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International Joint Ventures Essay. The objective of this paper is to highlight some of the important issues that must be considered prior to forming an international joint venture. Why is History Eurasia this topic important? The following quote summarizes the main reason: Cross-border MAs, JVs and alliances seem to share at least two characteristics with marriage trends of the post World War II Baby Boomers generation: They have grown explosively during the 1980s and through the 1990s but less fortunately they fail about Irony Essay, half the time.[1] With this in mind, it is very likely that sooner or later you will be involved in of Central Eurasia by Peter Perdue Essay an international joint venture, either in the process of african marriage, forming one, dissolving one or working for Eurasia by Peter Perdue Essay, one. The more you know about international joint ventures, the better prepared you will be to understand and contribute to the solution for the challenges they present. Most companies begin their expansion to overseas markets by exporting their products or services. Exporting products has minimal risk involved, especially if the proper steps are followed. However, in some instances exporting is Irony of Management Essay difficult or expensive and companies use other methods to penetrate international markets. Forming an international joint venture with a foreign firm in Eurasia Perdue Essay examples the target market is, in some cases, the only avenue to lag, accomplish the Perdue goal.

An international joint venture is usually a progression in the investment level that companies are willing to commit prior to fully investing in a foreign subsidiary. What is the cultural main difference between opening a subsidiary and forming a joint venture? According to Andrew Inkpen, a joint venture occurs when two or more legally distinct firms (the parents) pool a portion of their resources within a jointly owned legal organization[2] The distribution of equity among the parent companies can take different forms, ranging from 50/50 IJVs between two companies, to reduced minority or dominant majority stakes.[3] In contrast, only of Central Eurasia examples one company owns a subsidiary. Even though companies perceive IJV as less risky than opening their own subsidiaries, forming inadequate joint ventures can be risky and expensive. If managers are not careful in their analysis and. are not aware of the potential pitfalls of international joint ventures then they can face some serious trouble. So far we have learned that culture plays a major role in business culture.

Hence, culture will ultimately have a major impact in the international joint venture. Piero Morosini, one of the leading researchers in international joint ventures, explains the troy fences role culture plays in international joint ventures as follows: Empirical evidence suggests that technical issues are less likely to lead to conflicting situations compared to relationship problems during the implementation of international JVs and alliances. History Eurasia By Peter Perdue Essay Examples! Throughout this phase, too much emphasis is usually placed on cultural lag, setting strategic objectives at the cost of ignoring personal interaction aspects involving people from History by Peter Essay different national cultures. This has been cited as the most critical factor leading to unresolved conflicts and outright failure of an international JV or alliance.[4] Companies some times enter into joint ventures with objectives other than to gain rapid access into the market. Irony Of Management Essay! Some companies want to learn from other companies or like to combine resources in order to make a stronger company. The need to combine strategic resource contributions and foster functional co-operation and co-ordination between the partners to create mutual advantages is at the heart of both IJVs and global alliances.[5] As you read this paper, you will learn that most of the failures in joint ventures occurs due to the misunderstanding in the goals and the definition of the goals. Finnie Williams states that half of History of Central Eurasia by Peter Perdue Essay, all partnerships dont work.

Those that are successful share three characteristics with successful marriages: The actual and perceived potential benefits must be large for both parties. The partners must share a common set of values. The key people must be committed to success.[6] It seems that the most important aspect when speaking of international joint ventures, is that partners must share a common set of shiloh summary, values. This is very. unlikely to History Eurasia Perdue examples, happen. Define! The main reasons cultures are different is because they have different sets of values. For instance, some companies define success in terms of return on investment, others use market share, yet others define it in terms of customer satisfaction. These differences are critical and must be discussed early in the planning stage in order to lay a solid foundation for of Central Perdue Essay examples, the partnership. It is important to keep in mind that even companies from the same cultural and business background have different plans to achieve their goals. Therefore, whenever we mix companies with different cultural backgrounds, the complexity level increases. People from different cultures perceive business in different ways.

The rest of this paper provides examples of international joint ventures in different countries and examines some of the general observations related to such ventures and countries. Foreign investment in 1995 was $US38 billion (China Statistical Press 1996). International Joint ventures (IJVs) between overseas companies and Irony domestic state-owned enterprises (SOEs) have been the dominant mode of entry. Of Central Eurasia Perdue! However, many JV investments have been less than successful.[7] China is now the worlds most active joint venture market. [8] These facts are not surprising as China is home to 25 percent of the the Way Think? Essay worlds population and many western firms view the History of Central by Peter Essay examples country as a prime target market.[9] However, as we will discuss, not everyone venturing in China has been successful. For instance, a group of French investors dissolved their joint venture in shiloh book summary China after 12 years of investment. The agreement was primarily between Peugeot and Guangzhou Automotive Manufacturing (GAM). It took four years of negotiations between French and Chinese investors to form the joint venture Guangzhou Peugeot Automobile Corporation (GPAC) in Perdue Essay examples 1985. Following are some of the Irony of Management Essay major problems that Peugeot mentioned as key elements to the failure of their venture in China: The labor force from the Chinese partner had inadequate skills, which resulted in more time and money spent in training. Lack of suppliers in. the Guangzhou area that could provide quality parts.

As a consequence many of the parts had to be imported which raised the cost of the vehicles as compared to the competition. Guangzhou officials would not allow the plant to purchase parts from suppliers from other regions in China. Eurasia Perdue Examples! Competitors who were located in other Chinese regions had access to quality Chinese parts and were able to build vehicles at lower prices. There is another side to this story, analysts believe that: Peugeot chose the Guangzhou area because the central government had little influence over the local government and there would be more management freedom. However, this backfired on Peugeot as the distance from Beijing acted as a barrier to access suppliers from other regions. Peugeot did not act fast enough to form a joint venture with a supplier in the Guangzhou region. Their competitors had formed such partnerships with their suppliers. Peugeot repatriated most of its profits and made few changes to their vehicles. Their competitors instead, reinvested most of the profits in the venture and to improve the vehicles. [10] I think there are several lessons to be learned from this example. One is book summary that it takes a long time to History of Central Eurasia by Peter Essay examples, agree on the terms of the agreement.

Second is Henry Ford: Businessman and a Man who Impacted All of America that even though both partners had agreed on the goals, unexpected deficiencies (labor and Perdue Essay examples parts) put the company at a disadvantage with its competitors. It is amazing that after four years of negotiations, nobody checked if the skill sets were compatible and if the local suppliers could provide quality parts. Third is define cultural that even when companies believe that they are making the correct strategic move they could be doing the opposite due to lack of knowledge of the local culture. In this case, Peugeot was under the impression that distance from Beijing would be positive and in fact it turned out negative. Finally, companies that want to use joint ventures as means to have a quick entry into the market can get hurt. In this case, Peugeot was not committed to re-investing capital in the joint venture, which at the end made them completely uncompetitive in the market.

You might be wondering who was the competitor to Peugeot that was being so successful in China. That competitor was also a joint venture. This time. it was between a German company, Volkswagen AG, and a Chinese partner in the Shanghai area. As mentioned before, Shanghai Volkswagen was quick to form partnerships with suppliers to increase the content of Chinese parts in their vehicles and reduce the number of imported parts.

Another important aspect is the fact that Shanghai Volkswagen was reinvesting their profits in order to improve their vehicles. Such improvements plus their commitment to the Chinese economy, allowed Shanghai Volkswagen to earn a better reputation among customers.[11] Another major corporation that has been successful in forming joint ventures in China is United Parcel Service. UPS has been aggressively expanding its operations there. On Jan. 21 1999, the company announced an agreement with Chinese airline Sinotrans to expand UPS-branded operations to 18 additional cities in of Central China, bringing the total to 21. The two carriers signed a memorandum of understanding that includes new investments to develop dedicated operations and more joint training and troy fences management efforts. In 1994, UPS opened representative offices in Shanghai, Guangzhou and Beijing, and by 1996 established a joint venture with Sinotrans in Beijing. Efforts to establish joint ventures in Shanghai and Guangzhou were temporarily put on hold with a change in government leadership.[12] These examples provide us with some useful information regarding joint ventures in of Central Eurasia Perdue China.

However, there are some other facts that you must know: Laws governing international joint ventures in shiloh book summary China are different than the laws for Chinese firms. History By Peter Examples! Laws may also be different depending on whether the Chinese partner is african marriage rituals a state business, village or township enterprise. Chinas legal system consists of by Peter examples, guidelines for businesses and individual judges have enough leeway to determine what is right and shiloh what is wrong. History Eurasia By Peter Essay! Provincial regions can prohibit the sale of goods not produced on its own region. (this was the marriage case with Peugeot suppliers). The need for government support is greater when the output of the joint venture is History of Central Eurasia Perdue examples sold within China The local partner is critical when the output must be sold to the government instead of the define lag general public. Of Central Perdue Examples! [13] A survey of Changing Essay, 125 randomly chosen Sino-Western joint ventures, each with a minimum of 50 employees, and each in business for History of Central Eurasia Essay examples, over one year, were surveyed in Shanghai. They surveyed mangers from Henry Self-Made Man who Impacted America both parent companies in order to of Central by Peter Perdue Essay examples, compare results and the results were as follows: The goal emphasis of the two groups was substantially different. Chinese managers focused on things that they had not yet mastered such as technology, management skills, and capital understanding. Of Management Essay! Western managers focused on their own things to be mastered such as understanding the local market, government policy and History Eurasia by Peter Perdue the political system. [14] The situation in Japan is mixed. While some researchers point that there are some major problems in forming international joint ventures, large multinationals have formed very successful joint ventures and the announcements of more and more joint ventures being formed continues. Changing! On one hand is the Eurasia Perdue Essay examples view that international joint ventures between Japanese and North American firms in the automotive industry have encountered many problems. Most of the problems are related to cultural differences and management styles. Although it is overly simplistic to describe Japanese management as long-term oriented and American management as short-term oriented, the Japanese partner firms in this study appeared to focus on customer satisfaction and product quality rather than profit based performance. Japanese firms seemed less constrained by issues of share price and impatient board of troy fences, directors than their American counterparts.[15] On the other hand is the trend of new joint ventures being formed or existing ones being expanded, Goodyear Tire Rubber Co. and Sumitomo Rubber Industries announced the formation of four joint venture operating companies. Of Central Essay! The units will be based in North America, Europe, and Japan.

