Of Globalization? For each vendor I ran two groups of cells, each group purchased months apart from I Want A Boy! distributors located in distant States, in hopes that these represent different batches. (The devices are not marked with any sort of serial or batch numbers). First, the weird part. Of Globalization? Our local grocery store sells these cells for up to $5 each. Yet Digi-Key only wants $0.28 for a Panasonic and $0.40 for an Energizer -- in singles. Music Pdf? Duracells are harder to drivers, find from commercial distributors, but I paid about drinking, a buck each from on-line sources (e.g., Amazon).

I found little battery-to-battery variability (other than one obviously bad Panasonic and one bad Duracell), little vendor-to-vendor difference, and likewise different batches gave about the same results. What parameters matter? Chiefly, capacity (how many milliamp-hours one can really get from a cell), and internal resistance, which varies with capacity used. All of the drivers of globalization vendors say dead is at 2.0 volts. The following graph shows the average voltage for the batteries from Essay To Be A Boy! each vendor, as well as the drivers worst-case voltage from each vendor, as they discharge at a 0.5 mA rate. The curve ascending from left to right is the cumulative capacity used. By the time 2.0 volts is reached the capacity variation is in the noise. I found it averaged 233 mAh with a standard deviation between all results of 5 mAh.

Energizer and Duracell's datasheets are a bit, uh, optimistic; Panasonic says we can expect to get 225 mAh from a cell, which seems, given this data, a good conservative value to use. But in practice you won't get anything near that 225 mAh. It's useful to model a battery as a perfect voltage source with an true story, internal series resistance, as follows: As cells discharge their internal resistance (IR) goes up. Drivers Of Globalization? Actually, this is not quite correct, despite the claims of all of the published literature I have found. Other results detailed later in this report shows that there's something more complex than simple resistance going on, but for now IR is close enough. The next chart shows average IR for each vendor's products, plus the IR's standard deviation. Internal resistance and its standard deviation. So what does this all mean to a cautious engineer?

The IR grows so quickly that much of the battery's capacity can't be used! First, the average IR is not useful. Defining Crime? Conservative design means using worst case figures, which we can estimate using the measured standard deviation. By using three sigma our odds of being right are 99.7%. The following graph combines the drivers of globalization IR plus three sigma IR. Depending on the load, the Essay Girl, I Want drop across the of globalization battery's internal resistor will reduce the voltage delivered to the system, as shown: Voltage delivered from battery depending on load. If a system, when awake, draws just 10 mA 88% of the drinking battery's capacity is available before the voltage delivered to the load drops to drivers of globalization, 2.0. It's pretty hard to build a useful system that only needs 10 mA. Some ultra-low power processors are rated at Essay As A I Want, 200 uA/MHz with a 48 MHz max clock frequency -- almost 10 mA just for the CPU. With higher loads, like any sort of communications, things get much worse.

Bluetooth could take 80 mA, and even Bluetooth LE can suck nearly 30 mA. At 30 mA only 39% of the battery's rated capacity can be used . An optimist might use two sigma and suffer from 5% of his systems not working to spec, but that only increases the useful capacity to 44%. The battery will not be able to of globalization, power the system long before it is Girl, I Want To Be, really dead, and long before the system's design lifetime. And long before the drivers time MCU vendors cite in their white papers. (Some MCUs will run to 1.8 volts, so vendors might say my cutoff at wedding, 2.0 is unfair.

Since battery vendors say that 2.0 is dead I disagree. And, even if one were to run to 1.8V there's less than a 5% gain in useful capacity.) The microcontroller doesn't live in a vacuum; it's part of the system. Other components draw power, and it's the design engineer's job to evaluate those drains. Drivers? Some may be surprising. I have a lot of evaluation boards here; many are designed to show off the long-battery-life aspects of Essay Girl, I Want, a particular processor. It's interesting to examine the designs.

I put one of the boards under a microscope and drivers looked at some of the a successful essay ancillary parts. There's a 22 uF decoupling capacitor. No real surprise there. Drivers Of Globalization? It appears to be one of those nice Kemet polymer tantalums designed for high-density SMT applications. The datasheet pegs the cap's internal leakage at 22 uA. That means the become essay capacitor draws a thousand times more power than the typical value cited for the dozing CPU. In fact, the cap alone will drain the battery in under a year! Engineers may argue that 22 uF is drivers of globalization, a really high value. But that's what the silicon vendors suggest.

Silicon Labs application note AN0002 Rev 1.36, dated 2013-9-16 describes how they'd like to see an ultra-low power MCU decoupled. Over 20 uF is wedding usherette, required. A capacitor has parasitics, and in simplified form looks like this: Usually the ESR (equivalent series resistance) is pretty low; for caps that are not wound ESL, too, is low. One would hope that Rleak would be infinity.

Alas, that's far from true. Drivers Of Globalization? For decoupling capacitors, Rleak is Essay I Want To Be, essentially a resistor from the coin cell's positive terminal to ground. Drivers? For all of the years the MCU is sleeping, Rleak is discharging the wedding usherette battery. Section 5 of this report gives more information about selecting decoupling capacitors; a poor selection is guaranteed to drain the battery in a short period of time. Drivers Of Globalization? Tantalums leak far too much to use as decoupling capacitors. Most MLCCs won't work, either. Use the advice in Essay Girl, I Want To Be A Boy!, that section to specify the right decoupling parts. There is good news for drivers of globalization, designers: if the batteries start failing at the five or seven year mark, probably no one will remember who is at fault. What about other sources of leaks? For instance, does handling parts leave finger oils behind that can drain a battery? A lot of on-line pundits bloviate that the why is and driving bad leakage problem is drivers of globalization, a big factor; experience shows that the more an Internet poster asserts that X is an bohemian rhapsody sheet music pdf, indisputable fact, the more likely it's not. Drivers Of Globalization? (A century and a half ago, Charles Darwin noted that ignorance more frequently begets confidence than does knowledge.) This is engineering, not speculation, so I decided to defining crime, run some experiments to see how significant these leaks are in drivers, a digital circuit.

But how to do so? Clearly, to get meaningful data one must measure these drains to a resolution much better than the 20 nA (nanoamps) or less some of the MCUs use while sleeping. One could use a DMM to measure leakage in wedding duties, ohms. They often only go to 40 Mohms, which at 3 volts would represent about a 100 nA leak. That's too crude. The uCurrent tool can resolve to drivers, a single nA, which is probably adequate, but at 1 nA it generates only why is, a single mV, which is drivers, pushing the resolution of drinking and driving bad, most DMMs pretty hard. So I built a sample and drivers of globalization hold circuit (SH). A high quality polypropylene 1 µF capacitor feeds a very high impedance op amp follower. Put a component whose properties you want to measure around the cap, charge it up, and watch the discharge curves by reading the wedding duties op amp. Sample Hold circuit to test for very low leakages.

I used an LM662 op amp, which has a 2 femtoamp (typical - no max is of globalization, listed) input bias current. One fA is a miniscule 10 -15 amps, a millionth of in tibet story, a billionth of an amp, or about 6000 electrons/second, so its effect on the capacitor is minimal. The amplifier's inputs and the cap's connection are all made in the air. A Cortex M3 controller with a 12 bit A/D reads the of globalization amplifier periodically, as well as temperature and humidity sensors, and shoots the results to a PC via USB for logging. Measuring the time constant with a 10 Mohm resistor across the capacitor proved the circuit worked as expected.

I then charged the cap and, with no load other than the op amp, took data for two days to characterize the circuit. The results are summarized in the following graph. The 12 bit A/D is at the extreme end of its resolution so each data point is the average of 5000 samples. Clearly the voltage is highly dependent on temperature. We heat with a wood stove, and this data was taken during a very cold few days in January. The dips bottomed out in the morning as the defining crime house cooled all night; they veered up when I restarted the fire. My goal was to measure the resolution of the circuit, but the results are very hard to interpret as it's tough to separate out the temperature effect. Has it discharged at drivers of globalization, all? Plotting voltage against defining crime, temperature:

The voltage across a capacitor that is of globalization, discharging over wedding usherette duties time is: Where V0 is the initial voltage on of globalization, the cap and t is the 7 years in tibet true elapsed time. Drivers? Taking the natural log and rearranging we get: R is the defining crime effective resistance that bleeds charge from the capacitor. Some of that resistance is drivers, due to the bias current going into the op amp; some is in 7 years in tibet true story, the cap body itself, and some is from leakage into air. Ohm's Law converts R to drivers, amps. If the voltage decayed by 1 mV this gives 6.6 fA of rhapsody sheet pdf, leakage from all sources. Alternatively, by of globalization plugging 10 fA into the equation the voltage would have decayed to 3.228, which would have been very easy to bohemian rhapsody music pdf, see. So the SH can resolve better than 10 fA.

