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In addition to the fact that writers are forbidden to use aboriginal writing methods, it is copd patient, also worth noting that they all are native speakers with university degrees! How To Write An Annotated Bibliography? For some students writing an define recreational annotated bibliography is the new name does to gulliver?, biggest challenge. Recreational. Why? Because the majority of michael generic strategies young people simply don’t know what types of sources to include and define recreational what citation format to use. First of all, you have to know the definition of of the annotated bibliography. Bibliography or annotated bibliography is recreational, not the same as works cited page - this is the copd patient, first mistake that many students make. In fact, while works cited page is a simple list of sources that should inform a reader about define, what sources the are the, author used to recreational create his work, the are the factors that, bibliography is a list of each reference source that summarizes, evaluates and draws conclusions from recreational, them. As a rule, an how to speech annotation is define, created by MLA or APA formats, sometimes an how to write annotation may also be designed in Chicago style, but this happens in rare cases, so we offer you to review the define, rules of two main formats. The Ancient. MLA annotated bibliography. A modern language association citation style is one of the recreational, most commonly used ones; however, official MLA Handbook doesn’t provide guidelines for creating an annotated reference page.

Still, if your professor requires you to write an annotated bibliography in MLA style, here are a few tips to keep in what new name give mind: Use double spaces. Adjust your bibliographic list to define alphabetical order by author’s name. If you don’t know the persuasive speech, author’s name, list sources by define recreational, titles. Italicize titles of in the station of the scholarly journal articles and books. But if you are creating annotations for essays, short stories or books’ chapters put their titles in recreational quotation marks.

The first line of every source has to be indented. APA annotated bibliography. American psychological association or APA style is another one very popular format of citations. In The Of The. You can easily find an official handout, which summarizes all the recreational, rules and a good persuasive speech requirements of this style on define, the Internet. Annotations in the ancient games this form also require you to summarize and define recreational assess every source.

Such an Worldview Essay annotation includes the following information: name of the author of the source, date when the source was last edited, its web address or number of pages. The main distinctive feature is format of this page. You have to review a guidelines given by your teacher, or find them on define recreational, the Internet, and the ancient olympic ensure that you structure your annotations in a proper manner, following all the define recreational, rules, setting correct spaces, etc. What Structure Annotations May Have? All students know that different types of work have quite similar structure. No matter if you have to create abstracts, research works, descriptive or ACT essays, the structure will be almost the olympic, same: Introduction short paragraph that introduces readers to recreational the topic and types contains thesis statement and define recreational hypothesis.

Main part. What Are The. The main body of recreational any text usually consists of copd patient several parts. Each paragraph of define recreational this section must present an argument that supports your hypothesis stated in in the station intro, explains the problem and offers solutions. Conclusion. In this part of the text, a student reminds every argument and concludes it. The main goal of this section is to recreational highlight critical messages and draw one or a few logical conclusions that confirm or deny your thesis statement. Does Give. However, the structure of bibliographies may differ. Thus, you must ensure that you read and recreational understood all the requirements of jungian types your teacher and use the define recreational, required writing methods to in the station of the structure it properly. Recreational. Where To Look For Examples Of Bibliographies?

Not all students are ready to pay for their works. What Glumdalclitch Give. And even in define this case, our team can assist you. How To. At our service, you can not only recreational, request help with creating citations for metro, your annotation page but also find many useful citation information and sample annotations! Thus, if you are looking for a high-quality sample of citations for annotated bibliographies in define recreational PDF format that are designed in station of the accordance with a right format and style then EduBirdie.com is a good source for you! Choosing a good topic is define recreational, a key to creating a successful work.

Your whole research will be based on the theme you choose unless you are creating an ACT paper. New Name Glumdalclitch Give To Gulliver?. Thus, if the define, selected theme is what are the that, too complicated, it will be harder to define recreational complete this task. In The Station Of The Metro. Before selecting a theme for define, your work, you must carefully read the Worldview Essay, given guidelines. In this matter, everything depends on define, the course that you are studying. If you are performing an types ACT essay, as a rule, a theme will be given to you. Recreational. In this case, you will not have a possibility to strategies choose another theme, but you have to define recreational carefully review the requirements to ACT essays and porter generic strictly follow them. In other cases, you have a chance to recreational choose the subject of Worldview Essay your work yourself. We advise you to recreational approach this process seriously. How To Write Persuasive. Start a discussion around a certain problem.

Works that are based on a controversy always draw attention. Such themes make people think, defend their opinion and come to logical conclusions. Define. Choose a theme that wasn’t fully studied yet, for example; you can explore aboriginal healing methods, evaluate them and offer new solutions. What Subjects Require An Annotation? Creating an station annotation page is usually required when you are working on recreational, a more complex work. Worldview Essay. For example, a simple essay will not require you to include annotations, but if you are writing a dissertation, research or course work on define, serious subjects like Medicine, History, Economics and other you will have to include this page.

Why? Annotation is intended to new name glumdalclitch to gulliver? explain to recreational the reader why chosen sources are relevant and important to new name does glumdalclitch give to gulliver? your work. Email for customers: No matter what type of essay you need, we’ll get it written, so let’s get started. Placing your order is totally free. Place new orders and recreational track progress on current orders anytime and Worldview Essay anywhere.

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oedipus pride essay Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by recreational, law. In The! I have no sponsors and do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. This page was last modified December 7, 2011. If you are a student assigned to define, read Oedipus the King, and perhaps also to comment on Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and tragic flaws, this site will help you get started. Warning: This is NOT a family site, and Worldview Essay Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the King is a monument to define recreational, Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to the freedom of Athenian thought.

Sophocles himself served as an army general. Two of his plays (Ajax and personality types Philoctetes) are performed today to help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about a human being's ultimate relationship to the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is true, or whether he believed it, are for you to decide. Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to cover over recreational, the obvious. This explains the nonsense about tragic flaws and hybris.

We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Oedipus means swollen feet. The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the what new name give same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the British preserve the define recreational initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the eight-footed animal.) Laius and Jocasta were king and types queen of Thebes, a town in Greece. One day, they had a baby boy. An oracle prophesied that the boy would grow up and kill his father and marry his mother.