Two U.S.-based service joint ventures will also be formed, one for global purchasing and one for sharing tire technology.[16] This agreement between Goodyear and Sumitomo reflects some experience in forming joint ventures as they have clearly defined the define lag goals of the different joint ventures. This. joint venture seems to be headed in the right direction, it will be interesting to follow up in a few years to see if they actually become successful. Dainippon Ink and Chemicals (DIC) and Eastman Kodak say they will combine portions of their Japanese graphic arts businesses in April to by Peter examples, make a Japanese unit for their existing JV, Kodak Polychrome Graphics (Norwalk, CT). The combination will increase the JVs sales from $1.5 billion last year to $2 billion in book 1999, Kodak says.[17] Kodak seems to be having success in their joint ventures with Japanese companies as they are expanding their current joint venture. Dupont and Perdue Essay Teijin announced that they will form a 50-50 joint venture to manufacture polyester films. The joint venture is expected to generate sales of $1.4 billion and represent 25% of the market. Both companies say the venture will allow for the free flow of Are Computers Think? Essay, technology and will combine DuPonts strengths in the U.S., Europe, and China with Teijins strengths in Japan and Southeast Asia. [18]

Once again, it seems that companies that invest time and effort analyzing and understanding the challenges of joint ventures get on the right track from the start. History Eurasia By Peter Essay Examples! Companies that just want to do business as usual (the case in the automotive industry) will have a hard time making the joint venture successful. Spain has seen less activity in terms of define cultural, joint ventures than Japan and China. Eurasia By Peter! It seems that Spain is not perceived as risky country and african most companies might be willing to spring into fully owned subsidiaries in of Central Eurasia by Peter Perdue examples Spain. Also, the barrier to enter the market might not be as high as in the case of the Japanese market. However, in rituals some industries, such as the financial services industry, there is a need for joint ventures to penetrate the market. Spanish people look for names of familiar companies to invest their money. According to a London fund manager interested in the Spanish market, The easiest way to History of Central Eurasia by Peter Essay examples, break into the market is through joint ventures with local banks but there are not many suitable partners. Are Computers The Way Think?! We have looked around a few banks but we havent been able to come up with a deal we like the look of.[19] There is Eurasia by Peter Perdue Essay one company that has formed a joint venture with a Fibanc in Barcelona, Lazard Unit Trust Managers. Henry Self-Made Businessman All Of! Although, the majority of the investment firms have decided to just open their own branches in Spain. History Perdue Examples! Fidelitys managing director for central Europe believes that Spain has a big population, around 40 million so in Are Computers the Way Humans Essay terms of sheer size it is very attractive.

Its one of the markets we have to be in. History Eurasia Perdue! Fidelity opened its office in Madrid this year and has put a sales team in place. We are aiming at creating our own distribution channel rather than any other form of strategic alliance or joint venture[20] It will be interesting to observe which of the two firms becomes more successful given the different approaches to penetrate the Spanish market. Another recent joint venture in Spain is african marriage rituals Spanair. Formed between Scandinavian Airlines (49%) and Viajes Marsan (51%).

Due to the recent deregulation of the European airline industry, the two companies were able to establish the airline as a joint venture. Spanair is flying direct from Madrid to Washington D.C. and it is by Peter Essay increasing the number of intra-Europe flights. Spanair is now trying to form alliances with United Airlines to gain market recognition in troy fences the United States. Spanair has a different approach to marketing, they consider themselves an airline with humor, in fact, they gave away 266 round trip tickets to the first 266 people to arrive at the airport wearing some type of costume resembling some aspect of the Spanish culture.[21] Although, it seems that this airline has had a great start, it will be interesting to find out how they do in the future, as the Spanish culture seems to be playing a mayor role in the way the airline is History of Central Eurasia by Peter examples run. I think that if Scandinavian Airlines is fully aware of the define differences in management style between them and their Spanish partners, this joint venture should successful.

Prior to 1987, Russia had major restrictions in the formation of joint. ventures. Only Eastern Block countries were allowed to History Eurasia by Peter Perdue, form joint ventures with Russian partners. African Marriage Rituals! However, after 1987 the opportunity for joint ventures with Russian companies opened up and the result was a flood of joint ventures along with problems, risks, frustrations, opportunities and rewards.[22] The following quote summarizes the Eurasia Perdue examples joint venture situation in Russia: Although more than 10,000 international joint ventures have been registered in Russia since 1987, only book about one-fifth of those have actually begun operations. Historically, many Russian-foreign joint ventures fail in the first year of operation, with an average survival rate of History by Peter Essay, about 2.5 years. [23] Richard Reece has identified some myths about Russians, which he believes are key elements in the failure track of international joint ventures in Russia. Troy Fences! Following is a summary of these myths and his observations regarding the Eurasia examples myths and suggestions to consider when forming a joint venture in Russia.

1. Russian workers are alcoholics and Irony of Management Essay have an History of Central Perdue Essay, inferior work ethic. Alcoholic consumption might be higher, there is no certainty in the Way Humans Think? this remark, however, Russian workers are used to longer vacations in the summer time and this can create the impression that Russians are lazy. His suggestion is to History of Central Eurasia by Peter examples, learn more about the Russian habits and styles prior to committing to a joint venture and define lag have unrealistic expectations. 2. Russians are ignorant, incompetent managers. Of Central By Peter Perdue! It is important to remember that Russians are learning about the cultural market economy. History Of Central Eurasia Examples! For many years they have not been exposed to open markets, so they are less familiar with issues such as pricing, receivables, cost analysis, financing, cash flow, and marketing. It is define cultural lag important to remember that this is Eurasia Perdue one of the major reasons why Russians are looking for partnerships with western companies. Troy Fences! Russians are eager to learn more about the History Eurasia Perdue Essay examples western style economics. The best way to shiloh summary, find out the knowledge level is trough interviews with potential partners.

3. Russian managers lack business savvy. This myth has some truth in it, however, the History Eurasia Perdue Essay examples fact that the Russian economy is unstable, has given managers the ability to react quickly to changes and adapt to the conditions of the new environment. In fact it is important to understand that not all western style solutions will work in Ford: Self-Made Businessman Man who Russia and History of Central Eurasia Perdue Russian manager are more familiar with the details on how to get things done in Russia. Richard Reece makes particular emphasis in communication as a key ingredient to a successful joint venture in Russia. If potential partners do not learn about Are Computers Changing Essay, each other, how can they expect the venture to be successful. General Guidelines to Select a Partner. In general regardless of the of Central Perdue Essay examples countries involved, William Myers offers the following guidelines to select an adequate business partner: Is your prospective partner a known entity? Have you worked with the group before? Do the organizations culture and values match yours? Does your prospective partner understand how associations work? Will the Essay organization be flexible in Eurasia Perdue Essay examples crafting workable deals? Can your prospective partner clearly define success in the joint venture? Does your prospective partner have a reputation for honesty, and will the organization define working agreements in writing? [24] Answers to Irony, these questions will give you a general idea on whether to proceed with the venture, do more in depth analysis or simply not go through with the process.

This paper presented examples of successful and unsuccessful joint ventures. It also highlighted important information regarding key aspects of joint ventures in Eurasia by Peter Perdue Essay different countries. Joint ventures are still popular and international companies are creating more every day. Of Management! Therefore, the knowledge from this paper should assist you to better understand the challenges associated with most joint ventures. A topic that was consistent.

throughout the literature on joint ventures is the importance of cultural differences, patience and History Eurasia Perdue Essay examples the comparison of joint ventures to marriage. Troy Fences! Therefore, if you have been married for a while, you might be better prepared for a joint venture than you think. Another interesting observation is Eurasia Essay examples that joint ventures seem to be preferred when there are market barriers, such as the case with Japan, or when the perceived risk level is relatively high, such as Russia and China. African Marriage! The fact that there was scarce information on joint ventures between companies of developed nations indicates that joint ventures are not the History by Peter Perdue Essay examples main avenue of expansion for most firms. Shiloh! This does not imply that they do not happen or that are not recommended, it simply states that they are far less popular. Companies are more willing to establish their own subsidiaries or branches since the risk level is History Eurasia Perdue examples lower.

If you are involved in a joint venture, use the guidelines presented in this paper. The authors who recommend them have been studying international joint ventures for several years and troy fences have learned a lot from them. [1] Morosini, Piero.1998. History By Peter! Managing Cultural Differences, Pergamon Great Britain. [2] Inkpen, Andrew. 1995. Troy Fences! The management of History Eurasia Perdue Essay, international joint ventures, Routledge London and New York. Changing Humans! [3] Morosini, Piero.1998. Managing Cultural Differences, Pergamon Great Britain. [4] Morosini, Piero.1998. Managing Cultural Differences, Pergamon Great Britain. [5] Morosini, Piero.1998.

Managing Cultural Differences, Pergamon Great Britain [6] Finnie, William C. 1998. Of Central Eurasia Essay Examples! Strategic partnering: Three case studies. Strategy and leadership, 26 (4): 18-22. [7] O Connor, Neal; Chalos, Peter. 1999. The challenge for successful joint venture management in China: Lessons from a failed joint venture Multinational Business Review, 7 (1): 50-61. [8] Si, Steven Bruton, Gary. African! 1999. Knowledge transfer in international joint ventures in transitional economies: The China experience. Academy of of Central Eurasia examples, Management Executive, 13 (1): 83-90. [9] Si, Steven Bruton, Gary. Irony Essay! 1999. Knowledge transfer in of Central international joint ventures in of Management transitional economies: The China experience. Academy of Management Executive, 13 (1): 83-90. [10] Harwit, Eric.

1997. History Of Central By Peter Essay Examples! Guangzhou Peugeot: Portrait of a commercial divorce. China Business Review, 24(6): 10-11. [11] Harwit, Eric. 1997. Guangzhou Peugeot: Portrait of a commercial divorce. China Business Review, 24(6): 10-11 [12] Traffic World 1999 UPSs big stake in China talks. Troy Fences! Feb 8: 37. [13] Si, Steven Bruton, Gary. 1999. Knowledge transfer in international joint ventures in transitional economies: The China experience.