That's many orders of magnitude lower than any leakage that would concern us in designing a low-power system. A 1 cm-wide test article PCB bridges the capacitor, as shown in drivers of globalization, the picture. It was perfectly clean and I handled it with gloves to avoid contamination. There's a 0.5mm grove whittled across the board. How much does FR-4 material leak in 30% relative humidity? I have no idea.

But the SH confirmed that it's less than 10 fA. Datasheets always warn about Essay As A Girl, I Want A Boy!, specs being valid only in non-condensing humidity. How important is that? I boiled some water and collected the condensate to emulate the sort of moisture that likely makes up water vapor in the air, and drivers of globalization bridged the test article's insulating gap with a 2 mm diameter drop. Just over 1 µA flowed, similar to figures available on-line. Conductivity is measured in why is and driving, units of drivers of globalization, ohm-meters, so there could be a lot of µA flowing in a real PCB with more surface area under water. Despite extensive searches I couldn't find any useful data about how the conductivity of a PCB is affected by humidity. I don't have convenient access to an environmental chamber so ran some very crude experiments. I covered the test article and why is drinking humidity sensor with a plastic coffee can with a hose protruding from the bottom. Taking data in real time (with humidity and voltage readings displayed on the PC) I huffed and puffed into the hose.

At 70% relative humidity the test article's leakage went from under 10 fA to 13 pA, a jump of drivers, three orders of magnitude. At 80% (the highest I was able to achieve) that went to wedding usherette, 20 pA. Now, this is over a 1 cm long gap, so a better metric is 20 pA/cm. A board with 50 cm of track would experience about drivers of globalization, 1 uA of 7 years, leakage, enough to eat almost half of a CR2032 battery's 10 year power budget of of globalization, 2.5 uA. There are two mechanisms for leakage due to humidity.

The first is through the moist air that separates two tracks or terminals. The second is via adsorption of water molecules on the surface of the PCB. Other contaminates like dirt that might have a very low conductivity can adsorb water molecules and bohemian rhapsody sheet music reduce the board's resistance. According to Evaluation of Cleanliness Test Methods for drivers, Spacecraft PCB Assemblies (P. A Successful Essay? E. Tegehall and B. D. Dunn, ESA STM-275, October 2006) a water film just 20 molecules thick will have a conductivity that is of globalization, only an order of bohemian rhapsody, magnitude lower than that of bulk water. What about contamination? Bare boards and batteries get handled, often carelessly, and assembled PCBs, too, may be stocked and used without regard for cleanliness. Of Globalization? A common concern is leakage due to finger oils.

Lots of on-line pedants complain that this is a very significant problem. But hard data is scarce. I grabbed a bottle of my wife's Jergens Dry Skin Moisturizer, Original Scent, and spread the story thinnest layer I could on of globalization, the test article insuring the entire 1 cm long gap between copper foils was bridged. The leakage was too much to measure with the SH. But 24 hours later, after the become a successful essay volatiles evaporated, it was down to 180 pA. After another day the leakage hadn't changed. That's 0.18 nA, not much, but is over drivers of globalization a short 1 cm length, and could add up with lots of contaminated PCB tracks. After cleaning the board with isopropyl alcohol the leakage was 2 pA, the better part of three orders of magnitude worse than when I tested the fresh, uncontaminated board.

More cleaning didn't help. The Moisturizer had effected some change to the PCB. Happily, 2 pA is a very small value, though it could be disastrous to some analog circuits. Next came the finger oil test using both lovely soft female fingers which an drinking, hour earlier had been gooped up with the Jergens, as well as nasty crackled Jergens-free male fingers. We touched the test article gently, rubbed some, then smeared furiously. In no case did the of globalization leakage exceed 8 pA. Now, that's enough to cause the SH's output to droop by more than 50 mV in 20 seconds, devastating in a sensitive analog sample and hold circuit. But it's not enough to have any measurable effect on Girl, I Want, battery life. Since containments can increase the drivers of globalization adsorption of water molecules I exposed the Essay To Be finger-oily test article to 80% relative humidity.

The numbers rocketed to 65 pA, three times the humidity result with a clean board. Drivers? Again, 65 pA is nothing, but multiply your track lengths by the 1 cm long test article used in how to become a successful student essay, this experiment. Could leakage come from salts left behind from drivers of globalization perspiration? I mixed up a solution of in tibet true, warm water and salt, supersaturating the drivers of globalization solution to the point where the A Boy! water could hold no more salt, and of globalization completely coated the 1 cm gap in the test article. Wet, the leakage was unsurprisingly too huge to usherette, measure with this circuit. But after the water dried, it dropped to under 50 fA at 30% ambient relative humidity. That's with dry salt. Subjecting the test article to 50% relative humidity caused the leakage to drivers, jump to 2 µA. This is a very contrived test. It's hard to duties, believe that handling a board would leave so much salt behind (as confirmed by drivers my finger-oil experiments). Using a fresh test article, I tested several kinds of rosin, first soldering while taking care to insure the Essay As A To Be rosin smeared across the gap in the copper foil, and drivers of globalization later just gooping bulk rosin across it.

The worst leakage was 2 pA. Adding 80% humidity simply boosted the number to 20 pA, the same result for a clean test article. Interestingly, careful cleaning with isopropyl alcohol boosted the drain to 32 pA over the 1 cm gap length. Rhapsody Music? Recleaning even more carefully got that down to 4 pA. The 2006 study cited earlier tantalizingly hints that boards should undergo a two hour (!) bath in an ultrasonic cleaner. My unscientific results suggest no cleaning is better than what seems a pretty rigorous dose, but isn't. What about solder mask? I reran the of globalization salt water experiment on a PCB whose traces were covered by a solder mask. Even sopping wet, the leakage was under 10 fA. The finger oil experiments, too, gave leakages too low to measure. Ditto for smearing Jergens on the board.

The solder mask seems to wedding duties, be a nearly-perfect insulator, though of course there will be no mask around solder joints. Here are the results: To summarize, assuming no sensitive analog circuits, the experiments showed: Finger oils are not a big deal. Humidity matters if there's a lot of of globalization, exposed track and defining crime the humidity is very high for a long time.

Condensing water is bad. Cleaning is hard, and of globalization may cause even worse problems. Solder mask solves essentially all of the leakage problems. The takeaway is that the usual practice of why is and driving bad, putting a layer of of globalization, solder mask on a PCB eliminates leakage problems related to battery-powered MCUs. Don't worry about assemblers mishandling the board or the battery. There will be leakage around exposed pads, but outside of extreme environments that should have no noticeable effect on battery life. 5 - Decoupling, and Using a Capacitor to Boost Vdd.

Capacitors leak. Some a lot. What type of decoupling capacitor should we use? A related question is: could adding a capacitor across the true cell's terminals provide a short-term boost that could sustain a pulse load? It's not hard to show mathematically that the answer is drivers, yes. But the math is irrelevant. In engineering we're always faced by conflicting needs and what appears a simple solution sometimes isn't. As shown earlier, it's useful to think of the battery as a zero impedance source with an defining crime, internal resistor between it and the terminal. That resistor's value increases as the battery capacity is drained. If it were 50 ohms and of globalization the system needed 10 mA the terminal voltage is down by half a volt, often enough to why is drinking bad, cause the MCU to crash. Add a big capacitor, as in the following diagram, and drivers a short pulse load can draw on the charge stored in the cap.

In a TI white paper (Coin Cells and Peak Current Draw) the authors conclude that this is a viable solution. They show a case where a capacitor must sustain a 30 mA load for 1 ms. An 87 uF capacitor will do the trick, though they recommend 100 uF since no one makes 87 uF devices. There are a couple of defining crime, problems with this conclusion. First, the capacitor leaks.

It's always across the battery terminals, so is sucking juice, depleting the of globalization battery, even during long sleep intervals. How much leakage? It depends on a number of defining crime, factors, including dielectric material. Let's consider tantalums, which offer great capacitance versus cost figures. The following table shows the numbers for a 100 uF part. (For tantalums it's usual to rate leakage in CV, where V is the rated, not the drivers of globalization applied, value.)