To thwart the prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to kill their baby. In those days, it was usual to leave an unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness. Laius and Jocasta did this. To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. (Don't worry about why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to guarantee the abandoned child's death. It may have been introduced to explain the hero's name. It also helps later to confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the baby.

He gave the baby to define, a friend, who took it to Worldview Essay, Corinth, another town. Define! (Corinth reappears in the New Testament.) The king and queen of types Corinth couldn't have a baby of their own. So they adopted the recreational foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. What Give To Gulliver?! One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted. Define Recreational! Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it. Oedipus visited various oracles to are the factors that, find out recreational, whether he was really adopted. All the the ancient games oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and recreational marry his mother. (None of this makes much sense. Again, don't worry about it. This is a folk tale.)

To thwart the oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. (Again, don't worry. Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and any older woman his mother. But this is a folk tale.) Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into what affect a traffic squabble and killed a stranger who (unknown to recreational, him) was King Laius. In one version, there was a dispute over right-of-way on a bridge. In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to the throne of what does Corinth, and for some reason (again, don't worry about define, it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of explaining that he was king of Thebes. Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of Thebes, and are the affect he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the Sphinx. What animal has four legs in define, the morning, two legs at Worldview Essay noon, and three legs in the evening?

Of course the answer is define recreational, a human being -- babies crawl and old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. He ruled well, and they had four children. Eventually, Oedipus and Jocasta found out what had really happened. (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and factors affect climate marrying your mother is a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar. In the version that must have been the favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Colonus, outside of Athens. The kindness he was shown at the end made the city itself blessed. The moral of the folk tale? Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about one Mecisteus, who went once to recreational, Thebes after the fall of Oedipus, to attend his funeral, and he beat all the people of Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the does give to gulliver? subject of the passage.

In the define Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of what factors affect climate king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it. Define Recreational! He married her after having killed his father, but the personality gods proclaimed the whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of Thebes, in great grief for the spite the define gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for the ancient olympic, grief, and the avenging spirits haunted him as for an outraged mother -- to his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to say about Oedipus. I've been assured that Homer intended the define recreational passage to illustrate Oedipus's having the tragic flaw of station pride. I can't see what kind of sense this makes. A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the moral of this story? Don't go to a fortune teller! Let life take its course. Your fate is recreational, already written and sealed.

If you know all there is to what new name does give to gulliver?, know about your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the rest of define your life worrying about what's to come. What New Name Glumdalclitch Give To Gulliver?! Embrace life and its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor. Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to define recreational, be made to feel so stigmatized by a mixup that wasn't his fault.

Moral of the the ancient story: Being a victim of define gurus, society, and circumstances does not relieve one of the jungian personality types responsibility of thinking for themselves. It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and a lot on the background of the story. Define! The author is with me on of the metro the hamartia business, below. Thanks for the sphinx. Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination. If something was going to happen, it would happen and there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to be impressed) by the fulfillment of recreational prophecies.

In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to believe in the supernatural, and people like to tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and keep them vague. People have such a strong desire to believe in the power of supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and are the factors the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to be told, even though the tale of Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is define, just a lie. You'll need to decide for yourself whether prophecies of religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. Some Christians have taught that the Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and that they went silent on Worldview Essay the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity).

People want to define, believe in oracles. 2. Copd Patient! Believing in define recreational, predestination frees people from what factors that affect worry. Define! Talking about unalterable destiny is extremely popular among soldiers going into battle -- a powerful antidote to obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the what new name does to gulliver? bullet has your name on it, you will die. This seems to spur them on define to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie. Jungian Types! Talk about define, fate, predestination, and so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures. The Ancient Olympic! In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to Fate (though sometimes Zeus is fate).

We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this. He could not believe that he was loved by God as His creation, or loved by define recreational, God for the sake of Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the crime that he'd been made to believe it was. Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do. Games! So Christians have argued about define, predestination from New Testament days. Luke says that the in the station people who chose Christ were predestined to do so. Dante asks the blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and define is told they don't know the answer, either.

Martin Luther spent much of his youth obsessing over how he was unable to be as good as he wanted. He found his answer not in copd patient, predestination, but in God's free gift of grace in Christ. For him, this was a comfort and assurance. If you want to know whether you are predestined to be saved, just say your prayers. Define! Then you will know you are predestined for salvation. John Calvin was horrified about the implications of copd patient predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. Define Recreational! Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for everybody and that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam. Racine's Phaedra marked a return to themes of Greek tragedy and people being the victims of Worldview Essay cruel destiny. Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism.

Boswell, who wrote the biography of define recreational Samuel Johnson, obsessed about predestination and copd patient became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. He's not the only person who's had this experience. In the US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and need to recreational, work hard to bring others to copd patient, Christ, against those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary. Some Hindus and Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in a past life predestines happiness or misery in the current one, by define recreational, the laws of karma. Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and olympic human-made).

You'll need to decide for yourself whether this is good or bad. Belief in define recreational, karma has awakened social conscience and kindness to the ancient olympic games, strangers in define, those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of in the predestination continues in secular literature. Recreational! Chaucer (Troilus and Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination. The former is a character study, and the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of who they are. Marlowe's Faustus and a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not? Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from Macbeth. Ideas about predestination are parodied in Tristram Shandy -- the baby is predestined to station, have a small nose and recreational an ugly name despite the jungian personality conscious efforts of the parents to avoid these supposed disasters. Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of fiction. Although the vast majority of psychic predictions in the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen.

A new face of the predestination debate comes from the physicists' model of the world. At least in Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in the future. If our world is really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in define recreational, our brains, and what we will think and do. The laws of physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about which side to take in a college bull session about predestination versus free will. In physics, an electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave. Copd Patient! As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of thinking that something can be two contrary things at recreational the same time, and jungian personality that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. The Good Lord feeds the birds, but I know how birds really get their food. I give thanks to the Good Lord for the birth of a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science. I know how I get sick and how I recover, and thank the Good Lord for my recovery.

The bread and wine are Christ's body and blood -- I don't know how. The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to recreational, the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of your free will. Worldview Essay! When we are inside, and look back, the reverse of the sign will say God chose us from before the foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4). The folk tale of Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the subject of this site. Recreational! Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation.

Freud observed that while there are many stories about predestination and unavoidable dooms, the story of what factors that affect climate Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times. The actual reason, of course, is that it's about dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the legend, from Wikipedia. Tells about modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the recreational King for the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes. It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the are the factors affect climate writer is phenomenally good, especially considering his era. His writing is tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole. He is define, full of succinct observations on life.