Academy of Eurasia by Peter Perdue Essay examples, Management Executive, 13 (1): 83-90. [14] Si, Steven Bruton, Gary. Troy Fences! 1999. Knowledge transfer in international joint ventures in transitional economies: The China experience. Academy of Management Executive, 13 (1): 83-90. [15] Inkpen, Andrew. 1995. History Eurasia Perdue Examples! The management of international joint ventures, Routledge London and cultural New York. Of Central By Peter Perdue! [16] Fleet owner. 1999. Goodyear, Sumitomo deal. March: 16.

[17] Moore, Samuel K. Ford: Self-Made Man, Businessman And A Impacted All Of America! 1999. Kodak and DIC develop another JV. Chemical Week, 161 (8): 22. [18] Westerlvelt, Robert. 1999. Dupont and Teijin take a joint role in films. Chemical Week, 161 (6): 19. By Peter Perdue Essay! [19] Marshall, Julian.

1998 / 1999. Retail Pioneers will gain in Spain. Are Computers Changing The Way Humans Think?! 118: 56. [20] Marshall, Julian. 1998 / 1999. Retail Pioneers will gain in Spain. History Of Central Eurasia Perdue Essay! 118: 56. [21] Guttman, Robert J. 1998. Spanair: The skys the limit. Europe, 380:16-17. [22] Reece, Richard. 1998. Successful joint ventures in Russia.

World Trade, 11 (8): 42-44. [23] Reece, Richard. 1998. Successful joint ventures in Russia. Lag! World Trade, 11 (8): 42-44. [24] Myers, William. 1998. Picking your partners wisely. Eurasia Perdue Examples! Association Management, 50 (10): 31.

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Will Kim Ng be MLB's first female GM? As the Eurasia Essay, senior vice president of baseball operations for Ford: Businessman and a Man who Impacted, Major League Baseball, Kim Ng lives and breathes sports, which is immediately clear when you walk into her window office at MLB headquarters in New York. History Of Central Eurasia Essay? There's a baseball glove, of Henry Ford: Self-Made Man, Man who Impacted, course. (At 46, she still plays co-rec softball in Central Park.) And a bicycle helmet. (She occasionally commutes by bike.) And even a fishing pole. (She once caught a shark off Long Island.) But the piece of of Central Eurasia by Peter Essay examples, sporting equipment that might have helped tee off Ng's career is her golf club. African? Former White Sox and Dodgers general manager Dan Evans, one of Ng's mentors, recalls a particularly revealing round she played a few weeks into her first job in baseball in the early 1990s.

It was during spring training and White Sox staffers were picking teams during a golf outing. Ng, as she has been many times throughout her career, was the only woman in History of Central Eurasia examples, the group. She was drafted by a member of our field staff. The other guys all laughed and said, 'Oh, we don't even know this girl,' Evans recalls. I was thinking, 'I know she can play golf. She wouldn't hit from the women's tee.

She only wanted to Humans Think? Essay, hit from the Eurasia Essay, men's tee. And she held her own and played very well. A lot of people went, 'Whoahhhh!' Ng has made plenty of Are Computers the Way Think?, other people sit up and take notice in the two decades since. Now the highest-ranking woman in baseball, she was the second woman to History Eurasia by Peter Perdue, be hired an assistant general manager, first with the Yankees and later with the Dodgers.

And she aspires to african rituals, become a general manager, which would make her the first female to run the History Eurasia by Peter Perdue Essay examples, on-field operations of a major pro cultural, sports team. Joe Torre, MLB's executive vice president for operations and Ng's boss, says she has all the qualifications necessary to be a GM -- broad experience in both the History Perdue Essay examples, boardroom and the negotiating room, top-notch communication skills, a deep knowledge of the game and the drive to handle a demanding schedule. And then there's that fire she showed on the golf course. She's very competitive,'' Torre says. And for someone as bright as she is, she has no trouble relating to people on everyone's level. Book? She is History there, she doesn't delegate, she does it herself.'' Ng became the first woman to interview for a GM opening when she did so with the Dodgers in 2005, but she didn't get the Essay, job. As Evans, Torre and others will attest, she clearly has all the of Central by Peter Perdue examples, experience, knowledge and skills necessary for the position. The question is whether a baseball team will finally allow a woman to hit from the men's tee. I want to say yes,'' Torre says.

I always talk her up at owners meetings. At some point, somebody just has to ignore the fact that she's a woman and just make a baseball decision. And if they do that, then I think she will get an opportunity. Somewhere.'' Ng is not only a rarity in baseball's upper echelon because she's a woman. If she lands a GM job, she'll also be the first Asian to do so. Ng's father, Jin, was born in America of rituals, Chinese ancestry. Her mother, Virginia Cagar, was born in Thailand and also is of Central by Peter Perdue of Chinese descent. Ng was born in book, Indianapolis but grew up in Queens and then New Jersey, rooting for the Yankees and Thurman Munson because, she says, he was an incredibly gritty player. Ng still has the scrapbooks in which she pasted new stories about the catcher's death. Ng's father was a financial analyst.

Her mother earned her MBA while also raising her four daughters and later worked as a banker for Manufacturers Hanover Trust after Jin died when Kim was 11. Working hard was obviously a big theme in our house,'' Ng says. It wasn't that my parents micro-managed me at all as a kid. They just expected certain levels. You knew if you didn't get to that level you were a big disappointment for them. History Eurasia Perdue? Perseverance was important.

From my mom, I learned not to take a backseat from anybody.'' And though her mother might have preferred Kim choose a more stable profession such as law or business, a young, baseball-obsessed Kim had other ideas. I think the best adjective for her is tenacious -- she stuck in there until she got it right,'' Cagar says. Irony Of Management? She was a very friendly kid who loved sports -- she especially loved to play softball -- and she was a good listener. Of Central Eurasia? And she was very analytical. She would observe, and try to troy fences, see different ways of attacking the problem or the obstacle. She would look at it from all angles.''

Ng majored in public policy at the University of Chicago, where she also earned MVP honors as an infielder for the softball team, and History of Central Eurasia Essay examples, served as the sports editor of the of Management Essay, school newspaper and Eurasia by Peter Perdue, editor of the of Management Essay, yearbook. At age 29, Ng became the youngest person -- and one of only Eurasia Essay, three women -- to hold an assistant general manager position, when she was hired in that capacity by the New York Yankees. Ng calls herself a product of Title IX; in fact, she wrote her college thesis on the landmark law. Irony Of Management Essay? And that thesis -- as well as the effect that playing sports had on her -- played a significant role in following her passion to pursue a career in sports. The more you play sports, the more you understand about of Central by Peter examples yourself, the more you get a picture of what you can do,'' she says. Everyone talks about how sports are beneficial and how they force you to test and challenge yourself, going up against adversity -- all the cliches. But they're true. And for shiloh book, girls to experience sports the way boys experienced it was incredibly important. It was important for of Central Eurasia Essay examples, their growth not just in academics, but in Henry Ford: Businessman Man who, their work lives and of Central Essay examples, personal lives.

Playing sports has really helped me understand what I am capable of and how to bear down.'' Several months after she graduated from the University of Chicago, Ng was still looking for a job when one of her coaches told her the lag, White Sox were looking for History, an intern. Ng rushed over with her resume. They interviewed her on the spot. And here's where her tenacity and Henry Businessman and a Man who Impacted, tendency to go against the grain showed,'' her mother says. After the Eurasia Perdue Essay examples, interview, she called them back up and pitched herself again. Changing The Way Think?? On top of Perdue Essay examples, that, she said, 'I'll work without pay.' So they said, 'OK. We'll give you a chance.''' After a couple of months, Ng had impressed the organization with her knowledge of the game and propensity for book, crunching numbers so much that the White Sox offered her a full-time job, in which she compiled statistical research for History Essay examples, contract negotiations and african marriage, the Rule V draft. Pretty soon, she took over examples, the team's salary arbitration duties too.

Analytics were starting to infiltrate the sport, and Ng was one of the brainy, technologically savvy, elite-school grads who was comfortable with computers in ways that many ex-ballplayers weren't. You could just tell that she was going to make contributions to our organization,'' Evans says. And she did. She was a wonderful addition to our group.'' She quickly proved herself a skilled negotiator, too. Troy Fences? One of Ng's early triumphs was arguing for the White Sox in their arbitration case with pitcher Alex Fernandez and agent Scott Boras. Going up against Boras in a salary case is a little like batting against current Dodgers ace Clayton Kershaw with shadows creeping in Eurasia by Peter Essay, front of the mound. Nonetheless, Ng -- who was both the youngest executive, at age 26, and the first woman to define lag, present a salary arbitration case -- won.

When she stood up [to make her case], people were a little surprised, Evans said. But it was a statement that another gender barrier was being erased. History Of Central Eurasia By Peter Perdue? It takes a special person to break barriers.'' Ng was that special person. I think one of her greatest attributes is she has an insatiable appetite for understanding why things work,'' Evans says. Of Management Essay? More than anything, it gave her the motivation to ask questions about strategic aspects of History of Central Eurasia Essay, our organization. She was consistently asking questions that displayed a line of thinking that was far superior to lag, what you usually hear from an of Central Perdue examples entry-level person.'' Ng rose to troy fences, become assistant director of by Peter, baseball operations with the White Sox before being hired away by marriage rituals, the American League offices after the 1997 season to serve as the director of Perdue Essay examples, waivers and records. At the rituals, league office, she approved all player transactions and contracts, and helped AL general managers interpret and History Perdue examples, apply MLB rules. The job allowed her to meet and network with baseball's power brokers, including Brian Cashman, who was then the Yankees' assistant GM. Cashman, who hired her a year later -- making her, at age 29, the youngest assistant GM in MLB at the time -- says now he offered her the Ford: Man, America, job simply because she was the best-qualified person.'' She helped Cashman build a team by successfully negotiating the contracts of by Peter Essay examples, Derek Jeter, Mariano Rivera and Paul O'Neill, among others, which won three World Series championships in four years.

Kim has an amazing demeanor,'' Cashman says. A lot of times people who are that smart don't play well with others or are bad communicators. She's extremely intelligent, has a complete working knowledge of everything, and her likability factor is off the charts.'' So likable, in fact, that even irascible Yankees owner George Steinbrenner took a shine to her. I wasn't certain how he was going to respond to the recommendation of an assistant GM being a woman,'' Cashman says, but to his credit, he was open to it.''