The last column is the most telling. Given that the average current draw over 10 years cannot exceed 2.5 uA, just the defining crime capacitor's leakage will suck the of globalization battery dry in a fraction of a decade. Who would have thought that a cap could leak more than Edward Snowden? How about a better part? The best low-leakage capacitors with the sheet music C values needed are MLCC. Drivers? MLCC leaks are specified in ohm-farads: It's clear Y5V dielectrics can't be used. Select a more expensive X7R device.

And, one must be careful which X7R is Essay As A Girl, I Want, selected as some leak as badly as Y5Vs. Takeaway: be really careful which decoupling capacitors you choose! The X7Rs exhibit better temperature stability, which has always been the of globalization primary reason to use them, but not as a function of why is drinking and driving bad, leakage ! Here's a typical graph of normalized leakage versus temperature: A system that has to of globalization, run over wide temperature extremes may leak two orders of magnitude more than shown in the previous table; that sweet AVX spec'd at 0.3 uA suddenly looks like a moderately low-value resistor. But even over room temperature, say 20 to 30 degrees, plan on twice the parasitic drain than specified. In the case of the AVX a quarter of the battery is lost to in tibet, the capacitor.

MLCC devices derate themselves. As the applied voltage increases, the effective capacitance decreases. Murata has a tool that helps model this, and here's the result for 22 uF parts: If space is drivers of globalization, precious you have few options. Duties? Apply 3 volts to drivers, a nice small 6 V 3216 device and only half the capacitance is available.

The TI paper specifies a 100 uF part, but in this package you'd have to wedding duties, use 200 uF. Alternatively, one could use a higher-voltage (bigger and drivers more expensive) device, or use a larger package as shown in the graph. Capacitors have tolerances, and though X7Rs are generally +/- 20%, one still has to Essay Girl, I Want A Boy!, figure that in: Figure on drivers of globalization, an even bigger capacitor to bohemian sheet, deal with tolerance. Perusing various sites it's rather astonishing how few capacitor vendors specify leakage. Of Globalization? A lot of them claim low leakage but don't give numbers. That's about as useless as a campaign pledge.

Kemet's excellent Application Notes for Tantalum Capacitors does show how derating the voltage can help. Operate at the cap at a third of the rated voltage and the leakage will typically decrease by usherette duties an order of magnitude. Go to ten percent of the part's rated level and leakage dives by another factor of five. But in a three volt system that means a 30 volt capacitor -- bigger and pricier. These deratings are typical numbers. Use with caution. So, despite the problems with capacitor deratings and leakages, can use use one to temporarily sustain a Vdd high enough to keep an MCU from crashing during a brief waking period? The following graph shows the required capacitor, at 20 degrees C, for 10, 20 and 30 ms pulses with various loads, ignoring all of the complicated effects noted above. You'll have to factor all of those parameters in as well, which, as we've seen, can more than double the required uF. The leakage numbers are based on that nice AVX component. Drivers Of Globalization? Though the TI paper uses a capacitor to boost power for 1 ms, for Bluetooth and other protocols tens of defining crime, ms are more likely.

So we've done the math, and have figured out what size capacitor to buy. Let's ignore all of the unpleasantness and assume that a 100 uF part fits the bill, and that we're using a low-leakage AVX part. They're $14.50 each! Neither Digi-Key nor Mouser has them in stock, and quote a 25 week lead time as of this writing. Digi-Key does have a 50 V version available today, but that will set you back $36.54. A complete Raspberry Pi with 700 MHz ARM processor and half a gig of RAM costs less than that capacitor. Maybe this is a government project where costs don't matter. Using the graph above we pick off a 400 uF part for a 10 mA 20 ms load (remember, this is before all of the derating that must be done). The leakage will eat about half the battery capacity. And, the of globalization capacitor doesn't exist; the in tibet true biggest such part on the market is drivers, 220 uF.

You can't buy a bunch of smaller parts and parallel them, since the leakage will go up. What about a supercapacitor? These are astonishing devices that offer farad-levels of capacity. Usherette Duties? Alas, the lowest-leakage supercap I can find is from drivers of globalization Cap-xx, and they quote 2 uA at 23C, doubling at 70C. That's impractical since even at room temperature it'll eat just about the entire 2.5 uA current budget. Summing up, in the use case I've described (ten years of system life from a coin cell) it's impractical to get a short Vdd boost from a capacitor across the defining crime battery . There's an equation that's constantly bandied about when talking about power consumption of electronic devices. If you're designing battery-operated ultra-low-power devices, it's critical that you, well, ignore it. Engineers' eyes light up by the V-squared term; they immediately start looking for a way to drivers of globalization, lower Vdd to get more battery life. As we'll see there might be some benefit to dropping the rhapsody sheet pdf power supply voltage.

But this equation is irrelevant to ultra-low power systems because it measures power -- watts -- not current. High-performance systems live and die by power; have you seen the cooling towers on desktop CPUs? Battery operated systems are constrained by battery capacity, which is measured in amp-hours; typically the units are milliamp-hours (mAh). Power is not the issue for figuring battery lifetime. Think in terms of current. The following graph shows how one of Microchip's nice low-power MCUs uses current as a function of clock frequency: Note that doubling the clock rate from one to two MHz uses much less than a twice the current. The reason is that the CPU is drivers, only one of the powered components. Memory and peripherals suck coulombs, too, and not all of these needs vary with clock frequency. There's a static, constant draw, and one which is a function of frequency.

It's not hard to pick points off the bohemian rhapsody pdf graph at 3.5 volts and solve a couple of simultaneous equations, which gives: Static current: 0.39 mA. Dynamic current: 0.11 mA/MHz. At one or two MHz most of the current is used by of globalization static loads. At higher frequencies the constant draw is still significant.

It's clear that wise designers will run at the max possible clock rate to get back to and driving bad, sleep as quickly as possible. This is the advice given by all of the MCU vendors. And it's wrong. Or at least naïve. Remember how a battery's internal resistance increases as it is depleted?

Here's the graph again, which shows the voltage delivered by the battery depending on load: If one were to follow the advice to run as fast as possible, coming out of of globalization, a sleep state means the system will be drawing perhaps a lot of current. Over time, the battery's internal resistance will increase to why is drinking and driving, a point where it may have a lot of capacity left, but cannot power a speedy current-hungry MCU. Wake up, and Vdd drops below the minimum allowed, so the of globalization processor crashes. At least one series of MCUs advertised for ultra-low power operation consumes 200 uA/MHz, maxing at 48 MHz. That's about 10 mA just for I Want To Be A Boy!, the MCU. The battery might not be able to sustain a 10 mA load, but at 1 MHz -- 200 uA - it can have plenty of life left. The moral is to wake up at a low clock frequency. Ramp it up while watching Vdd, stopping a bit above the MCU's cutoff point.

Be sure to of globalization, factor in the needs of I/O you'll be powering up. Alternatively one could apply some a priori knowledge (e.g., track consumed mAh and As A To Be use data such as in the graph above to estimate the operating point) to set the drivers of globalization clock frequency. But if you take the vendors' advice and wake up at full throttle, the useful battery lifetime may fall far short of why is drinking and driving bad, your design goal. UPDATE : Several readers have pointed out that lithium batteries in storage or ultra-low power operation may develop a passivation layer after a year or two, which will artificially increase the cell's IR. Drivers? The way to get rid of the passivation layer is to drop a high load on the cell till the battery's voltage recovers. Some info on-line suggests that only certain kinds of lithium cells suffer from this but information is sparse. This link describes the situation. So the advice above is good: wake up in a low-power mode as described, but if it's early in Essay I Want To Be A Boy!, the cell's life and a high IR (low voltage) is found, drop a heavy load on the cell till it recovers. Of Globalization? This could be done by powering up a transmitter or doing a flash write. Be cautioned, though: don't apply a load so high that the As A Girl, To Be A Boy! MCU crashes.

7 - Dropping Vdd to Cut Current and Increase Battery Life. When trying to maximize the amount of energy one can get from a battery powering an MCU it's important to remember that we're interested in of globalization, current, not power, since battery capacity is measured in mAh. The equation for power has a hugely-seductive V squared term, but when we're (correctly) thinking about current, voltage's effects are linear. So, does it make sense to exploit current's linear relationship with voltage? Consider the following graph for one of defining crime, TI's nifty MSP430 MCUs: The curves above show a substantial reduction in current as the Vdd decreases. Even at 1 MHz, where the graph isn't very dramatic-looking, there's about a 2X improvement by scaling back the of globalization MCU's supply voltage. So this sure looks like a great place to music, cut coulombs. It's tempting to put in a low-dropout regulator to reduce Vdd to 2.0, but I can't find any linear devices whose idle current during the of globalization MCU's long sleep states won't deplete the battery.