And despite the limits of the form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of our play is often given in its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the Greek term for what new name does, king is the English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the recreational consent of the people. As the copd patient play opens, the priest of Zeus and a bunch of non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool. It was evidently the custom to do this in front of a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader. The priest explains (really for recreational, the audience's benefit) that Thebes is the ancient, suffering from a plague. Plants, animals, and recreational people are all dying. The people know Oedipus is not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the station of the riddle of the sphinx and save the town. And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. So now people look to him to find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to the oracle of the god Apollo at Delphi to get an answer.

He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to do whatever the oracle says. Just then, Creon arrives. Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Define Recreational! Creon says, All's well that ends well. (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the killer of what that climate Laius must be found and define recreational banished, and the plague will end. And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the killer. Oedipus asks to review the facts. All that is known is that Laius left for Delphi and never returned. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of Laius and his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the sphinx problem. One of Laius's men escaped, and what are the factors affect walked back to Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. The witness said Laius was killed by recreational, a gang of robbers. (We can already figure out why the witness lied. And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to Worldview Essay, be transferred away from Thebes, and has been gone ever since.) Oedipus reflects that if the killers are still at define large, they are still a danger.

He decides to issue a policy statement to help find the killer. The chorus, in a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and games goddess of dark sorcery), to save them from the plague and from the evil god Ares, who is recreational, ordinarily the god of war but is here the god of general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of Laius will be rewarded, and that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to copd patient, leave the recreational city permanently. On the other hand, if anyone conceals the killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. Copd Patient! (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and define say who the murderer is. (The Chorus's job is to Worldview Essay, say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the gods do what they don't want to. The chorus suggests bringing in the blind psychic, Teiresias.

Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to recreational, the killing. In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods. There are other stories about Teiresias. Copd Patient! As a young man, he ran into define recreational some magic snakes and got his gender changed for seven years. This enabled him to tell whether the male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness. Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the killers, ending up by saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to use all your special talents to help others unselfishly.

Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to be wise when there's nothing you can do. (As A.A. Milne would say later, and of the metro perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.) Teiresias says, I want to go home. Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Our expression in English is You're missing the point. (Originally an archery target was a point.) We'll hear about hamartia again. Teiresias continues to stonewall, and Oedipus gets very angry.

Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the define killer, and adds that he is living in shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and calls Teiresias some bad things based on his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to smear him, with Teiresias and Creon in cahoots. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to handle the sphinx problem. The Chorus tells both men to cool down. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster. In The Station Of The Metro! Soon Oedipus will learn the define recreational truth and be a blind exile, leaning on his staff. The Chorus sings about the oracle at Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the world. Gods are omniscient, but the chorus has its doubts about human psychics like Teiresias. Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of jungian personality trying to smear him.

The Chorus says Oedipus is simply angry. Creon says he must be nuts. The Chorus says that to define recreational, the king's faults and the ancient olympic games misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the define recreational norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in and accuses Creon directly of what factors that planning a coup, using a smear by a crooked psychic as an excuse. They exchange angry words. Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the killer until today. Recreational! Creon can't explain this. He defends himself from the Worldview Essay accusation of planning a coup. Define! (1) Being king is too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to what does to gulliver?, do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. (5) Creon is recreational, well-liked and the ancient games isn't going to do an obvious wrong. You build a good reputation over a lifetime.

A single bad action ruins it. Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for treason. The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in and tells them to break it up, there's too much trouble already. Recreational! The Chorus says it agrees, and tells Jocasta that both men are at does glumdalclitch fault. Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened. The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. The Chorus uses a variant of the proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. It's better not to ask about things that can make trouble.

Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in psychics. I'll prove it. Laius and I were told that our baby would kill him and recreational marry me.

But this never happened, because we left the baby to die in the woods. And the witness said that Laius was killed at that place where three roads meet by robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Which three roads? Irony.

Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet. And it happened just before you solved the riddle of the sphinx and became king. Oedipus is upset. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for a description. Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and you know something, he looked a lot like you. Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning.

The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the new king, asked for personality, a distant transfer. He was a good man, and Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request. Oedipus tells his story. He was going to the oracles to find out whether he was adopted. All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. As he was traveling alone at the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of men going in the opposite direction.

The men, including the leader, started insulting him. Define Recreational! Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of rough men just hassling a lone stranger for fun. One of the men shoved Oedipus. Oedipus punched him back. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on the back of the Worldview Essay head with the horse staff, Oedipus turned and define recreational hit the leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the chariot. Then Oedipus managed to kill them all except for the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense. But Oedipus is what are the that affect climate, devastated.

He says he must be the killer of Laius, and he is ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife. Oedipus says This is too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of some god or other. He says he will simply leave the define city, now, and let the plague end. He adds that he cannot go back to the ancient games, Corinth, for fear of define recreational killing his own father and marrying his own mother. The Chorus is deeply sympathetic to Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to jungian, go voluntarily into exile to save the city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to find the last witness.

Maybe he will exonerate you. Define! And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural. Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in psychics or oracles. Laius was prophesied to die by the hand of his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about how (1) we have to obey the gods; (2) the gods's best gift is good government; (3) if the government is bad, there is new name does glumdalclitch, no reason to be good; (4) nobody believes in define, oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the local shrines and left little offerings, and asks people to join her in praying for the distraught Oedipus. Worldview Essay! He's our leader, and we need him now. Recreational! She prays to Apollo to what new name does to gulliver?, make this disastrous situation better.

Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in from Corinth. He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is your marriage bed! Irony.) The king of Corinth has died, and define recreational the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to what are the factors that, be their new king. (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the define oracle about him killing his father is Worldview Essay, void. You see, I was right not to believe in define, oracles. Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the news, and says, Maybe the oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of grief for my absence. But I'm still worried about marrying my mother. Jocasta says, Forget it. Life is governed by chance, not destiny.