Torre says Ng fit right in as one of the guys'' from the very start. She spoke the language, and she understood how a baseball person would look at the things she was talking about,'' he says. In 2002, Evans, then the Dodgers' GM, lured Ng away from the Yankees to become L.A.'s vice president and assistant GM. She also served as the franchise's interim director of player development, which meant she oversaw the troy fences, Dodgers' minor league system and Eurasia by Peter Perdue Essay, added scouting and player development to her portfolio. Are Computers Essay? She handled it deftly, too. The Dodgers were named the 2006 Organization of the Year by of Central Eurasia by Peter Perdue examples, Baseball America. Ng still itched to help shape the game on a larger level, so she left the Dodgers in 2011 and cultural lag, moved to MLB's headquarters, where she oversees international operations as well as the league's scouting bureau and the fall league. She travels regularly to the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Venezuela and of Central by Peter Perdue, other countries to help develop the game -- and her influence within the game continues to grow. With a club, you're sort of up to Ford: Self-Made Man, Businessman and a Man who All of, your eyeballs every day and are very focused on History by Peter Perdue Essay the daily issues and of Management Essay, wins and losses, she says. It's been amazing to see how the game has grown in History Essay examples, just the last four years. There is a lot more money being spent in the [Latin American] market than there was just four years ago.

We're seeing lots of building of shiloh book, infrastructure and facilities in of Central Eurasia Perdue examples, the Dominican Republic. Teams are looking to branch out. It's an exciting time.'' Phyllis Merhige, baseball's senior VP for Essay, club relations, says Ng's combination of History by Peter examples, experience at the club and league levels makes her uniquely qualified to lead a team. Every time you break open a barrier, you open a door for other people and Irony, you give people hope,'' Merhige says.

And sometimes that's what it takes to get a ball [rolling].'' Ng hasn't given up on her goal of Eurasia by Peter Perdue, landing a GM job. Troy Fences? She lost out to Ned Colletti with the History of Central Eurasia by Peter, Dodgers in Henry Ford: Businessman and a Impacted, 2005, Jack Zduriencik with the of Central by Peter, Mariners in 2008, Jed Hoyer with the Padres in 2009, Jerry Dipoto with the Angels in 2011 and A.J. Preller with the Padres last year. Ng's baseball acumen has impressed everyone from Tommy Lasorda to George Steinbrenner. She spoke the language, she seemed very knowledgeable in terms of how a baseball person would look at stuff she was talking about, says her boss, Joe Torre. Given Seattle's performance under Zduriencik (only two winning seasons and Are Computers Changing Think?, no finish higher than third place in seven seasons) or San Diego's under Preller (another losing -- and far more expensive -- campaign this year), perhaps the Mariners and History Eurasia, Padres are having second thoughts about passing on Ng.

While there are a handful of Henry Self-Made Man, and a Impacted America, female GMs in the minor leagues -- including Kattie Meyer, who served in that capacity for History of Central Perdue Essay examples, the Rookie League Great Falls Voyagers for four years -- it's a a different job at that level, where the focus is more on Changing the Way Humans business operations than acquiring and evaluating players. The challenges facing women in baseball are tough, says Meyer, who grew up a fan of the game but still had to prove her bona fides. And yet there are people within the game who are great. Of Central Eurasia? Our affiliate, the Chicago White Sox, was supportive [of me]. But some visiting teams and umpires were old school, and didn't really respect what a woman has to say on the field.'' There are multiple GM openings across baseball right now, and while that role has traditionally been filled by a former ballplayer, since the Moneyball revolution many of the new-generation execs have been hired because of their fancy degrees and facility with analytics. Changing The Way Humans Essay? The Milwaukee Brewers filled their vacancy earlier this week when they hired former Astros assistant GM David Stearns, a 30-year-old Harvard grad who fits the new-age, number-cruncher profile. Ng fits that profile as well. There is no one in the game who could question her ability to be that person,'' Evans said. If you debate that, then you have gender issues. History Of Central By Peter Perdue? This is a very talented, intelligent person who has won and has been part of three really good organizations.

She understands player development, she understands the shiloh book summary, complexities of the History Perdue Essay, game. There is african rituals no doubt in my mind that she has what it takes to History by Peter Essay, perform those responsibilities. All she needs is the opportunity.'' So why exactly hasn't she gotten the opportunity yet? ESPN analyst and former Cincinnati Reds GM Jim Bowden doesn't think gender is the african marriage, issue. I worked for Marge Schott, who was a female owner, he says.

People are people.'' Bowden, who frequently negotiated trades with Ng when he was with the Reds, calls her a solid negotiator but that her weak spot might be scouting. From what I've heard, evaluation of talent may not be her strength. Perdue Essay? That may hold her back,'' he says, adding that she would have been a great hire for the Red Sox. I hope she gets her chance.'' Or it could be simply that she simply hasn't been in the right place at the right time -- yet.

There are only 30 GM jobs,'' Bowden notes. You go to define, a local fast food place and there are 30 people working there alone. Or, as Evans puts it: One of the problems with [GM] jobs is History Perdue Essay examples plenty of talented candidates don't get them. Man, All Of? It's not about gender inequality, it's just about timing and fit.'' For her part, Ng remains philosophical -- and hopeful. There are a lot of things in this world that are a lot more unfair [than me not getting a GM job]. It's hard for me, given that fact that I've been an assistant GM for 13 years and Perdue examples, hold the rituals, job that I have now, to say that being a woman has held me back,'' she says. I think that having a woman as a GM would certainly be a novelty. Having a woman as an assistant GM was a novelty for a while. So I think it's going to take time. I've interviewed for several positions, but I can name a lot of of Central Perdue examples, other people who have been interviewed for the same number [of openings] or more and they still haven't gotten one.

I'm just a little different, so people tend to focus on me. If it comes, it comes; then that's great. And if not, I'll just keep plugging away.

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Here is your sample essay on school. School is a special environment, where certain qualities of life and certain types of History of Central by Peter examples activities and Ford: Man who Impacted All of, occupations arc provided with the object of child's development. School is a mini society, where all types of faith, creeds, religions, secular values etc. are developed and History of Central Eurasia Essay, school plays an important role in shiloh summary, a democratic social set up. Eurasia By Peter Examples! Students of today are the citizen of tomorrow. It is said that such in a societal system schools arc the backbone of the book, society.

We can say school is a mini society. School is a special environment, where certain qualities of life and certain types of activities and occupations arc provided with the object of by Peter Perdue examples child's development. Shiloh Summary! School is a mini society, where all types of faith, creeds, religions, secular values etc. are developed and school plays an important role in a democratic social set up. Students of today are the citizen of tomorrow. It is said that such in a societal system schools arc the backbone of the society. We can say school is a mini society.

Education is a word of Latin Educatum-mean to educate. Some say Education is taken from Latin word EDUCARE'- means to History of Central Eurasia Perdue examples, raise. Education is a process in which and by which the knowledge-, character and behaviour of the young people arc shaped and moulded. Education must enable mankind through its cultural activities to enter more and more fully into the spiritual realm and also to enlarge the boundaries of human values. Self-Made Man, And A America! It is the culture which each generation purposely gives to of Central Eurasia Perdue examples, those who are to shiloh book summary, be its successors. Education or teaching should be in mother- tongue. Perdue Examples! It makes the student to understand the subject well. Irony Essay! Today most of the public/private schools keep the foreign language-English as the medium of teaching or education and with the growing demand of by Peter Perdue examples English these schools are flooded by of Management Essay, the opportunist. It means that the students are unable to History of Central by Peter Essay, grasp the cultural, basic meaning of the subject and the gap between teacher and taught always widens. Eurasia Essay Examples! Even three language formula does not assist in this regard. The Western civilization makes the educationist more materialistic and the problem is not being dealt with seriously.

However, a coordination and compromise among the language is desirable. The relation in between educational institutions and other institutions widens the scope of knowledge. In a democratic type set up of a society needs a balance. All the institutions and all the organisations arc the source of knowledge and inspiration in the sphere of Irony Essay knowledge and further increase the scope of a better education and development. Both academic and technical institutions are the two sides of a coin and History by Peter Essay examples, can be treated as the base of the education. Schools are the first organisation, where a child comes in contact with other children under the guidance of the trained teachers. As such the school/primary school or Pathshala is a mini part of the wider social structure, where all types of shiloh book summary individuals, religions, and customs are treated equally. It can be said that the Pathshala is a inner part of society and its structure further provides an opportunity to learn about the society. Schools are better known as formal institutions, where the education is imparted in a systematic way and all the steps are correlated. It is for a definite period in schools, colleges and universities etc.

The aim of education, rules for teaching, curriculum, etc. are fixed. History Of Central By Peter Essay Examples! The whole system of education is well planned. Everything is shiloh, under rules and regulations. It cannot be imparted without school. A community is a solid group with some degree of 'we feeling and living in a given area. Community is a cluster of proper living within a narrow territorial radius which shows a common way of of Central Eurasia Perdue life. Schools are mini society and the success depends on the relations with society. Commonly school is that school which develops the characteristics of community in the students and prepares them for the progress of the community.

Schools are nearer to the community. As such the schools which are nearer to other schools, they both form the shape of a community. They learn from each- oilier and help in forming a social survey club. They solve the problems of the marriage, schools and help in maintaining the environment free of pollution. They may arrange social service weeks to solve the History Eurasia Perdue examples, problem of neighbours like roads, sanitation and other co-related programs. School in the societal system means the Irony of Management Essay, society, an ability to behave in the society according to social expectations and social norms. Human being possesses unique characteristics which separate him from the animals. There behaviour is social, society is as essential as food to them. They believe in the maintenance of social relationship and History Eurasia Perdue Essay examples, try to adjust with others, but it does not mean that child is born with such social behaviour; social quality likes other aspects of growth and development. He develops the necessary characteristics in him. The development of such quality which brings desirable change in Ford: and a Impacted, his social behaviour is referred to History of Central Eurasia examples, as social development or social action of the child.

Everyone possesses individual quality of socialization. According to Irony, social approval he adjusts in the society. By social growth and development we mean increasing ability going along with one and others. Social development means the process of learning to confirm traditions and customs of society which are brought by the inter-communication and of Central Eurasia, cooperation. Social development means attaining of maturity in social relationship. Social development for a child gives that much satisfaction which he gets after taking his meals.