Smarter parts can work, like TI's $0.80 TPS 62736 buck/boost converter that needs only 400 nA for Iq. It does require an inductor, but those are only about 7 cents in wedding duties, quantity. Touchstone's TS3310 (now owned by Silicon Labs) has even better specs. But long-lived systems are almost always asleep. A device that has to run for a decade off a coin cell will be snoozing well over 99% of the time. Drivers? The graph above is active current; cut that by half, and factor in the 1% or less awake time, and why is and driving it's clear that there's really no real benefit to scaling Vdd.

What about cutting Vdd during the of globalization 99% of the time when the processor is sleeping? Most MCUs offer a number of sleep modes that each have differing energy needs. Some show a very small difference in worst-case consumptions; it's common to find in defining crime, a deep sleep only a 20% variation between 3 and 2 volts. Drivers Of Globalization? 20% may be enough to justify an rhapsody sheet music pdf, extra dollar's worth of buck/boost parts as that could add a couple of years to the operating life of a very-low-power system. Drivers? But remember that a ten-year life means the system's average draw from a CR2032 can't exceed 2.5 uA. Become Student Essay? The TPS 62736 will eat 400 nA of that budget.

One vendor shows curves for of globalization, typical sleep needs, and there's about a 2X difference between 3 and drinking bad 2 volts, which sounds promising. But under 3V the drivers curve is defining crime, labeled limited accuracy. Drivers? Combine the meaninglessness of bohemian, typical numbers with limited accuracy and I, for drivers, one, have no idea how to interpret the data. Become Student? One wonders if the datasheet was created by marketing folks rather than engineers. Drivers Of Globalization? Take it from us, in some modes, it's possible, based on a statistically meaningless set of bohemian, observations, that the part might, if coupled to the wings of angels, work in drivers of globalization, your application. Unfortunately, most datasheets don't spec out the duties difference in sleep current as a function of drivers, voltage, so it's impossible to usherette, know what benefits, if any, accrue from voltage scaling.

As always, read the datasheets carefully and of globalization do a full analysis of defining crime, your design goals. 8 - Most Brown-Out Reset Circuits Don't Work. Low-power MCUs usually have a built-in brown-out reset (BOR) circuit. Drivers? Unfortunately, most are poorly designed and/or lightly documented and should not be used. One popular ultra-low power MCU, from a vendor who noisily advertises two to three decades of coin cell operation, has a BOR which is off by default. On, it requires somewhere between 8 (typical) and 16 uA (worst case). Remember that, for a decade of As A Girl, I Want A Boy!, life from a CR2032, the system's average power draw cannot exceed 2.5 uA. Even if one were to of globalization, foolishly use the typical number, the BOR by itself will deplete the true battery in just a couple of years. Another vendor, pushing extremely-low power ARM parts, rates the drivers BOR at 0.49 to sheet music, 1.26 uA -- typical.

There's no max listed; there's not the of globalization slightest guidance of how to become a successful student essay, what statistical distribution one can expect when making thousands of systems. Of Globalization? 1.26 uA eats half the 2.5 uA budget. In another case the datasheet reads about the how to become a successful student essay BOR: In the deeper sleep modes, this will contribute significantly to the total current consumption. As Deming said: In God we trust, all others bring data. They didn't, and it strikes me as risky to rely on divine intervention instead of careful analysis. I'd be wary of using these uncharacterized parts in long-lived applications. As always, read the datasheets pessimistically and carefully.

When does the BOR interrupt occur? In some cases the voltage range is very wide; an example is an drivers of globalization, MCU where it is listed as 2.05 (min), 2.2 (typ), and 2.35 volts (max). Doing worst-case design you'd have to duties, assume that the BOR may occur at 2.35 volts. The following graph is drivers, one I have used before; it shows the voltage a CR2032 can deliver as it discharges as a function of load. The 10 mA load line is pretty common for an awake MCU with enabled peripherals; 30 mA is not unexpected if there's any sort of wireless comm going on.

The heavy red line is at 2.35 volts, the max value where we may see a BOR interrupt. Note that in this case the BOR circuit will signal a dead battery, if there's a 30 mA load, shortly after you ship the product. With a 10 mA load the battery-dead indication happens when there's still 31% capacity left. In other words, the wedding duties BOR circuit is of globalization, useless. A much better alternative is to leave the BOR off and use the A/D. Wake up from time to student, time, apply a load similar to drivers, what the system normally needs when awake, and read Vcc. If it's near 2.0, then signal a battery failure (or take whatever action your system needs in defining crime, this situation).

If such a reading is taken once every ten hours (surely, more often than needed), and of globalization 10 mA were pulled for how to become a successful student essay, 1 ms during this reading, over a decade this eats only 0.03 mAh, or 0.01% of a CR2032's capacity. Drivers Of Globalization? And, by manually reading the A/D a more nuanced approach to battery management is possible than by relying on a single, poorly-controlled, BOR voltage. How should you design the system to protect it from well-meaning users trying to change the battery? A typical coin cell battery socket looks like this: Inexpensive coin cell holder.

It's cheap, it's easy, it mounts well on a PCB, and it's a disaster. A confused user, poor instructions, perhaps a martini-induced brain fart, and an upside down battery will fry all of the sensitive electronics. I saw a system not long ago that used a small signal diode to insure the how to become essay electrons flow in the right direction. Of Globalization? But that sort of a design is Girl,, a catastrophe for these systems. It takes 0.7 volts right off the top; as the battery discharges it's not long before there's not enough voltage to keep the MCU going, even though the battery is a very long way from being dead. Another design used a Shottky diode, as we all know these devices have a very low forward voltage drop. Anecdotally people talk about 0.1 volt, for some reason, which is the number I've heard engineers use routinely for decades.

But that's simply not true. Here's the forward voltage drop for a typical Shottky diode: Shottky diode forward voltage. Sure, you can expect 0.1 V or so. at drivers, 0.005 mA! At more realistic currents (10 to 30 mA or so) that jumps to wedding, 0.4 V at room temperature. If the protection diode drops 0.4V, then once the battery drops below 2.4V the system gets 2.0V. It can no longer provide enough voltage to keep the MCU alive. Remember the graph that showed typical voltage from a CR2032 for various loads?

This is the same plot with a red line at 2.4V. The useful battery capacity with a diode is above the red line. Once the battery voltage falls below the red line the MCU will be starved for drivers of globalization, electrons. In the case of a 30 mA load pretty much the become a successful essay entire capacity of the drivers of globalization battery is defining crime, lost. Even with a 10 mA load over half the battery is unusable. A much better solution is a one that won't properly engage the battery if the cell is inserted backwards. The following part from Memory Protection Devices is drivers of globalization, a good example: A better coin cell socket. The contacts are arranged such that the negative terminal simply will not be connected unless the battery is installed correctly.

It's $0.25 more than the socket shown before. But if you care about the customer experience, use a socket that will simply leave the system unpowered when the battery is inserted backwards. Bob Snyder sent me the UL rules for using coin cells in products. There are a number of requirements that must be met to obtain UL approval in devices with user-replaceable batteries. In Tibet? For instance, the device must be marked Replace Battery With (Battery Manufacturer's Name or End-Product Manufacturer's Name), Part No. ( ) Only. Use of another battery may present a risk of fire or explosion. See owner's manual for safety instructions . I have never seen this on any product that uses coin cells. UL mandates that it's either impossible to install a cell backwards, or that preventative safety measures of the type explored above be used. In many applications coin cells are used just to maintain RAM's contents when the mains power is down. UL is very concerned that the battery cannot be reverse-biased when the power supply is drivers, feeding memory, so requires that either two series diodes, or a diode with a current-limiting resistor, be placed between the battery and the rest of the circuit, as follows: Why two diodes?

UL's ultraconservative approach assumes one may fail. The resistor is to limit current if the diode in wedding usherette, that circuit shorts. In most cases the first circuit won't work; even two Shottky diodes will drop about 0.8 V (as shown earlier), so RAM likely won't get enough voltage to maintain its contents. The second circuit requires a resistor that limits reverse current to a UL spec of 25 mA for most coin cells. But how is one to compute the proper resistance? You need to know the drivers of globalization battery's internal resistance (IR) when reverse-biased, and I cannot find any documentation about that.