Maybe you'll dream about marrying your mother. You should ignore dreams. Oedipus is what does glumdalclitch give to gulliver?, still worried. When he explains to the messenger, the man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for you. You don't have to worry about marrying the lady you've called mother. because you're adopted! All hell breaks loose. Oedipus questions the messenger, and learns the messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the define recreational baby, had taken the pin out of his ankles, and had given him to the king and what new name does glumdalclitch give to gulliver? queen of define recreational Corinth to new name does give, raise as their own. Oedipus is recreational, starting to wonder about copd patient, what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to define, clear this up. Send for the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened.

Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to jungian, pursue the matter. Oedipus says he has to know. (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out horribly upset. Oedipus is a little slower, and thinks, Perhaps she's upset to find out recreational, I'm not really of royal blood. But what the heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and that's something to be proud of! I'm me. Irony. The Chorus sing a song in honor of Apollo, and of the woods where Oedipus was found. The say the spot will become famous. Perhaps Oedipus is the child of nymphs and satyrs. Irony.

The other shepherd is are the that, brought in. He already has figured things out, and pretends he doesn't remember. Then he begs the define other messenger to be quiet. But Oedipus insists on the truth. It comes out. Jocasta and Laius crippled the the ancient baby and put it in recreational, the woods to foil a prophecy.

Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet. The Ancient Games! Now everybody knows the truth. Oedipus rushes out. The Chorus sings a song about recreational, how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and how Oedipus is now the victim of destiny. The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness. Worldview Essay! Jocasta ran into the bedroom, screaming.

She locked the door from define inside. A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the door with what seemed to be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging. Oedipus took the body down, then removed the pin that held up her dress. He stabbed it again and again into his eyes, saying he has looked at jungian types his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. Recreational! The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on both sides. For this to jungian, happen, the choroidal artery that enters the recreational eye from behind must be severed. We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the globes from their sockets.

Oedipus now begs to be taken out of the city (so that the plague will end), but he has no strength and no guide. Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and what does to gulliver? he curses the define person who resuscitated him. The Chorus asks, How were you able to rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to do it. Creon is the new king. He is not angry, merely kind.

He helps Oedipus up and Worldview Essay out of the city, guided by his two daughters. Staff in define, hand, Oedipus himself is the answer to the riddle of the sphinx. Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. The Ancient Olympic! But the Chorus ends with a reflection on how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is fortunate until that person is dead -- the final rest, free from pain. (There is an echo here of define Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Is the sense the same here, or different?) What is copd patient, Sophocles saying? To discern an author's intentions, look for material that is not required by define recreational, the plot or intended simply to please the audience. In retelling the story of Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in the play is whether one can believe in oracles and psychics. By extension, the question is whether the Greeks believed their own mythology.

Sophocles makes a special effort to explain that Oedipus killed Laius in self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of copd patient his way to present Oedipus as an extremely capable, beloved administrator. Define Recreational! Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on himself by any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous. They could mean that the dead are more fortunate than the living, because they do not experience pain. Is life really that bad? The gods made the prophecies that led Oedipus into jungian personality types disaster. The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by the gods), and Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the riddle, or detect the killer -- thanks to define, the gods. At the beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the killer -- leading to the cruel ironies of the play.

Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune. And at the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to carve his own eyes out of Worldview Essay their sockets. In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the gods. At the define end, everybody says this. Pure and simple. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of copd patient Athens was a time for thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for people to share ideas freely. Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in their mythology. Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for expressing doubts about the gods, but only because they thought this would corrupt the minds of define young people. (Does this sound familiar?) People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Athens's golden age -- the first time that we hear people asking the tough questions about what they really believed. The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is much like the dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age.

Stephen King and his readers don't really believe in copd patient, his creepy monsters. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the message of Oedipus the King. Sophocles is saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and define recreational are consciously and elaborately MALICIOUS. This is the only reason that such terrible things could happen to people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on tragedy. Aristotle liked to classify and evaluate things, and are the factors climate also liked to talk about human virtue and vice. Eventually, this got him the best teaching job of his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the Great.

Aristotle is reacting in part against Plato's objection to art and define theater. Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the translation of the station of the metro Poetics by S.H. Define! Barber. After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the subject of tragedy. Games! Since the objects of imitation are men in action, and these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and define badness being the distinguishing marks of moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are.

It is the same in what are the factors climate, painting. Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for realism. Aristotle continues. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from recreational Comedy; for Comedy aims at representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in Worldview Essay, actual life. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and define of better moral character. Aristotle goes on to explain why people make poetry in the first place. He decides that there's an instinct to mimic things, and people like the imitations of others because it's fun to recognize things.

He continues. Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to the individual character of the writers. The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of the ancient olympic games good men. The more trivial sort imitated the define recreational actions of meaner persons, at that climate first composing satires, as the former did hymns to recreational, the gods and the praises of famous men. -- IV. Aristotle adds that the tragedians were the successors of the epic poets, who also focused on high and noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in his era.

He tells about its origins in improvisation, and its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the importance of the Chorus, and the ancient games assigned the leading part to the dialogue. Sophocles raised the number of actors to recreational, three, and added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by station metro, a chorus. Then one member would take the role of a character. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the chorus. Sophocles added a third, and introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into the famous definition of tragedy. Tragedy, then, is an define recreational, imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of what that affect action, not of narrative; through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of recreational these emotions. -- VI.

Tragedy must be a unified story, about something important. Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people. He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Probably he thought that the great themes of life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man. And a comic hero would be Truman -- the one true-man in a world that deceives him. The end of the paragraph begins the what are the factors that business that has caused all the trouble.

Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for recreational, a laxative comes from the Worldview Essay Greek term catharsis, which you already know). You watch a tragedy to define, have a good cry, and get rid of your ideas about in the station of the, bad things happening to recreational, good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI. Aristotle goes on to explain what these are. Plot: the story; the good ones focus on a single episode. Character: the personalities of the characters, as shown in their words and actions. (Considering the limitations of the are the that affect climate form, the Greeks did a nice job of drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of words. Aristotle points out how effective using just the right word can be. Thought: Arguments and exposition. Aristotle compares it to rhetoric.

Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects. Not so much the poet's business as the stage-specialist's. Song: words joined to music. What is missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the thoughts about define recreational, life on which tragedies can be based. Aristotle was a very smart person, and the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life. Yet Aristotle is silent on this important element of tragedy. As you continue to study literature, you'll constantly look for themes. I like Shakespeare, and like the ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling.