It is very important factor that affects the social development of child as whatever the child sees learns from his parents he also does those things if a child sees that his family members always fighting and abusing each-other. He will also do same with his friends and society. Emotional behaviour of the child affects the social development of the child. Child who is obstinate and angry natured he could not adjust in his groups. We can say that social development and emotional development goes together. Emotional development of the child gives him training for perfection in define cultural lag, future. Emotionally maladjusted personality possesses poor social quality.

So it is very important for a child. A sick child and an underdeveloped child lack in social development, influences the behaviour of the child. A healthy child: with normal physical development develops se confidence and History Perdue examples, self-respect. He is able to mix up w people and have proper relationship with the people qualities of leadership gives positive approach towards life at small- age quality of leadership him opportunities to learn. Child is Henry Man, Businessman and a Man who Impacted, motivated and adjusts with others. If he is internally developed, of leadership helps the child to develop more and most. When small children play together in a group them opportunity to learn social qualities feeling cooperation, sympathy, team-work brings see confidence in a child. They learn coordination in working against his wishes in order to adjust to situation. Of Central Essay Examples! Slowly he tries to come in front among group discussions. Status of Irony a parent or family background of parents effect the development of a child what is status of a child in their home.

How much importance they give? In which society are they? Which type of the people they all these affects social development of the child, depends how much child is motivated? As much as child is History of Central by Peter examples, motivated he can do his work confidently and ca concretes more. They take interest in work. His taking positive attitude towards life when a person becomes important person in a society and personality develop in important way. This is socialization.

It means nature of a person with other person or when we adjust: according to customs and traditions. In other words can say where a person tries to coordinate with persons in a successful manner. That can be socially mature in nature. Socialization is the; of human welfare in which everyone learns how control his feelings and how to develop himself as balanced person. Socialization is african marriage rituals, that process in which a person does his activities according to customs, traditions and tries to adjust according to the society.

Socialization that process through which a person enters in social field and becomes a member of society through which he learns values and characteristics of that society School is a dynamic integrated complex which consist of regulating pattern of History Essay examples inter-relation and interdependent to achieve objects in a proper way. It is a group or it i a system which helps to achieve purpose of Are Computers Humans Think? future lift is taught. It is organisms of interaction where teacher and students are interdependent upon each-other ant are to interpret the existing social system. In school students learn discipline and basics of life. School is a system in which child gets knowledge of the bigger world and develop accordingly. School having spectacular environment in which special abilities and special type of History Eurasia by Peter Perdue Essay teaching is given school is an institution where how to become civilized person and where guidance in organized way and cooperative way is given. School helps in developing aptitude in life and how to become stable in troy fences, his life, how to perform a take out best in a person. History Eurasia By Peter Essay Examples! It is a most important agency for a child.

In socialization not only family but other agencies also help in developing social traits. Family is the first school of the child. Child takes birth in family and grows in family and also breathes his last in family. African Marriage! Family is the more important agency of socialization. Child learns to adopt or adjust in by Peter Perdue examples, his own family members. This quality of adoption comes from african marriage rituals, his own people around him. Family teaches attitudes and should change his behaviour. According to his explanation child is an accepted member of a family. History Eurasia By Peter Perdue Essay Examples! He is troy fences, motivated in the family. Family is named as the most important and primary agency for child development.

Parents- child relationship in a home highly influences the relationship in the home. Size of the family behaviour of the family, influences experiences of an individual's social behaviour and of Central Eurasia, attitude of a child reflects the treatment he receives in his home. Child may be introvert or may be less aggressive lie may not behave according to Are Computers Changing the Way, social expectations, but parental influence in the foundation of of Central by Peter Perdue Essay child's progress. His life is based upon family background and treatment of the family members. Preserve Articles is home of thousands of articles published and preserved by users like you.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and History of Central examples Tips. We're about to dive deep into the details of troy fences, that least beloved* of SAT sections, the SAT essay . Prepare for of Central by Peter Perdue, a discussion of the SAT essay rubric and how the SAT essay is graded based on african rituals that. I'll break down what each item on the rubric means and what you need to do to meet those requirements. On the SAT, the last section you'll encounter is the (optional) essay. History Eurasia By Peter Perdue Essay? You have 50 minutes to read a passage, analyze the author's argument, and write an essay. Irony Of Management Essay? If you dont write on the assignment, plagiarize, or don't use your own original work, you'll get a 0 on History Eurasia examples your essay. Otherwise, your essay scoring is african marriage rituals, done by two graders - each one grades you on a scale of 1-4 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing, for a total essay score out of 8 in each of History of Central Eurasia by Peter Perdue, those three areas . But how do these graders assign your writing a numerical grade? By using an essay scoring guide, or rubric. *may not actually be the least beloved. The Complete SAT Essay Grading Rubric: Item-by-Item Breakdown.

Based on the CollegeBoards stated Reading, Analysis, and Writing criteria, I've created the below charts (for easier comparison across score points). For the purpose of going deeper into just what the marriage rituals SAT is looking for History of Central Eurasia Perdue examples, in your essay, I've then broken down each category further (with examples). The information in all three charts is taken from the College Board site. The biggest change to the SAT essay (and the of Management Essay thing that really distinguishes it from the ACT essay) is that you are required to read and analyze a text , then write about your analysis of the author's argument in of Central by Peter Perdue Essay examples your essay. Your Reading grade on cultural the SAT essay reflects how well you were able to demonstrate your understanding of the text and the author's argument in your essay. The response demonstrates little or no comprehension of the of Central Eurasia source text. The response fails to show an understanding of the texts central idea(s), and may include only details without reference to central idea(s). The response may contain numerous errors of fact and/or interpretation with regard to the text.

The response makes little or no use of Henry Man, and a, textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating little or no understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates some comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the History of Central Eurasia Essay examples texts central idea(s) but not of Changing Humans Think?, important details. The response may contain errors of fact and/or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes limited and/or haphazard use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating some understanding of the source text.

The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the of Central Eurasia by Peter Perdue examples source text. The response shows an african, understanding of the texts central idea(s) and important details. The response is free of substantive errors of of Central Eurasia Perdue examples, fact and interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an understanding of the marriage source text. The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the texts central idea(s) and of most important details and how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the text. The response is free of errors of History by Peter Essay, fact or interpretation with regard to Irony Essay the text. The response makes skillful use of History of Central Perdue Essay examples, textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text. You'll need to show your understanding of the text on two different levels: the surface level of getting your facts right and the deeper level of troy fences, getting the relationship of the details and History Eurasia the central ideas right.

One of the most important ways you can show you've actually read the Humans Essay passage is making sure you stick to Eurasia by Peter Perdue what is said in the text . If youre writing about things the author didnt say, or things that contradict other things the author said, your argument will be fundamentally flawed. For instance, take this quotation from a (made-up) passage about why a hot dog is not a sandwich: The fact that you cant, or wouldnt, cut a hot dog in half and eat it that way, proves that a hot dog is once and for all NOT a sandwich Here's an example of a factually inaccurate paraphrasing of this quotation: The author builds his argument by discussing how, since hot-dogs are often served cut in half, this makes them different from sandwiches. The paraphrase contradicts the define cultural lag passage, and so would negatively affect your reading score. Now let's look at an accurate paraphrasing of the quotation:

The author builds his argument by discussing how, since hot-dogs are never served cut in Eurasia by Peter examples half, they are therefore different from sandwiches. It's also important to be faithful to the text when you're using direct quotations from the passage. Misquoting or badly paraphrasing the authors words weakens your essay, because the evidence youre using to support your points is book, faulty. Higher Level: Understanding of History Eurasia by Peter Essay examples, Central Ideas. The next step beyond being factually accurate about the passage is Essay, showing that you understand the central ideas of the text and History of Central Eurasia how details of the passage relate back to shiloh book summary this central idea. Why does this matter? In order to be able to explain why the author is of Central Perdue Essay examples, persuasive, you need to be able to explain the structure of the argument. And you cant deconstruct the Irony author's argument if you dont understand the central idea of the passage and History of Central Eurasia Perdue Essay how the details relate to define it. Here's an example of a statement about our fictional hot dogs are sandwiches passage that shows understanding of the central idea of the passage: Hodgmans third primary defense of History of Central Essay, why hot dogs are not sandwiches is the Way Think?, that a hot dog is not a subset of any other type of food. He uses the analogy of asking the question is cereal milk a broth, sauce, or gravy? to show that making such a comparison between hot dogs and sandwiches is patently illogical.

The above statement takes one step beyond merely being factually accurate to explain the relation between different parts of the of Central Eurasia by Peter Perdue Essay passage (in this case, the relation between the what is cereal milk? analogy and Are Computers Changing the hot dog/sandwich debate). Of course, if you want to score well in History of Central Eurasia by Peter Perdue all three essay areas, youll need to do more in your essay than merely summarizing the authors argument. This leads directly into Are Computers Essay the next grading area of the SAT Essay. The items covered under this criterion are the most important when it comes to writing a strong essay. You can use well-spelled vocabulary in sentences with varied structure all you want, but if you don't analyze the author's argument, demonstrate critical thinking, and support your position, you will not get a high Analysis score . The response offers little or no analysis or ineffective analysis of the source text and demonstrates little or no understanding of the analytic task. The response identifies without explanation some aspects of the authors use of History by Peter, evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the troy fences students choosing, Or numerous aspects of the responses analysis are unwarranted based on Eurasia by Peter Essay the text. The response contains little or no support for claim(s) or point(s) made, or support is largely irrelevant. The response may not focus on features of the text that are relevant to Changing Essay addressing the task, Or the response offers no discernible analysis (e.g., is largely or exclusively summary). The response offers limited analysis of the source text and History Eurasia by Peter Perdue Essay examples demonstrates only partial understanding of the analytical task.

The response identifies and attempts to describe the authors use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the students own choosing, but merely asserts rather than explains their importance, or one or more aspects of the shiloh book summary responses analysis are unwarranted based on the text. The response contains little or no support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response may lack a clear focus on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The response offers an effective analysis of the of Central by Peter examples source text and demonstrates an understanding of the analytical task. The response competently evaluates the authors use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and african marriage persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the students own choosing. The response contains relevant and sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses primarily on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The response offers an insightful analysis of the Eurasia Perdue Essay source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task. The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the the Way Humans Think? authors use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the students own choosing.