There are some crude published data on IR when forward-biased, and in a successful essay, this document I've shown lots of empirical data from my experiments. One could assume the battery's IR is zero, which would certainly give a nice worst-case result, but I decided to explore this a bit more. I applied a power supply to a CR2032 and measured the current flow when the supply's voltage was 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 volts above the battery's unloaded voltage. The battery was contained in an explosion-proof container. Well, actually, an old coffee can, but it sure would have been fun to hear a boom. Alas, nothing exciting happened. From that it was easy to compute IR, which is displayed in the lower three lines on the following graph: (I took data every minute for the first 8 minutes, and at 5 minute intervals thereafter. The dotted lines are trendlines.) Strangely, the of globalization internal resistance spikes immediately after the power supply is applied, then quickly tapers off.

In a matter of minutes it falls to Essay As A Girl, To Be A Boy!, six to eight ohms. Drivers? The data is very similar for when the power supply was 0.5, 0.75 or 1 volt above the defining crime cell's unloaded voltage; that's not unexpected if one assumes this really is resistance and not some complexity arising from the chemistry. The top three curves are the battery's temperature. Unsurprisingly, temperature goes up with the voltage difference. Given UL's dire warnings about catastrophic failure I expected more heat, but the max encountered was only about 50 C, far lower than the 100 C allowed by UL rules. Now, this data is for a single battery, so be wary, but it does conform to drivers of globalization, the IR characteristics I measured for forward-biased cells. Probably the only decent solution, if you don't want to use a socket as described above, is to use a FET to protect the wedding duties circuit if the battery is installed backwards.

TI has a nice application note about this. This leads to another question: to get more capacity, can we parallel two or more coin cells? UL is silent on the subject. I suspect that, since their argument is that reverse-biasing a battery is bad, that they would require diode isolation. As we've seen, diodes eat most of the drivers of globalization effective capacity of a cell, so should be avoided. This is a debate that rages constantly in and driving bad, my community of ocean-sailing friends. The systems on of globalization, our sailboats run off large, often lead-acid, batteries. On my 32 foot ketch, the fridge sucks 50 Ah/day, the autopilot another 50 Ah, and the radar, well, at 4 amps we don't have the Essay As A Girl, I Want A Boy! power to leave it on drivers, all of the time. All of this comes from two 220 Ah six volt golf-cart cells wired in 7 years in tibet story, series.

After a day or so of running the systems we have to fire up the engine to recharge, which everyone hates. Can we wire two banks of golf cart cells in drivers of globalization, parallel? I have heard all sorts of usherette duties, arguments for and against, but many do wire their systems that way and get good results. What about coin cells? My experimental data shows that the of globalization maximum difference in unloaded voltage for fresh CR2032s is about 0.25 volt. Defining Crime? This is true for a single brand and drivers of globalization between brands and lots. With two paralleled cells of wedding usherette, unequal initial voltages, the lower-voltage battery's small IR will discharge the higher-voltage cell rapidly until both batteries are at drivers, the same voltage. LiMnO2 cells have a very flat discharge curve till they approach end of life.

Discharge one by a quarter volt and you have lost around 200 mAh of capacity, or about in tibet true story, 90% of the cell's 220 mAh rating. So the battery with the higher voltage will quickly run down to 10% reserves. Most of its capacity is thrown away. But it gets worse. Once heavily discharged the drivers battery's voltage is at a knee on the curve and defining crime falls rapidly. The one that seemed better, with a higher voltage when first installed, now acts as a load on the other! They essentially suck each other dry. So don't put these in parallel. Suppose one applies a fixed load to a coin cell for a short period of drivers, time. Does the battery voltage change?

That's a special case of a broader question: everyone uses internal resistance (IR) to defining crime, characterize these cells. Drivers Of Globalization? Is IR really an accurate way to wedding usherette, model their behavior? For this experiment I discharged 9 CR2032s. Most of the time there was only a 0.5 mA background load to run the batteries down, but every two hours the drivers test jig applied either a 10 mA or a 30 mA load for wedding duties, one second. That is, at the 2 hour mark the cells saw a 10 mA load; at four hours it was 30 mA.

The system read voltages immediately after applying the drivers load, every 10 ms until 100 ms went by, and then at how to become a successful student, 100 ms intervals. Here are the results for of globalization, 30 mA. The horizontal axis is time, but I left it unlabeled as it could be weeks, months or years depending on the discharge profile. The blue line is the battery's loaded voltage; other lines are the internal resistances during the usherette one second interval: Note that the drivers of globalization bottom red line is the mean IR for 9 batteries at 0 ms, immediately after slamming on and driving bad, the load. All of the drivers of globalization other data points are pretty tightly grouped.

In other words, the bad IR goes up significantly (about 10%) milliseconds after the load shows up, but there's little change after that. In other words, IR is not an accurate model of drivers, coin cell behavior. 7 Years In Tibet? It's not bad; for an engineering analysis it's probably close enough. But there is some other effect from the battery chemistry going on. The results are clearer with less data.

Here the red line is the IR at 0 ms; grey is at 10 ms, and yellow at 1 second: Especially nearing the end of of globalization, life we can see a big increase in IR from 0 to 10 ms, but not much more from 10 ms to 1000 ms. Yes, the effect is different when the As A I Want A Boy! battery hasn't run down too much, but then the voltage is drivers of globalization, higher and IR is wedding duties, so low the of globalization increasing IR isn't particularly important. With a 10 mA load the how to a successful student essay results are about the same: The bottom line is that the voltage the MCU sees when it first wakes up is drivers of globalization, not that which will be there mere milliseconds later. Figure on another 10% drop, on top of all of the losses detailed earlier. May, 2015 Update: I'm told this is due to electron migration within a cell. Electrons pool on an electrode; when a load is defining crime, applied these pooled charges are the first to be drawn off. It's as if there's a bit of of globalization, capacitance involved. Quite a few people have written asking about using watchdog timers (WDT) in battery-operated systems that achieve years-long life by snoozing 99+ percent of the time. Usherette Duties? The system may be dead to the world for of globalization, hours -- how does one service a WDT when the code isn't running?

Why would you want to? How can the software crash when it's not running? The answer is that the code can fail while awake and accidently enter a sleep state. Running the As A Girl, I Want WDT during sleep insures the system will recover. One could wake up once a minute or so and tickle the drivers watchdog. Generally that only requires a handful of duties, instructions. Of Globalization? Even when running from defining crime a 32 kHz clock (typical for ultra-low power sleep modes) the tickle will only need a ms or so of drivers, awake time. If the MCU consumes 50 uA while servicing the WDT that's just 7.5 uAh per year of operation. Given that a CR2032 coin cell has about 220 mAh of capacity, the energy needed for managing the WDT is insignificant.

But the reality is a bit more complex. We have to work with real parts, not idealized devices. I looked at Girl, I Want A Boy!, a typical microcontroller from Microchip, picked at random from their incredibly diverse selection of XLP (extremely low power) devices. Drivers? The PIC16LF1704/8 is a nice 8 bitter with gobs on bohemian, on-board I/O, including a watchdog timer. In the drivers low-power sleep mode the WDT consumes 14-17 uA. I started engineering when a microprocessor needed a huge honking power supply, so this is an incredibly small number. But it's too much for wedding usherette duties, long-lived coin cell operation.

That compendium I referenced demonstrates that for 10 years of life from a coin cell the average current consumed can't exceed 2.5 uA. That watchdog is unusable in this environment. (I didn't do an exhaustive search; possibly other MCUs from Microchip have lower-current WDTs. And I commend them for publishing these worst-case numbers; too many other vendors don't.) A competing MCU from TI, the MSP430F11x1a, takes only 1 to 3.4 uA in the lowest-power sleep that still has an oscillator running (to support the WDT). Nice, but 3.4 uA is far too much for drivers, these applications. The better figures assume Vdd is how to become a successful, 2.2 volts and it's not hot.

No incremental current is listed for turning on drivers, the watchdog, which suggests that is sheet, included in these figures. However, the user's guide reads When the watchdog timer is not required, the WDTHOLD bit can be used to drivers of globalization, hold the WDTCNT, reducing power consumption. That sounds like there is some, undocumented, hit for using that peripheral. Become A Successful? Is it a nanoamp or do you have to of globalization, run jumper cables to a car battery? Sans data engineers are left adrift. Other vendors are equally vague. Since the defining crime code can't crash while sleeping, leave the WDT turned off during those long periods. Enable it while awake. Drivers? Running, a crash will be mediated by the operating WDT.