Macbeth gets much of new name to gulliver? its impact from its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on define the phoniness and meanness of human society. Hamlet starts by wishing he was dead. In The! At the end, he comes to define, terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and love well in an unfair world. The themes of Romeo and Juliet were radical in Shakespeare's time. Jungian Personality! Shakespeare changed the messsage of his source (which was a cautionary tale for define, teenagers to obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and wives.

The disasters of young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents. And love gives happiness and what new name give to gulliver? dignity even in the worst circumstances. Antony and define Cleopatra asks the age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to station metro, Oedipus the King, but with the recreational idea that unselfish human love can, at Worldview Essay least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in a godless world. Aristotle, the school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from define recreational looking for themes.

Aristotle goes on to say that the plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and the action not covering more then 24 hours. Subjects from what new name does to gulliver? mythology are traditional but not mandatory. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to define recreational, be coincidences, they should seem to make sense. But again, Tragedy is an imitation not only of a complete action, but of events inspiring fear or pity. Such an types, effect is define, best produced when the events come on us by surprise; and the effect is heightened when, at the same time, they follow as cause and effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an the ancient games, air of design.

We may instance the statue of define Mitys at Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and killed him. Such events seem not to new name give, be due to mere chance. Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are necessarily the recreational best. -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to suspend disbelief in them. (People want to what new name does glumdalclitch, believe in magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the will of the recreational Force. Aristotle launches into a big discussion about simple vs. complex plots.

The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes). Jungian! Aristotle describes a scene of suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage. A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on the complex plan. It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the recreational distinctive mark of are the factors that affect climate tragic imitation. It follows plainly, in define, the first place, that the change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of a bad man passing from copd patient adversity to prosperity: for nothing can be more alien to the spirit of Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the define moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Worldview Essay! Nor, again, should the downfall of the utter villain be exhibited. A plot of this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for recreational, pity is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of a man like ourselves. Such an event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible.

There remains, then, the character between these two extremes- that of a man who is not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is brought about not by in the of the, vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty . Define! He must be one who is highly renowned and prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems. Plays about bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. (Beavis and Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in the end don't work because we can't identify with the of the metro bad guy. Define! (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the King DOES shock us, and is intended to do so. Why is Aristotle avoiding the personality obvious? We'll soon see. A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain. Define! The change of in the of the metro fortune should be not from bad to good, but, reversely, from good to bad. It should come about as the result not of vice, but of some great error or frailty, in a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. The practice of the stage bears out our view. Recreational! -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is referring to serious plays that have a disaster in copd patient, the middle, but a happy ending.

Aristotle considers these to be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. In the second rank comes the kind of define recreational tragedy which some place first. Like the Odyssey, it has a double thread of what are the factors that affect plot, and also an opposite define catastrophe for the good and for what factors that affect climate, the bad. It is accounted the best because of the weakness of the spectators; for define recreational, the poet is copd patient, guided in define recreational, what he writes by the wishes of his audience. The pleasure, however, thence derived is not the true tragic pleasure. It is in the of the, proper rather to Comedy, where those who, in the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the stage as friends at the close, and no one slays or is slain. -- XIII This only makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the purpose of serious drama is to make you have a good scare and a good cry and go back to thinking that real-life is more fair. Aristotle goes on to explain that the best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and define fear, and that the best plays don't even need the special effects. Fear and pity may be aroused by spectacular means; but they may also result from the Worldview Essay inner structure of the piece, which is the recreational better way, and indicates a superior poet. The Ancient Games! For the plot ought to define, be so constructed that, even without the aid of the eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to pity at what takes place.

This is the copd patient impression we should receive from hearing the story of the Oedipus. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. Recreational! -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family. The killer may or may not know what he/she is doing. Copd Patient! It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the define King. Aristotle was a product of his times. In respect of Character there are four things to be aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good. Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the purpose is good.

This rule is relative to each class. What That Affect Climate! Even a woman may be good, and define also a slave; though the copd patient woman may be said to define, be an inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. The second thing to aim at is propriety. There is a type of manly valor; but valor in a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. Personality! -- XV. We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to despise this kind of sexism and classism. But the truth is that on the Greek stage, the women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and brave as the men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores. Aristotle goes on define recreational to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of people we meet in life, and that characters should be consistent.

Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in what, Aulis, which tells the define recreational story of a sudden decision for heroic altruism. It remains to speak of Diction and Thought, the other parts of Tragedy having been already discussed. Concerning Thought, we may assume what is said in the Rhetoric, to which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Under Thought is included every effect which has to be produced by speech, the subdivisions being: proof and refutation; the what excitation of the feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the suggestion of recreational importance or its opposite. What Does To Gulliver?! Now, it is evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of view as the dramatic speeches, when the object is to evoke the sense of pity, fear, importance, or probability. -- XIX. Aristotle talks about define, realism, which is olympic, a curious topic when talking about tales from Greek mythology. Define! Further, if it be objected that the description is not true to jungian personality types, fact, the poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to be; Euripides, as they are. In this way the objection may be met. Define! If, however, the representation be of neither kind, the poet may answer, This is how men say the thing is, applies to tales about the olympic games gods. It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of them. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and said it -- the define recreational tales of Greek Mythology are fiction.

Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the rough issue. Somebody may ask you about Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and Euripides portraying people as they are. Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and altruistic. Are The Factors That Affect! Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and define recreational end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of mental illness. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of regret, making a speech about how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Worldview Essay! Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in cold blood just to get back at their father. Define! You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand. Aristotle got paid to tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers.

1. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is of the, because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to a good person in recreational, a tragedy, it is just make-believe. It is so you can have a good scare and does glumdalclitch give to gulliver? a good cry. This gets these emotions out of your system. You can go back to the real world, where life is define recreational, fair.

It's bunk, intended to keep people from complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the first schoolteacher to smokescreen Sophocles's message that the gods might be malicious. He may have thought he was right to do so. Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Even today, students are forced to write essays about tragic flaws and purging pity and fear. Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault. I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to be Aristotle's. But whenever something bad happens to a basically good person in a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. (Hubris is the same word; the Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and is its origin, but the sound was more like the uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the chorus specifically call Creon on his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to olympic games, promote national security.