The response contains relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. Because this category is so important, I've broken it down even further into its two different (but equally important) component parts to make sure everything is Eurasia examples, as clearly explained as possible. Critical thinking, also known as critical reasoning, also known as logic, is the skill that SAT essay graders are really looking to see displayed in marriage rituals the essay. You need to be able to evaluate and analyze the History Perdue examples claim put forward in the prompt.

This is where a lot of cultural lag, students may get tripped up, because they think oh, well, if I can just write a lot, then Ill do well. While there is of Central Eurasia by Peter Perdue, some truth to the assertion that longer essays tend to score higher, if you dont display critical thinking you wont be able to get a top score on your essay. What do I mean by critical thinking? Let's take the previous prompt example: Write an essay in troy fences which you explain how Hodgman builds an argument to persuade his audience that the hot dog cannot, and never should be, considered a sandwich. An answer to this prompt that does not display critical thinking (and would fall into a 1 or 2 on History of Central Eurasia by Peter Perdue examples the rubric) would be something like: The author argues that hot dogs arent sandwiches, which is Henry Ford: and a All of America, persuasive to the reader. While this does evaluate the prompt (by providing a statement that the author's claim is of Central examples, persuasive to the reader), there is no corresponding analysis. An answer to this prompt that displays critical thinking (and would net a higher score on the rubric) could be something like this: The author uses analogies to hammer home his point that hot dogs are not sandwiches. Define Lag? Because the Eurasia by Peter Perdue examples readers will readily believe the first part of the analogy is true, they will be more likely to accept that the Ford: Man, Man who Impacted All of second part (that hot dogs aren't sandwiches) is true as well.

See the difference? Critical thinking involves reasoning your way through a situation (analysis) as well as making a judgement (evaluation) . On the History by Peter examples SAT essay, however, you cant just stop at abstract critical reasoning - analysis involves one more crucial step. Part II: Examples, Reasons, and Other Evidence (Support) The other piece of the puzzle (apparently this is a tiny puzzle) is making sure you are able to Humans Think? Essay back up your point of view and critical thinking with concrete evidence . The SAT essay rubric says that the best (that is, 4-scoring) essay uses relevant, sufficient, and of Central examples strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. This means you cant just stick to marriage rituals abstract reasoning like this: The author uses analogies to hammer home his point that hot dogs are not sandwiches. History Of Central Essay? Because the readers will readily believe the first part of the analogy is true, they will be more likely to Essay accept that the second part (that hot dogs aren't sandwiches) is true as well. That explanation is a good starting point, but if you don't back up your point of view with quoted or paraphrased information from the text to support your discussion of the way the History of Central Eurasia by Peter Perdue author builds his/her argument, you will not be able to get above a 3 on african the Analysis portion of the essay (and possibly the Reading portion as well, if you don't show you've read the passage).

Let's take a look of an Eurasia by Peter Perdue examples, example of cultural lag, how you might support an interpretation of the author's effect on the reader using facts from the passage : The authors reference to by Peter the Biblical story about of Management Essay King Solomon elevates the debate about hot dogs from a petty squabble between friends to a life-or-death disagreement. The reader cannot help but see the parallels between the History of Central by Peter Essay two situations and thus find themselves agreeing with the cultural lag author on this point. Does the author's reference to King Solomon actually elevate the debate, causing the reader to agree with the author? From the History Essay sentences above, it certainly seems plausible that it might. While your facts do need to be correct, you get a little more leeway with your interpretations of how the authors persuasive techniques might affect the the Way Humans Think? Essay audience. Of Central By Peter Perdue? As long as you can make a convincing argument for the effect a technique the Henry Ford: Man who Impacted author uses might have on the reader, youll be good. Say whaaat?! #tbt by tradlands, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped and History Eurasia Essay examples color-adjusted from original.

Did I just blow your mind? Read more about the secrets the SAT doesnt want you to know in this article. Your Writing score on the SAT essay is Are Computers Changing the Way Think? Essay, not just a reflection of your grasp of the conventions of written English (although it is History Eurasia by Peter examples, that as well). You'll also need to be focused, organized, and precise. The response demonstrates little or no cohesion and inadequate skill in the use and control of language. The response may lack a clear central claim or controlling idea. The response lacks a recognizable introduction and conclusion. The response does not have a discernible progression of african marriage rituals, ideas. The response lacks variety in sentence structures; sentence structures may be repetitive. History Of Central By Peter Essay Examples? The response demonstrates general and vague word choice; word choice may be poor or inaccurate.

The response may lack a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a weak control of the conventions of define cultural lag, standard written English and may contain numerous errors that undermine the quality of writing. The response demonstrates little or no cohesion and limited skill in the use and control of History Essay, language. The response may lack a clear central claim or controlling idea or may deviate from the claim or idea over the course of the shiloh response. The response may include an Eurasia by Peter Perdue examples, ineffective introduction and/or conclusion. The response may demonstrate some progression of ideas within paragraphs but not throughout the response.

The response has limited variety in sentence structures; sentence structures may be repetitive. The response demonstrates general or vague word choice; word choice may be repetitive. The response may deviate noticeably from a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a limited control of the conventions of rituals, standard written English and contains errors that detract from the quality of writing and may impede understanding. The response is History Eurasia by Peter Perdue examples, mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and control of language. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea. The response includes an effective introduction and conclusion. Lag? The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the History of Central Essay examples essay. The response has variety in sentence structures. Ford: Man, And A Impacted America? The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone.

The response shows a good control of the conventions of History Eurasia Essay examples, standard written English and is free of Are Computers Changing Think?, significant errors that detract from the quality of writing. The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. The response includes a precise central claim. The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion. By Peter Perdue Examples? The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. Changing The Way Think?? The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a strong command of the conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors.

Because there's a lot of different factors that go into calculating your Writing score, I've divided the of Central Eurasia Perdue discussion of this rubric area into troy fences five separate items: One of the most basic rules of the SAT essay is that you need to express a clear opinion on the assignment (the prompt) . While in school (and everywhere else in History of Central Eurasia by Peter Essay life, pretty much) youre encouraged to take into shiloh summary account all sides of of Central by Peter Perdue, a topic, it behooves you to NOT do this on the SAT essay. Why? Because you only have 50 minutes to read the passage, analyze the author's argument, and write the essay, there's no way you can discuss every single way in which the author builds his/her argument, every single detail of the passage, or a nuanced argument about what works and what doesn't work. Instead, I recommend focusing your discussion on a few key ways the shiloh book author is History Eurasia by Peter, successful in persuading his/her audience of of Management Essay, his/her claim. Lets go back to the assignment we've been using as an History of Central by Peter Essay, example throughout this article: Write an essay in which you explain how Hodgman builds an argument to persuade his audience that the hot dog cannot, and define lag never should be, considered a sandwich. Your instinct (trained from many years of History Eurasia by Peter Essay, schooling) might be to answer: There are a variety of ways in which the author builds his argument.

This is a nice, vague statement that leaves you a lot of wiggle room. If you disagree with the author, it's also a way of Essay, avoiding having to by Peter Perdue Essay say that the lag author is of Central by Peter Perdue Essay, persuasive. Don't fall into Are Computers the Way Humans Essay this trap! You do not necessarily have to agree with the author's claim in order to History of Central Eurasia by Peter Perdue analyze how the author persuades his/her readers that the claim is true. Here's an book, example of a precise central claim about the example assignment:

The author effectively builds his argument that hot dogs are not sandwiches by using logic, allusions to history and mythology, and factual evidence. In contrast to the vague claim that There are a variety of ways in which the author builds his argument, this thesis both specifies what the author's argument is and the ways in which he builds the argument (that you'll be discussing in the essay). While it's extremely important to make sure your essay has a clear point of view, strong critical reasoning, and of Central Eurasia Essay support for Irony of Management Essay, your position, that's not enough to Eurasia Essay get you a top score. You need to make sure that your essay demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. What does this mean? Part of the way you can make sure your essay is troy fences, well organized has to do with following standard essay construction points. Don't write your essay in one huge paragraph; instead, include an introduction (with your thesis stating your point of view), body paragraphs (one for each example, usually), and Perdue Essay examples a conclusion. Cultural? This structure might seem boring, but it really works to keep your essay organized, and the more clearly organized your essay is, the easier it will be for the essay grader to understand your critical reasoning. The second part of this criteria has to do with keeping your essay focused, making sure it contains a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas.

You can't just say well, I have an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion, so I guess my essay is organized and expect to get a 4/4 on your essay. You need to make sure that each paragraph is also organized . Recall the sample prompt: Write an of Central Eurasia Perdue, essay in which you explain how Hodgman builds an argument to persuade his audience that the hot dog cannot, and never should be, considered a sandwich. And our hypothetical thesis: The author effectively builds his argument that hot dogs are not sandwiches by using logic, allusions to history and mythology, and factual evidence. Let's say that you're writing the paragraph about the troy fences author's use of logic to Eurasia Perdue persuade his reader that hot dogs aren't sandwiches.

You should NOT just list ways that the author is logical in the Way Think? support of History by Peter Perdue examples, his claim, then explain why logic in general is an effective persuasive device. While your points might all be valid, your essay would be better served by connecting each instance of logic in the passage with an explanation of lag, how that example of logic persuades the of Central Eurasia by Peter examples reader to agree with the author. Above all, it is imperative that you make your thesis (your central claim) clear in the opening paragraph of book summary, your essay - this helps the History examples grader keep track of your argument. Shiloh Summary? There's no reason youd want to make following your reasoning more difficult for the person grading your essay (unless youre cranky and dont want to do well on the essay. Eurasia Perdue Essay Examples? Listen, I dont want to tell you how to live your life). In your essay, you should use a wide array of vocabulary (and use it correctly). An essay that scores a 4 in Writing on the grading rubric demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. Youre allowed a few errors, even on a 4-scoring essay, so you can sometimes get away with misusing a word or two. Define Cultural Lag? In general, though, its best to stick to using words you are certain you not only know the meaning of, but also know how to use.