The upside of this approach is that, since the MCU is awake for such short periods, the current consumed by the WDT is insignificant and won't drain the Essay To Be battery. While awake, of course, a crash could vector to the code that disables the watchdog before going to sleep. Drivers Of Globalization? Instead, structure the defining crime code to initialize a variable to a known value, and drivers of globalization add offsets to it while running. That could be done in functions that are always called. Wedding Duties? Before executing the SLEEP instruction check to see if that variable contains a value that indicates the code executed correctly.

Take recovery action if the variable is not correct. Or, if basically the same code runs during each awake cycle, use a timer to measure execution time; error if it deviates much from nominal. There are other failure modes. The firmware could be perfect, but an external event -- EMI or a cosmic ray impact -- may scramble the drivers MCU's neurons. Perhaps the program counter gets altered. When the MCU wakes up it will resume operation at a random address without re-enabling the WDT. Or maybe the event flips a bit in the sleep logic so the microcontroller never wakes up.

Essentially, one would need a watchdog that operates during sleep times to counter these threats. Internal WDTs use too much current. Readers have suggested two TI parts: the drinking and driving bad TPL15111 timer (beware of footnote #4 in that datasheet), and the TPL5010. This report uses the results of extensive experiments, plus analysis, to drivers, prove that most assumptions about designing ultra-low power systems are wrong. Among the most important findings: Sleep current is almost irrelevant. What matters is time spent sleeping. . and contributions of other leaks and drains. The internal resistance of coin cells increases hugely as the sheet music pdf battery is discharged.

Don't wake up at full speed! Check the voltage as you ramp up frequency. Don't use the on-board brown-out reset circuits. Droop will trim another 10% or so of battery capacity. From a practical standpoint, it's impossible to use a capacitor's time constant to boost Vdd. Successful low-power design requires careful analysis of every component used. Drivers? Even poor decoupling capacitor selection will drain a battery in short order. I doubt anyone will get 10 years from a coin cell even with the most careful design practices. The bottom line is to apply careful engineering judgment to all design decisions.

And test your design. You know the IR will go up as the wedding usherette cell's voltage declines. Power your system from a power supply fed through a pot, and turn that pot up to simulate a cell's IR. Run the system through sleep and drivers wake modes, as well as brown-out-reset, to insure it will still operate correctly even as a battery approaches end of life. Do you need to eliminate bugs in your firmware? Shorten schedules? My one-day Better Firmware Faster seminar will teach your team how to operate at sheet pdf, a world-class level, producing code with far fewer bugs in less time. It's fast-paced, fun, and covers the unique issues faced by embedded developers. Here's information about how this class, taught at your facility, will measurably improve your team's effectiveness.

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essay on being happy Quotations about Happiness. Don't put the of globalization key to happiness in someone else's pocket. Even if happiness forgets you a little bit, never completely forget about it. If you want to be happy, be. Happiness is become, never stopping to drivers of globalization, think if you are. Most people would rather be certain theyíre miserable, than risk being happy. The best way to bohemian sheet pdf, cheer yourself up is to try to drivers, cheer somebody else up. Mark Twain, 1896. If only weíd stop trying to be happy we could have a pretty good time.

Happiness is excitement that has found a settling down place. But there is always a little corner that keeps flapping around. Nobody really cares if youíre miserable, so you might as well be happy. Happiness is always a by-product. It is probably a matter of temperament, and for anything I know it may be glandular.

But it is not something that can be demanded from Essay As A Girl, I Want, life, and if you are not happy you had better stop worrying about it and see what treasures you can pluck from your own brand of of globalization, unhappiness. Those who can laugh without cause have either found the true meaning of happiness or have gone stark raving mad. All persons carry with them some means of happiness. James Lendall Basford (18451915), Sparks from the Philosopher's Stone , 1882. I don't think you can feel a sense of entitlement and still be happy. Happiness always comes from feeling that you've been blessed. Man is fond of counting his troubles, but he does not count his joys. If he counted them up as he ought to, he would see that every lot has enough happiness provided for it. What a wonderful life Iíve had! I only wish Iíd realized it sooner.

The foolish man seeks happiness in the distance; the wise grows it under his feet. Happiness often sneaks in through a door you didnít know you left open. Well, said Pooh, what I like best, and wedding usherette duties, then he had to stop and think. Because although Eating Honey was a very good thing to do, there was a moment just before you began to eat it which was better than when you were, but he didnít know what it was called. People take different roads seeking fulfillment and drivers, happiness. Just because theyíre not on your road doesnít mean theyíve gotten lost. H. Jackson Brown. Itís pretty hard to tell what does bring happiness. Poverty and wealth have both failed. Frank McKinney Kin Hubbard. Happiness and sadness run parallel to each other.

When one takes a rest, the other one tends to take up the bohemian pdf slack. Hazelmarie Elliott (Mattie) Indeed, man wishes to be happy even when he so lives as to make happiness impossible. Can anything be so elegant as to have few wants, and to serve them oneís self? Ralph Waldo Emerson. There are two things to aim at in life: first, to drivers, get what you want; and after that, to enjoy it. Defining Crime! Only the wisest of drivers of globalization, mankind achieve the second. Logan Pearsall Smith, Afterthoughts , 1931. This is my depressed stance. When youíre depressed, it makes a lot of difference how you stand. The worst thing you can do is straighten up and 7 years true, hold your head high because then youíll start to feel better.

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Christian Nestell Bovee. We tend to forget that happiness doesnít come as a result of and driving, getting something we donít have, but rather of recognizing and drivers of globalization, appreciating what we do have. If you want others to be happy, practice compassion. Defining Crime! If you want to be happy, practice compassion. Happiness held is the seed; happiness shared is the flower. Every now and then, when the world sits just right, a gentle breath of heaven. fills my soul with delight.

Hazelmarie Mattie Elliott, A Breath of Heaven. Itís never too late to have a happy childhood. The secret to happiness is to of globalization, put the burden of proof on unhappiness. Happiness? Thatís nothing more than health and a poor memory. Happiness is a well-balanced combination of love, labour, and luck.

Mary Wilson Little, Reveries of a Paragrapher , 1897. Happiness is sheet music pdf, not a goal; it is drivers, a by-product. Happiness is a direction, not a place. Sydney J. Harris. Of all the things you wear, your expression is the most important. A truly happy person is one who can enjoy the scenery while on a detour. There is Essay I Want, no cosmetic for beauty like happiness. The best vitamin to be a happy person is B1.

A great obstacle to happiness is to expect too much happiness. Bernard de Fontenelle. She wielded her desires like a magic pen and scrawled the great wonderword Happiness across her life in drivers, letters of flame and gold and diamonds and roses! Anita Vivanti Chartres (18661942), The Hunt for Girl, To Be Happiness , 1896 [A little altered. Actually, the word was Fame but she later wanted to rewrite it as Happiness when she realized that Fame was disappointment, disillusion, and incompleteness. Drivers Of Globalization! t?#5511;#5511;?∑g ] Is it not clear, however, that bliss and envy are the numerator and 7 years in tibet true story, denominator of the fraction called happiness? A happy thought is like a seed that sows positivity for all to reap. Miriam Muhammad, September 23rd 2009 winner of drivers, The Quote Garden create your own quote contest on Twitter.

Happiness is not an ideal of reason, but of and driving, imagination. He is rich or poor according to what he is, not according to what he has. Henry Ward Beecher. A heart full of joy is drivers, better than a hand full of defining crime, coins. Just as a cautious businessman avoids investing all his capital in one concern, so wisdom would probably admonish us also not to anticipate all our happiness from one quarter alone. There are some days when I think Iím going to drivers of globalization, die from an sheet music pdf overdose of drivers of globalization, satisfaction. The secret of happiness is to find a congenial monotony.

We are no longer happy so soon as we wish to be happier. Walter Savage Landor. The only way to avoid being miserable is wedding, not to drivers, have enough leisure to wonder whether you are happy or not. George Bernard Shaw. Real elation is when you feel you could touch a star without standing on tiptoe. Be happy, and a reason will come along. The Declaration of Independence only holds as a truth of the drinking American people the right to pursue happiness. You have to catch it yourself. Some pursue happiness, others create it.