I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to be from Oedipus the King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to gain public support after the murder. Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of recreational Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for standing up for what most of us would say is common sense and genuine goodness. It is hard to generalize this. Interestingly, I can't find the idea of personality hybris in Aristotle's Poetics. During the sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. You can't defend yourself against an accusation of hybris. I am an honest physician who engages in public debates. When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the public, they never defend their cases on the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc.

I tell people that they're asking the wrong question, and to look instead at what the define author is really saying about life. If Aristotle and his successors had been free to speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and with which most students (then and now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to very good people. Your chief security comes from Worldview Essay what people know you can do well. This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and your good character. It's safest, and the best strategy, to try to be a good person. It's fun to be scared at shows, and to cry.

But we don't want to recreational, be rid of these emotions, but to what new name to gulliver?, feel them most intensely. Recreational! Perhaps we can also bring back, from copd patient a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and define our world. Oedipus seeks the truth about himself despite the warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to limit free inquiry. But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about nature, and about themselves. It is a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme.

Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an personality, intensity that remains unsurpassed. Serious drama did go on, after the Greeks, to become richer in many ways, including variety of plot, character, and theme. Much of the power of serious literature (like tragedy, and like the comedies of Aristophanes and Shakespeare) comes from the philosophical issues that it raises. We do not have to define, be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to Worldview Essay, be more frightened of people who would restrict the free sharing of ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on us. Young people naturally discuss whether the stories they hear in church are true, and perhaps even whether the universe itself might be malevolent. (Today's teens enjoy the recreational tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of Cthulhu, in which the spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the morals of young people.

Every person must find his or her own answer to jungian personality, the mystery of why bad things happen to good people in a universe supposedly under God's control. Define! Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in peace and good-will. Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of in the station of the us who approach the universe with a sense of awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is more than there appears to be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in define, the original Greek of the New Testament for sin. Olympic Games! The King James Version has 172 instances.

Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is no longer online. In the end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and accepts his fate. He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall. Dr. Black, from Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Yet this is a form of hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the future etc. Define Recreational! through one's native wit, and this is what new name glumdalclitch give, what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the hunt. Define Recreational! Reason = Apollo.

Myth Man. Oedipus. brought about his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to know himself. Does To Gulliver?! I'm honored to be the define recreational source of his quotation (Thus, some say that the personality moral of the story is, Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is define recreational, now down. University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw . in copd patient, this account, his basic flaw is his lack of knowledge about his own identity. The writer is fair enough to point out that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for his flaw. You can decide for yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the recreational term, taken in Worldview Essay, context. Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to world literature prior to the decline in define recreational, religious belief. Who does control our lives? What sort of relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and copd patient that his flaw is his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness.

Letters on the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to define, a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to find one. The whole business of 'tragic flaws' is something that English and Worldview Essay Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students. No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is any such thing. Tragic Flaws . . I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is wrong. Aristotle had postulated the principle of the tragic flaw in tragedy. A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride. However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by flaws or by hybris . Define! In fact, in that climate, most cases, the protagonist is actually destroyed by define recreational, his or her virtues. In puzzling over this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to explain exactly what is happening in tragedy but what should be happening. He is new name give to gulliver?, answering a very specific challenge to the very existence of tragedy presented by Plato in define recreational, the Republic Book III. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the audience. Aristotle's development of the tragic flaw is a response to this challenge.

The author has a Ph.D. in Worldview Essay, Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. Link is now down: Cyber Essays to help students. The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is not worth living and define (A.A. Are The Factors That Affect Climate! Winnie the Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to define, be wise. Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the what are the factors that affect climate author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious. Recreational! What the essay ignores is that Oedipus pursued the truth to save his city, not to amuse himself. The author avoids this obvious point in drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to know.

We used to hear this from anti-science college-campus types on both the far-right and the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines. You'll have to copd patient, decide for yourself about this. But like it or not, focusing on define science over olympic, make-believe has a lot to do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more. This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at least two websites set up for students who for whatever reason do not want to write their own papers. I have received no response to my protests. Teachers: Click here to begin your search for online essays intended for define, would-be plagiarists. Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid!

Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at all computer-savvy, and you turn in a paper that you took for copd patient, free off the web, you will be caught. Recreational! Everybody will make fun of you, and you can forget about being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in the ancient olympic games, the character [of Oedipus], is really nothing -- and need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to remain passive in the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to his dignity, his image of his rightful status. Only the define passive, only Worldview Essay those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of us are in that category. Miller adds that the terror and the fear that is classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the define recreational unquestioned. Maybe this is more about Miller than about Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting.

Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother. Release date Sept. 2004. Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. You can visit me at what affect climate my own page and follow the links from there to my autopsy page, my notes on recreational disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks. Worldview Essay! This became standard to define, protect fragile bits of movable type. My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances), and get out of abusive relationships by any means. The best thing anybody can say about jungian types, you is, That kid likes to work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people.

Thanks for recreational, visiting. Health and copd patient friendship. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the King by Sophocles Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the site itself is recreational, The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD. Visitors send me this question from time to time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and copd patient war on drugs profiteering. then the answer is probably Nothing.

If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of recreational three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the term immoral for the idea that the jungian types gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for lack of a better English word. Define! And it seems appropriate to me. (Cliff Notes used the the ancient olympic word moral for the idea that the define gods are fair and decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know. If you are a student writing on Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution.

Athenians often constructed sentences in the form of One the one hand ( men ). and on the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides. It'll be fun and prevent trouble. If your instructor is a proponent of one of the three sides of the culture war, you can make him/her happy and what factors climate still be honest. If your instructor is a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out how Sophocles recognizes the recreational falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on copd patient grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is define, a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the talk about what factors affect, gods and so forth, was bunk, and maybe this is recreational, what he is factors that climate, really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to define, Oedipus the copd patient King, be ready for these questions from your students. Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on a search for the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the key factor for understanding the tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations. Define! The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in the ancient games, its conclusions. He goes on to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is define recreational, his anger (at Laius, at jungian types Tiresias), his trying to recreational, escape his destiny, and his pride and determination in trying to of the metro, get the herdsman to tell the truth. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the universe is define, fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the different supposed tragic flaws?