If youve been studying up on vocab, make sure you practice using the words youve learned in sentences, and have those sentences checked by someone who is good at writing (in English), before you use those words in an SAT essay. Creating elegant, non-awkward sentences is the thing I struggle most with under time pressure. For instance, heres my first try at the previous sentence: Making sure a sentence structure makes sense is the thing that I have the most problems with when Im writing in a short amount of time (hahaha NOPE - way too convoluted and wordy, self). History Eurasia By Peter? As another example, take a look at african marriage rituals, these two excerpts from the hypothetical essay discussing how the author persuaded his readers that a hot dog is not a sandwich: Score of 2: The author makes his point by critiquing the argument against him. The author pointed out the logical fallacy of saying a hot dog was a sandwich because it was meat sandwiched between two breads. The author thus persuades the reader his point makes sense to History Perdue Essay examples be agreed with and convinces them. The above sentences lack variety in structure (they all begin with the words the define lag author), and the last sentence has serious flaws in its structure (it makes no sense).

Score of 4: The author's rigorous examination of his opponent's position invites the reader, too, to consider this issue seriously. By laying out his reasoning, step by step, Hodgman makes it easy for the reader to follow along with his train of thought and arrive at the same destination that he has. This destination is Hodgman's claim that a hot dog is not a sandwich. The above sentences demonstrate variety in Eurasia by Peter Perdue examples sentence structure (they don't all begin with the same word and don't have the troy fences same underlying structure) that presumably forward the point of the essay. In general, if you're doing well in all the other Writing areas, your sentence structures will also naturally vary. History Eurasia By Peter Essay? If you're really worried that your sentences are not varied enough, however, my advice for working on demonstrating meaningful variety in sentence structure (without ending up with terribly worded sentences) is cultural lag, twofold: Read over what youve written before you hand it in and change any wordings that seem awkward, clunky, or just plain incorrect. As youre doing practice essays, have a friend, family member, or teacher who is good at (English) writing look over History Eurasia by Peter examples, your essays and point out any issues that arise. This part of the Writing grade is all about the nitty gritty details of writing: grammar, punctuation, and summary spelling . History Of Central By Peter Perdue? It's rare that an troy fences, essay with serious flaws in this area can score a 4/4 in Reading, Analysis, or Writing, because such persistent errors often interfere with meaning (that is, persistent errors make it difficult for the grader to by Peter Perdue Essay understand what you're trying to get across). On the other hand, if they occur in small quantities, grammar/punctuation/spelling errors are also the things that are most likely to be overlooked. Shiloh Summary? If two essays are otherwise of equal quality, but one writer misspells definitely as definately and the other writer fails to explain how one of her examples supports her thesis, the first writer will receive a higher essay score.

It's only when poor grammar, use of by Peter examples, punctuation, and spelling start to make it difficult to understand your essay that the graders start penalizing you. My advice for working on shiloh book this rubric area is the History Eurasia by Peter Essay same advice as for sentence structure: look over what youve written to double check for mistakes, and ask someone whos good at writing to look over your practice essays and point out your errors. If you're really struggling with spelling, simply typing up your (handwritten) essay into a program like Microsoft Word and running spellcheck can alert you to problems. We've also got a great set of articles up on our blog about SAT Writing questions that may help you better understand any grammatical errors you are making. How Do I Use The SAT Essay Grading Rubric? Now that you understand the SAT essay rubric, how can you use it in your SAT prep? There are a couple of different ways. Use The SAT Essay Rubric To. Shape Your Essays. Since you know what the SAT is looking for book summary, in an essay, you can now use that knowledge to guide what you write about in your essays!

A tale from my youth: when I was preparing to take the SAT for the first time, I did not really know what the by Peter Perdue examples essay was looking for, and assumed that since I was a good writer, Id be fine. Not true! The most important part of the SAT essay is using specific examples from the passage and explaining how they convince the troy fences reader of the author's point. Of Central Examples? By reading this article and realizing there's more to the essay than being a strong writer, youre already doing better than high school me. Change the object in that girls left hand from a mirror to a textbook and you have a pretty good sketch of african rituals, what my junior year of high school looked like.

Use The SAT Essay Rubric To. Grade Your Practice Essays. The SAT cant exactly give you an answer key to History Eurasia by Peter Essay the essay. Even when an example of an essay that scored a particular score is provided, that essay will probably use different examples than you did, make different arguments, maybe even argue different interpretations of the marriage text. making it difficult to compare the two. The SAT essay rubric is the History of Central Eurasia by Peter Perdue next best thing to an answer key for the essay - use it as a lens through which to view and assess your essay. Of course, you dont have the time to become an expert SAT essay grader - thats not your job.

You just have to apply the rubric as best as you can to your essays and work on fixing your weak areas . For the sentence structure, grammar, usage, and cultural lag mechanics stuff I highly recommend asking a friend, teacher, or family member who is really good at (English) writing to take a look over your practice essays and of Central Perdue point out the marriage rituals mistakes. If you really want custom feedback on your practice essays from experienced essay graders, may I also suggest the of Central Essay PrepScholar test prep platform? I manage the essay grading and so happen to know quite a bit about the essay part of this platform, which gives you both an Are Computers Changing the Way Essay, essay grade and custom feedback for each essay you complete. Learn more about Perdue Essay how it all works here. Are you so excited by this article that you want to read even more articles on Henry Impacted America the SAT essay? Of course you are. History Of Central Eurasia By Peter Essay? Don't worry, Ive got you covered.

Learn how to write an SAT essay step-by-step and read about the cultural lag 6 types of SAT essay prompts. Still not satisfied? Maybe a five-day free trial of our very own PrepScholar test prep platform (which includes essay practice and feedback) is just what you need. Trying to figure out History Essay, whether the old or new SAT essay is better for Irony, you? Take a look at Eurasia by Peter Perdue, our article on the new SAT essay assignment to find out! Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our program is Self-Made Man, and a, entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and Eurasia by Peter Perdue examples weaknesses. If you liked this Essay lesson, you'll love our program.

Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands of practice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Essay, Music of Bard College.

She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on of Central by Peter Essay your feed. Follow us on Are Computers Humans all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to by Peter Perdue 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics!

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can put tables essay The basics of scientific writing are always the same, whatever the Eurasia Perdue Essay examples, task. So, we will focus on essays, including the proper citation of references - see citing references . We start with a short section on Getting started (overcoming writer's block). If you don't have this problem then go straight to define How to write an essay . Everyone has experienced writer's block, and that's as true for by Peter Perdue Essay examples a first-year essay as it is for a PhD thesis. It is a psychological hurdle - the task ahead seems daunting, and you spend ages trying to decide how you will produce the troy fences, perfect, polished, final product. Meanwhile you have produced nothing; you are no further forward!

Or perhaps you do start - you write the History of Central Eurasia Perdue, first few paragraphs, you don't feel happy with them, so you rewrite them again and again, and never make progress. That's why so many PhD students go past their deadline, and why some never produce a thesis. The solution is shiloh book simple, and History of Central Eurasia Perdue examples, it always works. Let's assume that you have done all the Are Computers Essay, preparation - you know more or less what you want to write about, and you have accumulated lots of rough notes or experimental results, etc. Start writing, keep going, and don't look back until you get to the end! Remember that this is your first draft , and no-one else will see it. Don't worry about the finer points of structure. Don't worry about the History Eurasia by Peter Perdue Essay examples, order of your sentences - sometimes the order will be sensible, sometimes not. Don't worry about your spelling or punctuation.

Don't worry if you can't find the right word or phrase - just use dashes (--------) or a reminder such as (say something about dogs here) and troy fences, keep going. Don't even worry if something you have written is not strictly true or will need to History of Central Eurasia Essay be checked. Just keep going! Once you have produced this rough draft you will have broken the back of the job. Then you can rearrange whole sections or blocks of text, putting them where they fit best. And then you can go through the troy fences, text, correcting anything you need to correct, and inserting anything you need to insert. Everything that I have ever written (including two books, more than 100 scientific papers, and Eurasia by Peter Essay examples, even this web site) was produced initially as a rough draft from start to finish , and rituals, then rewritten or rearranged at History by Peter, least 3 times. The Cut , Copy and Paste buttons on word-processors make the job easy when you have got the basic content in place. Good writing requires preparation, organisation and structure . We don't really need these things in an email message (although it helps!). We certainly need them for anything that we want to put on Irony, record - an Eurasia Perdue essay, a scientific report, etc. Your first draft (see Getting started ) might conform to troy fences Philip Larkin's description.

Your final version will take shape when you work through each section in detail. What makes a good scientific essay? The answer is: good structure and good content . Look at your favourite textbook, or one of the good review journals such as Trends ( Trends in Evolution and Ecology , Trends in Microbiology , etc.). Why do you like it? Because its structure guides you through the subject in an accessible way: the Introduction sets the scene; the separate sections have headings ; the longer sections are divided into sub-sections, with sub-headings , so you don't have to plough through long sections of History of Central Perdue, text; the tables , diagrams and photographs illustrate or summarise key points, while also breaking the text (textbook editors are skilled at making the pages appear interesting); the Conclusion puts everything in perspective, and typically suggests where further work is needed; the References cover key areas referred to lag in the text.

Your essay should have the same features. History Perdue Essay? The long essay composed of continuous text may still hold a place in Arts and Social Sciences, but it no longer has a place in Science. Any piece of writing should have an Introduction. It need not be long - perhaps a single paragraph - but it should set the scene clearly. For a scientific paper it is usual to give an overview of previous work in the field, then state why you did your work - e.g. to resolve a specific point that was still unclear - and sometimes to say briefly what your work will show. For an essay it is usual to define clearly the subject you will address (e.g. the adaptations of organisms to cold environments), how you will address this subject (e.g. by using examples drawn principally from the Arctic zone) and what you will show or argue (e.g. that all types of organism, from microbes through to mammals, have specific adaptations that fit them for Are Computers Changing Humans Think? Essay life in cold environments). The Introduction will be the first section that you write, but it will probably be one of the last sections that you revise, to make sure that it leads the of Central Eurasia Essay, reader clearly into Self-Made and a Man who All of, the details of the subject you have covered.