Now and then itís good to pause in of globalization, our pursuit of happiness and just be happy. You can only have bliss if you donít chase it. Henepola Gunaratana (Bhante G) As people spin faster and faster in the pursuit of and driving bad, merely personal happiness, they become exhausted in the futile effort of chasing themselves. Happiness is breathlessly chasing you. The search for drivers happiness is one of the chief sources of unhappiness. Eric Hoffer, The Passionate State of bohemian rhapsody pdf, Mind , 1954.

Man must search for what is right, and let happiness come on its own. The search for of globalization happiness is unlike any other search, for we search last in the likeliest places. If you observe a really happy man you will find him building a boat, writing a symphony, educating his son, growing double dahlias in how to become a successful student essay, his garden, or looking for dinosaur eggs in the Gobi desert. Of Globalization! He will not be searching for happiness as if it were a collar button that has rolled under the radiator. He will not be striving for it as a goal in itself. He will have become aware that he is happy in 7 years in tibet story, the course of living life twenty-four crowded hours of the day. You will never be happy if you continue to drivers of globalization, search for what happiness consists of. Defining Crime! You will never live if you are looking for the meaning of life. If you search the world for happiness, you may find it in the end, for the world is drivers of globalization, round and will lead you back to your door.

Happiness is always the serendipitous result of looking for something else. If there were in the world today any large number of people who desired their own happiness more than they desired the drinking and driving unhappiness of others, we could have a paradise in a few years. The world is full of people looking for spectacular happiness while they snub contentment. The best climate is found in the state of Contentment. James Lendall Basford (18451915), Sparks from the Philosopher's Stone , 1882.

I think the key to life is just being a happy person, and happiness will bring you success. Cheerfulness is what greases the axles of the world. Donít go through life creaking. What Iím looking for is a blessing thatís not in disguise. Kitty OíNeill Collins. My crown is called content, a crown that seldom kings enjoy. Isnít it cool when the days that are supposed to feel good, actually do? It is a comely fashion to drivers, be glad; Joy is the grace we say to God.

Joy is a flower that blooms when you do. Joy is such stuff as the hinges of Heaven's doors are made of. Robert Haven Schauffler, A Defense of in tibet, Joy, The Joyful Heart , 1914. Joy is a net of love by which you can catch souls. The fact is always obvious much too late, but the most singular difference between happiness and joy is drivers of globalization, that happiness is a solid and joy a liquid. Joy is not in things; it is in wedding duties, us. Ask yourself whether you are happy and you cease to of globalization, be so. John Stuart Mill, Autobiography , 1873.

You canít postpone sorrow, so why would you postpone happiness? There is no way to happiness happiness is the way. Thich Nhat Hanh. What is To Be, joya sunbeam between two clouds. Dorothee de Luzy (17471830) Real happiness is not of of globalization, temporary enjoyment, but is so interwoven with the in tibet story future that it blesses for ever.

James Lendall Basford (18451915), Sparks from the Philosopher's Stone , 1882. We can't control the world. We can only of globalization (barely) control our own reactions to it. As A Girl, To Be! Happiness is largely a choice, not a right or entitlement. How simple it is to see that we can only be happy now, and there will never be a time when it is not now. We are seldom happy with what we now have, but would go to of globalization, pieces if we lost any part of it. Mignon McLaughlin, The Neuroticís Notebook , 1960. I have only two kinds of sheet, days: happy and hysterically happy. Allen J. Lefferdink.

The happiness which is lacking makes one think even the happiness one has unbearable. Happiness is the feeling youíre feeling when you want to keep feeling it. So long as we can lose any happiness, we possess some. Jumping for joy is good exercise. Joy never feasts so high as when the first course is of misery. Happiness is distraction from the human tragedy. We cannot be happy if we expect to live all the time at the highest peak of intensity. Happiness is not a matter of intensity but of balance and order and drivers of globalization, rhythm and harmony. Thomas Merton, 1955. Enjoyment is how to become a successful essay, just the sound of of globalization, being centered.

Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh. Seeking happiness, I passed many travelers headed in the opposite direction, seeking happiness. She thinks that happiness is a mat that sits on bohemian sheet music pdf, her doorway. Happiness is a by-product of an drivers effort to make someone else happy. Gretta Brooker Palmer. Happiness is a way station between too little and too much. Channing Pollock, Mr. And Driving Bad! Moneypenny. The happy have whole days, and those they choose. The unhappy have but hours, and those they lose.

The art of living does not consist in of globalization, preserving and clinging to a particular mode of happiness, but in allowing happiness to bohemian rhapsody pdf, change its form without being disappointed by the change; happiness, like a child, must be allowed to grow up. Charles L. Morgan. Happiness is a matter of oneís most ordinary and everyday mode of consciousness being busy and lively and unconcerned with self. Happiness is. usually attributed by adults to children, and by children to adults. When neither their property nor their honor is drivers, touched, the majority of men live content. The greatest gift we give to someone who loves us is bohemian rhapsody sheet pdf, simply to be happy. You cannot always have happiness, but you can always give happiness. The happiness of most people is not ruined by drivers of globalization great catastrophes or fatal errors, but by the repetition of slowly destructive little things. One joy scatters a hundred griefs.

Doing cartwheels in the green grass of happiness and skipping high towards the blue heavenly skies of joy! We have no more right to consume happiness without producing it than to consume wealth without producing it. George Bernard Shaw, Candida , 1898. One should be either sad or joyful. Contentment is a warm sty for eaters and sleepers. A manís as miserable as he thinks he is. A right to happiness. sounds to me as odd as a right to good luck.

A right to happiness doesn't, for me, make much more sense than a right to be six feet tall, or to have a millionaire for a father, or to why is, get good weather whenever you want to have a picnic. One filled with joy preaches without preaching. Misery is almost always the result of thinking. My advice to you is of globalization, not to inquire why or whither, but just enjoy your ice cream while itís on your plate. Be happy. Itís one way of being wise. Whatever you set aside to usherette, seek happiness, remember where you put it.

Precisely the least, the softest, lightest, a lizardís rustling, a breath, a flash, a moment a little makes the way of the best happiness. The greatest happiness you can have is knowing that you do not necessarily require happiness. H APPINESS .A butterfly, which when pursued, seems always just beyond your grasp; but if you sit down quietly, may alight upon you. A Chapter of of globalization, Definitions, Daily Crescent , 1848 June 23rd. Happiness in this world, when it comes, comes incidentally. Make it the object of how to a successful student essay, pursuit, and it leads us a wild-goose chase, and is never attained.

Follow some other object, and very possibly we may find that we have caught happiness, without dreaming of it; but likely enough it is gone the moment we say to ourselves, Here it is! like the chest of gold that treasure-seekers find. Nathaniel Hawthorne, November 1851. People donít notice whether itís winter or summer when theyíre happy. Happiness is an inside job. William Arthur Ward. Happiness grows at drivers of globalization, our own firesides, and music pdf, is not to of globalization, be picked in strangersí gardens. Unhappiness is not knowing what we want and killing ourselves to get it. If you are not happy here and now, you never will be. It is strange what a contempt men have for the joys that are offered them freely.

If the day and night be such that you greet them with joy, and music pdf, life emits a fragrance like flowers and drivers, sweet-scented herbs, is 7 years in tibet story, more elastic, more immortal that is your success. All nature is your congratulation, and you have cause momentarily to bless yourself. Henry David Thoreau, Walden. There is no expert on what happiness is but many on of globalization, what it might have been. If a personís basic state of mind is serene and calm, then it is possible for this inner peace to overwhelm a painful physical experience. On the other hand, if someone is suffering from Girl, I Want, depression, anxiety, or any form of emotional distress, then even if he or she happens to be enjoying physical comforts, he will not really be able to experience the happiness that these could bring. Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama.

Eden is that old fashioned House. We dwell in every day. Without suspecting our abode. Until we drive away. Happiness is of globalization, a function of 7 years in tibet true story, accepting what is. If you flatter yourself properly you will be better able to enjoy yourself. Stretch your joy so that others enjoy you too. Happiness always looks small while you hold it in drivers, your hands, but let it go, and you learn at once how big and precious it is. Let a joy keep you. Reach out your hands and take it when it runs by.

We never give up wanting things for a successful student essay ourselves, but there comes a day when what we want for drivers of globalization ourselves is someone elseís happiness. Unquestionably, it is possible to do without happiness; it is done involuntarily by nineteen-twentieths of mankind. John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism , 1863. Who is the bohemian rhapsody happiest of men? He who values the merits of others, and in their pleasure takes joy, even as though it were his own. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. When youíre really happy, the birds chirp and the sun shines even on cold dark winter nights and flowers will bloom on a barren land. Terri Guillemets [Several years after writing this, I stumbled upon: Content can soothe, where e'er by fortune placed, / Can rear a garden in a desert waste. Three grand essentials to happiness in this life are something to of globalization, do, something to love, and defining crime, something to hope for. Pleasure is drivers, very seldom found where it is sought.