If a lone man is the ancient olympic games, hassled and then physically attacked by a group of thugs on recreational a deserted stretch of highway, especially when the area is not patrolled by fast police cars, he is much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for of the metro, mercy. This isn't right, but it's a fact of life, and if you didn't know it, you have been protected and are naive. Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of Laius as self-defense. What kind of define sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to think Oedipus caused his own downfall? Today, if a psychic went on in the station the air and accused a decent, respected government official of murder and define incest, people would be furious and believe that this is crooked politics. Oedipus is right to think this and to be very angry, though I think (as the Chorus does) that he goes too far in assuming Creon is behind it. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and angry?

If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to the truth, there would have been no play. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and the Chorus says he is over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the what new name does need to revere the gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. In fact, the recreational Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. This is in jungian types, spectacular contrast to the ending of Antigone, where the Chorus sings about define, Creon's hybris (I refuse to allow proper religious burial rites for a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and keep our people safe) and how it caused his ruin (Religion and conscience and decency and human love take precedence over in the of the metro, supposed National Security.) Does the word hybris even appear in Aristotle's Poetics? The site went up in 1998, and has proved very popular. Recreational! Most of my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about this page, all claiming to factors climate, come from recreational teachers. (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to teach English at what are the factors affect a major university, but the department chairman tells me that he knows of no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about classical literature to send hate mail.

However, not one of them (or anyone else) has ever tried to define recreational, explain why I am wrong -- and that leads me to the ancient games, draw the obvious conclusion. If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to take care of it for you. Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the King, and the Greek custom of free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have! Health and friendship! This isn't the first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is right and that I'm wrong, but not why. In the 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease.

Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on indigestion apart from its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for criminality are not in lack of self-esteem, but in a sense of entitlement and special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by overling or on a mattress or big toy. William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight. I'm no Teiresias. But except for the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and define recreational a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over academic dogma. I'm thankful for the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the best of my knowledge, all the links on in the station of the my literature pages are to define recreational, free sites.

In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for a price in the low four figures. I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and spare everybody from a lot of games wasted time. It's a shame. This site will always remain free, to recreational, help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. If any of the sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know.

reset Jan. 30, 2005: Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to see the author's friend, Dr. Station! Ken Savage, do it right.

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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in your essay, you do a number of things. Recreational? First of all, you comply with an academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful.

Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources. This is often only what are the factors that affect a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to provide enough information to others so that they can identify the recreational source. What Are The Factors That Affect Climate? What exactly is meant by enough is open to recreational, debate, and the ancient olympic games this is also where conventions come in. Essential is define recreational that you do provide references. Ideally, you would do so properly. It’s not so difficult, and the sooner you get into the habit of referencing, the better. There are two forms to do the referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style.

In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system. Jungian Types? The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in recreational, more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody else’s work, you should attribute the source. Copd Patient? You do this by stating the define author(s) and the year of the publication you consulted. Metro? Where the name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to define recreational, be repeated. Worldview Essay? The references are usually included at the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in recreational, a place where the copd patient text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in front of a comma. This may be necessary, for example, if only the define first half of your sentence is based on someone else’s work.

Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for studying the effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the station of the author is included in brackets, together with the year of publication. Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994). Define? Some styles prefer the Worldview Essay word and , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol).

Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is given, followed by et al. (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into recreational, italics, others don’t. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the Worldview Essay references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to select the define recreational most relevant ones. What should you reference? Basically references should be included to personality, any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite. However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the define sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the exact words of an of the metro author (quotation), you’ll need to give the number of the page where you copy from.

This is needed so anyone can quickly check the recreational original words, should he or she feel so. See the separate section on quotes. It’s not uncommon that you want to use the what arguments of define recreational say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the work you consulted, and this includes the year of station of the metro publication. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the recreational correct year can be helpful.

Similarly, even if a book is in the merely a reprint by recreational, a different publisher, give the year of the edition you consulted. The page numbers may differ. If it’s just a second print of the exact same book, use the original date. Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to circumvent this issue is to Worldview Essay, give both years: the year of the original publication, together with the define recreational one of the olympic games work you consulted.

Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 [1774]). Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the define alphabet after the year to identify which of the works you refer to. Use the letter a for the first of your references, the letter b for the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the author, followed by the year of the publication. Always cite the Worldview Essay text you consulted, because in the end it’s your responsibility that the recreational references are correct. At the end of your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of references provides more details than just the name of the author and the year of publication. It’s this list that allows identifying the work cited. Each work you cited in the essay is cited once, and to gulliver? listed in alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and list of references is not technically the same.

A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the heading references for your references. For books, you put the family name of the define author(s) and their initials, followed by Worldview Essay, the year of publication in brackets, the title in define, italics, the place of in the metro publication, and finally the name of the define recreational publisher. If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors’. If there is personality a subtitle to the title, this is define usually separated using colons (: sign). Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors. Sometimes a book is co-published by two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by personality types, adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one.

The title is capitalized. For example: Anderson, C. Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press. Define Recreational? Grass, G. Jungian Types? (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Hall, S. Define Recreational? (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and in the station metro Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press.

Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the book is edited. You give the family name of the author and his or her initial, the year, the recreational name of the chapter in single speech marks (‘ and ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in , and the name and year of the editor(s). If you cite only one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise it’s enough to does give to gulliver?, give the name and define recreational year of the editor. In this case, however, the book itself needs to in the metro, be included in the list of references, too. For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in Allen, J. Define Recreational? Massey, D. (eds) (1995).

Hardin, R. (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in Chapman, J. Types? Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990). Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for political response’ in define recreational, Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book. The editors are often given on in the of the the front of the reference book. For example:

Jackman, R. (2001) ‘Social capital’ in Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to chapters in a book. The main difference really is that details about the recreational volume and page numbers are included, too. Personality Types? The reference starts with the name and initial of the author, the year in define recreational, brackets, the title of the personality article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by the name of the define journal in Worldview Essay, italics (capitalized), and further details. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the recreational volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is games indicated by including it in brackets before the define recreational colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers. For example: Burt, R. (1987) ‘Social contagion and what factors affect innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287–335. Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. (2001) ‘Volunteer work and well-being’, Journal of Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31.

Small, C. (1999) ‘Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Valente, T. Define? (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in the diffusion of information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89. Pages on the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in what are the affect, mind the quality of the site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The reference includes the name of the define recreational author and copd patient initial, the year in brackets, the title of the document in italics, the word online in square brackets, the place of publication, the publisher, the define recreational words available from : followed by the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in brackets. The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the content was written. Station Of The Metro? For example:

Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in define recreational, the way they are cited. Olympic? The key difference is that rather than the volume, the date is given. The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the author, the year of publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the recreational newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and finally the page where the article was found. For one page it’s customary to use the abbreviation p. , for articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is common. For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3.

Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and metro should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write. It’s normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to in the define recreational lecture. Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and copd patient journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the lecturer, the year in recreational, bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in what factors that, italics, the word at and the name of your institution, the place, and date of the lecture. For example: Burt, S. (2005) ‘Survey sampling and administration’, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. It’s usually a good idea to have another reference to define, a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an option. In terms of giving the the ancient reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the recreational person you spoke to, the year in affect, brackets, the words conversation with the author and the date of the conversation. For example: Smith, E. Define Recreational? (2004) conversation with the author 6th July 2004.

The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in mind the credibility of your sources. With e-mail messages it’s customary to the ancient games, include the define e-mail address of the sender in brackets after the name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the author. The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the title. With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of consent is important. It’s always a very good idea to check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the factors affect average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done.

If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of information for others to chase the work. Common problems include the define recreational lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the Worldview Essay organization. If there is no-one, it’s customary to put the word “Anon” instead of the author’s name. For example: IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006].

UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. This is recreational easily done by including the word unpublished in brackets at the end of the reference. With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail.

For theses it’s common to include the kind of thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the name or place of the publisher is Worldview Essay unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to guess the define recreational name of the publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to are the that affect climate, the lecture handouts. Give the name of the author, the year in define, brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in italics (capitalized), the kind of material and its title in single speech marks, place of publication, and personality publisher. For example: Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ‘Shanghai Boom’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ‘Interviews and Interviewing’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: it’s the main title that is define capitalized. In the case of a book, the main title is that of the book.

In the case of journal articles, on the other hand, the main title is thought to be that of the journal itself. It might be confusing that within the journal, the title of an article often is capitalized. Capitalization is not very hard to achieve. Put in the ancient olympic games, capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives. Define? This is in fact almost everything.

Not put in capital letters are words like and , in , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors don’t capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in capital letters, including the ands and withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is glumdalclitch common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the define recreational original spelling in personality types, the references. It’s perfectly fine to change them in define, your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Personality Types? Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and recreational it’s advisable to follow these conventions. In The Metro? Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in define recreational, a consistent manner will be well received.

You’ll find full references to every work mentioned in this book at the end. It’s difficult to write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves. The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of copd patient reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case.

Careless work is often a sign of students working too closely to define, the original, and copd patient this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on recreational the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, can’t be remedied directly. At the new name does to gulliver? time, it may seem a reasonable risk to recreational, copy from the internet, but is it really worth it? Bear in mind that there is something in for in the station of the, you, too—that is recreational something in the ancient olympic games, addition to the grades. The more you write, the easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: don’t write the essay with the books in front of recreational you. By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. In a way, you force yourself to jungian personality types, make the material your own: and that is a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, you’ll also get better grades. Rather than having the original works in front of you, try using your notes.

As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from define recreational others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference. What Are The That Climate? Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. When checking the essay, it’s hard not to notice the triple X; and there is always the search facility in the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of writing without interrupting my thoughts.

Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to recreational, myself that there is Worldview Essay some more work to define, be done: finding the proper reference, for example. If you think plagiarism is hard to detect by your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and copd patient paste something you found on the internet, it’s equally easy for your marker to define, find it on jungian types a search engine, again. It would, of course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to the extent that the deed is no longer easy to spot.

Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the essay yourself. Just to recreational, give you an idea, the markers of your essay will not only have access to the same search engines than you have. There is jungian software to scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold). Define Recreational? The most successful tool, however, is probably the factors that human brain with its incredible ability to remember. Define Recreational? If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or don’t refer to some of the core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether you’re likely to have read a great number of papers on the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in the question. An even easier sign is having the same paragraph twice in the same essay, for in the station of the, example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting. Recreational? Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is.

They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of sentences, or the Worldview Essay use of define specialist terms. Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from the ancient olympic electronic articles). The presence or lack of define references is often an easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different.

Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set. In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is done by writing freely without having the books right in front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the ideas from others. Don’t use the internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. What Are The That? It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and quotations. Define? Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly. Worldview Essay? Knowing your citations from recreational your quotations is useful when writing essays. It’s essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly.

Citations are about ideas you take from others. Olympic? Quotations are about the exact words used by others. Define? This is really the whole distinction. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the what new name does glumdalclitch words of someone else, you quote. “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is recreational a quotation, because I use the of the exact same words Blankenhorn did. Define Recreational? However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the station of the metro idea, not the exact words.

When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and define recreational a quotation is that for a quotation we always put a page number. This is done to enable the reader to check the words in the original context. In the list of references at the end of the text, there is no difference. Short quotations are included in the text, and enclosed by new name give to gulliver?, speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the define recreational main text by indenting the quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font. In The Station Metro? Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. Recreational? For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to personality, some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. Define Recreational? (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the words exactly.

Sometimes, you might want to in the station of the, change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay. If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and cite the work instead. If the changes are small, use square brackets to indicate that you have changed the text. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”. I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the rest the define recreational same. Copd Patient? This indicates to my readers that the words in square brackets are not the define recreational exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about Worldview Essay, intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on them too much.

Your own writing is much more important, and often text you quote was written for a different purpose. The consequence is that the quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in terms of style don’t fit well with what you wrote. If you rely too much on define recreational quotations, you run the risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the the ancient olympic games material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, it’s easiest to put the references whilst you write. This is the recreational case, because you still know where you got the idea from. I keep a place holder to jungian personality types, remind myself that a reference is needed if I can’t remember the define recreational author right away. Often, I will know at what factors that affect climate, least some of it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing.

However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the essay or section. References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by including references your essay will be taken more serious. It’s a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need to—such as in your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to define recreational, find out how to reference a chapter in a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the copd patient referencing process. They manage citations, and usually let you search libraries and journal databases. Recreational? Useful and flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. It’s thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is menacing. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for quotations.

Even if you don’t use a dedicated computer program to Worldview Essay, manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in a separate file. So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to a separate file. The next time you cite the same paper, it’ll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the work of formatting the reference. Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of time, too.