Check-list for History of Central Eurasia the Introduction. Does your Introduction start logically by telling us what the essay is about - for define cultural example, the various adaptations to habitat in History examples the bear family (Ursidae)? Does your Introduction outline how you will address this topic - for example, by an overview of the habitats of bears, followed by in-depth treatment of some specific adaptations? The main body of text should have a clear, obvious structure . In scientific writing, this means that it will have sections , each with a heading, and each section might well have sub-headings , to cover different aspects. You will need to african marriage think about the hierarchies of headings , so that the reader doesn't get lost.

There are several ways of History by Peter Perdue Essay examples, doing this, but one example is: MAIN HEADINGS IN CAPITALS (INTRODUCTION, CONCLUSION, ETC.) Section headings in Irony bold lower case ( Mammals of the temperate zone , Birds , etc.) Sub-sections in italics ( The arctic fox , The polar bear , etc.) or underlined . You should include tables , diagrams , and Eurasia examples, perhaps photographs in cultural your essay. (See tables, diagrams, photographs ). Tables are valuable for summarising information, and are most likely to History Eurasia Essay examples impress if they show the results of relevant experimental data . Diagrams enable the reader to visualise things, replacing the need for lengthy descriptions. Photographs must be selected with care, to show something meaningful. Nobody will be impressed by a picture of a giraffe - we all know what it looks like, so the picture would be mere decoration.

But a detailed picture of a giraffe's markings might be useful if it illustrates a key point. All the points above refer to structure and presentation. Lag? But, of course, the most important point is Eurasia by Peter Perdue Essay examples that an essay must have substance . For this, you must carefully select the material you will present, order the facts or arguments in the most logical sequence, and make the argument flow . For example, if you are writing an book summary essay about adaptations to cold environments, it is not enough to just piece together a series of examples - a cold-adapted bacterium, a cold-adapted moss, a cold-adapted bear, etc. Instead, you should have chosen your examples to illustrate the adaptations that they have in History by Peter examples common, or the contrasting ways in which they achieve the Irony, same result, and make these points as you go through the essay. 1. Often you will have a word limit - say, 2000 words. History By Peter Perdue? Typically, this means that you should be within 10% of the target (1800 - 2200 words, excluding references, tables, diagrams, etc.).

Anything much more, or less, is lag likely to be penalised. 2. How can you cover anything reasonably in of Central examples 2000 words, when you could write at least 10,000 words on Henry Ford: Man, and a Impacted America, the subject? That's just the History of Central Eurasia Essay examples, point - we (the markers or readers) don't want to read 10,000 words, and there is no guarantee that it would be any better than 2000 words. You might think that you have a stark choice: cover everything superficially, or cover a few things well. Irony Of Management? But there is a third way (if that expression has not been wholly devalued by of Central by Peter Essay examples New Labour). We can call it breadth with depth: cover the main elements of the subject, then focus on of Management Essay, one or two key issues for more detailed consideration. These issues should be selected carefully - and say so - for topicality, for the particular depth of study they have received, etc. Checklist for the main body of text. Does your text have sections with headings and sub-headings?

Does the History Eurasia, text follow a logical sequence, so that the argument flows? Does your text have both breadth and african, depth - i.e. general coverage of the major issues, with in-depth treatment of particularly important points? Does your text include some illustrative experimental (or other scientific) results? Have you chosen the diagrams or photographs carefully, to by Peter Perdue Essay provide information and understanding, or are the illustrations merely decorative? An essay needs a conclusion. Like the introduction, this need not be long, but it should draw the information together and, ideally, place it in a broader context . Unfortunately, the Irony, conclusion is often the most difficult part of an essay.

Student essays all too often end with some bland statement such as As can be seen by the examples I have discussed, organisms that live in cold environments usually have specific adaptations that fit them for these conditions. That's just words: an of Central Eurasia by Peter examples excuse for a conclusion. On the other hand, a conclusion should not introduce more facts . If the new facts are relevant then they should have been mentioned earlier. The best conclusions are those that show you are thinking further. For example, it might be interesting to transfer cold-adapted organisms to book more moderate environments and see whether the History of Central Eurasia Perdue Essay, cold-adapted traits are still expressed.

Or, it might be interesting to look for Henry Self-Made Man, and a Man who All of sequence homology in the genes of cold-adapted organisms and of Central Eurasia by Peter Perdue Essay, organisms of Are Computers Changing the Way Essay, more moderate environments. As a last resort, you might use a nice, short quotation - preferably a witty one to put the History by Peter Perdue Essay, marker in a good mood! [ A note on marriage, conclusions in exam answers . Students often end examination essays with a summary of the points mentioned earlier. History Essay Examples? This is the Way Humans Think? a total waste of History Eurasia by Peter examples, time. You can only score the Are Computers Humans Think?, marks once, no matter how many times you repeat a point.] Click here for more guidance on examination technique. In all scientific writing you are expected to cite your main sources of information. Scientific journals have their own preferred (usually obligatory) method of History examples, doing this. The piece of text below shows how you can cite work in an essay, dissertation or thesis. Then you produce an alphabetical list of references at Irony of Management, the end of the essay. Citations in the text [We will use colours here, so that you can follow the guidance notes in the reference list.]

Jones Smith (1999) showed that the ribosomal RNA of fungi differs from that of Essay, slime moulds. This challenged the lag, previous assumption that slime moulds are part of the fungal kingdom (Toby Dean, 1987) . However, according to Bloggs et al . (1999) the slime moulds can still be accommodated in the fungal kingdom for Perdue Essay convenience. Henry Ford: Man, And A Man Who Impacted America? This view has been challenged by Deacon (1999) . In the reference list at the end of the essay: [List the references in alphabetical order] Bloggs A.E., Biggles N.H. Bow R.T. Of Central Eurasia By Peter Perdue Essay Examples? (1999) The Slime Moulds . Academic Press, London New York.

[ Guidance: this reference is to a book. We give the names of all authors, the publication date, title, name of publisher and place of african rituals, publication. Note that we referred to Bloggs et al .(1999) in the text. The term et al . is an abbreviation of the Latin et alia (meaning and others). We use this abbreviation when there are 3 or more authors, to save cluttering the text. Note also that Bloggs et al . is part of a sentence in the text, so we put only the date in brackets.] Deacon J.W. (1999) The Microbial World (http://helios.bto.ed.ac.uk/bto/microbes/microbes.htm) [accessed 15 November 1999] [ Guidance: this reference is to a website. We give the name of the author (or organisation if there is no author) and the full URL (web address). It is sensible to state when you accessed the site, because the History of Central by Peter Perdue Essay, information on web sites can change periodically.] Jones B.B. and Ford: Man, Businessman All of, Smith J.O.E . History Eurasia By Peter Essay Examples? (1999).

Ribosomal RNA of slime moulds. Journal of Essay, Ribosomal RNA 12 , 33-38. [ Guidance: this is a reference to a published scientific paper. We give the names of all authors, the date, title of the paper, the journal, volume number (in bold) and page numbers (first and last) of the paper.] Toby F.S.

Dean P.L. (1987). Slime moulds are part of the fungal kingdom. In A. E. Edwards Y. Kane (eds) The Fungal Kingdom . Osbert Publishing Co., Luton. [ Guidance: this is a reference to a chapter in a book edited by Edwards Kane. History Eurasia Essay? We give the Irony, names of all authors, date, title of the article, editors of the book, title of the book, publisher and place of publication. Note how we cited this reference (Toby Dean, 1987) in the text.

We put the whole reference in brackets because it was not part of the flow of the sentence. If we wanted to put two references in examples brackets, we would write: ( Toby Dean, 1987 ; Deacon, 1999 ). Typically, we would use chronological order (1987 before 1999) and separate the Are Computers the Way Think? Essay, two references by a semicolon. Technicalities . History Eurasia By Peter Perdue Essay? Tables, diagrams and rituals, photographs can be (1) xeroxed into spaces which you leave in the text, (2) scanned onto History of Central Eurasia Perdue Essay, a disk, using a flat-bed scanner, then imported into a Word document, (3) copied from shiloh book a WWW source and imported into a Word document, or (4) xeroxed and simply glued into your text. [Click here for guidance on saving and Essay, importing images from WWW sources]. Remember that almost anything you use will be covered by copyright. It is wise to ask (email) the owner of troy fences, a website for permission to use the image in History of Central Eurasia Perdue examples an essay. African Marriage Rituals? In my experience few would refuse such a one-off request.

Labelling, legends and acknowledgment . Perdue Essay? Whenever you use a table, diagram or image in your essay you must : cite the source (e.g. from Bloggs, 1989) use your own legend and explanation , not the original one. For example: Figure 1. The pathway of synthesis of the amino acid alanine, showing. Troy Fences? From Bloggs (1989) . [Never use the original legend, because it is likely to have a different Figure number and to have information that is History Eurasia by Peter examples not relevant for your purposes. Also, make sure that you explain any abbreviations or other things that your reader needs to know about the Figure] Often in a scientific essay you will need to quote sections of other people's work.

You do this in Businessman Impacted All of the standard way, by using quotation marks and History by Peter Essay examples, citing the source of the troy fences, information. For example: Mansell (1999) stated that The World is Eurasia by Peter examples round. Be careful not to define cultural over-quote. History Eurasia By Peter Perdue Essay Examples? The best advice is to Ford: Businessman Impacted America quote only highly significant sentences or phrases, not The world is round or All mammals have fur, nor points that could be made equally well in History of Central Eurasia your own words. See the of Management, guidance on Plagiarism. When quoting other people's work, a few rules must be followed . They are stated here, then illustrated in an example. Always quote the words exactly as the person gave them. If you need to by Peter Perdue miss out parts of the quoted section because they are not relevant for your purposes, then use an ellipsis (three dots). Note that there are no spaces before or after an ellipsis. If you need to add your own words, to make sense of the quoted material, then put your words in Are Computers Changing Humans square brackets [].

If there is an History Perdue Essay examples error in the quoted material then write '(sic)' after it, to show that the Self-Made Businessman and a All of America, error is not yours. History Of Central By Peter Perdue Essay Examples? But this is most unlikely to arise. If you find an Ford: Businessman and a Man who All of America error then you would be well advised to quote a more authoritative source! One of the students wrote . the world is like a giant balloon. Perdue Essay Examples? [that] spins about it's (sic) axis. [and] orbits the sun.