Our brightest blazes are commonly kindled by unexpected sparks. There can be no happiness if the usherette duties things we believe in are different from the things we do. Freya Stark, The Journeyís Echo. Considering the way the world is, one happy day is almost a miracle. Enjoy the little things, for drivers one day you may look back and As A Girl, A Boy!, realize they were the big things. In order to have great happiness you have to have great pain and unhappiness otherwise how would you know when youíre happy? On the whole, the happiest people seem to be those who have no particular cause for being happy except that they are so. To be happy, we must not be too concerned with others. Albert Camus, The Fall , 1956. Happiness is when what you think, what you say, and what you do are in harmony.

Sometimes we donít find the thing that will make us happy because we canít give up the thing that was supposed to. Happiness cannot be traveled to, owned, earned, worn or consumed. Happiness is the spiritual experience of living every minute with love, grace and gratitude. Happiness is like the drivers of globalization penny candy of our youth: we got a lot more for Essay Girl, I Want our money back when we had no money. Mignon McLaughlin, The Neuroticís Notebook , 1960. Happiness is the interval between periods of unhappiness. If someone loves a flower of which just one example exists among all the millions and of globalization, millions of stars, thatís enough to make him happy when he looks at the stars. Antoine de Saint-Exupery, The Little Prince , 1943, translated from French by Richard Howard.

Joy is more divine than sorrow; for joy is wedding usherette duties, bread, and sorrow is medicine. Henry Ward Beecher. No matter how carefully you plan your life, in the end your happiness comes down to someone who one day just walked into it. Americans pursue happiness as they would a firefly, and when caught trap it in of globalization, a jar until it suffocates from lack of freedom. Terri Guillemets, Glow of happiness, 2004. [T]he beautiful world of 7 years in tibet true, blossom and love and friendship had lost none of its power to please her fancy and drivers of globalization, thrill her heart. life still called to her with many insistent voices. L.M.

Montgomery, Anne of student, Green Gables [the comfort of knowing the world goes on drivers, after grief, and we can too t?#5511;#5511;?∑g ] When a man has lost all happiness, heís not alive. Call him a breathing corpse. One day you just say To heck with it, and you go looking for how to student trouble, and drivers of globalization, you find happiness. May I have, through life, a perfect digestion. And, also, the full price of a meal! And may I, I pray, have a comfortable bed, Which is in tibet true story, asking, I know, a great deal! Gertrude T. Buckingham, My Prayer Many things can make you miserable for weeks; few can bring you a whole day of happiness. Mignon McLaughlin, The Neuroticís Notebook , 1960. Real happiness is drivers of globalization, cheap enough, yet how dearly we pay for its counterfeit.

I don't think most people want to be unhappy. It's just something they've gotten good at. I think Joy sleeps in strange places. We're always looking for her in shiny, happy, fun times, assuming that Joy prefers her twin brother, Pleasure, when she often hangs out with her somewhat stoic big sister, Strength. Joy is not always easy to recognize, dirt-smudged and sweating, brambles in her hair. Usherette Duties! I want to believe she sometimes wears a ski mask. Edmond Manning, King Perry.

To be obliged to beg our daily happiness from others bespeaks a more lamentable poverty than that of him who begs his daily bread. Charles Caleb Colton. We enter life with brilliant expectations of happiness: we picture to ourselves a scene of continued enjoyments, which, when viewed at a distance, enchants the eye and drivers of globalization, captivates the fancy; but when the As A Girl, To Be hand of time has brought nearer to us the of globalization glowing picture which we formed in our youth, how are its colours faded, and our expectations disappointed! We lean on the world and find it a broken reed. A few rays of A Boy!, happiness do, indeed, sometimes illuminate our horizon, but the drivers passing clouds seldom fail to convince us that their duration is not to be depended upon. , The Benefits of story, Affliction, The Christian Guardian, and Church of England Magazine , December 1825.

Happiness pulses with every beat of my heart. Happiness consists more in conveniences of drivers, pleasure that occur everyday than in great pieces of good fortune that happen but seldom. The essence of philosophy is that a man should so live that his happiness shall depend as little as possible on external things. Gather the crumbs of happiness and they will make you a loaf of contentment. Give a man health and a course to why is drinking and driving bad, steer, and of globalization, heíll never stop to 7 years in tibet, trouble about whether heís happy or not. George Bernard Shaw. Happiness is the natural flower of duty. But what is happiness except the simple harmony between a man and the life he leads? Happiness is drivers of globalization, not being pained in body or troubled in mind. Happiness is an occasional brief glance into how simple it all can be.

We act as though comfort and luxury were the chief requirements in life, when all we need to make us really happy is something to usherette, be enthusiastic about. You need to learn to be happy by drivers nature, because youíll seldom have the 7 years in tibet chance to drivers, be happy by circumstance. Lavetta Sue Wegman. With some whose nerves have a deep covering of rhapsody sheet pdf, fat, happiness is drivers, less of a problem that it is an accident of anatomy. Attributed to Henry S. Haskins. Find a place where thereís joy, and the joy will burn out the pain. Looking back on a happy life, one realizes that one was not happy all the time. Cheerfulness is as natural to the heart of wedding, a man in strong health, as color to his cheek; and wherever there is habitual gloom, there must be either bad air, unwholesome food, improperly severe labor, or erring habits of life. Happiness is the resultant of the relative strengths of drivers of globalization, positive and As A Girl, I Want, negative feelings rather than an absolute amount of of globalization, one or the other.

Cheerfulness is the wedding usherette duties very flower of of globalization, health. With penetrating insight, the mystics will tell us that when we have a desire for rhapsody sheet music pdf a certain thing, a certain experience, and we fulfill that desire, the happiness we feel is not something given by that thing or experience; it is due to having no craving for a little while. Eknath Easwaran, The Mantram Handbook. [T]he true secret of happiness lies in the taking a genuine interest in all the details of daily life . William Morris, The Aims of Art, 1887. If you ever find happiness by hunting for it, you will find it, as the drivers old woman did her lost spectacles, safe on her own nose all the time. Plenty of people miss their share of defining crime, happiness, not because they never found it, but because they didnít stop to drivers of globalization, enjoy it. Happiness is and driving bad, your dentist telling you it wonít hurt and drivers, then having him catch his hand in the drill. It is rhapsody pdf, not happiness until you capture it and store it out of the reach of time.

I am a kind of paranoiac in reverse. I suspect people of plotting to make me happy. Before we set our hearts too much on anything, let us examine how happy are those who already possess it. Francois VI de la Rochefoucault. Let us be grateful to people who make us happy, they are the of globalization charming gardeners who make our souls blossom. For every minute you are angry, you lose sixty seconds of happiness. To be without some of the usherette duties things you want is an indispensable part of happiness.

Bertrand Russell, The Conquest of drivers, Happiness. Donít shade your eyes from the sheet bright joy of the world. Happiness is drivers, a conscious choice, not an usherette automatic response. [U]sefulness is happiness, and. all other things are but incidental. Lydia Maria Child, The American Frugal Housewife , 1829. Happiness makes up in of globalization, height for what it lacks in 7 years in tibet true story, length. The best way for a person to have happy thoughts is to drivers of globalization, count his blessings and not his cash. Happiness is story, not a state to arrive at, but a manner of drivers, traveling. Margaret Lee Runbeck. Many people are extremely happy, but are absolutely worthless to society.

To be happy, you must fancy that everything you have is a gift, and you the chosen, though you worked your tail off for every bit of it. All of us have had the usherette experience of of globalization, a sudden joy that came when nothing in As A Girl,, the world had forewarned us of its coming a joy so thrilling that if it was born of misery we remembered even the misery with tenderness. Antoine de Saint-Exupery, Wind, Sand and Stars , 1939, translated from drivers of globalization, French by drinking bad Lewis Galantiere. Most of us believe in trying to make other people happy only if they can be happy in ways which we approve. So often the shortest distance to happiness is the length of an about-face.

I have diligently numbered the days of pure and genuine happiness which have fallen to my lot: they amount to fourteen. Happiness is the soundtrack of my life. Happiness: an agreeable sensation arising from contemplating the drivers misery of another.